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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6268
Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 21.15


וַיִּשְׁלַח הָאֱלֹהִים מַלְאָךְ לִירוּשָׁלִַם לְהַשְׁחִיתָהּ וּכְהַשְׁחִית רָאָה יְהוָה וַיִּנָּחֶם עַל־הָרָעָה וַיֹּאמֶר לַמַּלְאָךְ הַמַּשְׁחִית רַב עַתָּה הֶרֶף יָדֶךָ וּמַלְאַךְ יְהוָה עֹמֵד עִם־גֹּרֶן אָרְנָן הַיְבוּסִי׃And God sent an angel unto Jerusalem to destroy it; and as he was about to destroy, the LORD beheld, and He repented Him of the evil, and said to the destroying angel: ‘It is enough; now stay thy hand.’ And the angel of the LORD was standing by the threshing-floor of Ornan the Jebusite.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

40 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 11.13 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

11.13. and the white films scaled off from the corners of his eyes.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.13, 10.20, 19.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.13. אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ תִּירָא וְאֹתוֹ תַעֲבֹד וּבִשְׁמוֹ תִּשָּׁבֵעַ׃ 19.18. וְדָרְשׁוּ הַשֹּׁפְטִים הֵיטֵב וְהִנֵּה עֵד־שֶׁקֶר הָעֵד שֶׁקֶר עָנָה בְאָחִיו׃ 6.13. Thou shalt fear the LORD thy God; and Him shalt thou serve, and by His name shalt thou swear." 10.20. Thou shalt fear the LORD thy God; Him shalt thou serve; and to Him shalt thou cleave, and by His name shalt thou swear." 19.18. And the judges shall inquire diligently; and, behold, if the witness be a false witness, and hath testified falsely against his brother;"
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.23, 13.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.23. וְעָבַר יְהוָה לִנְגֹּף אֶת־מִצְרַיִם וְרָאָה אֶת־הַדָּם עַל־הַמַּשְׁקוֹף וְעַל שְׁתֵּי הַמְּזוּזֹת וּפָסַח יְהוָה עַל־הַפֶּתַח וְלֹא יִתֵּן הַמַּשְׁחִית לָבֹא אֶל־בָּתֵּיכֶם לִנְגֹּף׃ 13.12. וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ כָל־פֶּטֶר־רֶחֶם לַיהֹוָה וְכָל־פֶּטֶר שֶׁגֶר בְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה לְךָ הַזְּכָרִים לַיהוָה׃ 12.23. For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when He seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side-posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you." 13.12. that thou shalt set apart unto the LORD all that openeth the womb; every firstling that is a male, which thou hast coming of a beast, shall be the LORD’s."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.3-1.5, 2.17, 3.3, 22.8, 22.14, 32.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.3. וּלְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וּלְכָל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְכֹל רוֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֶת־כָּל־יֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב לְאָכְלָה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר וַיְהִי־אוֹר׃ 1.4. וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאוֹר כִּי־טוֹב וַיַּבְדֵּל אֱלֹהִים בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ׃ 1.5. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָאוֹר יוֹם וְלַחֹשֶׁךְ קָרָא לָיְלָה וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם אֶחָד׃ 2.17. וּמֵעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְךָ מִמֶּנּוּ מוֹת תָּמוּת׃ 3.3. וּמִפְּרִי הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹךְ־הַגָּן אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא תִגְּעוּ בּוֹ פֶּן־תְּמֻתוּן׃ 22.8. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהִים יִרְאֶה־לּוֹ הַשֶּׂה לְעֹלָה בְּנִי וַיֵּלְכוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם יַחְדָּו׃ 22.14. וַיִּקְרָא אַבְרָהָם שֵׁם־הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא יְהוָה יִרְאֶה אֲשֶׁר יֵאָמֵר הַיּוֹם בְּהַר יְהוָה יֵרָאֶה׃ 32.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב כַּאֲשֶׁר רָאָם מַחֲנֵה אֱלֹהִים זֶה וַיִּקְרָא שֵׁם־הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא מַחֲנָיִם׃ 32.3. וַיִּשְׁאַל יַעֲקֹב וַיֹּאמֶר הַגִּידָה־נָּא שְׁמֶךָ וַיֹּאמֶר לָמָּה זֶּה תִּשְׁאַל לִשְׁמִי וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתוֹ שָׁם׃ 1.3. And God said: ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light." 1.4. And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness." 1.5. And God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day." 2.17. but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.’" 3.3. but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said: Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.’" 22.8. And Abraham said: ‘God will aprovide Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering, my son.’ So they went both of them together." 22.14. And Abraham called the name of that place Adonai-jireh; as it is said to this day: ‘In the mount where the LORD is seen.’" 32.3. And Jacob said when he saw them: ‘This is God’s camp.’ And he called the name of that place Mahanaim."
5. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 16.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.14. חֲמַת־מֶלֶךְ מַלְאֲכֵי־מָוֶת וְאִישׁ חָכָם יְכַפְּרֶנָּה׃ 16.14. The wrath of a king is as messengers of death; But a wise man will pacify it."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 79.2-79.3, 109.4, 110.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

79.2. נָתְנוּ אֶת־נִבְלַת עֲבָדֶיךָ מַאֲכָל לְעוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם בְּשַׂר חֲסִידֶיךָ לְחַיְתוֹ־אָרֶץ׃ 79.3. שָׁפְכוּ דָמָם כַּמַּיִם סְבִיבוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם וְאֵין קוֹבֵר׃ 109.4. תַּחַת־אַהֲבָתִי יִשְׂטְנוּנִי וַאֲנִי תְפִלָּה׃ 110.6. יָדִין בַּגּוֹיִם מָלֵא גְוִיּוֹת מָחַץ רֹאשׁ עַל־אֶרֶץ רַבָּה׃ 79.2. They have given the dead bodies of Thy servants to be food unto the fowls of the heaven, The flesh of Thy saints unto the beasts of the earth." 79.3. They have shed their blood like water Round about Jerusalem, with none to bury them." 109.4. In return for my love they are my adversaries; But I am all prayer." 110.6. He will judge among the nations; He filleth it with the dead bodies, He crusheth the head over a wide land."
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 1.3, 15.35 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.3. וְעָלָה הָאִישׁ הַהוּא מֵעִירוֹ מִיָּמִים יָמִימָה לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת וְלִזְבֹּחַ לַיהוָה צְבָאוֹת בְּשִׁלֹה וְשָׁם שְׁנֵי בְנֵי־עֵלִי חָפְנִי וּפִנְחָס כֹּהֲנִים לַיהוָה׃ 15.35. וְלֹא־יָסַף שְׁמוּאֵל לִרְאוֹת אֶת־שָׁאוּל עַד־יוֹם מוֹתוֹ כִּי־הִתְאַבֵּל שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל־שָׁאוּל וַיהוָה נִחָם כִּי־הִמְלִיךְ אֶת־שָׁאוּל עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 1.3. And this man went up out of his city year by year to worship and to sacrifice to the Lord of hosts in Shilo. And the two sons of ῾Eli, Ĥofni and Pineĥas, the priests of the Lord, were there." 15.35. And Shemu᾽el came no more to see Sha᾽ul until the day of his death: nevertheless Shemu᾽el mourned for Sha᾽ul and the Lord repented that he had made Sha᾽ul king over Yisra᾽el."
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 19.35 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.35. וַיְהִי בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא וַיֵּצֵא מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה וַיַּךְ בְּמַחֲנֵה אַשּׁוּר מֵאָה שְׁמוֹנִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה אָלֶף וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ בַבֹּקֶר וְהִנֵּה כֻלָּם פְּגָרִים מֵתִים׃ 19.35. And it came to pass that night, that the angel of the LORD went forth, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a hundred fourscore and five thousand; and when men arose early in the morning, behold, they were all dead corpses."
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 5.6, 24.1-24.25 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.6. וַיֵּלֶךְ הַמֶּלֶךְ וַאֲנָשָׁיו יְרוּשָׁלִַם אֶל־הַיְבֻסִי יוֹשֵׁב הָאָרֶץ וַיֹּאמֶר לְדָוִד לֵאמֹר לֹא־תָבוֹא הֵנָּה כִּי אִם־הֱסִירְךָ הַעִוְרִים וְהַפִּסְחִים לֵאמֹר לֹא־יָבוֹא דָוִד הֵנָּה׃ 24.1. וַיַּךְ לֵב־דָּוִד אֹתוֹ אַחֲרֵי־כֵן סָפַר אֶת־הָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־יְהוָה חָטָאתִי מְאֹד אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי וְעַתָּה יְהוָה הַעֲבֶר־נָא אֶת־עֲוֺן עַבְדְּךָ כִּי נִסְכַּלְתִּי מְאֹד׃ 24.1. וַיֹּסֶף אַף־יְהוָה לַחֲרוֹת בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַיָּסֶת אֶת־דָּוִד בָּהֶם לֵאמֹר לֵךְ מְנֵה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־יְהוּדָה׃ 24.2. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶל־יוֹאָב שַׂר־הַחַיִל אֲשֶׁר־אִתּוֹ שׁוּט־נָא בְּכָל־שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִדָּן וְעַד־בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע וּפִקְדוּ אֶת־הָעָם וְיָדַעְתִּי אֵת מִסְפַּר הָעָם׃ 24.2. וַיַּשְׁקֵף אֲרַוְנָה וַיַּרְא אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאֶת־עֲבָדָיו עֹבְרִים עָלָיו וַיֵּצֵא אֲרַוְנָה וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ לַמֶּלֶךְ אַפָּיו אָרְצָה׃ 24.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יוֹאָב אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְיוֹסֵף יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶל־הָעָם כָּהֵם וְכָהֵם מֵאָה פְעָמִים וְעֵינֵי אֲדֹנִי־הַמֶּלֶךְ רֹאוֹת וַאדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ לָמָּה חָפֵץ בַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה׃ 24.4. וַיֶּחֱזַק דְּבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶל־יוֹאָב וְעַל שָׂרֵי הֶחָיִל וַיֵּצֵא יוֹאָב וְשָׂרֵי הַחַיִל לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ לִפְקֹד אֶת־הָעָם אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.5. וַיַּעַבְרוּ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן וַיַּחֲנוּ בַעֲרוֹעֵר יְמִין הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹךְ־הַנַּחַל הַגָּד וְאֶל־יַעְזֵר׃ 24.6. וַיָּבֹאוּ הַגִּלְעָדָה וְאֶל־אֶרֶץ תַּחְתִּים חָדְשִׁי וַיָּבֹאוּ דָּנָה יַּעַן וְסָבִיב אֶל־צִידוֹן׃ 24.7. וַיָּבֹאוּ מִבְצַר־צֹר וְכָל־עָרֵי הַחִוִּי וְהַכְּנַעֲנִי וַיֵּצְאוּ אֶל־נֶגֶב יְהוּדָה בְּאֵר שָׁבַע׃ 24.8. וַיָּשֻׁטוּ בְּכָל־הָאָרֶץ וַיָּבֹאוּ מִקְצֵה תִשְׁעָה חֳדָשִׁים וְעֶשְׂרִים יוֹם יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 24.9. וַיִּתֵּן יוֹאָב אֶת־מִסְפַּר מִפְקַד־הָעָם אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַתְּהִי יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת אֶלֶף אִישׁ־חַיִל שֹׁלֵף חֶרֶב וְאִישׁ יְהוּדָה חֲמֵשׁ־מֵאוֹת אֶלֶף אִישׁ׃ 24.11. וַיָּקָם דָּוִד בַּבֹּקֶר וּדְבַר־יְהוָה הָיָה אֶל־גָּד הַנָּבִיא חֹזֵה דָוִד לֵאמֹר׃ 24.12. הָלוֹךְ וְדִבַּרְתָּ אֶל־דָּוִד כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה שָׁלֹשׁ אָנֹכִי נוֹטֵל עָלֶיךָ בְּחַר־לְךָ אַחַת־מֵהֶם וְאֶעֱשֶׂה־לָּךְ׃ 24.13. וַיָּבֹא־גָד אֶל־דָּוִד וַיַּגֶּד־לוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ הֲתָבוֹא לְךָ שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים רָעָב בְּאַרְצֶךָ אִם־שְׁלֹשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים נֻסְךָ לִפְנֵי־צָרֶיךָ וְהוּא רֹדְפֶךָ וְאִם־הֱיוֹת שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים דֶּבֶר בְּאַרְצֶךָ עַתָּה דַּע וּרְאֵה מָה־אָשִׁיב שֹׁלְחִי דָּבָר׃ 24.14. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־גָּד צַר־לִי מְאֹד נִפְּלָה־נָּא בְיַד־יְהוָה כִּי־רַבִּים רחמו [רַחֲמָיו] וּבְיַד־אָדָם אַל־אֶפֹּלָה׃ 24.15. וַיִּתֵּן יְהוָה דֶּבֶר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל מֵהַבֹּקֶר וְעַד־עֵת מוֹעֵד וַיָּמָת מִן־הָעָם מִדָּן וְעַד־בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע שִׁבְעִים אֶלֶף אִישׁ׃ 24.16. וַיִּשְׁלַח יָדוֹ הַמַּלְאָךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַם לְשַׁחֲתָהּ וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה אֶל־הָרָעָה וַיֹּאמֶר לַמַּלְאָךְ הַמַּשְׁחִית בָּעָם רַב עַתָּה הֶרֶף יָדֶךָ וּמַלְאַךְ יְהוָה הָיָה עִם־גֹּרֶן האורנה [הָאֲרַוְנָה] הַיְבֻסִי׃ 24.17. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־יְהוָה בִּרְאֹתוֹ אֶת־הַמַּלְאָךְ הַמַּכֶּה בָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי חָטָאתִי וְאָנֹכִי הֶעֱוֵיתִי וְאֵלֶּה הַצֹּאן מֶה עָשׂוּ תְּהִי נָא יָדְךָ בִּי וּבְבֵית אָבִי׃ 24.18. וַיָּבֹא־גָד אֶל־דָּוִד בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ עֲלֵה הָקֵם לַיהוָה מִזְבֵּחַ בְּגֹרֶן ארניה [אֲרַוְנָה] הַיְבֻסִי׃ 24.19. וַיַּעַל דָּוִד כִּדְבַר־גָּד כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה׃ 24.21. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲרַוְנָה מַדּוּעַ בָּא אֲדֹנִי־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶל־עַבְדּוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד לִקְנוֹת מֵעִמְּךָ אֶת־הַגֹּרֶן לִבְנוֹת מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה וְתֵעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה מֵעַל הָעָם׃ 24.22. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲרַוְנָה אֶל־דָּוִד יִקַּח וְיַעַל אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ הַטּוֹב בעינו [בְּעֵינָיו] רְאֵה הַבָּקָר לָעֹלָה וְהַמֹּרִגִּים וּכְלֵי הַבָּקָר לָעֵצִים׃ 24.23. הַכֹּל נָתַן אֲרַוְנָה הַמֶּלֶךְ לַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֹּאמֶר אֲרַוְנָה אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ יִרְצֶךָ׃ 24.24. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶל־אֲרַוְנָה לֹא כִּי־קָנוֹ אֶקְנֶה מֵאוֹתְךָ בִּמְחִיר וְלֹא אַעֲלֶה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהַי עֹלוֹת חִנָּם וַיִּקֶן דָּוִד אֶת־הַגֹּרֶן וְאֶת־הַבָּקָר בְּכֶסֶף שְׁקָלִים חֲמִשִּׁים׃ 24.25. וַיִּבֶן שָׁם דָּוִד מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה וַיַּעַל עֹלוֹת וּשְׁלָמִים וַיֵּעָתֵר יְהוָה לָאָרֶץ וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה מֵעַל יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 5.6. And the king and his men went to Yerushalayim to the Yevusi, the inhabitants of the land: who spoke to David, saying, Unless thou remove even the blind and the lame, thou shalt not come in here: thinking, David cannot come in here." 24.1. And again the anger of the Lord burned against Yisra᾽el, and he incited David against them, saying, Go, number Yisra᾽el and Yehuda." 24.2. For the king said to Yo᾽av the captain of the host, who was with him, Go now through all the tribes of Yisra᾽el, from Dan to Be᾽er-sheva, and number the people, that I may know the number of the people." 24.3. And Yo᾽av said to the king, Now the Lord thy God add to the people, as many more again, a hundredfold, and that the eyes of my lord the king may see it: but why does my lord the king desire this thing?" 24.4. But the king’s word prevailed against Yo᾽av, and against the captains of the host. And Yo᾽av and the captains of the host went out from the presence of the king, to number the people of Yisra᾽el." 24.5. And they passed over the Yarden, and camped in ῾Aro῾er, on the right side of the city that lies in the midst of the wadi of the tribe Gad, and toward Ya῾azer:" 24.6. then they came to Gil῾ad, and to the land of Taĥtim-ĥodshi; and they came to Dan-ya῾an, and round about to Żidon," 24.7. and came to the fortress of Żor, and to all the cities of the Ĥivvi, and of the Kena῾ani; and they went out to the south of Yehuda, which is Be᾽er-sheva." 24.8. So when they had gone through all the land, they came to Yerushalayim, at the end of nine months and twenty days." 24.9. And Yo᾽av rendered the sum of the census of the people to the king: and there were in Yisra᾽el eight hundred thousand warriors, that drew the sword; and the men of Yehuda were five hundred thousand men." 24.10. And David’s heart smote him after he had numbered the people. And David said to the Lord, I have sinned greatly in that which I have done: and now, O Lord, take away, I pray Thee, the iniquity of Thy servant; for I have done very foolishly." 24.11. And when David was up in the morning, the word of the Lord came to the prophet Gad, David’s seer, saying," 24.12. Go and say to David, Thus says the Lord, I offer thee three things; choose thee one of them, that I may do it to thee." 24.13. So Gad came to David, and told him, and said to him, Shall seven years of famine come to thee in thy land? or wilt thou flee three months before thy enemies, while they pursue thee? or that there be three days’ pestilence in thy land? now advise, and see what answer I shall return to him that sent me." 24.14. And David said to Gad, I am in great distress: let us fall now into the hand of the Lord; for his mercies are great: and let me not fall into the hand of man." 24.15. So the Lord sent a pestilence upon Yisra᾽el from the morning even to the time appointed: and there died of the people from Dan even to Be᾽er-sheva seventy thousand men." 24.16. And when the angel stretched out his hand upon Yerushalayim to destroy it, the Lord relented of the evil, and said to the angel that destroyed the people, It is enough: stay now thy hand. And the angel of the Lord was by the threshingplace of Aravna the Yevusi." 24.17. And David spoke to the Lord when he saw the angel that smote the people, and said, Lo, I have sinned, and I have done perversely: but these sheep, what have they done? let Thy hand, I pray Thee, be against me, and against my father’s house." 24.18. And Gad came that day to David, and said to him, Go up, rear an altar to the Lord on the threshingfloor of Aravna the Yevusite." 24.19. And David, according to the saying of Gad, went up as the Lord commanded." 24.20. And Aravna looked out, and saw the king and his servants coming on towards him: and Aravna went out, and bowed himself down before the king on his face to the ground." 24.21. And Aravna said, Why is my lord the king come to his servant? And David said, To buy the threshingfloor of thee, to build an altar to the Lord, that the plague may be stayed from the people." 24.22. And Aravna said to David, Let my lord the king take and offer up what seems good to him: behold, here are oxen for the burnt offering, and threshing instruments and other equipment of the oxen for wood." 24.23. All these things did the king Aravna give to the king. And Aravna said to the king, The Lord thy God accept thee." 24.24. And the king said to Aravna, No; but I will surely buy it of thee at a price: neither will I offer burnt offerings to the Lord my God of that which costs me nothing. So David bought the threshingfloor and the oxen for fifty shekels of silver." 24.25. And David built there an altar to the Lord, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings. So the Lord was entreated for the land, and the plague was stayed from Yisra᾽el."
10. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 48.1, 49.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

48.1. הִנֵּה צְרַפְתִּיךָ וְלֹא בְכָסֶף בְּחַרְתִּיךָ בְּכוּר עֹנִי׃ 48.1. שִׁמְעוּ־זֹאת בֵּית־יַעֲקֹב הַנִּקְרָאִים בְּשֵׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִמֵּי יְהוּדָה יָצָאוּ הַנִּשְׁבָּעִים בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה וּבֵאלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יַזְכִּירוּ לֹא בֶאֱמֶת וְלֹא בִצְדָקָה׃ 49.2. עוֹד יֹאמְרוּ בְאָזְנַיִךְ בְּנֵי שִׁכֻּלָיִךְ צַר־לִי הַמָּקוֹם גְּשָׁה־לִּי וְאֵשֵׁבָה׃ 49.2. וַיָּשֶׂם פִּי כְּחֶרֶב חַדָּה בְּצֵל יָדוֹ הֶחְבִּיאָנִי וַיְשִׂימֵנִי לְחֵץ בָּרוּר בְּאַשְׁפָּתוֹ הִסְתִּירָנִי׃ 48.1. Hear ye this, O house of Jacob, Who are called by the name of Israel, And are come forth out of the fountain of Judah; Who swear by the name of the LORD, And make mention of the God of Israel, But not in truth, nor in righteousness." 49.2. And He hath made my mouth like a sharp sword, In the shadow of His hand hath He hid me; And He hath made me a polished shaft, In His quiver hath He concealed me;"
11. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 20.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 15.63 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

15.63. וְאֶת־הַיְבוּסִי יוֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם לֹא־יוכלו [יָכְלוּ] בְנֵי־יְהוּדָה לְהוֹרִישָׁם וַיֵּשֶׁב הַיְבוּסִי אֶת־בְּנֵי יְהוּדָה בִּירוּשָׁלִַם עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 15.63. And as for the Jebusites, the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the children of Judah could not drive them out; but the Jebusites dwelt with the children of Judah at Jerusalem, unto this day."
13. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 11.40 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.40. that the daughters of Yisra᾽el went yearly to lament the daughter of Yiftaĥ, the Gil῾adite four days in the year."
14. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 9.1, 11.4, 21.1-21.14, 21.16-21.28, 29.29 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.1. וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל הִתְיַחְשׂוּ וְהִנָּם כְּתוּבִים עַל־סֵפֶר מַלְכֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה הָגְלוּ לְבָבֶל בְּמַעֲלָם׃ 9.1. וּמִן־הַכֹּהֲנִים יְדַעְיָה וִיהוֹיָרִיב וְיָכִין׃ 11.4. וַיֵּלֶךְ דָּוִיד וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל יְרוּשָׁלִַם הִיא יְבוּס וְשָׁם הַיְבוּסִי יֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ׃ 11.4. עִירָא הַיִּתְרִי גָּרֵב הַיִּתְרִי׃ 21.1. וַיַּעֲמֹד שָׂטָן עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיָּסֶת אֶת־דָּוִיד לִמְנוֹת אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 21.1. לֵךְ וְדִבַּרְתָּ אֶל־דָּוִיד לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה שָׁלוֹשׁ אֲנִי נֹטֶה עָלֶיךָ בְּחַר־לְךָ אַחַת מֵהֵנָּה וְאֶעֱשֶׂה־לָּךְ׃ 21.2. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד אֶל־יוֹאָב וְאֶל־שָׂרֵי הָעָם לְכוּ סִפְרוּ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִבְּאֵר שֶׁבַע וְעַד־דָּן וְהָבִיאוּ אֵלַי וְאֵדְעָה אֶת־מִסְפָּרָם׃ 21.2. וַיָּשָׁב אָרְנָן וַיַּרְא אֶת־הַמַּלְאָךְ וְאַרְבַּעַת בָּנָיו עִמּוֹ מִתְחַבְּאִים וְאָרְנָן דָּשׁ חִטִּים׃ 21.3. וְלֹא־יָכֹל דָּוִיד לָלֶכֶת לְפָנָיו לִדְרֹשׁ אֱלֹהִים כִּי נִבְעַת מִפְּנֵי חֶרֶב מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה׃ 21.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יוֹאָב יוֹסֵף יְהוָה עַל־עַמּוֹ כָּהֵם מֵאָה פְעָמִים הֲלֹא אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ כֻּלָּם לַאדֹנִי לַעֲבָדִים לָמָּה יְבַקֵּשׁ זֹאת אֲדֹנִי לָמָּה יִהְיֶה לְאַשְׁמָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 21.4. וּדְבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ חָזַק עַל־יוֹאָב וַיֵּצֵא יוֹאָב וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ בְּכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיָּבֹא יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 21.5. וַיִּתֵּן יוֹאָב אֶת־מִסְפַּר מִפְקַד־הָעָם אֶל־דָּוִיד וַיְהִי כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלֶף אֲלָפִים וּמֵאָה אֶלֶף אִישׁ שֹׁלֵף חֶרֶב וִיהוּדָה אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת וְשִׁבְעִים אֶלֶף אִישׁ שֹׁלֵף חָרֶב׃ 21.6. וְלֵוִי וּבִנְיָמִן לֹא פָקַד בְּתוֹכָם כִּי־נִתְעַב דְּבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־יוֹאָב׃ 21.7. וַיֵּרַע בְּעֵינֵי הָאֱלֹהִים עַל־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַיַּךְ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 21.8. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים חָטָאתִי מְאֹד אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וְעַתָּה הַעֲבֶר־נָא אֶת־עֲווֹן עַבְדְּךָ כִּי נִסְכַּלְתִּי מְאֹד׃ 21.9. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־גָּד חֹזֵה דָוִיד לֵאמֹר׃ 21.11. וַיָּבֹא גָד אֶל־דָּוִיד וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה קַבֶּל־לָךְ׃ 21.12. אִם־שָׁלוֹשׁ שָׁנִים רָעָב וְאִם־שְׁלֹשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים נִסְפֶּה מִפְּנֵי־צָרֶיךָ וְחֶרֶב אוֹיְבֶךָ לְמַשֶּׂגֶת וְאִם־שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים חֶרֶב יְהוָה וְדֶבֶר בָּאָרֶץ וּמַלְאַךְ יְהוָה מַשְׁחִית בְּכָל־גְּבוּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַתָּה רְאֵה מָה־אָשִׁיב אֶת־שֹׁלְחִי דָּבָר׃ 21.13. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד אֶל־גָּד צַר־לִי מְאֹד אֶפְּלָה־נָּא בְיַד־יְהוָה כִּי־רַבִּים רַחֲמָיו מְאֹד וּבְיַד־אָדָם אַל־אֶפֹּל׃ 21.14. וַיִּתֵּן יְהוָה דֶּבֶר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּפֹּל מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל שִׁבְעִים אֶלֶף אִישׁ׃ 21.16. וַיִּשָּׂא דָוִיד אֶת־עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא אֶת־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה עֹמֵד בֵּין הָאָרֶץ וּבֵין הַשָּׁמַיִם וְחַרְבּוֹ שְׁלוּפָה בְּיָדוֹ נְטוּיָה עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָם וַיִּפֹּל דָּוִיד וְהַזְּקֵנִים מְכֻסִּים בַּשַּׂקִּים עַל־פְּנֵיהֶם׃ 21.17. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים הֲלֹא אֲנִי אָמַרְתִּי לִמְנוֹת בָּעָם וַאֲנִי־הוּא אֲשֶׁר־חָטָאתִי וְהָרֵעַ הֲרֵעוֹתִי וְאֵלֶּה הַצֹּאן מֶה עָשׂוּ יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי תְּהִי נָא יָדְךָ בִּי וּבְבֵית אָבִי וּבְעַמְּךָ לֹא לְמַגֵּפָה׃ 21.18. וּמַלְאַךְ יְהוָה אָמַר אֶל־גָּד לֵאמֹר לְדָוִיד כִּי יַעֲלֶה דָוִיד לְהָקִים מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה בְּגֹרֶן אָרְנָן הַיְבֻסִי׃ 21.19. וַיַּעַל דָּוִיד בִּדְבַר־גָּד אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה׃ 21.21. וַיָּבֹא דָוִיד עַד־אָרְנָן וַיַּבֵּט אָרְנָן וַיַּרְא אֶת־דָּוִיד וַיֵּצֵא מִן־הַגֹּרֶן וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ לְדָוִיד אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃ 21.22. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד אֶל־אָרְנָן תְּנָה־לִּי מְקוֹם הַגֹּרֶן וְאֶבְנֶה־בּוֹ מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה בְּכֶסֶף מָלֵא תְּנֵהוּ לִי וְתֵעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה מֵעַל הָעָם׃ 21.23. וַיֹּאמֶר אָרְנָן אֶל־דָּוִיד קַח־לָךְ וְיַעַשׂ אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ הַטּוֹב בְּעֵינָיו רְאֵה נָתַתִּי הַבָּקָר לָעֹלוֹת וְהַמּוֹרִגִּים לָעֵצִים וְהַחִטִּים לַמִּנְחָה הַכֹּל נָתָתִּי׃ 21.24. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִיד לְאָרְנָן לֹא כִּי־קָנֹה אֶקְנֶה בְּכֶסֶף מָלֵא כִּי לֹא־אֶשָּׂא אֲשֶׁר־לְךָ לַיהוָה וְהַעֲלוֹת עוֹלָה חִנָּם׃ 21.25. וַיִּתֵּן דָּוִיד לְאָרְנָן בַּמָּקוֹם שִׁקְלֵי זָהָב מִשְׁקָל שֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת׃ 21.26. וַיִּבֶן שָׁם דָּוִיד מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה וַיַּעַל עֹלוֹת וּשְׁלָמִים וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־יְהוָה וַיַּעֲנֵהוּ בָאֵשׁ מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם עַל מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה׃ 21.27. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לַמַּלְאָךְ וַיָּשֶׁב חַרְבּוֹ אֶל־נְדָנָהּ׃ 21.28. בָּעֵת הַהִיא בִּרְאוֹת דָּוִיד כִּי־עָנָהוּ יְהוָה בְּגֹרֶן אָרְנָן הַיְבוּסִי וַיִּזְבַּח שָׁם׃ 29.29. וְדִבְרֵי דָּוִיד הַמֶּלֶךְ הָרִאשֹׁנִים וְהָאֲחרֹנִים הִנָּם כְּתוּבִים עַל־דִּבְרֵי שְׁמוּאֵל הָרֹאֶה וְעַל־דִּבְרֵי נָתָן הַנָּבִיא וְעַל־דִּבְרֵי גָּד הַחֹזֶה׃ 9.1. So all Israel were reckoned by genealogies; and, behold, they are written in the book of the kings of Israel; and Judah was carried away captive to Babylon because of their transgression." 11.4. And David and all Israel went to Jerusalem—the same is Jebus—and the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land, were there." 21.1. And Satan stood up against Israel, and moved David to number Israel." 21.2. And David said to Joab and to the princes of the people: ‘Go, number Israel from Beersheba even to Dan; and bring me word, that I may know the sum of them.’" 21.3. And Joab said: ‘The LORD make His people a hundred times so many more as they are; but, my lord the king, are they not all my lord’s servants? why doth my lord require this thing? why will he be a cause of guilt unto Israel?’" 21.4. Nevertheless the king’s word prevailed against Joab. Wherefore Joab departed and went throughout all Israel, and came to Jerusalem." 21.5. And Joab gave up the sum of the numbering of the people unto David. And all they of Israel were a thousand thousand and a hundred thousand men that drew sword; and Judah was four hundred three-score and ten thousand men that drew sword." 21.6. But Levi and Benjamin he did not number among them; for the king’s word was abominable to Joab." 21.7. And God was displeased with this thing; therefore He smote Israel." 21.8. And David said unto God: ‘I have sinned greatly, in that I have done this thing; but now, put away, I beseech Thee, the iniquity of Thy servant; for I have done very foolishly.’" 21.9. And the LORD spoke unto Gad, David’s seer, saying:" 21.10. ’Go and speak unto David, saying: Thus saith the LORD: I offer thee three things; choose thee one of them, that I may do it unto thee.’" 21.11. So Gad came to David, and said unto him: ‘Thus saith the LORD: Take which thou wilt:" 21.12. either three years of famine; or three months to be swept away before thy foes, while the sword of thine enemies overtaketh thee; or else three days the sword of the LORD, even pestilence in the land, and the angel of the LORD destroying throughout all the borders of Israel. Now therefore consider what answer I shall return to Him that sent me.’" 21.13. And David said unto Gad: ‘I am in a great strait; let me fall now into the hand of the LORD, for very great are His mercies; and let me not fall into the hand of man.’" 21.14. So the LORD sent a pestilence upon Israel; and there fell of Israel seventy thousand men." 21.16. And David lifted up his eyes, and saw the angel of the LORD standing between the earth and the heaven, having a drawn sword in his hand stretched out over Jerusalem. Then David and the elders, clothed in sackcloth, fell upon their faces." 21.17. And David said unto God: ‘Is it not I that commanded the people to be numbered? even I it is that have sinned and done very wickedly; but these sheep, what have they done? let Thy hand, I pray Thee, O LORD my God, be against me, and against my father’s house; but not against Thy people, that they should be plagued.’" 21.18. Then the angel of the LORD commanded Gad to say to David, that David should go up, and rear an altar unto the LORD in the threshing-floor of Or the Jebusite." 21.19. And David went up at the saying of Gad, which he spoke in the name of the LORD." 21.20. And Or turned back, and saw the angel; and his four sons that were with him hid themselves. Now Or was threshing wheat." 21.21. And as David came to Or, Or looked and saw David, and went out of the threshing-floor, and bowed down to David with his face to the ground." 21.22. Then David said to Or: ‘Give me the place of this threshing-floor, that I may build thereon an altar unto the LORD; for the full price shalt thou give it me; that the plague may be stayed from the people.’" 21.23. And Or said unto David: ‘Take it to thee, and let my lord the king do that which is good in his eyes; lo, I give thee the oxen for burnt-offerings, and the threshing-instruments for wood, and the wheat for the meal-offering; I give it all’" 21.24. And king David said to Or: ‘Nay, but I will verily buy it for the full price; for I will not take that which is thine for the LORD, nor offer a burnt-offering without cost.’" 21.25. So David gave to Or for the place six hundred shekels of gold by weight." 21.26. And David built there an altar unto the LORD, and offered burnt-offerings and peace-offerings, and called upon the LORD; and He answered him from heaven by fire upon the altar of burnt-offering." 21.27. And the LORD commanded the angel; and he put up his sword back into the sheath thereof." 21.28. At that time, when David saw that the LORD had answered him in the threshing-floor of Or the Jebusite, then he sacrificed there." 29.29. Now the acts of David the king, first and last, behold, they are written in the words of Samuel the seer, and in the words of Nathan the prophet, and in the words of Gad the seer;"
15. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 3.1, 9.29, 13.22, 20.34, 35.25 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.1. וַיָּחֶל שְׁלֹמֹה לִבְנוֹת אֶת־בֵּית־יְהוָה בִּירוּשָׁלִַם בְּהַר הַמּוֹרִיָּה אֲשֶׁר נִרְאָה לְדָוִיד אָבִיהוּ אֲשֶׁר הֵכִין בִּמְקוֹם דָּוִיד בְּגֹרֶן אָרְנָן הַיְבוּסִי׃ 3.1. וַיַּעַשׂ בְּבֵית־קֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים כְּרוּבִים שְׁנַיִם מַעֲשֵׂה צַעֲצֻעִים וַיְצַפּוּ אֹתָם זָהָב׃ 9.29. וּשְׁאָר דִּבְרֵי שְׁלֹמֹה הָרִאשֹׁנִים וְהָאֲחֲרוֹנִים הֲלֹא־הֵם כְּתוּבִים עַל־דִּבְרֵי נָתָן הַנָּבִיא וְעַל־נְבוּאַת אֲחִיָּה הַשִּׁילוֹנִי וּבַחֲזוֹת יעדי [יֶעְדּוֹ] הַחֹזֶה עַל־יָרָבְעָם בֶּן־נְבָט׃ 13.22. וְיֶתֶר דִּבְרֵי אֲבִיָּה וּדְרָכָיו וּדְבָרָיו כְּתוּבִים בְּמִדְרַשׁ הַנָּבִיא עִדּוֹ׃ 20.34. וְיֶתֶר דִּבְרֵי יְהוֹשָׁפָט הָרִאשֹׁנִים וְהָאַחֲרֹנִים הִנָּם כְּתוּבִים בְּדִבְרֵי יֵהוּא בֶן־חֲנָנִי אֲשֶׁר הֹעֲלָה עַל־סֵפֶר מַלְכֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 35.25. וַיְקוֹנֵן יִרְמְיָהוּ עַל־יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ וַיֹּאמְרוּ כָל־הַשָּׁרִים וְהַשָּׁרוֹת בְּקִינוֹתֵיהֶם עַל־יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ עַד־הַיּוֹם וַיִּתְּנוּם לְחֹק עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהִנָּם כְּתוּבִים עַל־הַקִּינוֹת׃ 3.1. Then Solomon began to build the house of the LORD at Jerusalem in mount Moriah, where [the LORD] appeared unto David his father; for which provision had been made in the Place of David, in the threshingfloor of Or the Jebusite." 9.29. Now the rest of the acts of Solomon, first and last, are they not written in the words of Nathan the prophet, and in the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite, and in the visions of Jedo the seer concerning Jeroboam the son of Nebat?" 13.22. And the rest of the acts of Abijah, and his ways, and his sayings, are written in the commentary of the prophet Iddo." 20.34. Now the rest of the acts of Jehoshaphat, first and last, behold, they are written in the words of Jehu the son of Hai, which is inserted in the book of the kings of Israel." 35.25. And Jeremiah lamented for Josiah; and all the singing men and singing women spoke of Josiah in their lamentations, unto this day; and they made them an ordice in Israel; and, behold, they are written in the lamentations."
16. Septuagint, Tobit, 11.13 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

11.13. and the white films scaled off from the corners of his eyes.
17. Anon., 1 Enoch, 63.1, 66.1, 98.6, 98.8, 103.1-103.15 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

63.1. In those days shall the mighty and the kings who possess the earth implore (Him) to grant them a little respite from His angels of punishment to whom they were delivered, that they might fall 63.1. Now they shall say unto themselves: ' Our souls are full of unrighteous gain, but it does not prevent us from descending from the midst thereof into the burden of Sheol.' 66.1. And after that he showed me the angels of punishment who are prepared to come and let loose all the powers of the waters which are beneath in the earth in order to bring judgement and destruction 98.6. I have sworn unto you, ye sinners, by the Holy Great One, That all your evil deeds are revealed in the heavens, And that none of your deeds of oppression are covered and hidden. 98.6. neighbour. Therefore they shall have no peace but die a sudden death. 98.8. that every sin is every day recorded in heaven in the presence of the Most High. From henceforth ye know that all your oppression wherewith ye oppress is written down every day till the day of your judgement. 103.1. Now, therefore, I swear to you, the righteous, by the glory of the Great and Honoured and 103.1. And we have been destroyed and have not found any to help us even with a word: We have been tortured [and destroyed], and not hoped to see life from day to day. 103.2. Mighty One in dominion, and by His greatness I swear to you. I know a mystery And have read the heavenly tablets, And have seen the holy books, And have found written therein and inscribed regarding them: 103.3. That all goodness and joy and glory are prepared for them, And written down for the spirits of those who have died in righteousness, And that manifold good shall be given to you in recompense for your labours, And that your lot is abundantly beyond the lot of the living. 103.4. And the spirits of you who have died in righteousness shall live and rejoice, And their spirits shall not perish, nor their memorial from before the face of the Great One Unto all the generations of the world: wherefore no longer fear their contumely. 103.5. Woe to you, ye sinners, when ye have died, If ye die in the wealth of your sins, And those who are like you say regarding you: ' Blessed are the sinners: they have seen all their days. 103.6. And how they have died in prosperity and in wealth, And have not seen tribulation or murder in their life; And they have died in honour, And judgement has not been executed on them during their life. 103.7. Know ye, that their souls will be made to descend into Sheol And they shall be wretched in their great tribulation. 103.8. And into darkness and chains and a burning flame where there is grievous judgement shall your spirits enter; And the great judgement shall be for all the generations of the world. Woe to you, for ye shall have no peace. 103.9. Say not in regard to the righteous and good who are in life: ' In our troubled days we have toiled laboriously and experienced every trouble, And met with much evil and been consumed, And have become few and our spirit small. 103.11. We hoped to be the head and have become the tail: We have toiled laboriously and had no satisfaction in our toil; And we have become the food of the sinners and the unrighteous, And they have laid their yoke heavily upon us. 103.12. They have had dominion over us that hated us and smote us; And to those that hated us we have bowed our necks But they pitied us not. 103.13. We desired to get away from them that we might escape and be at rest, But found no place whereunto we should flee and be safe from them. 103.14. And are complained to the rulers in our tribulation, And cried out against those who devoured us, But they did not attend to our cries And would not hearken to our voice. 103.15. And they helped those who robbed us and devoured us and those who made us few; and they concealed their oppression, and they did not remove from us the yoke of those that devoured us and dispersed us and murdered us, and they concealed their murder, and remembered not that they had lifted up their hands against us.
18. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 13.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 4.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 12.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.16. They took the city by the will of God, and slaughtered untold numbers, so that the adjoining lake, a quarter of a mile wide, appeared to be running over with blood.'
21. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 32.19, 33.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

32.19. Do nothing without deliberation;and when you have acted, do not regret it.
22. Septuagint, Judith, 6.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

6.4. We will burn them up, and their mountains will be drunk with their blood, and their fields will be full of their dead. They cannot withstand us, but will utterly perish. So says King Nebuchadnezzar, the lord of the whole earth. For he has spoken; none of his words shall be in vain.
23. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 18.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

18.25. To these the destroyer yielded, these he feared;for merely to test the wrath was enough.
24. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 7.321, 7.330 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.321. 2. Now when the prophets had signified to David that God was angry at him, he began to entreat him, and to desire he would be merciful to him, and forgive him his sin. But God sent Nathan the prophet to him, to propose to him the election of three things, that he might choose which he liked best: Whether he would have a famine come upon the country for seven years, or would have a war, and be subdued three months by his enemies? or, whether God should send a pestilence and a distemper upon the Hebrews for three days?
25. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.280, 6.422-6.425 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.422. And that this city could contain so many people in it, is manifest by that number of them which was taken under Cestius, who being desirous of informing Nero of the power of the city, who otherwise was disposed to contemn that nation, entreated the high priests, if the thing were possible, to take the number of their whole multitude. 6.423. So these high priests, upon the coming of that feast which is called the Passover, when they slay their sacrifices, from the ninth hour till the eleventh, but so that a company not less than ten belong to every sacrifice (for it is not lawful for them to feast singly by themselves), and many of us are twenty in a company 6.424. found the number of sacrifices was two hundred and fifty-six thousand five hundred; 6.425. which, upon the allowance of no more than ten that feast together, amounts to two million seven hundred thousand and two hundred persons that were pure and holy;
26. Mishnah, Tamid, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.1. They would not tie up the lamb but rather they would string its legs together. Those who merited [to bring up] the limbs took hold of it. Thus it was strung up: its head was to the south while its face was turned to the west. The slaughterer stood to the east of it, facing the west. The morning tamid was killed by the north-western corner of the altar at the second ring. The evening tamid was killed by the north-eastern corner at the second ring. While one slaughtered another received the blood. He then proceeded to the north-eastern corner and cast the blood on the eastern and northern sides; he then proceeded to the southwestern corner and cast the blood on the western and southern sides. The remt of the blood he poured out at the southern base of the altar."
27. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 10.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.10. Neither grumble, as some of them alsogrumbled, and perished by the destroyer.
28. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.16, 2.16, 9.11, 19.11-19.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.16. He had seven stars in his right hand. Out of his mouth proceeded a sharp two-edged sword. His face was like the sun shining at its brightest. 2.16. Repent therefore, or else I am coming to you quickly, and I will make war against them with the sword of my mouth. 9.11. They have over them as king the angel of the abyss. His name in Hebrew is "Abaddon," but in Greek, he has the name "Apollyon. 19.11. I saw the heaven opened, and behold, a white horse, and he who sat on it is called Faithful and True. In righteousness he judges and makes war. 19.12. His eyes are a flame of fire, and on his head are many crowns. He has names written and a name written which no one knows but he himself. 19.13. He is clothed in a garment sprinkled with blood. His name is called "The Word of God. 19.14. The armies which are in heaven followed him on white horses, clothed in white, pure, fine linen. 19.15. Out of his mouth proceeds a sharp, double-edged sword, that with it he should strike the nations. He will rule them with a rod of iron. He treads the winepress of the fierceness of the wrath of God, the Almighty.
29. New Testament, Ephesians, 6.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.17. And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God;
30. New Testament, Hebrews, 4.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.12. For the word of God is living, and active, and sharper than any two-edged sword, and piercing even to the dividing of soul and spirit, of both joints and marrow, and is able to discern the thoughts and intentions of the heart.
31. New Testament, John, 8.52 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.52. Then the Jews said to him, "Now we know that you have a demon. Abraham died, and the prophets; and you say, 'If a man keeps my word, he will never taste of death.'
32. New Testament, Luke, 19.41 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

19.41. When he drew near, he saw the city and wept over it
33. Tosefta, Peah, 4.18 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

34. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

35. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16a. מאי דרש אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן (דברים לג, ב) (ואתא) מרבבות קדש אות הוא ברבבה שלו,ורבי אבהו אמר (שיר השירים ה, י) דגול מרבבה דוגמא הוא ברבבה שלו,וריש לקיש אמר (ישעיהו מח, ב) ה' צבאות שמו אדון הוא בצבא שלו,ורבי חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן (מלכים א יט, יא) לא ברוח ה' ואחר הרוח רעש לא ברעש ה' ואחר הרעש אש לא באש ה' ואחר האש קול דממה דקה והנה ה' עובר,ת"ר ששה דברים נאמרו בשדים שלשה כמלאכי השרת ושלשה כבני אדם שלשה כמלאכי השרת יש להם כנפים כמלאכי השרת וטסין מסוף העולם ועד סופו כמלאכי השרת ויודעין מה שעתיד להיות כמלאכי השרת,יודעין ס"ד אלא שומעין מאחורי הפרגוד כמלאכי השרת,ושלשה כבני אדם אוכלין ושותין כבני אדם פרין ורבין כבני אדם ומתים כבני אדם,ששה דברים נאמרו בבני אדם שלשה כמלאכי השרת שלשה כבהמה שלשה כמלאכי השרת יש להם דעת כמלאכי השרת ומהלכין בקומה זקופה כמלאכי השרת ומספרים בלשון הקדש כמלאכי השרת שלשה כבהמה אוכלין ושותין כבהמה ופרין ורבין כבהמה ומוציאין רעי כבהמה:,כל המסתכל בד' דברים רתוי לו שלא בא לעולם כו': בשלמא מה למעלה מה למטה מה לאחור לחיי אלא לפנים מה דהוה הוה,ר' יוחנן ור"א דאמרי תרוייהו משל למלך ב"ו שאמר לעבדיו בנו לי פלטירין גדולין על האשפה הלכו ובנו לו אין רצונו של מלך להזכיר שם אשפה:,כל שלא חס על כבוד קונו רתוי לו שלא בא לעולם: מאי היא ר' אבא אמר זה המסתכל בקשת רב יוסף אמר זה העובר עבירה בסתר מסתכל בקשת דכתיב (יחזקאל א, כח) כמראה הקשת אשר יהיה בענן ביום הגשם כן מראה הנגה סביב הוא מראה דמות כבוד ה',רב יוסף אמר זה העובר עבירה בסתר כדר' יצחק דאמר רבי יצחק כל העובר עבירה בסתר כאילו דוחק רגלי שכינה שנא' (ישעיהו סו, א) כה אמר ה' השמים כסאי והארץ הדום רגלי,איני והאמר ר' אלעא הזקן אם רואה אדם שיצרו מתגבר עליו ילך למקום שאין מכירין אותו וילבש שחורין ויתעטף שחורין ויעשה מה שלבו חפץ ואל יחלל שם שמים בפרהסיא לא קשיא הא דמצי כייף ליה ליצריה הא דלא מצי כייף ליצריה,דרש ר' יהודה ברבי נחמני מתורגמניה דריש לקיש כל המסתכל בג' דברים עיניו כהות בקשת ובנשיא ובכהנים בקשת דכתיב כמראה הקשת אשר יהיה בענן ביום הגשם הוא מראה דמות כבוד ה' בנשיא דכתיב (במדבר כז, כ) ונתת מהודך עליו המסתכל בכהנים בזמן שבהמ"ק קיים שהיו עומדין על דוכנן ומברכין את ישראל בשם המפורש,דרש ר' יהודה ברבי נחמני מתורגמניה דריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (מיכה ז, ה) אל תאמינו ברע אל תבטחו באלוף אם יאמר לך יצר הרע חטוא והקב"ה מוחל אל תאמן (שנא') אל תאמן ברע ואין רע אלא יצר הרע שנאמר (בראשית ח, כא) כי יצר לב האדם רע,ואין אלוף אלא הקב"ה שנאמר (ירמיהו ג, ד) אלוף נעורי אתה שמא תאמר מי מעיד בי אבני ביתו וקורות ביתו של אדם הם מעידין בו שנאמר (חבקוק ב, יא) כי אבן מקיר תזעק וכפיס מעץ יעננה,וחכ"א נשמתו של אדם מעידה בו שנאמר (מיכה ז, ה) משכבת חיקך שמור פתחי פיך אי זו היא דבר ששוכבת בחיקו של אדם הוי אומר זו נשמה ר' זריקא אמר שני מלאכי השרת המלוין אותו הן מעידין בו שנאמר (תהלים צא, יא) כי מלאכיו יצוה לך לשמרך בכל דרכיך (וחכ"א) אבריו של אדם מעידין בו שנאמר (ישעיהו מג, יב) ואתם עדי נאם ה' ואני אל:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big (יוסי) בן יועזר אומר שלא לסמוך יוסף בן יוחנן אומר לסמוך יהושע בן פרחיה אומר שלא לסמוך ניתאי הארבלי אומר לסמוך יהודה בן טבאי אומר שלא לסמוך שמעון בן שטח אומר לסמוך שמעיה אומר לסמוך אבטליון אומר שלא לסמוך הלל ומנחם לא נחלקו יצא מנחם נכנס שמאי שמאי אומר שלא לסמוך הלל אומר לסמוך 16a. The Gemara asks: bWhatverse did Rabbi Akiva bexpoundthat prevented him from making the same mistake as iAḥer /i? bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:It was the following: b“And He came [ ive’ata /i] from the holy myriads”(Deuteronomy 33:2), which he explained in this manner: bHe,God, bis unique [ iot /i] among His myriadsof angels. Therefore, he knew that he had merely seen an angel., bAnd Rabbi Abbahu said:Rabbi Akiva expounded the verse: b“Preeminent above a myriad”(Song of Songs 5:10) to indicate that bHe is exemplary among His myriad. /b, bAnd Reish Lakish said:He expounded the verse: b“The Lord of hosts is His name”(Isaiah 48:2); bHe is the Master in His host. /b, bAnd Rav Ḥiyya bar Abbasaid that bRabbi Yoḥa said:He expounded the verses: b“But the Lord was not in the wind. And after the wind, an earthquake; the Lord was not in the earthquake. And after the earthquake, fire;but bthe Lord was not in the fire. And after the fire, a still, small voice,”and it states in that verse: b“And behold, the Lord passed by”(I Kings 19:11–12). Rabbi Akiva used this verse in order to recognize the place of His presence and refrain from trespassing there.,§ The Gemara returns to discussing the heavenly beings. bThe Sages taught: Sixstatements bwere said with regard to demons:In bthreeways they are blike ministering angels, andin bthreeways they are blike humans.The ibaraitaspecifies: In bthreeways they are blike ministering angels: They have wings like ministering angels; and they fly from one end of the world to the other like ministering angels; and they know what will be in the future like ministering angels. /b,The Gemara is puzzled by this last statement: bShould it enter your mind that they knowthis? Not even the angels are privy to the future. bRather, they hear from behind the curtainwhen God reveals something of the future, blike ministering angels. /b, bAndin bthreeways they are similar bto humans: They eat and drink like humans; they multiply like humans; and they die like humans. /b, bSixstatements bwere said with regard to humans:In bthreeways, they are blike ministering angels,and in bthreeways they are blike animals.The ibaraitaexplains: In bthreeways they are blike ministering angels: They have intelligence like ministering angels; and they walk upright like ministering angels; and they speak in the holy tongue like ministering angels.In bthreeways humans are blike animals: They eat and drink like animals; and they multiply like animals; and they emit excrement like animals. /b,§ The mishna taught: bWhoever looks at four things, it would have been better for him had he never entered the world:Anyone who reflects upon that which is above the firmament; that which is below the earth; what was before the creation of the world; and what will be after the end of the world. The Gemara asks: bGranted,it is prohibited to reflect on bwhat is above, what is below,and bwhat is after.This is bfine,since one is examining things that are not part of the world but lie beyond it. bBut beforethe creation of the world, bwhat has happened has happened.Why is it prohibited to reflect upon this?,The Gemara explains: bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar both say:This can be demonstrated through ba parablewith regard to ba flesh-and-blood king who said to his servants: Build for me large palaces on a garbage dump. They went and builtthem bfor him.Clearly, in that case, bthe king does not desirethat they bmention the garbage dump.Here too, God does not want people to concern themselves with the chaos that preceded the world.,It is taught in the mishna: bWhoever has no concern for the honor of his Maker deserves to have never come to the world.The Gemara asks: bWhat islack of concern for the honor of one’s Maker? bRabbi Abba said: This isone bwho looks at a rainbow. Rav Yosef said: This isone bwho commits a transgression in private.They proceed to clarify their opinions: bLooking at a rainbowconstitutes an act of disrespect toward the Divine Presence, bas it is written: “As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain so was the appearance of the brightness round about. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the Lord”(Ezekiel 1:28), and it is a dishonor to God to stare at His likeness., bRav Yosef said: This isone bwho commits a transgression in private, in accordance with Rabbi Yitzḥak, as Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Whoever commits a transgression in private, it is as though he pushedaway bthe feet of the Divine Presence, as it is stated: “Thus said the Lord: The heavens are My seat, and the earth My footstool”(Isaiah 66:1). If one believes that no one can see what he is doing in private, it is as though he said that God is absent from that place. He is therefore compared to one who attempts to remove God from His footstool.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: And bis that so? But didn’t Rabbi Ela the Elder say: If a person sees that his inclination is overcoming him, he should go to a place where he is unknown, and wear black, and wrap himself in black,in the manner of mourners, because he should be ashamed of his weakness, band dothere bwhat his heart desires, but let him not desecrate the Name of Heaven in public.This shows that sinning in private is sometimes preferable to the public performance of a transgression. The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thiscase, where one who commits a transgression in public has no concern for the honor of his Maker, occurs bwhen one is capable of overcoming his inclinationand fails to do so. bThatcase, where it is preferable to sin in private, occurs bwhen one is incapable of overcoming his inclination.He is therefore advised to, at the very least, refrain from desecrating God’s name in public., bRabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Naḥmani, the disseminatorof bReish Lakish, interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Whoever looks atthe following bthree things, his eyes will grow dim:One who looks bat a rainbow, at a iNasi /i, and at the priests.He explains: bAt a rainbow, as it is written: “As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud on the day of rain,so was the appearance of the brightness round about, bthis was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the Lord”(Ezekiel 1:28). bAt a iNasi /i, as it is written: “And you shall put of your splendor upon him”(Numbers 27:20), which indicates that the splendor of the Divine Presence rested upon Moses, who was the iNasiof Israel. The third item, looking at priests, is referring to one bwho looks at the priests when the Temple is standing, as they would stand on their platform and bless Israel with the ineffable name,at which point the Divine Presence would rest above the joints of their fingers.,Apropos this Sage, the Gemara cites another statement of his: bRabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Naḥmani, the disseminatorof bReish Lakish, interpreteda verse bhomiletically: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Trust not in a companion, do not put your confidence in an intimate friend”(Micah 7:5)? bIf the evil inclination says to you: Sin, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, will forgive, do not trustit, bsince it is stated: “Trust not in a companion [ irei’a /i].” And irei’ais referring to none otherthan bthe evil [ ira /i] inclination, as it is stated: “For the inclination of the heart of man is evil [ ira /i]”(Genesis 8:21)., bAnd “intimate friend” is referring to none otherthan bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “You are the intimate friend of my youth”(Jeremiah 3:4). bLest you say:Since I am acting in private, bwho will testify against me? The stones of the house and the beams of the house ofeach bperson testify against him, as it is stated:“For the stone shall cry out of the wall, and the beam out of the timber shall answer it” (Habakkuk 2:11)., bAnd the Sages say: A person’s soulshall itself btestify against him, as it is stated: “Guard the doors of your mouth from she who lies in your bosom”(Micah 7:5). bWhat thing lies in a person’s bosom? You must say it ishis bsoul. Rabbi Zerika said:The btwo ministering angels who accompany him,i.e., each individual, bthey testify against him, as it is stated: “For He will command his angels over you, to guard you in all your ways”(Psalms 91:11). bAnd the Sages say: A person’s limbs testify against him, as it is stated: “Therefore you are My witnesses, says the Lord, and I am God”(Isaiah 43:12), which indicates that each individual becomes his own witness and testifies against himself on the Day of Judgment., strongMISHNA: /strong bYosei ben Yo’ezer says not to placeone’s hands on offerings before slaughtering them on a Festival because this is considered performing labor with an animal on a Festival. His colleague, bYosef ben Yoḥa, says to placethem; bYehoshua ben Peraḥya says not to placethem; bNitai HaArbeli says to placethem; bYehuda ben Tabbai says not to placethem; bShimon ben Shataḥ says to placethem; bShemaya says to placethem; bAvtalyon says not to placethem. bHillel and Menaḥem did not disagreewith regard to this issue. bMenaḥem departedfrom his post, and bShammai enteredin his stead. bShammai says not to placethem; bHillel says to placethem.
36. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

28a. אלא חיה אבל שאר נשים מניחין,ר' אלעזר אמר אפילו שאר הנשים דכתיב (במדבר כ, א) ותמת שם מרים ותקבר שם סמוך למיתה קבורה,ואמר ר' אלעזר אף מרים בנשיקה מתה אתיא שם שם ממשה ומפני מה לא נאמר בה על פי ה' מפני שגנאי הדבר לאומרו,א"ר אמי למה נסמכה מיתת מרים לפרשת פרה אדומה לומר לך מה פרה אדומה מכפרת אף מיתתן של צדיקים מכפרת א"ר אלעזר למה נסמכה מיתת אהרן לבגדי כהונה מה בגדי כהונה מכפרין אף מיתתן של צדיקים מכפרת,ת"ר מת פתאום זו היא מיתה חטופה חלה יום אחד ומת זו היא מיתה דחופה ר' חנניא בן גמליאל אומר זו היא מיתת מגפה שנאמר (יחזקאל כד, טז) בן אדם הנני לוקח ממך את מחמד עיניך במגפה וכתיב (יחזקאל כד, יח) ואדבר אל העם בבקר ותמת אשתי בערב,שני ימים ומת זו היא מיתה דחויה ג' גערה ארבעה נזיפה חמשה זו היא מיתת כל אדם,א"ר חנין מאי קרא (דברים לא, יד) הן קרבו ימיך למות הן חד קרבו תרי ימיך תרי הא חמשה הן חד שכן בלשון יוני קורין לאחת הן,מת בחמשים שנה זו היא מיתת כרת חמשים ושתים שנה זו היא מיתתו של שמואל הרמתי ששים זו היא מיתה בידי שמים,אמר מר זוטרא מאי קרא דכתיב (איוב ה, כו) תבא בכלח אלי קבר בכלח בגימטריא שיתין הוו,שבעים שיבה שמונים גבורות דכתיב (תהלים צ, י) ימי שנותינו בהם שבעים שנה ואם בגבורות שמונים שנה אמר רבה מחמשים ועד ששים שנה זו היא מיתת כרת והאי דלא חשיב להו משום כבודו של שמואל הרמתי,רב יוסף כי הוה בר שיתין עבד להו יומא טבא לרבנן אמר נפקי לי מכרת א"ל אביי נהי דנפק ליה מר מכרת דשני מכרת דיומי מי נפיק מר א"ל נקוט לך מיהא פלגא בידך,רב הונא נח נפשיה פתאום הוו קא דייגי רבנן תנא להו זוגא דמהדייב לא שנו אלא שלא הגיע לגבורות אבל הגיע לגבורות זו היא מיתת נשיקה,אמר רבא חיי בני ומזוני לא בזכותא תליא מילתא אלא במזלא תליא מילתא דהא רבה ורב חסדא תרוייהו רבנן צדיקי הוו מר מצלי ואתי מיטרא ומר מצלי ואתי מיטרא,רב חסדא חיה תשעין ותרתין שנין רבה חיה ארבעין בי רב חסדא שיתין הלולי בי רבה שיתין תיכלי,בי רב חסדא סמידא לכלבי ולא מתבעי בי רבה נהמא דשערי לאינשי ולא משתכח,ואמר רבא הני תלת מילי בעאי קמי שמיא תרתי יהבו לי חדא לא יהבו לי חוכמתיה דרב הונא ועותריה דרב חסדא ויהבו לי ענותנותיה דרבה בר רב הונא לא יהבו לי,רב שעורים אחוה דרבא הוה יתיב קמיה דרבא חזייה דהוה קא מנמנם א"ל לימא ליה מר דלא לצערן א"ל מר לאו שושביניה הוא א"ל כיון דאימסר מזלא לא אשגח בי א"ל ליתחזי לי מר איתחזי ליה א"ל הוה ליה למר צערא א"ל כי ריבדא דכוסילתא,רבא הוה יתיב קמיה דר"נ חזייה דקא מנמנם א"ל לימא ליה מר דלא לצערן א"ל מר לאו אדם חשוב הוא א"ל מאן חשיב מאן ספין מאן רקיע,א"ל ליתחזי לי מר אתחזי ליה א"ל ה"ל למר צערא א"ל כמישחל בניתא מחלבא ואי אמר לי הקב"ה זיל בההוא עלמא כד הוית לא בעינא דנפיש בעיתותיה,רבי אלעזר הוה קאכיל תרומה איתחזי ליה א"ל תרומה קא אכילנא ולאו קודש איקרי חלפא ליה שעתא,רב ששת איתחזי ליה בשוקא אמר ליה בשוקא כבהמה איתא לגבי ביתא,רב אשי איתחזי ליה בשוקא א"ל איתרח לי תלתין יומין ואהדרי לתלמודאי דאמריתו אשרי מי שבא לכאן ותלמודו בידו ביום תלתין אתא אמר ליה מאי כולי האי קא דחקא רגליה דבר נתן ואין מלכות נוגעת בחבירתה אפילו כמלא נימא,רב חסדא לא הוה יכיל ליה דלא הוה שתיק פומיה מגירסא סליק יתיב בארזא דבי רב פקע ארזא ושתק ויכיל ליה,ר' חייא לא הוה מצי למיקרבא ליה יומא חד אידמי ליה כעניא אתא טריף אבבא א"ל אפיק לי ריפתא אפיקו ליה א"ל ולאו קא מרחם מר אעניא אההוא גברא אמאי לא קא מרחם מר גלי ליה אחוי ליה שוטא דנורא אמצי ליה נפשיה: 28a. with regard to ba womanwho died bin childbirth,and therefore continues to bleed. bButthe biers of bother women may be set downin the street., bRabbi Elazar said: Eventhe biers of bother womenmust not be set down in the street, bas it is written: “And Miriam died there and was buried there”(Numbers 20:1), which teaches that bthesite of her bburial was close tothe place of her bdeath.Therefore, it is preferable to bury a woman as close as possible to the place where she died.,With regard to that same verse bRabbi Elazar saidfurther: bMiriam also died bythe divine bkiss,just like her brother Moses. What is the source for this? bThis is derivedthrough a verbal analogy between the word b“there”stated with regard to Miriam and the word b“there”mentioned bwith regard to Moses.With regard to Moses it says: “So Moses the servant of the Lord died there in the land of Moab by the mouth of the Lord” (Deuteronomy 34:5). bFor whatreason bwas it notexplicitly bstated with regard to her,as it is stated with regard to Moses, that she died b“by the mouth of the Lord”?It is bbecause it would be unseemly to say such a thing,that a woman died by way of a divine kiss, and therefore it is not said explicitly., bRabbi Ami said: Why wasthe Torah portion that describes the bdeath of Miriam juxtaposed to the portiondealing with bthe red heifer? To tell you: Just as the red heifer atonesfor sin, bso too, the death of the righteous atonesfor sin. bRabbi Elazar said: Why wasthe Torah portion that describes the bdeath of Aaron juxtaposed tothe portion discussing bthe priestly garments?This teaches that bjust as the priestly garments atonefor sin, bso too, the death of the righteous atonesfor sin.,§ bThe Sages taughtthe following ibaraita /i: If one bdies suddenlywithout having been sick, bthis is deaththrough bsnatching.If he bbecame sick for a day and died, this is an expedited death. Rabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel says: This is death at a stroke, as it is stated: “Son of man, behold, I am about to take away from you the delight of your eyes at a stroke”(Ezekiel 24:16). bAndwhen this prophecy is fulfilled bit is written: “So I spoke to the people in the morning and at evening my wife died”(Ezekiel 24:18).,If he was sick for btwo days and died, this is a quickened death.If he was sick for bthreedays and died, this is a death of brebuke.If he died after being sick for bfourdays, this is a death of breprimand.If one died after a sickness lasting bfivedays, bthis is theordinary bdeath of all people. /b, bRabbi Ḥanin said: What is the versefrom which this is derived? It is stated: b“Behold, your days approach that you must die”(Deuteronomy 31:14). This verse is expounded in the following manner: b“Behold [ ihen /i]”indicates bone; “approach [ ikarvu /i],”a plural term, indicates btwo; “your days [ iyamekha /i],”also a plural term, indicates another btwo;and therefore in total bthis is five.How does the word ihen /iindicate bone? Because in the Greek language they callthe number bone ihen /i. /b,The Gemara discusses the significance of death at different ages: If one bdies whenhe is bfifty yearsold, bthis is death through ikaret /i,the divine punishment of excision, meted out for the most serious transgressions. If he dies when he is bfifty-two yearsold, bthis is the death of Samuel from Ramah.If he dies at the age of bsixty, this is death at the hand of Heaven. /b, bMar Zutra said: What is the versefrom which this is derived? bAs it is written: “You shall come to your grave in a ripe age [ ibekhelaḥ /i]”(Job 5:26). The word b“ripe age” [ ibekhelaḥ /i] has the numerical value of sixty,and it is alluded to there that dying at this age involves a divine punishment.,One who dies at the age of bseventyhas reached bold age.One who dies at the age of beightydies in bstrength, as it is written: “The days of our years are seventy, or if by reason of strength, eighty years”(Psalms 90:10). bRabba said:Not only is death at the age of fifty a sign of ikaret /i, but even death bfrom fifty to sixty yearsof age bis death by ikaret /i. Andthe reason that ball of these years were not countedin connection with ikaretis bdue to the honor of Samuel from Ramah,who died at the age of fifty-two.,The Gemara relates that bwhen Rav Yosef turned sixty he made a holiday for the Sages.Explaining the cause for his celebration, bhe said: I have passedthe age of ikaret /i. Abaye said to him: Master,even bthough you have passed the ikaretof years, have you, Master, escaped the ikaretof days?As previously mentioned, sudden death is also considered to be a form of ikaret /i. bHe said to him: Grasp at least half in your hand,for I have at least escaped one type of ikaret /i.,It was related that bRav Huna died suddenly,and bthe Sages were concernedthat this was a bad sign. The Sage bZuga from Hadayeiv taught themthe following: bThey taughtthese principles bonly whenthe deceased bhad not reachedthe age of bstrength,i.e., eighty. bBut if he had reachedthe age of bstrengthand then died suddenly, bthis is death by way of adivine bkiss. /b, bRava said:Length of blife, children, and sustece do not depend onone’s bmerit, but rather they depend upon fate. As, Rabba and Rav Ḥisda were both pious Sages;one bSagewould bprayduring a drought band rain would fall, andthe other bSagewould bpray and rain would fall. /b,And nevertheless, their lives were very different. bRav Ḥisda lived for ninety-two years,whereas bRabba lived foronly bfortyyears. bThe house of Rav Ḥisdacelebrated bsixty wedding feasts,whereas the bhouse of Rabbaexperienced bsixty calamities.In other words, many fortuitous events took place in the house of Rav Ḥisda and the opposite occurred in the house of Rabba., bIn the house of Rav Ḥisdathere was bread from bthe finest flour [ isemida /i]even bfor the dogs, and it was not asked after,as there was so much food. bIn the house of Rabba,on the other hand, there was coarse bbarley breadeven bfor people, and it was not foundin sufficient quantities. This shows that the length of life, children, and sustece all depend not upon one’s merit, but upon fate.,Apropos Rav Ḥisda’s great wealth, the Gemara reports that bRava said: These three things I requested from Heaven, twoof which bwere given to me,and bone was not given to me:I requested the bwisdom of Rav Huna and the wealth of Rav Ḥisda and they were given to me.I also requested the bhumility of Rabba bar Rav Huna,but bit was not given to me. /b,The Gemara continues its discussion of the deaths of the righteous. bRav Seorim, Rava’s brother, sat before Rava,and bhe saw thatRava bwas dozing,i.e., about to die. Rava bsaid tohis brother: bMaster, tell him,the Angel of Death, bnot to torment me.Knowing that Rava was not afraid of the Angel of Death, Rav Seorim bsaid tohim: bMaster, are you not a friend ofthe Angel of Death? Rava bsaid to him: Sincemy bfate has been handed overto him, and it has been decreed that I shall die, the Angel of Death bno longer pays heed to me.Rav Seorim bsaid toRava: bMaster, appear to mein a dream after your death. And Rava bappeared to him.Rav Seorim bsaid toRava: bMaster, did you have painin death? bHe said to him: Like the prickof the knife bwhen letting blood. /b,It was similarly related that bRava sat before Rav Naḥman,and bhe saw thatRav Naḥman bwas dozing,i.e., slipping into death. Rav Naḥman bsaid toRava: bMaster, tellthe Angel of Death bnot to torment me.Rava bsaid to him: Master, are you not an important personwho is respected in Heaven? Rav Naḥman bsaid to him:In the supernal world bwho is important? Who is honorable? Who is complete? /b,Rava bsaid toRav Naḥman: bMaster, appear to mein a dream after your death. And bhe appeared to him.Rava bsaid to him: Master, did you have painin death? Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: Like the removal of hair from milk,which is a most gentle process. But nevertheless, bwere the Holy One, Blessed be He, to say to me: Goback bto that world,the physical world, bas you were, I would not want to go, for the fear ofthe Angel of Death bis great.And I would not want to go through such a terrifying experience a second time.,The Gemara relates that bRabbi Elazar wasonce beating iteruma /i,when the Angel of Death bappeared to him. He said tothe Angel of Death: bI am eating iteruma /i; is it not called sacred?It would be inappropriate for me to die now and thereby defile this sacred iteruma /i. The Angel of Death accepted his argument and left him. bThe moment passed,and he lived for some time afterward.,It was similarly related that the Angel of Death once bappeared to Rav Sheshet in the marketplace.Rav Sheshet bsaid tothe Angel of Death: Shall I die bin the market like an animal? Come tomy bhouseand kill me there like a human being.,So too, the Angel of Death bappeared to Rav Ashi in the marketplace.Rav Ashi bsaid tothe Angel of Death: bGive me thirty days so that I may review my studies, for you sayabove: bFortunate is he who comes hereto Heaven bwith his learning in his hand. On the thirtieth daythe Angel of Death bcameto take him. Rav Ashi bsaid tothe Angel of Death: bWhat is all of this?Why are you in such a hurry to take me? Why can you not postpone my death? He said to him: bThe foot ofRav Huna bbar Natan is pushingyou, as he is ready to succeed you as the leader of the generation, band one sovereignty does not overlap with its counterpart, evenby bone hairbreadth.Therefore, you cannot live any longer.,The Angel of Death bwas unableto take bRav Ḥisda because his mouth was never silent from study.So the Angel of Death bwentand bsat on the cedarcolumn that supported the roof of bthe study hall of the Sages. The cedar cracked andRav Ḥisda bwas silentfor a moment, as he was startled by the sound. At that point the Angel of Death was bable totake bhim. /b,The Angel of Death bcould not come near Rabbi Ḥiyya,owing to his righteousness. bOne daythe Angel of Death bappeared to him as a poor person. He came and knocked on the door. He said toRabbi Ḥiyya: bBring out bread for me,and bhe took outbread bfor him.The Angel of Death then bsaidto Rabbi Ḥiyya: bMaster, do you not have mercy on a poor person? Why, then, do you not have mercy upon that man,i.e., upon me, and give me what I want? The Angel of Death then brevealedhis identity bto him,and bshowed him a fiery rodin order to confirm that he was the Angel of Death. At this point Rav Ḥiyya bsurrenderedhimself bto him. /b
37. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

30b. כל יומא דשבתא הוה יתיב וגריס כולי יומא ההוא יומא דבעי למינח נפשיה קם מלאך המות קמיה ולא יכיל ליה דלא הוה פסק פומיה מגירסא אמר מאי אעביד ליה הוה ליה בוסתנא אחורי ביתיה אתא מלאך המות סליק ובחיש באילני נפק למיחזי הוה סליק בדרגא איפחית דרגא מתותיה אישתיק ונח נפשיה,שלח שלמה לבי מדרשא אבא מת ומוטל בחמה וכלבים של בית אבא רעבים מה אעשה שלחו ליה חתוך נבלה והנח לפני הכלבים ואביך הנח עליו ככר או תינוק וטלטלו ולא יפה אמר שלמה (קהלת ט, ד) כי לכלב חי הוא טוב מן האריה המת ולענין שאילה דשאילנא קדמיכון נר קרויה נר ונשמתו של אדם קרויה נר מוטב תכבה נר של בשר ודם מפני נרו של הקב"ה:,אמר רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת משמיה דרב בקשו חכמים לגנוז ספר קהלת מפני שדבריו סותרין זה את זה ומפני מה לא גנזוהו מפני שתחילתו דברי תורה וסופו דברי תורה תחילתו דברי תורה דכתיב (קהלת א, ג) מה יתרון לאדם בכל עמלו שיעמול תחת השמש ואמרי דבי ר' ינאי תחת השמש הוא דאין לו קודם שמש יש לו סופו דברי תורה דכתיב (קהלת יב, יג) סוף דבר הכל נשמע את האלהים ירא ואת מצותיו שמור כי זה כל האדם מאי כי זה כל האדם אמר רבי (אליעזר) כל העולם כולו לא נברא אלא בשביל זה ר' אבא בר כהנא אמר שקול זה כנגד כל העולם כולו שמעון בן עזאי אומר ואמרי לה שמעון בן זומא אומר לא נברא כל העולם כולו אלא לצוות לזה,ומאי דבריו סותרין זה את זה כתיב (קהלת ז, ג) טוב כעס משחוק וכתיב (קהלת ב, ב) לשחוק אמרתי מהלל כתיב (קהלת ח, טו) ושבחתי אני את השמחה וכתיב (קהלת ב, ב) ולשמחה מה זה עושה לא קשיא טוב כעס משחוק טוב כעס שכועס הקב"ה על הצדיקים בעוה"ז משחוק שמשחק הקב"ה על הרשעים בעולם הזה ולשחוק אמרתי מהלל זה שחוק שמשחק הקב"ה עם הצדיקים בעולם הבא,ושבחתי אני את השמחה שמחה של מצוה ולשמחה מה זה עושה זו שמחה שאינה של מצוה ללמדך שאין שכינה שורה לא מתוך עצבות ולא מתוך עצלות ולא מתוך שחוק ולא מתוך קלות ראש ולא מתוך שיחה ולא מתוך דברים בטלים אלא מתוך דבר שמחה של מצוה שנאמר (מלכים ב ג, טו) ועתה קחו לי מנגן והיה כנגן המנגן ותהי עליו יד ה' אמר רב יהודה וכן לדבר הלכה אמר רבא וכן לחלום טוב,איני והאמר רב גידל אמר רב כל תלמיד חכם שיושב לפני רבו ואין שפתותיו נוטפות מר תכוינה שנאמר (שיר השירים ה, יג) שפתותיו שושנים נוטפות מור עובר אל תקרי מור עובר אלא מר עובר אל תקרי שושנים אלא ששונים לא קשיא הא ברבה והא בתלמיד ואיבעית אימא הא והא ברבה ולא קשיא הא מקמי דלפתח הא לבתר דפתח כי הא דרבה מקמי דפתח להו לרבנן אמר מילתא דבדיחותא ובדחי רבנן לסוף יתיב באימתא ופתח בשמעתא,ואף ספר משלי בקשו לגנוז שהיו דבריו סותרין זה את זה ומפני מה לא גנזוהו אמרי ספר קהלת לאו עיינינן ואשכחינן טעמא הכא נמי ליעיינן ומאי דבריו סותרים זה את זה כתיב (משלי כו, ד) אל תען כסיל כאולתו וכתיב (משלי כו, ה) ענה כסיל כאולתו לא קשיא הא בדברי תורה הא במילי דעלמא,כי הא דההוא דאתא לקמיה דרבי אמר ליה אשתך אשתי ובניך בני אמר ליה רצונך שתשתה כוס של יין שתה ופקע ההוא דאתא לקמיה דרבי חייא אמר ליה אמך אשתי ואתה בני אמר ליה רצונך שתשתה כוס של יין שתה ופקע אמר רבי חייא אהניא ליה צלותיה לרבי דלא לשווייה בני ממזירי דרבי כי הוה מצלי אמר יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתצילני היום מעזי. פנים ומעזות פנים,בדברי תורה מאי היא כי הא דיתיב רבן גמליאל וקא דריש עתידה אשה שתלד בכל יום שנאמר (ירמיהו לא, ח) הרה ויולדת יחדיו ליגלג עליו אותו תלמיד אמר אין כל חדש תחת השמש א"ל בא ואראך דוגמתן בעוה"ז נפק אחוי ליה תרנגולת,ותו יתיב רבן גמליאל וקא דריש עתידים אילנות שמוציאין פירות בכל יום שנאמר (יחזקאל יז, כג) ונשא ענף ועשה פרי מה ענף בכל יום אף פרי בכל יום ליגלג עליו אותו תלמיד אמר והכתיב אין כל חדש תחת השמש א"ל בא ואראך דוגמתם בעולם הזה נפק אחוי ליה צלף,ותו יתיב רבן גמליאל וקא דריש עתידה ארץ ישראל שתוציא גלוסקאות וכלי מילת שנאמר (תהלים עב, טז) יהי פסת בר בארץ ליגלג עליו אותו תלמיד ואמר אין כל חדש תחת השמש אמר ליה בא ואראך דוגמתן בעולם הזה נפק אחוי ליה כמיהין ופטריות ואכלי מילת נברא בר קורא:,. ת"ר לעולם יהא אדם ענוותן כהלל ואל יהא קפדן כשמאי מעשה בשני בני אדם 30b. What did David do? bEvery Shabbat he would sit and learn all daylong to protect himself from the Angel of Death. On bthat day on whichthe Angel of Death bwas supposed to put his soul to rest,the day on which David was supposed to die, bthe Angel of Death stood before him and was unableto overcome him because bhis mouth did not pause from study.The Angel of Death bsaid: What shall I do to him? David had a garden [ ibustana /i] behind his house; the Angel of Death came, climbed, and shook the trees.David bwent out to see.As bhe climbed the stair, the stair broke beneath him.He was startled and bwas silent,interrupted his studies for a moment, band died. /b,Since David died in the garden, bSolomon sentthe following question bto the study hall: Father died and is lying in the sun, and the dogs of father’s house are hungry.There is room for concern lest the dogs come and harm his body. What shall I do? bThey sentan answer bto him: Cut up ananimal bcarcass and place it before the dogs.Since the dogs are hungry, handling the animal carcass to feed them is permitted. bAndwith regard to byour father,it is prohibited to move his body directly. bPlace a loafof bread bor an infant on top of him, andyou can bmove himinto the shade due to the bread or the infant. bAndis it bnot appropriatewhat bSolomon said: “ /bF bor a living dog is better than a dead lion.”The ultimate conclusion of this discussion is that life is preferable to death. bAndnow, bwith regard to the question that I asked before you;Rav Tanḥum spoke modestly, as, actually, they had asked him the question. bA lamp is called inerand a person’s soul isalso bcalled iner /i,as it is written: “The spirit of man is the lamp [ iner /i] of the Lord” (Proverbs 20:27). bIt is preferablethat bthe lamp ofa being of bflesh and blood,an actual lamp, bwill be extinguished in favor of the lamp of the Holy One, Blessed be He,a person’s soul. Therefore, one is permitted to extinguish a flame for the sake of a sick person.,Since contradictions in Ecclesiastes were mentioned, the Gemara cites additional relevant sources. bRav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: The Sages sought to suppress the book of Ecclesiastesand declare it apocryphal bbecause its statements contradict each otherand it is liable to confuse its readers. bAnd why did they not suppress it? Because its beginningconsists of bmatters of Torah and its endconsists of bmatters of Torah.The ostensibly contradictory details are secondary to the essence of the book, which is Torah. The Gemara elaborates: bIts beginningconsists of bmatters of Torah, as it is written: “What profit has man of all his labor which he labors under the sun?”(Ecclesiastes 1:3), bandthe Sages of bthe schoolof bRabbi Yannai said:By inference: bUnder the sun is whereman bhas noprofit from his labor; however, bbefore the sun,i.e., when engaged in the study of Torah, which preceded the sun, bhe does haveprofit. bIts endingconsists of bmatters of Torah, as it is written: “The end of the matter, all having been heard: Fear God, and keep His mitzvot; for this is the whole man” ( /bEcclesiastes 12:13). With regard to this verse, the Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the phrase: bFor this is the whole man? Rabbi Eliezer said: The entire world was only created for thisperson. bRabbi Abba bar Kahana said: Thisperson bis equivalent to the entire world. Shimon ben Azzai says and some saythat bShimon ben Zoma says: The entire world was only created as companion to thisman, so that he will not be alone., bAndto the essence of the matter, the Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of: bIts statementsthat bcontradict each other? It is written: “Vexation is better than laughter”(Ecclesiastes 7:3), band it is written: “I said of laughter: It is praiseworthy”(Ecclesiastes 2:2), which is understood to mean that laughter is commendable. Likewise in one verse bit is written: “So I commended mirth”(Ecclesiastes 8:15), bandin another verse bit is written: “And of mirth: What does it accomplish?”(Ecclesiastes 2:2). The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult,as the contradiction can be resolved. bVexation is better than laughtermeans: The bvexationof bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, toward the righteous in this world is preferable to the laughter which the Holy One, Blessed be He, laughs with the wicked in this worldby showering them with goodness. bI said of laughter: It is praiseworthy, that isthe blaughter which the Holy One, Blessed be He, laughs with the righteous in the World-to-Come. /b,Similarly, “ bSo I commended mirth,”that is bthe joy of a mitzva. “And of mirth: What does it accomplish?” that is joy that is notthe joy bof a mitzva.The praise of joy mentioned here is bto teach you that the Divine Presence restsupon an individual bneither froman atmosphere of bsadness, nor froman atmosphere of blaziness, nor froman atmosphere of blaughter, nor froman atmosphere of bfrivolity, nor froman atmosphere of bidle conversation, nor froman atmosphere of bidle chatter, but rather froman atmosphere imbued with bthe joy ofa bmitzva. As it was statedwith regard to Elisha that after he became angry at the king of Israel, his prophetic spirit left him until he requested: b“But now bring me a minstrel; and it came to pass, when the minstrel played, that the hand of the Lord came upon him”(II Kings 3:15). bRav Yehuda said: And, sotoo, one should be joyful before stating ba matter of ihalakha /i. Rava said: And, so too,one should be joyful before going to sleep in order btohave a bgood dream. /b,The Gemara asks: Is bthat so,that one should introduce matters of ihalakhajoyfully? bDidn’t Rav Giddel saythat bRav said: Any Torah scholar who sits before his teacher and his lips are not dripping with myrrhdue to fear of his teacher, those lips bshall be burnt,as bit is stated: “His lips are as lilies, dripping with flowing myrrh [ ishoshanim notefot mor over /i]”(Song of Songs 5:13)? He interpreted homiletically: bDo not read imor over /i, flowing myrrh; rather,read imar over /i, flowing bitterness.Likewise, bdo not read ishoshanim /i, lilies; rather,read isheshonim /i, that are studying,meaning that lips that are studying Torah must be full of bitterness. The Gemara explains: This is bnot difficult,there is no contradiction here, as bthis,where it was taught that one should introduce matters of ihalakhajoyfully, is referring bto a rabbi, and that,where it was taught that one must be filled with bitterness, is referring bto a student,who must listen to his teacher with trepidation. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that bthis and thatare referring bto a rabbi, andit is bnot difficult. This,where it was taught that he must be joyful, is bbeforehe bbeginsteaching, whereas bthat,where it was taught that he must be filled with bitterness and trepidation, is bafterhe already bbeganteaching ihalakha /i. That explanation is blike that which Rabbadid. bBefore he beganteaching ihalakha bto the Sages, he would say something humorous and the Sages would be cheered. Ultimately, he sat in trepidation and beganteaching the ihalakha /i., bAnd,the Gemara continues, the Sages bsought to suppress the book of Proverbs as wellbecause bits statements contradict each other. And why did they not suppress it? They said:In the case of bthe book of Ecclesiastes, didn’t we analyze it and find an explanationthat its statements were not contradictory? bHere too, let us analyze it. And what isthe meaning of: bIts statements contradict each other?On the one hand, bit is written: “Answer not a fool according to his folly,lest you also be like him” (Proverbs 26:4), bandon the other hand, bit is written: “Answer a fool according to his folly,lest he be wise in his own eyes” (Proverbs 26:5). The Gemara resolves this apparent contradiction: This is bnot difficult,as bthis,where one should answer a fool, is referring to a case where the fool is making claims babout Torah matters;whereas bthat,where one should not answer him, is referring to a case where the fool is making claims babout mundane matters. /b,The Gemara relates how Sages conducted themselves in both of those circumstances. bAs inthe case bof thatman bwho came before RabbiYehuda HaNasi and bsaid to him: Your wifeis bmy wife and your childrenare bmy children,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him:Would byou like to drink a cup of wine? He drank and burstand died. Similarly, the Gemara relates: bThere was that man who came before Rabbi Ḥiyya and said to him: Your motheris bmy wife, and youare bmy son. He said to him:Would byou like to drink a cup of wine? He drank and burstand died. bRabbi Ḥiyya saidwith regard to the incident involving Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bprayerthat bhis children will not be rendered imamzerim /i,children of illicit relations, bwas effective for him. As when RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwould pray, he saidafter his prayer: bMay it be Your will, O Lord, my God, that You will deliver me today from impudent people and from insolence.Insolence, in this case, refers to imamzerut /i. It was due to his prayer that that man burst and was unsuccessful in disparaging Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s children., bIn matters of Torah, what isthe case with regard to which the verse said that one should respond to a fool’s folly? bAs inthe case bwhere Rabban Gamliel was sitting and he interpreteda verse bhomiletically: In the future,in the World-to-Come, ba woman will give birth every day, as it says: “The woman with child and her that gives birth together”(Jeremiah 31:7), explaining that birth will occur on the same day as conception. bA certain student scoffed at himand bsaid:That cannot be, as it has already been stated: b“There is nothing new under the sun”(Ecclesiastes 1:9). Rabban Gamliel bsaid to him: Come and I will show you an exampleof this bin this world. He took him outside and showed him a chickenthat lays eggs every day., bAnd furthermore: Rabban Gamliel sat and interpreteda verse bhomiletically: In the future,in the World-to-Come, btrees will produce fruits every day, as it is stated: “And it shall bring forth branches and bear fruit”(Ezekiel 17:23); bjust as a branchgrows bevery day, so too, fruitwill be produced bevery day. A certain student scoffed at himand bsaid: Isn’t it written: There is nothing new under the sun? He said to him: Come and I will show you an exampleof this bin this world. He went outside and showed him a caper bush,part of which is edible during each season of the year., bAnd furthermore: Rabban Gamliel sat and interpreteda verse bhomiletically: In the future,the World-to-Come, bEretz Yisrael will produce cakes andfine bwool garmentsthat will grow in the ground, bas it is stated: “Let abundant grain be in the land /b.” bA certain student scoffed at him and said: There is nothing new under the sun. He said to him: Come and I will show you an example in this world. He went outsideand bshowed him truffles and mushrooms,which emerge from the earth over the course of a single night and are shaped like a loaf of bread. bAnd with regard to wool garments,he showed him bthe covering of a heart of palm,a young palm branch, which is wrapped in a thin net-like covering.,Since the Gemara discussed the forbearance of Sages, who remain silent in the face of nonsensical comments, it cites additional relevant examples. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA person should always be patient like Hillel and not impatient like Shammai.The Gemara related: There was ban incidentinvolving btwo people /b
38. Babylonian Talmud, Tamid, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31b. הראשון בראש וברגל הראש בימינו וחוטמו כלפי זרועו קרניו בין אצבעותיו בית שחיטתו מלמעלן והפדר נתון עליה הרגל של ימין בשמאלו ובית עורן לחוץ השני בשתי ידים של ימין בימינו ושל שמאל בשמאלו ובית עורן לחוץ,השלישי בעוקץ וברגל העוקץ בימינו והאליה מדולדלת בין אצבעותיו ואצבע הכבד ושתי כליות עמו הרגל של שמאל בשמאלו ובית עורן לחוץ הרביעי בחזה ובגרה החזה בימינו והגרה בשמאלו וצלעותיו בין שני אצבעותיו החמישי בשתי דפנות של ימין בימינו ושל שמאל בשמאלו ובית עורן לחוץ הששי קרבים הנתונים בבזך וכרעים על גביהן מלמעלה,הז' בסולת השמיני בחביתים התשיעי ביין הלכו ונתנום מחצי כבש ולמטה במערבו ומלחום וירדו ובאו להן ללשכת הגזית לקרות את שמע:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנא יד ורגל כעקידת יצחק בן אברהם:,לא היו כופתין את הטלה מאי טעמא רב הונא ורב חסדא חד אמר משום בזיון קדשים וחד אמר משום דמהלך בחוקי העמים,מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו דכפתיה בשיראי אי נמי בהוצא דדהבא,תנן התם שלש עשרה שולחנות היו במקדש שמונה של שיש בבית המטבחיים שעליהם מדיחין את הקרבים,ב' במערבה של כבש אחד של שיש ואחד של כסף על של שיש נותנין את האברים ועל של כסף כלי שרת,ובאולם שנים מבפנים על פתח הבית אחד של כסף ואחד של זהב על של כסף נותנין לחם הפנים בכניסתו ועל של זהב ביציאתו,שמעלין בקודש ולא מורידין ואחד של זהב בפנים שעליו לחם הפנים תמיד,מכדי אין עניות במקום עשירות אמאי עבדי דשיש ניעבדו דכסף ניעבדו דזהב אמר רב חיננא בשם רבי אסי ורבי אסי בשם רבי שמואל בר רב יצחק מפני שהוא מרתיח:,של שחר היה נשחט על קרן מזרחית צפונית: מנא הני מילי אמר רב חסדא דאמר קרא (במדבר כח, ג) שנים ליום כנגד היום,תניא נמי הכי שנים ליום כנגד היום אתה אומר נגד היום או אינו אלא חובת היום כשהוא אומר (במדבר כח, ד) את הכבש אחד תעשה בבקר ואת הכבש השני תעשה בין הערבים הרי חובת היום אמור הא מה אני מקיים שנים ליום נגד היום,הא כיצד תמיד של שחר היה נשחט על קרן צפונית מערבית על טבעת שניה ושל בין הערבים היה נשחט על קרן צפונית מזרחית על טבעת שניה:,עשרה דברים שאל אלכסנדרוס מוקדון את זקני הנגב אמר להן 31b. bThe firstpriest stood bwith the head and with theright hind blegof the animal. Since it was more significant, bthe headwas bin his righthand, band its nosewas turned btoward thepriest’s barm. Its hornswere bbetween his fingers,and bthe place of its slaughterwas babove, and the fats were placed upon it,to conceal the bloody place of slaughter. bThe righthind blegwas bin his lefthand, bandthe outer bsideof the leg, from which bits hidewas flayed, rather than the side on which the incision was made, was facing bout. The secondpriest stood bwiththe btwo forelegs.He held the brightforeleg bin his righthand bandthe bleftforeleg bin his lefthand, bandthe outer bsideof the leg, from which bits hidewas flayed, was facing bout. /b, bThe thirdpriest stood bwith the haunch and theleft hind bleg.He held bthe haunch in his righthand, band the tailwas bhanging between his fingers, and the finger- /blike protrusion bof the liver and the two kidneyswere bwith it.He held bthe lefthind bleg in his lefthand, bandthe outer bsideof the leg, from which bits hidewas flayed, was facing bout. The fourthpriest stood bwith the breast and with the cud,with bthe breast in his righthand band the cud in his lefthand, band itstwo bribswere attached to the cud bbetween his two fingers. The fifthpriest stood bwiththe btwo flanks;the brightflank was bin his righthand bandthe bleftflank bin his lefthand, bandthe outer bsidewas facing bout. The sixthpriest stood bwith the innards, whichwere bplaced in a vessel, andthe blower legswere placed batop them from above. /b, bThe seventhpriest stood bwith the fine flourof the meal offering that accompanies the daily offering. bThe eighthpriest stood bwith the griddle-cakeoffering sacrificed daily by the High Priest, half in the morning and half in the evening. bThe ninthpriest stood bwith the winefor the libations that accompany the daily offering. The nine priests bwent and placedthe items they were carrying on the area bfrom halfwayup bthe ramp and below,in the lower portion of the ramp, bon the westside of the ramp, band they saltedthe limbs and the meal offering. bAnd they descended and came to the Chamber of Hewn Stone to recitethe morning iShema /iand the other texts that they would recite, as explained at the beginning of the next chapter., strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that the priests would bind the lamb for the daily offering. With regard to this procedure, the Sages btaughtin a ibaraita /i: The animal’s bforeleg andhind blegare bound together, basin the bbinding of Isaac, son of Abraham. /b,The mishna teaches that the priests bwould not tie the lambby fastening all four of its legs together. The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this? The Gemara answers: This is a matter of dispute between bRav Huna and Rav Ḥisda. Oneof these Sages bsaid:The animal is not tied bbecausethis would constitute bdegradation of sacred items; andthe other bone saidthat the animal is not tied bbecause thatmethod is the one adopted in pagan worship, and is therefore considered to be bwalking in the statutes of the nations,and the verse states: “You shall not walk in their statutes” (Leviticus 18:3).,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe practical difference bbetweenthese opinions? The Gemara answers: There is a difference bbetweenthem in a case bwhereone btiesthe animal bwith silk [ ibeshira’ei /i],which would be considered to be treating the offering in the manner of the nations, but it is not degrading. bAlternatively,these opinions differ with regard to a case where the animal is tied bwith a thread of gold.As in the case of the silk, tying the animal with gold would be considered to be treating the offering in the manner of the nations, but it is not a degradation.,§ The mishna teaches that the innards were rinsed on marble tables in the slaughterhouse in the Temple. With regard to these tables, bwe learnedin a mishna belsewhere( iShekalim17b) that there bwere thirteen tables in the Temple. Eightof them were fashioned bfrom marbleand were located bin the slaughterhouse,north of the altar, bwherethe priests would slaughter the offerings of the most sacred order. bUpon thesetables bthey would wash the innardsof the offerings, as the cool marble preserved the freshness of the meat.,There were btwomore tables bon the westernside bof the ramp,south of the altar, bone of marble and one of silver. Onthe table bof marblethe priests would bplace the limbsbefore they would bring them up to the altar. bAnd onthe table bof silverthey would place the ninety-three bservice vesselsbrought out from the Chamber of Vessels each morning for the services of that day.,The mishna continues: bAnd in the Entrance Hallthere were btwotables bonits binside, near the opening to the Temple, one of silver and one of gold. Onthe table bof silverthe priests would bplace the shewbread before its entranceto the Sanctuary, after it was baked on Shabbat eve. bAnd onthe table bof goldthey would place the old shewbread bupon its exitfrom the Sanctuary, to be divided among the priests.,The shewbread was not placed on a silver table upon its exit from the Sanctuary, basone bpromotes inmatters of bsanctity andone bdoes not demote.Since in the interim the shewbread had been placed on the golden Table for the shewbread inside the Sanctuary, upon its removal it was not placed on anything other than a golden table. bAndlastly, there was bonetable bof gold insidethe Sanctuary. This was the Table for the shewbread, bupon which the shewbread alwaysrested (see Exodus 25:23–30).,The Gemara asks: bSincethere is a principle that btheremay be bno poverty in a place of wealth,i.e., the Temple must always be run in a lavish manner, why did they bfashionany tables bof marble? Let them fashionall the tables bof silver,due to the grandeur of the Temple, or blet them fashionthem all bof gold. Rav Ḥina says in the name of Rabbi Asi, and Rabbi Asisays bin the name of Rabbi Shmuel bar Rav Yitzḥak:Gold and silver tables are unfit for the sacrificial limbs bbecausemetal bscalds.Unlike marble, metal can become very hot in the sun, and this might cause the sacrificial limbs to deteriorate.,§ The mishna teaches that the daily offering bof the morning was slaughtered at the northwest cornerof the altar, in the first ring of the second row from the south, which is called the second ring, whereas the daily offering of the afternoon was slaughtered at the northeast corner of the altar, at the second ring. The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bRav Ḥisda said: As the verse states,with regard to the daily offering: “This is the offering made by fire that you shall bring to the Lord: Lambs of the first year without blemish, btwo by day,for a continual burnt offering” (Numbers 28:3). The phrase “two by day” indicates that the lamb must be slaughtered boppositethe light of bthe day.Since Eretz Yisrael is north of the equator, the sun is always in the southern part of the sky. The first ring, then, is always in the long shadow of the altar, and only the second ring falls under direct sunlight., bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i, that the phrase b“two by day”teaches that the lamb must be slaughtered boppositethe light of bthe day.The ibaraitaasks: bDo you saythat this means boppositethe light of bthe day, ordoes it bonlymean that two lambs must be sacrificed for the bobligation ofeach bday?The ibaraitaanswers that bwhenthe verse bstates: “One lamb you shall sacrifice in the morning, and the other lamb you shall sacrifice in the afternoon”(Numbers 28:4), bthe obligation ofeach bday isthereby bstatedexplicitly. bHow,then, bdo I realizethe meaning of b“two by day”?This teaches that the lamb must be slaughtered boppositethe light of bthe day. /b,The ibaraitaconcludes: bHow so,i.e., how can this principle be applied to both the morning and the afternoon offerings? The bdaily offering of the morning was slaughtered oppositethe bnorthwest cornerof the altar, bonthe bsecond ring,across from the sun, which rises in the east. bAndthe daily offering bof the afternoon was slaughtered oppositethe bnortheast cornerof the altar, bonthe fourth ring of the second row, also called the bsecond ring,again across from the sun, which is located in the west in the afternoon.,§ With regard to the position of the sun, the Gemara relates that bAlexander of Macedon asked the Elders of the Negevabout bten matters. He said to them: /b
39. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 14.11, 14.13

40. Anon., Tanhuma, None



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
2 chronicles, in literary history of hebrew bible Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 141
aaron, high priest Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 144
adam Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 147
ahiah son of shisha Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 238
akedah (binding of isaac), and human sacrifice Kanarek, Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law (2014) 50, 51
akedah (binding of isaac), and the passover sacrifice Kanarek, Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law (2014) 50, 51
akedah (binding of isaac), and the sacrificial cult Kanarek, Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law (2014) 50, 51
akedah (binding of isaac), transformation into normative text, through rabbinic exegesis Kanarek, Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law (2014) 50
angel, of death Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 238
angel Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 146, 147; Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 238
archangel, destroyer, as Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 146
blood Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 144
canaan Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 558
census, in history of israel Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 211
census, of year , rebellion accompanying Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 211
census, provincial, and judea Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 211
census, provincial, not widespread Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 211
cestius gallus Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 211
chariot Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 144
collection, restorative Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 130
confession Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 558
contumelia Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 144
crudelitas Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 144
david, king Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 144; Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 130
death Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 204
deception Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 558
deeds, wicked of humans Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 580
deuteronomistic history Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 141
diplomacy Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 144
egypt Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 558
elisha, prophet Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 144
eschatology/eschatological, punishment/destruction Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 580
eve, fate of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 558
fate, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 558
fear of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 558
fruit Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 558
god, israel, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 558
hayward, robert Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 127
immanitas Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 144
isaac, ashes Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 127
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 558
jacob Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 558
jerusalem, famines in Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 130
josephus, on cestius gallus asking chief priests for census Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 211
joshua, son of nun Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 144
judea (jewish palestine), and provincial census Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 211
judea (jewish palestine), taxation of, under governors Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 211
lauterbach, jacob Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 127
leadership Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 144
light Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 204
lights, versus darkness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 580
literary history of hebrew bible, chronicles Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 141
literary history of hebrew bible, deuteronomistic history Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 141
literary history of hebrew bible, major literary complexes Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 141
literary history of hebrew bible Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 141
lord see god, armies (hosts), of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 558
mekhilta de rabbi ishmael Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 127
mekhilta de rabbi shimon ben yochai Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 127
memorial/remembrance Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 580
merit of the fathers (zecut avot) Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 127
moses Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 144
myth Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 204
naaman (the syrian) Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 144
nahal hever, navtalah, house of Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 130
narrative, rabbinization of Kanarek, Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law (2014) 50
natural/meterological phenomena' Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 580
oath, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 558
oath Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 558
or, the jebusite Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 130
parallelism/repetition Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 146
passover sacrifice Kanarek, Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law (2014) 50, 51
poor, conjunctural Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 130
repentance Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 558
sacrifice, language of Kanarek, Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law (2014) 50
sacrifice, temple Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 127
saul Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 558
seditio Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 144
solomon, king Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 130
speech in dreams, incidental/overheard Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 372
syrians Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 144
tamid (sacrifice) Kanarek, Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law (2014) 50
tanhuma Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 127
temple in jerusalem, destruction of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 146
theology, theological, innovation Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 238
torah Nikolsky and Ilan, Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia (2014) 238
wealth Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 130