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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6268
Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 21.1-21.10


וַיַּעֲמֹד שָׂטָן עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיָּסֶת אֶת־דָּוִיד לִמְנוֹת אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃And Satan stood up against Israel, and moved David to number Israel.


לֵךְ וְדִבַּרְתָּ אֶל־דָּוִיד לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה שָׁלוֹשׁ אֲנִי נֹטֶה עָלֶיךָ בְּחַר־לְךָ אַחַת מֵהֵנָּה וְאֶעֱשֶׂה־לָּךְ׃And Satan stood up against Israel, and moved David to number Israel.


nan’Go and speak unto David, saying: Thus saith the LORD: I offer thee three things; choose thee one of them, that I may do it unto thee.’


וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד אֶל־יוֹאָב וְאֶל־שָׂרֵי הָעָם לְכוּ סִפְרוּ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִבְּאֵר שֶׁבַע וְעַד־דָּן וְהָבִיאוּ אֵלַי וְאֵדְעָה אֶת־מִסְפָּרָם׃And David said to Joab and to the princes of the people: ‘Go, number Israel from Beersheba even to Dan; and bring me word, that I may know the sum of them.’


וַיָּשָׁב אָרְנָן וַיַּרְא אֶת־הַמַּלְאָךְ וְאַרְבַּעַת בָּנָיו עִמּוֹ מִתְחַבְּאִים וְאָרְנָן דָּשׁ חִטִּים׃And David said to Joab and to the princes of the people: ‘Go, number Israel from Beersheba even to Dan; and bring me word, that I may know the sum of them.’


וְלֹא־יָכֹל דָּוִיד לָלֶכֶת לְפָנָיו לִדְרֹשׁ אֱלֹהִים כִּי נִבְעַת מִפְּנֵי חֶרֶב מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה׃And Joab said: ‘The LORD make His people a hundred times so many more as they are; but, my lord the king, are they not all my lord’s servants? why doth my lord require this thing? why will he be a cause of guilt unto Israel?’


וַיֹּאמֶר יוֹאָב יוֹסֵף יְהוָה עַל־עַמּוֹ כָּהֵם מֵאָה פְעָמִים הֲלֹא אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ כֻּלָּם לַאדֹנִי לַעֲבָדִים לָמָּה יְבַקֵּשׁ זֹאת אֲדֹנִי לָמָּה יִהְיֶה לְאַשְׁמָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל׃And Joab said: ‘The LORD make His people a hundred times so many more as they are; but, my lord the king, are they not all my lord’s servants? why doth my lord require this thing? why will he be a cause of guilt unto Israel?’


וּדְבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ חָזַק עַל־יוֹאָב וַיֵּצֵא יוֹאָב וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ בְּכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיָּבֹא יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃Nevertheless the king’s word prevailed against Joab. Wherefore Joab departed and went throughout all Israel, and came to Jerusalem.


וַיִּתֵּן יוֹאָב אֶת־מִסְפַּר מִפְקַד־הָעָם אֶל־דָּוִיד וַיְהִי כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלֶף אֲלָפִים וּמֵאָה אֶלֶף אִישׁ שֹׁלֵף חֶרֶב וִיהוּדָה אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת וְשִׁבְעִים אֶלֶף אִישׁ שֹׁלֵף חָרֶב׃And Joab gave up the sum of the numbering of the people unto David. And all they of Israel were a thousand thousand and a hundred thousand men that drew sword; and Judah was four hundred three-score and ten thousand men that drew sword.


וְלֵוִי וּבִנְיָמִן לֹא פָקַד בְּתוֹכָם כִּי־נִתְעַב דְּבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־יוֹאָב׃But Levi and Benjamin he did not number among them; for the king’s word was abominable to Joab.


וַיֵּרַע בְּעֵינֵי הָאֱלֹהִים עַל־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַיַּךְ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃And God was displeased with this thing; therefore He smote Israel.


וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים חָטָאתִי מְאֹד אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וְעַתָּה הַעֲבֶר־נָא אֶת־עֲווֹן עַבְדְּךָ כִּי נִסְכַּלְתִּי מְאֹד׃And David said unto God: ‘I have sinned greatly, in that I have done this thing; but now, put away, I beseech Thee, the iniquity of Thy servant; for I have done very foolishly.’


וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־גָּד חֹזֵה דָוִיד לֵאמֹר׃And the LORD spoke unto Gad, David’s seer, saying:


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

29 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26, 3.22, 11.7, 12.19, 32.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 3.22. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים הֵן הָאָדָם הָיָה כְּאַחַד מִמֶּנּוּ לָדַעַת טוֹב וָרָע וְעַתָּה פֶּן־יִשְׁלַח יָדוֹ וְלָקַח גַּם מֵעֵץ הַחַיִּים וְאָכַל וָחַי לְעֹלָם׃ 11.7. הָבָה נֵרְדָה וְנָבְלָה שָׁם שְׂפָתָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ אִישׁ שְׂפַת רֵעֵהוּ׃ 12.19. לָמָה אָמַרְתָּ אֲחֹתִי הִוא וָאֶקַּח אֹתָהּ לִי לְאִשָּׁה וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה אִשְׁתְּךָ קַח וָלֵךְ׃ 32.11. קָטֹנְתִּי מִכֹּל הַחֲסָדִים וּמִכָּל־הָאֱמֶת אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָ אֶת־עַבְדֶּךָ כִּי בְמַקְלִי עָבַרְתִּי אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן הַזֶּה וְעַתָּה הָיִיתִי לִשְׁנֵי מַחֲנוֹת׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 3.22. And the LORD God said: ‘Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever.’" 11.7. Come, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech.’" 12.19. Why saidst thou: She is my sister? so that I took her to be my wife; now therefore behold thy wife, take her, and go thy way.’" 32.11. I am not worthy of all the mercies, and of all the truth, which Thou hast shown unto Thy servant; for with my staff I passed over this Jordan; and now I am become two camps."
2. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 14.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.10. Whoso is wise, let him understand these things, Whoso is prudent, let him know them. For the ways of the LORD are right, And the just do walk in them; But transgressors do stumble therein."
3. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1, 1.6, 1.6-2.7, 2.3, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 22.22, 22.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

22.22. וַיִּחַר־אַף אֱלֹהִים כִּי־הוֹלֵךְ הוּא וַיִּתְיַצֵּב מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה בַּדֶּרֶךְ לְשָׂטָן לוֹ וְהוּא רֹכֵב עַל־אֲתֹנוֹ וּשְׁנֵי נְעָרָיו עִמּוֹ׃ 22.22. And God’s anger was kindled because he went; and the angel of the LORD placed himself in the way for an adversary against him.—Now he was riding upon his ass, and his two servants were with him.—"
5. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 10.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.9. הוֹלֵךְ בַּתֹּם יֵלֶךְ בֶּטַח וּמְעַקֵּשׁ דְּרָכָיו יִוָּדֵעַ׃ 10.9. He that walketh uprightly walketh securely; but he that perverteth his ways shall be found out."
6. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 12.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.7. וְעַתָּה הִתְיַצְּבוּ וְאִשָּׁפְטָה אִתְּכֶם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֵת כָּל־צִדְקוֹת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה אִתְּכֶם וְאֶת־אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם׃ 12.7. Now therefore stand still, that I may plead with you before the Lord concerning all the righteous acts of the Lord, which he did to you and to your fathers."
7. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 24.1-24.25 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

24.1. וַיַּךְ לֵב־דָּוִד אֹתוֹ אַחֲרֵי־כֵן סָפַר אֶת־הָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־יְהוָה חָטָאתִי מְאֹד אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי וְעַתָּה יְהוָה הַעֲבֶר־נָא אֶת־עֲוֺן עַבְדְּךָ כִּי נִסְכַּלְתִּי מְאֹד׃ 24.1. וַיֹּסֶף אַף־יְהוָה לַחֲרוֹת בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַיָּסֶת אֶת־דָּוִד בָּהֶם לֵאמֹר לֵךְ מְנֵה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־יְהוּדָה׃ 24.2. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶל־יוֹאָב שַׂר־הַחַיִל אֲשֶׁר־אִתּוֹ שׁוּט־נָא בְּכָל־שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִדָּן וְעַד־בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע וּפִקְדוּ אֶת־הָעָם וְיָדַעְתִּי אֵת מִסְפַּר הָעָם׃ 24.2. וַיַּשְׁקֵף אֲרַוְנָה וַיַּרְא אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאֶת־עֲבָדָיו עֹבְרִים עָלָיו וַיֵּצֵא אֲרַוְנָה וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ לַמֶּלֶךְ אַפָּיו אָרְצָה׃ 24.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יוֹאָב אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְיוֹסֵף יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶל־הָעָם כָּהֵם וְכָהֵם מֵאָה פְעָמִים וְעֵינֵי אֲדֹנִי־הַמֶּלֶךְ רֹאוֹת וַאדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ לָמָּה חָפֵץ בַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה׃ 24.4. וַיֶּחֱזַק דְּבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶל־יוֹאָב וְעַל שָׂרֵי הֶחָיִל וַיֵּצֵא יוֹאָב וְשָׂרֵי הַחַיִל לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ לִפְקֹד אֶת־הָעָם אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.5. וַיַּעַבְרוּ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן וַיַּחֲנוּ בַעֲרוֹעֵר יְמִין הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹךְ־הַנַּחַל הַגָּד וְאֶל־יַעְזֵר׃ 24.6. וַיָּבֹאוּ הַגִּלְעָדָה וְאֶל־אֶרֶץ תַּחְתִּים חָדְשִׁי וַיָּבֹאוּ דָּנָה יַּעַן וְסָבִיב אֶל־צִידוֹן׃ 24.7. וַיָּבֹאוּ מִבְצַר־צֹר וְכָל־עָרֵי הַחִוִּי וְהַכְּנַעֲנִי וַיֵּצְאוּ אֶל־נֶגֶב יְהוּדָה בְּאֵר שָׁבַע׃ 24.8. וַיָּשֻׁטוּ בְּכָל־הָאָרֶץ וַיָּבֹאוּ מִקְצֵה תִשְׁעָה חֳדָשִׁים וְעֶשְׂרִים יוֹם יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 24.9. וַיִּתֵּן יוֹאָב אֶת־מִסְפַּר מִפְקַד־הָעָם אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַתְּהִי יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת אֶלֶף אִישׁ־חַיִל שֹׁלֵף חֶרֶב וְאִישׁ יְהוּדָה חֲמֵשׁ־מֵאוֹת אֶלֶף אִישׁ׃ 24.11. וַיָּקָם דָּוִד בַּבֹּקֶר וּדְבַר־יְהוָה הָיָה אֶל־גָּד הַנָּבִיא חֹזֵה דָוִד לֵאמֹר׃ 24.12. הָלוֹךְ וְדִבַּרְתָּ אֶל־דָּוִד כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה שָׁלֹשׁ אָנֹכִי נוֹטֵל עָלֶיךָ בְּחַר־לְךָ אַחַת־מֵהֶם וְאֶעֱשֶׂה־לָּךְ׃ 24.13. וַיָּבֹא־גָד אֶל־דָּוִד וַיַּגֶּד־לוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ הֲתָבוֹא לְךָ שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים רָעָב בְּאַרְצֶךָ אִם־שְׁלֹשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים נֻסְךָ לִפְנֵי־צָרֶיךָ וְהוּא רֹדְפֶךָ וְאִם־הֱיוֹת שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים דֶּבֶר בְּאַרְצֶךָ עַתָּה דַּע וּרְאֵה מָה־אָשִׁיב שֹׁלְחִי דָּבָר׃ 24.14. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־גָּד צַר־לִי מְאֹד נִפְּלָה־נָּא בְיַד־יְהוָה כִּי־רַבִּים רחמו [רַחֲמָיו] וּבְיַד־אָדָם אַל־אֶפֹּלָה׃ 24.15. וַיִּתֵּן יְהוָה דֶּבֶר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל מֵהַבֹּקֶר וְעַד־עֵת מוֹעֵד וַיָּמָת מִן־הָעָם מִדָּן וְעַד־בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע שִׁבְעִים אֶלֶף אִישׁ׃ 24.16. וַיִּשְׁלַח יָדוֹ הַמַּלְאָךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַם לְשַׁחֲתָהּ וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה אֶל־הָרָעָה וַיֹּאמֶר לַמַּלְאָךְ הַמַּשְׁחִית בָּעָם רַב עַתָּה הֶרֶף יָדֶךָ וּמַלְאַךְ יְהוָה הָיָה עִם־גֹּרֶן האורנה [הָאֲרַוְנָה] הַיְבֻסִי׃ 24.17. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־יְהוָה בִּרְאֹתוֹ אֶת־הַמַּלְאָךְ הַמַּכֶּה בָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי חָטָאתִי וְאָנֹכִי הֶעֱוֵיתִי וְאֵלֶּה הַצֹּאן מֶה עָשׂוּ תְּהִי נָא יָדְךָ בִּי וּבְבֵית אָבִי׃ 24.18. וַיָּבֹא־גָד אֶל־דָּוִד בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ עֲלֵה הָקֵם לַיהוָה מִזְבֵּחַ בְּגֹרֶן ארניה [אֲרַוְנָה] הַיְבֻסִי׃ 24.19. וַיַּעַל דָּוִד כִּדְבַר־גָּד כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה׃ 24.21. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲרַוְנָה מַדּוּעַ בָּא אֲדֹנִי־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶל־עַבְדּוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד לִקְנוֹת מֵעִמְּךָ אֶת־הַגֹּרֶן לִבְנוֹת מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה וְתֵעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה מֵעַל הָעָם׃ 24.22. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲרַוְנָה אֶל־דָּוִד יִקַּח וְיַעַל אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ הַטּוֹב בעינו [בְּעֵינָיו] רְאֵה הַבָּקָר לָעֹלָה וְהַמֹּרִגִּים וּכְלֵי הַבָּקָר לָעֵצִים׃ 24.23. הַכֹּל נָתַן אֲרַוְנָה הַמֶּלֶךְ לַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֹּאמֶר אֲרַוְנָה אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ יִרְצֶךָ׃ 24.24. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶל־אֲרַוְנָה לֹא כִּי־קָנוֹ אֶקְנֶה מֵאוֹתְךָ בִּמְחִיר וְלֹא אַעֲלֶה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהַי עֹלוֹת חִנָּם וַיִּקֶן דָּוִד אֶת־הַגֹּרֶן וְאֶת־הַבָּקָר בְּכֶסֶף שְׁקָלִים חֲמִשִּׁים׃ 24.25. וַיִּבֶן שָׁם דָּוִד מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה וַיַּעַל עֹלוֹת וּשְׁלָמִים וַיֵּעָתֵר יְהוָה לָאָרֶץ וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה מֵעַל יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.1. And again the anger of the Lord burned against Yisra᾽el, and he incited David against them, saying, Go, number Yisra᾽el and Yehuda." 24.2. For the king said to Yo᾽av the captain of the host, who was with him, Go now through all the tribes of Yisra᾽el, from Dan to Be᾽er-sheva, and number the people, that I may know the number of the people." 24.3. And Yo᾽av said to the king, Now the Lord thy God add to the people, as many more again, a hundredfold, and that the eyes of my lord the king may see it: but why does my lord the king desire this thing?" 24.4. But the king’s word prevailed against Yo᾽av, and against the captains of the host. And Yo᾽av and the captains of the host went out from the presence of the king, to number the people of Yisra᾽el." 24.5. And they passed over the Yarden, and camped in ῾Aro῾er, on the right side of the city that lies in the midst of the wadi of the tribe Gad, and toward Ya῾azer:" 24.6. then they came to Gil῾ad, and to the land of Taĥtim-ĥodshi; and they came to Dan-ya῾an, and round about to Żidon," 24.7. and came to the fortress of Żor, and to all the cities of the Ĥivvi, and of the Kena῾ani; and they went out to the south of Yehuda, which is Be᾽er-sheva." 24.8. So when they had gone through all the land, they came to Yerushalayim, at the end of nine months and twenty days." 24.9. And Yo᾽av rendered the sum of the census of the people to the king: and there were in Yisra᾽el eight hundred thousand warriors, that drew the sword; and the men of Yehuda were five hundred thousand men." 24.10. And David’s heart smote him after he had numbered the people. And David said to the Lord, I have sinned greatly in that which I have done: and now, O Lord, take away, I pray Thee, the iniquity of Thy servant; for I have done very foolishly." 24.11. And when David was up in the morning, the word of the Lord came to the prophet Gad, David’s seer, saying," 24.12. Go and say to David, Thus says the Lord, I offer thee three things; choose thee one of them, that I may do it to thee." 24.13. So Gad came to David, and told him, and said to him, Shall seven years of famine come to thee in thy land? or wilt thou flee three months before thy enemies, while they pursue thee? or that there be three days’ pestilence in thy land? now advise, and see what answer I shall return to him that sent me." 24.14. And David said to Gad, I am in great distress: let us fall now into the hand of the Lord; for his mercies are great: and let me not fall into the hand of man." 24.15. So the Lord sent a pestilence upon Yisra᾽el from the morning even to the time appointed: and there died of the people from Dan even to Be᾽er-sheva seventy thousand men." 24.16. And when the angel stretched out his hand upon Yerushalayim to destroy it, the Lord relented of the evil, and said to the angel that destroyed the people, It is enough: stay now thy hand. And the angel of the Lord was by the threshingplace of Aravna the Yevusi." 24.17. And David spoke to the Lord when he saw the angel that smote the people, and said, Lo, I have sinned, and I have done perversely: but these sheep, what have they done? let Thy hand, I pray Thee, be against me, and against my father’s house." 24.18. And Gad came that day to David, and said to him, Go up, rear an altar to the Lord on the threshingfloor of Aravna the Yevusite." 24.19. And David, according to the saying of Gad, went up as the Lord commanded." 24.20. And Aravna looked out, and saw the king and his servants coming on towards him: and Aravna went out, and bowed himself down before the king on his face to the ground." 24.21. And Aravna said, Why is my lord the king come to his servant? And David said, To buy the threshingfloor of thee, to build an altar to the Lord, that the plague may be stayed from the people." 24.22. And Aravna said to David, Let my lord the king take and offer up what seems good to him: behold, here are oxen for the burnt offering, and threshing instruments and other equipment of the oxen for wood." 24.23. All these things did the king Aravna give to the king. And Aravna said to the king, The Lord thy God accept thee." 24.24. And the king said to Aravna, No; but I will surely buy it of thee at a price: neither will I offer burnt offerings to the Lord my God of that which costs me nothing. So David bought the threshingfloor and the oxen for fifty shekels of silver." 24.25. And David built there an altar to the Lord, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings. So the Lord was entreated for the land, and the plague was stayed from Yisra᾽el."
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 40.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

40.3. קוֹל קוֹרֵא בַּמִּדְבָּר פַּנּוּ דֶּרֶךְ יְהוָה יַשְּׁרוּ בָּעֲרָבָה מְסִלָּה לֵאלֹהֵינוּ׃ 40.3. וְיִעֲפוּ נְעָרִים וְיִגָעוּ וּבַחוּרִים כָּשׁוֹל יִכָּשֵׁלוּ׃ 40.3. Hark! one calleth: ‘Clear ye in the wilderness the way of the LORD, make plain in the desert a highway for our God."
9. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 5.27 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.27. כִּכְלוּב מָלֵא עוֹף כֵּן בָּתֵּיהֶם מְלֵאִים מִרְמָה עַל־כֵּן גָּדְלוּ וַיַּעֲשִׁירוּ׃ 5.27. As a cage is full of birds, So are their houses full of deceit; Therefore they are become great, and waxen rich;"
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 9.1, 21.2-21.27, 29.29 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.1. וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל הִתְיַחְשׂוּ וְהִנָּם כְּתוּבִים עַל־סֵפֶר מַלְכֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה הָגְלוּ לְבָבֶל בְּמַעֲלָם׃ 9.1. וּמִן־הַכֹּהֲנִים יְדַעְיָה וִיהוֹיָרִיב וְיָכִין׃ 21.2. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד אֶל־יוֹאָב וְאֶל־שָׂרֵי הָעָם לְכוּ סִפְרוּ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִבְּאֵר שֶׁבַע וְעַד־דָּן וְהָבִיאוּ אֵלַי וְאֵדְעָה אֶת־מִסְפָּרָם׃ 21.2. וַיָּשָׁב אָרְנָן וַיַּרְא אֶת־הַמַּלְאָךְ וְאַרְבַּעַת בָּנָיו עִמּוֹ מִתְחַבְּאִים וְאָרְנָן דָּשׁ חִטִּים׃ 21.3. וְלֹא־יָכֹל דָּוִיד לָלֶכֶת לְפָנָיו לִדְרֹשׁ אֱלֹהִים כִּי נִבְעַת מִפְּנֵי חֶרֶב מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה׃ 21.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יוֹאָב יוֹסֵף יְהוָה עַל־עַמּוֹ כָּהֵם מֵאָה פְעָמִים הֲלֹא אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ כֻּלָּם לַאדֹנִי לַעֲבָדִים לָמָּה יְבַקֵּשׁ זֹאת אֲדֹנִי לָמָּה יִהְיֶה לְאַשְׁמָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 21.4. וּדְבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ חָזַק עַל־יוֹאָב וַיֵּצֵא יוֹאָב וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ בְּכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיָּבֹא יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 21.5. וַיִּתֵּן יוֹאָב אֶת־מִסְפַּר מִפְקַד־הָעָם אֶל־דָּוִיד וַיְהִי כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶלֶף אֲלָפִים וּמֵאָה אֶלֶף אִישׁ שֹׁלֵף חֶרֶב וִיהוּדָה אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת וְשִׁבְעִים אֶלֶף אִישׁ שֹׁלֵף חָרֶב׃ 21.6. וְלֵוִי וּבִנְיָמִן לֹא פָקַד בְּתוֹכָם כִּי־נִתְעַב דְּבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־יוֹאָב׃ 21.7. וַיֵּרַע בְּעֵינֵי הָאֱלֹהִים עַל־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַיַּךְ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 21.8. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים חָטָאתִי מְאֹד אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וְעַתָּה הַעֲבֶר־נָא אֶת־עֲווֹן עַבְדְּךָ כִּי נִסְכַּלְתִּי מְאֹד׃ 21.9. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־גָּד חֹזֵה דָוִיד לֵאמֹר׃ 21.11. וַיָּבֹא גָד אֶל־דָּוִיד וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה קַבֶּל־לָךְ׃ 21.12. אִם־שָׁלוֹשׁ שָׁנִים רָעָב וְאִם־שְׁלֹשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים נִסְפֶּה מִפְּנֵי־צָרֶיךָ וְחֶרֶב אוֹיְבֶךָ לְמַשֶּׂגֶת וְאִם־שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים חֶרֶב יְהוָה וְדֶבֶר בָּאָרֶץ וּמַלְאַךְ יְהוָה מַשְׁחִית בְּכָל־גְּבוּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַתָּה רְאֵה מָה־אָשִׁיב אֶת־שֹׁלְחִי דָּבָר׃ 21.13. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד אֶל־גָּד צַר־לִי מְאֹד אֶפְּלָה־נָּא בְיַד־יְהוָה כִּי־רַבִּים רַחֲמָיו מְאֹד וּבְיַד־אָדָם אַל־אֶפֹּל׃ 21.14. וַיִּתֵּן יְהוָה דֶּבֶר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּפֹּל מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל שִׁבְעִים אֶלֶף אִישׁ׃ 21.15. וַיִּשְׁלַח הָאֱלֹהִים מַלְאָךְ לִירוּשָׁלִַם לְהַשְׁחִיתָהּ וּכְהַשְׁחִית רָאָה יְהוָה וַיִּנָּחֶם עַל־הָרָעָה וַיֹּאמֶר לַמַּלְאָךְ הַמַּשְׁחִית רַב עַתָּה הֶרֶף יָדֶךָ וּמַלְאַךְ יְהוָה עֹמֵד עִם־גֹּרֶן אָרְנָן הַיְבוּסִי׃ 21.16. וַיִּשָּׂא דָוִיד אֶת־עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא אֶת־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה עֹמֵד בֵּין הָאָרֶץ וּבֵין הַשָּׁמַיִם וְחַרְבּוֹ שְׁלוּפָה בְּיָדוֹ נְטוּיָה עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָם וַיִּפֹּל דָּוִיד וְהַזְּקֵנִים מְכֻסִּים בַּשַּׂקִּים עַל־פְּנֵיהֶם׃ 21.17. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים הֲלֹא אֲנִי אָמַרְתִּי לִמְנוֹת בָּעָם וַאֲנִי־הוּא אֲשֶׁר־חָטָאתִי וְהָרֵעַ הֲרֵעוֹתִי וְאֵלֶּה הַצֹּאן מֶה עָשׂוּ יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי תְּהִי נָא יָדְךָ בִּי וּבְבֵית אָבִי וּבְעַמְּךָ לֹא לְמַגֵּפָה׃ 21.18. וּמַלְאַךְ יְהוָה אָמַר אֶל־גָּד לֵאמֹר לְדָוִיד כִּי יַעֲלֶה דָוִיד לְהָקִים מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה בְּגֹרֶן אָרְנָן הַיְבֻסִי׃ 21.19. וַיַּעַל דָּוִיד בִּדְבַר־גָּד אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה׃ 21.21. וַיָּבֹא דָוִיד עַד־אָרְנָן וַיַּבֵּט אָרְנָן וַיַּרְא אֶת־דָּוִיד וַיֵּצֵא מִן־הַגֹּרֶן וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ לְדָוִיד אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃ 21.22. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד אֶל־אָרְנָן תְּנָה־לִּי מְקוֹם הַגֹּרֶן וְאֶבְנֶה־בּוֹ מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה בְּכֶסֶף מָלֵא תְּנֵהוּ לִי וְתֵעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה מֵעַל הָעָם׃ 21.23. וַיֹּאמֶר אָרְנָן אֶל־דָּוִיד קַח־לָךְ וְיַעַשׂ אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ הַטּוֹב בְּעֵינָיו רְאֵה נָתַתִּי הַבָּקָר לָעֹלוֹת וְהַמּוֹרִגִּים לָעֵצִים וְהַחִטִּים לַמִּנְחָה הַכֹּל נָתָתִּי׃ 21.24. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִיד לְאָרְנָן לֹא כִּי־קָנֹה אֶקְנֶה בְּכֶסֶף מָלֵא כִּי לֹא־אֶשָּׂא אֲשֶׁר־לְךָ לַיהוָה וְהַעֲלוֹת עוֹלָה חִנָּם׃ 21.25. וַיִּתֵּן דָּוִיד לְאָרְנָן בַּמָּקוֹם שִׁקְלֵי זָהָב מִשְׁקָל שֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת׃ 21.26. וַיִּבֶן שָׁם דָּוִיד מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה וַיַּעַל עֹלוֹת וּשְׁלָמִים וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־יְהוָה וַיַּעֲנֵהוּ בָאֵשׁ מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם עַל מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה׃ 21.27. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לַמַּלְאָךְ וַיָּשֶׁב חַרְבּוֹ אֶל־נְדָנָהּ׃ 29.29. וְדִבְרֵי דָּוִיד הַמֶּלֶךְ הָרִאשֹׁנִים וְהָאֲחרֹנִים הִנָּם כְּתוּבִים עַל־דִּבְרֵי שְׁמוּאֵל הָרֹאֶה וְעַל־דִּבְרֵי נָתָן הַנָּבִיא וְעַל־דִּבְרֵי גָּד הַחֹזֶה׃ 9.1. So all Israel were reckoned by genealogies; and, behold, they are written in the book of the kings of Israel; and Judah was carried away captive to Babylon because of their transgression." 21.2. And David said to Joab and to the princes of the people: ‘Go, number Israel from Beersheba even to Dan; and bring me word, that I may know the sum of them.’" 21.3. And Joab said: ‘The LORD make His people a hundred times so many more as they are; but, my lord the king, are they not all my lord’s servants? why doth my lord require this thing? why will he be a cause of guilt unto Israel?’" 21.4. Nevertheless the king’s word prevailed against Joab. Wherefore Joab departed and went throughout all Israel, and came to Jerusalem." 21.5. And Joab gave up the sum of the numbering of the people unto David. And all they of Israel were a thousand thousand and a hundred thousand men that drew sword; and Judah was four hundred three-score and ten thousand men that drew sword." 21.6. But Levi and Benjamin he did not number among them; for the king’s word was abominable to Joab." 21.7. And God was displeased with this thing; therefore He smote Israel." 21.8. And David said unto God: ‘I have sinned greatly, in that I have done this thing; but now, put away, I beseech Thee, the iniquity of Thy servant; for I have done very foolishly.’" 21.9. And the LORD spoke unto Gad, David’s seer, saying:" 21.10. ’Go and speak unto David, saying: Thus saith the LORD: I offer thee three things; choose thee one of them, that I may do it unto thee.’" 21.11. So Gad came to David, and said unto him: ‘Thus saith the LORD: Take which thou wilt:" 21.12. either three years of famine; or three months to be swept away before thy foes, while the sword of thine enemies overtaketh thee; or else three days the sword of the LORD, even pestilence in the land, and the angel of the LORD destroying throughout all the borders of Israel. Now therefore consider what answer I shall return to Him that sent me.’" 21.13. And David said unto Gad: ‘I am in a great strait; let me fall now into the hand of the LORD, for very great are His mercies; and let me not fall into the hand of man.’" 21.14. So the LORD sent a pestilence upon Israel; and there fell of Israel seventy thousand men." 21.15. And God sent an angel unto Jerusalem to destroy it; and as he was about to destroy, the LORD beheld, and He repented Him of the evil, and said to the destroying angel: ‘It is enough; now stay thy hand.’ And the angel of the LORD was standing by the threshing-floor of Or the Jebusite." 21.16. And David lifted up his eyes, and saw the angel of the LORD standing between the earth and the heaven, having a drawn sword in his hand stretched out over Jerusalem. Then David and the elders, clothed in sackcloth, fell upon their faces." 21.17. And David said unto God: ‘Is it not I that commanded the people to be numbered? even I it is that have sinned and done very wickedly; but these sheep, what have they done? let Thy hand, I pray Thee, O LORD my God, be against me, and against my father’s house; but not against Thy people, that they should be plagued.’" 21.18. Then the angel of the LORD commanded Gad to say to David, that David should go up, and rear an altar unto the LORD in the threshing-floor of Or the Jebusite." 21.19. And David went up at the saying of Gad, which he spoke in the name of the LORD." 21.20. And Or turned back, and saw the angel; and his four sons that were with him hid themselves. Now Or was threshing wheat." 21.21. And as David came to Or, Or looked and saw David, and went out of the threshing-floor, and bowed down to David with his face to the ground." 21.22. Then David said to Or: ‘Give me the place of this threshing-floor, that I may build thereon an altar unto the LORD; for the full price shalt thou give it me; that the plague may be stayed from the people.’" 21.23. And Or said unto David: ‘Take it to thee, and let my lord the king do that which is good in his eyes; lo, I give thee the oxen for burnt-offerings, and the threshing-instruments for wood, and the wheat for the meal-offering; I give it all’" 21.24. And king David said to Or: ‘Nay, but I will verily buy it for the full price; for I will not take that which is thine for the LORD, nor offer a burnt-offering without cost.’" 21.25. So David gave to Or for the place six hundred shekels of gold by weight." 21.26. And David built there an altar unto the LORD, and offered burnt-offerings and peace-offerings, and called upon the LORD; and He answered him from heaven by fire upon the altar of burnt-offering." 21.27. And the LORD commanded the angel; and he put up his sword back into the sheath thereof." 29.29. Now the acts of David the king, first and last, behold, they are written in the words of Samuel the seer, and in the words of Nathan the prophet, and in the words of Gad the seer;"
11. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 9.29, 13.22, 20.34, 35.25 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.29. וּשְׁאָר דִּבְרֵי שְׁלֹמֹה הָרִאשֹׁנִים וְהָאֲחֲרוֹנִים הֲלֹא־הֵם כְּתוּבִים עַל־דִּבְרֵי נָתָן הַנָּבִיא וְעַל־נְבוּאַת אֲחִיָּה הַשִּׁילוֹנִי וּבַחֲזוֹת יעדי [יֶעְדּוֹ] הַחֹזֶה עַל־יָרָבְעָם בֶּן־נְבָט׃ 13.22. וְיֶתֶר דִּבְרֵי אֲבִיָּה וּדְרָכָיו וּדְבָרָיו כְּתוּבִים בְּמִדְרַשׁ הַנָּבִיא עִדּוֹ׃ 20.34. וְיֶתֶר דִּבְרֵי יְהוֹשָׁפָט הָרִאשֹׁנִים וְהָאַחֲרֹנִים הִנָּם כְּתוּבִים בְּדִבְרֵי יֵהוּא בֶן־חֲנָנִי אֲשֶׁר הֹעֲלָה עַל־סֵפֶר מַלְכֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 35.25. וַיְקוֹנֵן יִרְמְיָהוּ עַל־יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ וַיֹּאמְרוּ כָל־הַשָּׁרִים וְהַשָּׁרוֹת בְּקִינוֹתֵיהֶם עַל־יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ עַד־הַיּוֹם וַיִּתְּנוּם לְחֹק עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהִנָּם כְּתוּבִים עַל־הַקִּינוֹת׃ 9.29. Now the rest of the acts of Solomon, first and last, are they not written in the words of Nathan the prophet, and in the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite, and in the visions of Jedo the seer concerning Jeroboam the son of Nebat?" 13.22. And the rest of the acts of Abijah, and his ways, and his sayings, are written in the commentary of the prophet Iddo." 20.34. Now the rest of the acts of Jehoshaphat, first and last, behold, they are written in the words of Jehu the son of Hai, which is inserted in the book of the kings of Israel." 35.25. And Jeremiah lamented for Josiah; and all the singing men and singing women spoke of Josiah in their lamentations, unto this day; and they made them an ordice in Israel; and, behold, they are written in the lamentations."
12. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 3.1-3.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3.1. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא נְאֻם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת תִּקְרְאוּ אִישׁ לְרֵעֵהוּ אֶל־תַּחַת גֶּפֶן וְאֶל־תַּחַת תְּאֵנָה׃ 3.1. וַיַּרְאֵנִי אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל עֹמֵד לִפְנֵי מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה וְהַשָּׂטָן עֹמֵד עַל־יְמִינוֹ לְשִׂטְנוֹ׃ 3.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן יִגְעַר יְהוָה בְּךָ הַשָּׂטָן וְיִגְעַר יְהוָה בְּךָ הַבֹּחֵר בִּירוּשָׁלִָם הֲלוֹא זֶה אוּד מֻצָּל מֵאֵשׁ׃ 3.1. And he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right hand to accuse him." 3.2. And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘The LORD rebuke thee, O Satan, yea, the LORD that hath chosen Jerusalem rebuke thee; is not this man a brand plucked out of the fire?’"
13. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.13-4.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.26. וְדִינָא יִתִּב וְשָׁלְטָנֵהּ יְהַעְדּוֹן לְהַשְׁמָדָה וּלְהוֹבָדָה עַד־סוֹפָא׃ 7.26. But the judgment shall sit, and his dominions shall be taken away, to be consumed and to be destroy unto the end."
15. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 1.30, 19.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

19.26. There is a rascal bowed down in mourning,but inwardly he is full of deceit.
16. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 7.321, 7.330 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.321. 2. Now when the prophets had signified to David that God was angry at him, he began to entreat him, and to desire he would be merciful to him, and forgive him his sin. But God sent Nathan the prophet to him, to propose to him the election of three things, that he might choose which he liked best: Whether he would have a famine come upon the country for seven years, or would have a war, and be subdued three months by his enemies? or, whether God should send a pestilence and a distemper upon the Hebrews for three days?
17. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.280, 6.422-6.425 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.422. And that this city could contain so many people in it, is manifest by that number of them which was taken under Cestius, who being desirous of informing Nero of the power of the city, who otherwise was disposed to contemn that nation, entreated the high priests, if the thing were possible, to take the number of their whole multitude. 6.423. So these high priests, upon the coming of that feast which is called the Passover, when they slay their sacrifices, from the ninth hour till the eleventh, but so that a company not less than ten belong to every sacrifice (for it is not lawful for them to feast singly by themselves), and many of us are twenty in a company 6.424. found the number of sacrifices was two hundred and fifty-six thousand five hundred; 6.425. which, upon the allowance of no more than ten that feast together, amounts to two million seven hundred thousand and two hundred persons that were pure and holy;
18. New Testament, 1 John, 3.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.10. In this the children of God are revealed, and the children of the devil. Whoever doesn't do righteousness is not of God, neither is he who doesn't love his brother.
19. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 7.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.5. Don't deprive one another, unless it is by consent for aseason, that you may give yourselves to fasting and prayer, and may betogether again, that Satan doesn't tempt you because of your lack ofself-control.
20. New Testament, Acts, 13.10-13.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13.10. and said, "Full of all deceit and all cunning, you son of the devil, you enemy of all righteousness, will you not cease to pervert the right ways of the Lord? 13.11. Now, behold, the hand of the Lord is on you, and you will be blind, not seeing the sun for a season!"Immediately there fell on him a mist and darkness. He went around seeking someone to lead him by the hand.
21. New Testament, Luke, 22.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22.3. Satan entered into Judas, who was surnamed Iscariot, who was numbered with the twelve.
22. New Testament, Mark, 1.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. He was there in the wilderness forty days tempted by Satan. He was with the wild animals; and the angels ministered to him.
23. New Testament, Matthew, 6.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.13. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen.'
24. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 55.4, 56.7-56.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

55.4. אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה, אַחַר הִרְהוּרֵי דְבָרִים שֶׁהָיוּ שָׁם, מִי הִרְהֵר אַבְרָהָם הִרְהֵר וְאָמַר שָׂמַחְתִּי וְשִׂמַּחְתִּי אֶת הַכֹּל וְלֹא הִפְרַשְׁתִּי לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לֹא פַּר אֶחָד וְלֹא אַיִל אֶחָד. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל מְנָת שֶׁנֹּאמַר לְךָ שֶׁתַּקְרִיב אֶת בִּנְךָ וְלֹא תְעַכֵּב, עַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר דְּאָמַר, אֱלֹהִים וְהָאֱלֹהִים, הוּא וּבֵית דִּינוֹ, מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת אָמְרוּ, אַבְרָהָם זֶה שָׂמַח וְשִׂמַּח אֶת הַכֹּל וְלֹא הִפְרִישׁ לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לֹא פַּר אֶחָד וְלֹא אַיִל אֶחָד. אָמַר לָהֶן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל מְנָת שֶׁנֹּאמַר לוֹ שֶׁיַּקְרִיב אֶת בְּנוֹ וְלֹא יְעַכֵּב. יִצְחָק וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל הָיוּ מִדַּיְּנִים זֶה עִם זֶה, זֶה אוֹמֵר אֲנִי חָבִיב מִמְךָ שֶׁנִּמַּלְתִּי לִשְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה, וְזֶה אָמַר חָבִיב אֲנִי מִמְךָ שֶׁנִּמַּלְתִּי לִשְׁמוֹנָה יָמִים. אָמַר לֵיהּ יִשְׁמָעֵאל אֲנִי חָבִיב מִמְךָ, לָמָּה שֶׁהָיָה סִפֵּק בְּיָדִי לִמְחוֹת וְלֹא מָחִיתִי. בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה אָמַר יִצְחָק הַלְּוַאי הָיָה נִגְלָה עָלַי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְאוֹמֵר לִי שֶׁאֶחְתֹּךְ אֶחָד מֵאֵבָרַי וְלֹא אֲעַכֵּב, מִיָּד וְהָאֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת אַבְרָהָם. br br[נֻסַּח אַחֵר: אָמַר לוֹ יִשְׁמָעֵאל, אֲנִי חָבִיב מִמְךָ שֶׁנִּמַּלְתִּי לִשְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה, אֲבָל אַתָּה נִמַּלְתָּ בְּקָטְנְךָ וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִמְחוֹת. אָמַר לוֹ יִצְחָק כָּל מַה שֶּׁהִלְוֵיתָ לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שְׁלשָׁה טִפִּים דַּם הֵם, אֶלָּא הֲרֵינִי עַכְשָׁו בֶּן שְׁלשִׁים וְשֶׁבַע שָׁנָה אִלּוּ מְבַקֵּשׁ לִי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהִשָּׁחֵט אֵינִי מְעַכֵּב, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי הַשָּׁעָה, מִיָּד וְהָאֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת אַבְרָהָם.] 56.7. וַיִּקְרָא אֵלָיו מַלְאַךְ ה' מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם אַבְרָהָם (בראשית כב, יא), תָּנֵי רַבִּי חִיָּא לְשׁוֹן חִבָּה לְשׁוֹן זֵרוּז. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אָמַר לוֹ וְלַדּוֹרוֹת, אֵין דּוֹר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ כְּאַבְרָהָם, וְאֵין דּוֹר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ כְּיַעֲקֹב, וְאֵין דּוֹר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ כְּמשֶׁה, וְאֵין דּוֹר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ כִּשְׁמוּאֵל. (בראשית כב, יב): וַיֹּאמֶר אַל תִּשְׁלַח יָדְךָ, וְסַכִּין הֵיכָן הָיָה, נָשְׁרוּ שָׁלשׁ דְּמָעוֹת מִמַּלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וְשִׁחֵת הַסַּכִּין. אָמַר לוֹ אֲחַנְקֶנּוּ, אָמַר לוֹ אַל תִּשְׁלַח יָדְךָ אֶל הַנַּעַר. אָמַר לוֹ אוֹצִיא מִמֶּנּוּ טִפַּת דָּם. אָמַר לוֹ אַל תַּעַשׂ לוֹ מְאוּמָה, אַל תַּעֲשׂ לוֹ מוּמָה. כִּי עַתָּה יָדַעְתִּי, הוֹדַעְתִּי לַכֹּל שֶׁאַתְּ אוֹהֲבֵנִי וְלֹא חָשַׂכְתָּ וגו', שֶׁלֹא תֹאמַר כָּל הֶחֳלָאִים שֶׁחוּץ לַגּוּף אֵינָן חֳלָאִים, אֶלָּא מַעֲלֶה אֲנִי עָלֶיךָ כְּאִלּוּ אָמַרְתִּי לְךָ הַקְרֵב עַצְמְךָ לִי וְלֹא עִכַּבְתָּ. 56.8. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבִּקֵּשׁ אַבְרָהָם לַעֲקֹד יִצְחָק בְּנוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ אַבָּא בָּחוּר אֲנִי וְחוֹשֵׁשַׁנִי שֶׁמָּא יִזְדַּעֲזַע גּוּפִי מִפַּחֲדָהּ שֶׁל סַכִּין וַאֲצַעֲרֶךָ, וְשֶׁמָּא תִּפָּסֵל הַשְּׁחִיטָה וְלֹא תַעֲלֶה לְךָ לְקָרְבָּן, אֶלָּא כָּפְתֵנִי יָפֶה יָפֶה, מִיָּד וַיַּעֲקֹד אֶת יִצְחָק, כְּלוּם יָכוֹל אָדָם לִכְפּוֹת בֶּן שְׁלשִׁים וָשֶׁבַע [נסח אחר: בן עשרים ושש שנה] אֶלָּא לְדַעְתּוֹ. מִיָּד וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְרָהָם אֶת יָדוֹ, הוּא שׁוֹלֵחַ יָד לִטֹּל אֶת הַסַּכִּין וְעֵינָיו מוֹרִידוֹת דְמָעוֹת וְנוֹפְלוֹת דְּמָעוֹת לְעֵינָיו שֶׁל יִצְחָק מֵרַחֲמָנוּתוֹ שֶׁל אַבָּא, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן הַלֵּב שָׂמֵחַ לַעֲשׂוֹת רְצוֹן יוֹצְרוֹ, וְהָיוּ הַמַּלְאָכִים מִתְקַבְּצִין כִּתּוֹת כִּתּוֹת מִלְּמַעְלָן, מָה הֲווֹן צָוְחִין (ישעיה לג, ח): נָשַׁמּוּ מְסִלּוֹת שָׁבַת עֹבֵר אֹרַח הֵפֵר בְּרִית מָאַס עָרִים, אֵין רְצוֹנוֹ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם וּבְבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ שֶׁהָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לְהוֹרִישׁ לְבָנָיו שֶׁל יִצְחָק. (ישעיה לג, ח): לֹא חָשַׁב אֱנוֹשׁ, לֹא עָמְדָה זְכוּת לְאַבְרָהָם לֵית לְכָל בְּרִיָה חֲשִׁיבוּת קֳדָמוֹי. אָמַר רַבִּי אַחָא הִתְחִיל אַבְרָהָם תָּמֵהַּ, אֵין הַדְּבָרִים הַלָּלוּ אֶלָּא דְבָרִים שֶׁל תֵּמַהּ, אֶתְמוֹל אָמַרְתָּ (בראשית כא, יב): כִּי בְיִצְחָק יִקָּרֵא לְךָ זָרַע, חָזַרְתָּ וְאָמַרְתָּ (בראשית כב, ב): קַח נָא אֶת בִּנְךָ, וְעַכְשָׁיו אַתְּ אָמַר לִי (בראשית כב, יב): אַל תִּשְׁלַח יָדְךָ אֶל הַנַּעַר, אֶתְמְהָא. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אַבְרָהָם (תהלים פט, לה): לֹא אֲחַלֵּל בְּרִיתִי וּמוֹצָא שְׂפָתַי לֹא אֲשַׁנֶּה. כְּשֶׁאָמַרְתִּי לְךָ קַח נָא אֶת בִּנְךָ, לֹא אָמַרְתִּי שְׁחָטֵהוּ, אֶלָּא וְהַעֲלֵהוּ, לְשֵׁם חִבָּה אָמַרְתִּי לָךְ, אֲסִקְתֵּיהּ וְקִיַּמְתָּ דְּבָרַי, וְעַתָּה אַחֲתִינֵיהּ. br br [נסח אחר: משלו משל למלך שאמר לאוהבו העלה את בנך על שלחני, הביאו אותו אוהבו וסכינו בידו, אמר המלך וכי העלהו לאכלו אמרתי לך, העלהו אמרתי לך מפני חבתו. הדא הוא דכתיב (ירמיה יט, ה): ולא עלתה על לבי, זה יצחק. ] 55.4. After these things — misgivings were experienced on that occasion. Who then had misgivings? Avraham, saying to himself: ‘I have rejoiced and made all others rejoice, yet I did not set aside a single bullock or ram for the Holy One of Blessing.’ Said the Holy One of Blessing to him: ‘I know that even if you were commanded to offer your only son to Me, you would not refuse.’ - this is according to Rabbi Eleazar who said that the employment of va-e-lohim where E-lohim would suffice, implies both God and God’s Court. It was the ministering angels who spoke thus: ‘This Avraham rejoiced and made all others rejoice, yet did not set aside for the Holy One of Blessing a single bullock or ram.’ Said the Holy One of Blessing to them: ‘Even if we tell him to offer his own son, he will not refuse.’ Itzchak and Ishmael were engaged in a dispute: the latter argued, ‘I am more beloved than you, because I was circumcised at the age of thirteen’; while the other retorted, ‘I am more beloved than you, because I was circumcised at eight days.’ Said Ishmael to him: ‘I am more beloved, because I could have protested, yet I did not.’ At that moment Itzchak exclaimed: ‘O that God would appear to me and bid me cut off one of my limbs! then I would not refuse.’ Said God: ‘Even if I bid you sacrifice yourself, you will not refuse.’ [Another version: Said Ishmael to him: ‘I am more beloved than you, since I as circumcised at the age of thirteen, but you were circumcised as a baby and could not refuse.’ Itzchak retorted: ‘All that you did lend to the Holy One of Blessing was three drops of blood. But look, I am now thirty-seven years old, yet if God desired of me that I be slaughtered, I would not refuse.’ Said the Holy One of Blessing ‘This is the moment!’ Straightway, “God tested Avraham”.]" 56.7. \"And the angel of Ad-nai called to him out of heaven, and said: Abraham, Abraham\" (Gen. 22:11). Rabbi Hiya taught: This is an expression of love, this is an expression of urging. Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov said: He spoke to him and to future generations, there is no generation which does not contain people like Avraham, and there is no generation which does not contain people like Yaakov, Moshe, and Shmuel. And he said: \"Do not lay your hand etc.\" (Gen. 22:12) Where was the knife? Three tears had fallen from the angels of service and the knife dissolved. Avraham said: ‘I will strangle him,’ He said: ‘Do not lay your hand upon the lad.’ [Avraham] said ‘I will take a drop of blood from him’ - He said to him: ‘Neither do anything [me'uma] to him’ [meaning] inflict no blemish [muma] upon him. \"Because now I know\" [meaning] I have made it known to all that you love Me, \"and you have not withheld, etc\". And do not say that all ills that do not affect one’s own body are not ills, rather I ascribe merit to you as though I had told to you to sacrifice yourself and you did not refuse." 56.8. Another explanation: Rabbi Itzchak said, \"At the time that Avraham sought to bind Itzchak, his son, [the latter] said to him, 'Father, I am a young man and I am concerned lest my body shake from fear of the knife and I will trouble you, and lest the slaughtering will be invalid and it will not be considered a sacrifice for you. Rather, tie me very well.' Immediately, ‘and he bound Itzchak.' Could he really tie up a man of thirty-seven (a different version: of twenty six years)? Rather, it was with his agreement. Immediately. 'And Avraham sent his hand.' He sends his hand to take the knife and his eyes brings down tears and the tears fall onto the eyes of Itzchak from the mercy of his father. And nonetheless, the heart was happy to do the will of his Maker. And the angels gathered in many groups above them. What did they yell out? 'The ways have become desolate, the wayfarer has ceased; He has rescinded His covet; He has become disgusted with the cities' (Isaiah 33:7) – He does not desire Jerusalem and the Temple that he had in mind to bequeath to the children of Itzchak. 'He did not consider a man' – merit did not stand Avraham well: 'No creation has importance in front of Me.'\" Rabbi Acha said, \"Avraham started to wonder, 'These words are only words of wonder. Yesterday, you told me (Genesis 21:12), \"Because in Itzchak will your seed be called.\" And [then] you went back and said, \"Please take your son.\" And now You say to me, \"Do not send your hand to the youth.\" It is a wonder!' The Holy One, blessed be He, said, 'Avraham, \"I will not profane My covet and the utterances of My lips, I will not change\" (Psalms 89:35) – When I said, \"Please take your son,\" I did not say, \"slaughter him,\" but rather, \"and bring him up.\" For the sake of love did I say [it] to you: I said to you, \"Bring him up,\" and you have fulfilled My words. And now, bring him down.’ [A different version: They said a parable about a king that said to his friend, 'Bring up your son to my table.' His friend brought him up and his knife was in his hand. The king said, 'And did I say to you, \"Bring him up to eat him?\" I said to you, \"Bring him up\"' – [and this was] because of [the king's] love.) This is [the meaning of] what is written (Jeremiah 19:5), 'it did not come up on My heart' – that is Itzchak.\"]"
25. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

62b. תניא בן עזאי אומר על כל משכב שכב חוץ מן הקרקע על כל מושב שב חוץ מן הקורה אמר שמואל שינה בעמוד השחר כאסטמא לפרזלא יציאה בעמוד השחר כאסטמא לפרזלא,בר קפרא הוה מזבן מילי בדינרי עד דכפנת אכול עד דצחית שתי עד דרתחא קדרך שפוך קרנא קריא ברומי בר מזבין תאני תאני דאבוך זבין,אמר להו אביי לרבנן כי עייליתו בשבילי דמחוזא למיפק ביה בחקלא לא תחזו לא להך גיסא ולא להך גיסא דלמא יתבי נשי ולאו אורח ארעא לאסתכולי בהו,רב ספרא על לבית הכסא אתא רבי אבא נחר ליה אבבא אמר ליה ליעול מר בתר דנפק אמר ליה עד השתא לא עיילת לשעיר וגמרת לך מילי דשעיר לאו הכי תנן מדורה היתה שם ובית הכסא של כבוד וזה היה כבודו מצאו נעול בידוע שיש שם אדם מצאו פתוח בידוע שאין שם אדם אלמא לאו אורח ארעא הוא,והוא סבר מסוכן הוא דתניא רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר עמוד החוזר מביא את האדם לידי הדרוקן סילון החוזר מביא את האדם לידי ירקון,רבי אלעזר על לבית הכסא אתא ההוא פרסאה דחקיה קם ר' אלעזר ונפק אתא דרקונא שמטיה לכרכשיה קרי עליה רבי אלעזר (ישעיהו מג, ד) ואתן אדם תחתיך אל תקרי אדם אלא אדום:,(שמואל א כד, יא) ואמר להרגך ותחס עליך,ואמר ואמרתי מיבעי ליה ותחס וחסתי מיבעי ליה אמר רבי אלעזר אמר לו דוד לשאול מן התורה בן הריגה אתה שהרי רודף אתה והתורה אמרה בא להרגך השכם להרגו אלא צניעות שהיתה בך היא חסה עליך,ומאי היא דכתיב (שמואל א כד, ד) ויבא אל גדרות הצאן על הדרך ושם מערה ויבא שאול להסך את רגליו תנא גדר לפנים מן גדר ומערה לפנים ממערה להסך אמר ר' אלעזר מלמד שסכך עצמו כסוכה:,(שמואל א כד, ה) ויקם דוד ויכרת את כנף המעיל אשר לשאול בלט אמר ר' יוסי בר' חנינא כל המבזה את הבגדים סוף אינו נהנה מהם שנאמר (מלכים א א, א) והמלך דוד זקן בא בימים ויכסוהו בבגדים ולא יחם לו:,(שמואל א כו, יט) אם ה' הסיתך בי ירח מנחה אמר רבי אלעזר אמר ליה הקב"ה לדוד מסית קרית לי הרי אני מכשילך בדבר שאפי' תינוקות של בית רבן יודעים אותו דכתיב (שמות ל, יב) כי תשא את ראש בני ישראל לפקודיהם ונתנו איש כפר נפשו וגו' מיד (דברי הימים א כא, א) ויעמוד שטן על ישראל וכתיב (שמואל ב כד, א) ויסת את דוד בהם לאמר לך מנה את ישראל וכיון דמנינהו לא שקל מינייהו כופר דכתיב (שמואל ב כד, טו) ויתן ה' דבר בישראל מהבקר ועד עת מועד,מאי עת מועד אמר שמואל סבא חתניה דרבי חנינא משמיה דרבי חנינא משעת שחיטת התמיד עד שעת זריקתו רבי יוחנן אמר עד חצות ממש:,(שמואל ב כד, טז) ויאמר למלאך המשחית בעם רב אמר רבי אלעזר אמר ליה הקב"ה למלאך טול לי רב שבהם שיש בו ליפרע מהם כמה חובות באותה שעה מת אבישי בן צרויה ששקול כרובה של סנהדרין:,(דברי הימים א כא, טו) ובהשחית ראה ה' וינחם מאי ראה,אמר רב ראה יעקב אבינו דכתיב (בראשית לב, ג) ויאמר יעקב כאשר ראם ושמואל אמר אפרו של יצחק ראה שנאמר (בראשית כב, ח) אלהים יראה לו השה,רבי יצחק נפחא אמר כסף כפורים ראה שנאמר (שמות ל, טז) ולקחת את כסף הכפורים מאת בני ישראל וגו' רבי יוחנן אמר בית המקדש ראה דכתיב (בראשית כב, יד) בהר ה' יראה,פליגי בה ר' יעקב בר אידי ורבי שמואל בר נחמני חד אמר כסף הכפורים ראה וחד אמר בית המקדש ראה ומסתברא כמאן דאמר בית המקדש ראה שנאמר (בראשית כב, יד) אשר יאמר היום בהר ה' יראה:,לא יכנס אדם להר הבית במקלו וכו': מאי קפנדריא אמר רבא קפנדריא כשמה ורב חנא בר אדא משמיה דרב סמא בריה דרב מרי אמר כמאן דאמר אינש אדמקיפנא אדרי איעול בהא אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה הנכנס לבית הכנסת על מנת שלא לעשותו קפנדריא מותר לעשותו קפנדריא,רבי אבהו אמר אם היה שביל מעיקרו מותר אמר ר' חלבו אמר רב הונא הנכנס לבית הכנסת להתפלל מותר לעשותו קפנדריא שנאמר (יחזקאל מו, ט) ובבא עם הארץ לפני ה' במועדים וגו':,ורקיקה מקל וחומר: אמר רב ביבי אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי כל הרוקק בהר הבית בזמן הזה כאילו רוקק בבת עינו שנאמר (מלכים א ט, ג) והיה עיני ולבי שם כל הימים,אמר רבא רקיקה בבית הכנסת שריא מידי דהוה אמנעל מה מנעל בהר הבית אסור בבית הכנסת מותר אף רקיקה בהר הבית הוא דאסור בבית הכנסת שרי,אמר ליה רב פפא לרבא ואמרי לה רבינא לרבא ואמרי לה רב אדא בר מתנא לרבא אדיליף ממנעל נילף מקפנדריא,אמר ליה תנא יליף ממנעל ואת אמרת מקפנדריא מאי היא דתניא לא יכנס אדם להר הבית לא במקלו שבידו ולא במנעלו שברגלו ולא במעות הצרורים לו בסדינו ובפונדתו מופשלת לאחוריו ולא יעשנה קפנדריא ורקיקה מקל וחומר ממנעל ומה מנעל שאין בו דרך בזיון אמרה תורה (שמות ג, ה) של נעליך מעל רגליך רקיקה שהיא דרך בזיון לא כל שכן,רבי יוסי בר יהודה אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (אסתר ד, ב) כי אין לבא אל שער המלך בלבוש שק והלא דברים קל וחומר ומה שק שאינו מאוס לפני בשר ודם כך רקיקה שהיא מאוסה לפני מלך מלכי המלכים לא כל שכן,אמר ליה אנא הכי קאמינא נימא הכא לחומרא והכא לחומרא 62b. Continuing with the subject of health, bit was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bBen Azzai says: On all beds, lie, except for the ground. On all seats, sit, except for a beam,lest you fall off. bShmuel said: Sleeping at dawn isas effective bas forging [ iistema /i]is bto iron. Abowel bmovement at dawnis as beneficial bas forgingis bto iron. /b,Similarly, the Gemara relates: bBar Kappara would sell sayings for dinars;he would express his ideas in brief maxims. For example: bIf you are hungry, eat;do not delay eating, as the hunger may pass and your food will be of no benefit. So too, bif you are thirsty, drink; while the pot is still boiling, pour itout before it cools off. This is a metaphor for relieving oneself. Bar Kappara also said: bWhen the horn is sounded in Rome,signifying that there is demand for figs in the Roman market, bson of a fig seller, sell your father’s figs,even without his permission, so as not to miss the opportunity., bAbaye said to the Sages: When you enter the pathsof the city of bMeḥoza in order to go outand defecate bin a field, look neither to one side nor to the other, as perhaps women are sitting there and it is improper to look at them. /b,The Gemara relates: bRav Safra once entered a bathroom,when bRabbi Abba came along.To determine if he could enter, Rabbi Abba bcoughed next to the door.Rav Safra bsaid to him: Enter, master. When he came out, Rabbi Abba said to him: Until now, you never entered Seir,the land of the Edomites, who are not strict in their practice of modesty, bandyet byoualready blearned thecustoms of bSeir? Didn’t we learnin the mishna concerning the Temple: bThere was a firenext to the ritual bath, band a bathroom of honor. And this was its honor: If one found it locked, it was known that someone was inside;if bhe found it open, it was known that no one was inside.Speaking in the bathroom bis not a desired mode of behavior /b.,The Gemara explains the opinion of Rav Safra, who told Rabbi Abba that he could enter while in the bathroom: Rav Safra bheld that it was dangerousfor Rabbi Abba. If he waited and was uncertain whether or not he could enter, he would endanger himself. bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon ben Gamliel says: A columnof feces bthat is held backbecause one cannot relieve himself bcauses dropsy [ ihidrokan /i]. A stream [ isilon /i]of urine bthat is held back causes jaundice. /b,The Gemara relates that bRabbi Elazar entered a bathroom. This Roman came and pushed himaway. bRabbi Elazar stood and left,and ba serpent came and ripped out the intestinesof the Roman. bRabbi Elazar recited thefollowing bverse aboutthe Roman: b“Therefore I will give man [ iadam /i] for you”(Isaiah 43:4); bdo not readit as iadam /i, but rather readit as bEdom,meaning a Roman.,With regard to modesty in a bathroom, the Gemara cites an additional biblical allusion. When David found Saul in the cave and spared him, tearing the corner of his coat, he said to him: “Behold this day, your eyes have seen how the Lord has delivered you today into my hand in the cave, band he said to kill you; and you spared you”(I Samuel 24:10).,The Gemara asks: Why does the verse say: bAnd he said? It shouldsay: bAnd I said.Why does the verse say: bAnd you spared? It shouldsay: bAnd I spared.Rather, bRabbi Elazar said: David said to Saul: By Torah law, you should be killed, as you are a pursuerwho seeks to kill me, band the Torah says: If one comes to kill you, kill him first. But it was the modesty that you displayed that spared you. /b, bAnd what is thismodesty? bAs it is written: “And he came to the sheepcotes by the way, where there was a cave, and Saul went in to cover his feet,to defecate. Now David and his men were sitting in the innermost parts of the cave” (I Samuel 24:3). bIt was taughtthat the Sages said: bThere was a fence within a fence, and a cave within a cave,and Saul entered to defecate in the interest of modesty. With regard to the use of the term, bto coverhis feet, bRabbi Elazar said:This bteaches that,even there, bhe covered himselfwith his garment blike a isukka /i. /b,The Gemara continues with a homiletic interpretation of the verse: b“Then David arose, and cut off the corner of Saul’s robe privily”(I Samuel 24:4). bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Anyone who treats clothing with contempt,like David who tore Saul’s robe for no reason, will be punished in that bultimately he will not benefit fromhis garments, bas it is stated: “Now King David was old and stricken in years; and they covered him with clothes, but he could get no heat”(I Kings 1:1).,As for David’s statement to Saul: b“If it be the Lord that has incited you against me, let Him accept an offering”(I Samuel 26:19), bRabbi Elazar saidthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to David: Do you call Me an inciter?In retribution, bI will cause you to fail in a matter that even schoolchildren know, as it is written: “When you take the sum of the children of Israel, according to their number, then shall they give every man a ransom for his soulunto the Lord, when you number them; that there be no plague among them, when you number them” (Exodus 30:12). bImmediatelyafter God said this to David, b“Satan stood up against Israeland incited David to number Israel” (I Chronicles 21:1). Moreover, bit is written:“And again the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, band He incited David against them, saying: Go, number Israel and Judea”(II Samuel 24:1). The proportional response to David’s calling God an inciter was that He incited David. bAnd when he counted them, he did not take a ransom from them,and he was punished, bas it is written: “So the Lord sent a pestilence upon Israel from the morning even to the appointed time”(II Samuel 24:15).,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of bthe appointed time? Shmuel the elder, father-in-law of Rabbi Ḥanina, said in the name of Rabbi Ḥanina:It means bfrom when the daily offering is slaughtered until whenits blood bis sprinkled. Rabbi Yoḥa said:It means bprecisely until noon. /b,It is also stated there: “The Lord repented Him of the evil band said to the angel that destroyed the many [ irav /i] people:It is enough; now stay your hand” (II Samuel 24:16). Explaining the meaning of the word irav /i, bRabbi Elazar saidthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the angel: Take for me a great one [ irav /i] from among them, who is worthy of defraying severalof Israel’s bdebts.As a result, bat that moment Avishai ben Tzeruya, who was equivalent to the majority of the Sanhedrin, died.His death atoned for the entire nation.,On a parallel note, it is said: b“The Lord beheld, and He repented himof the evil” (I Chronicles 21:15). The Gemara asks: bWhat did the Lord behold? /b, bRav said: He sawand remembered bthe patriarch, Jacob,about whom the term seeing is used: b“And Jacob said when he saw them [ ira’am /i]:This is God’s camp” (Genesis 32:3). bAnd Shmuel said: He sawand remembered bIsaac’s ashes, as it is saidin the portion of the binding of Isaac: b“God will provide [ iyireh /i] Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering”(Genesis 22:8)., bRabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa said: He saw the money of atonementthat Israel gave when they were counted during the Exodus from Egypt, bas it is stated: “And you shall take the atonement money from the children of Israel,and shall appoint it for the service of the tent of meeting, that it may be a memorial for the children of Israel before the Lord, to make atonement for your souls” (Exodus 30:16). bRabbi Yoḥa said: He saw the Temple, as it is written: “On the mount where the Lord is seen [ iyera’e /i]”(Genesis 22:14).,Additional iamora’im /i, bRabbi Ya’akov bar Idi and Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, differedin their opinions of what God saw. bOne said: He saw the money of atonement, and one said: He saw the Temple. And /bitstands to reason like the one who says /bthathe saw the Temple, as it is stated:“And Abraham called the name of that place: The Lord will see; bas it is said to this day: On the mount where the Lord is seen”(Genesis 22:14); generations later, they will recall the initial revelation on Mount Moria, as the angel also appeared to David on this mountain.,We learned in the mishna that, in deference to the Temple, ba person may not enter the Temple Mount with his staffand his shoes. He may not make it a ikappandarya /i. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of ikappandarya /i? Rava said: iKappandarya,as its nameimplies; a shortcut. bRav Ḥana bar Adda in the name of Rav Sama, son of Rav Mari, said:One may interpret this as an acrostic, bas people say: Instead of circumventing the rowsof houses b[ iademakifna adarei /i], I will enter this [ iei’ol beha /i]one. bRav Naḥman saidthat bRabba bar Avuh said:This ihalakhaapplies in a synagogue as well. However, bone who enters a synagogue notintending bto make it a shortcut is permitted to make it a shortcutif he later changed his mind.,Similarly, bRabbi Abbahu said: If it was originally a paththat passed through the site where the synagogue was erected, bone is permittedto pass through, as the public right of passage is not negated by the construction of a synagogue. bRabbi Ḥelbo saidthat bRav Huna said: One who enters a synagogue to pray is permitted to make it a shortcut, as it is stated: “But when the people of the land shall come before the Lord in the appointed seasons,he that enters by way of the north gate to worship shall go forth by the way of the south gate” (Ezekiel 46:9).,We learned in the mishna that bspittingon the Temple Mount is prohibited bthrough an ia fortioriinference. Rav Beivai saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Anyone who spits on the Temple Mount,even btoday, it is as if he spit in the pupil ofGod’s beye, as it is stated: “And My eyes and My heart shall be there perpetually”(I Kings 9:3)., bRava said: Spitting in a synagogue is permitted, just as in the case of shoes. Just as wearing shoes is prohibited on the Temple Mountbut bpermitted in a synagogue, so, too, spitting is prohibited on the Temple Mountbut bpermitted in a synagogue. /b, bRav Pappa said to Rava, and some saythat bRavina said to Rava, and some say that Rav Adda bar Mattana said to Rava: Instead of derivingthis bfromthe case of wearing ba shoe, derive it fromthe case of ba shortcut.Just as a shortcut through a synagogue is prohibited, so too is spitting prohibited.,Rava bsaid to him:The itannaderivesthe prohibition of spitting bfromthe case of ba shoe, and you saythat it should be derived bfromthe case of ba shortcut?The Gemara elaborates: bWhat is thisderivation from the case of a shoe? bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne may neither enter the Temple Mount with his staff in his hand, nor with his shoes on his feet, nor with money tied in his cloth and with his money-belt slung behind him, norshould one bmake it a shortcut. All the more so, spittingis prohibited ia fortiorifromthe ihalakhawith regard to wearing ba shoe. Just aswith regard to ba shoe, which is generally not considered contemptuous, the Torah said: “Put off your shoes from off your feet, for the place upon which you stand is holy ground”(Exodus 3:5), ball the more so spitting, which is considered contemptuous,should be prohibited., bRabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, says: This ia fortioriinference bis unnecessary.It could be otherwise derived. bIt says: “For none may enter within the king’s gate clothed with sackcloth”(Esther 4:2). bThis mattercan be inferred ia fortiori /i: Just as sackcloth, which isgenerally bnotconsidered brepulsive beforeone who is bflesh and blood, isforbidden within the king’s gate, ball the more so spitting, which is repulsive,should be forbidden bbefore the King of Kings. /b,The one who challenged him, Rav Pappa or Ravina, bsaid to Rava: Iintended to bsay the following: Let us say, be stringent here,with regard to the Temple Mount, band be stringent here,with regard to the synagogue
26. Babylonian Talmud, Kiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

81b. bSit properlyand do not act in a revolting manner. Satan then bsaid to him: Give me a cup. They gave him a cup. He coughed up his phlegm and spat it intothe cup. bThey berated himfor acting this way, at which point Satan pretended to bsinkdown band die. They heardpeople around them bsaying: Peleimu killed a man! Peleimu killed a man!Peleimu bfled and hid himself in the bathroom.Satan bfollowed himand bfell before him. Upon seeing thatPeleimu bwas suffering, he revealed himself to him.Satan bsaid to him: What is the reason that you spoke this way,provoking me by saying: An arrow in the eye of Satan? He replied: bBut what then should I say?Satan bsaid to him: Let the Master,i.e., Peleimu, bsay:Let bthe Merciful One rebuke the Satan. /b,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Ashi was accustomed to say, whenever he would fall on his facein prayer: bMay the Merciful One save us from the evil inclination. One day his wife heard himsaying this prayer. bShe said: After all, it has been several years since he has withdrawn fromengaging in intercourse with bmedue to his advanced years. bWhat is the reason that he says thisprayer, as there is no concern that he will engage in sinful sexual behavior?, bOne day,while bhe was studying in his garden, she adorned herself and repeatedly walked past him. He said: Who are you? She said: I am Ḥaruta,a well-known prostitute, breturning from my dayat work. bHe propositioned her. She said to him: Give me that pomegranate from the top of the treeas payment. bHe leapt up, went,and bbrought it to her,and they engaged in intercourse., bWhen he came home, his wife was lightinga fire in the boven. He went and sat inside it. She said to him: What is this? He said to her: Such and such an incidentoccurred; he told her that he engaged in intercourse with a prostitute. bShe said to him: It was I. He paid no attention to her,thinking she was merely trying to comfort him, buntil she gave him signsthat it was indeed she. bHe said to her: I, in any event, intended to transgress.The Gemara relates: bAll the days of that righteous man he would fastfor the transgression he intended to commit, buntil he died by that deathin his misery.,The Gemara explains the source that one who intended to transgress is punished even though he did not actually sin. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraitaconcerning a husband who nullified the vow of his wife: b“Her husband has made them null; and the Lord will forgive her”(Numbers 30:13). bWith regard to whatcase bis the verse speaking?Why would the woman require forgiveness if her husband has nullified her vow? It is referring bto a woman who vowedto bbe a nazirite, and her husband heard and nullified hervow. bAnd she did not know that her husband had nullified hervow, band she drank wine and contracted impurity from a corpse,violating her presumed vow.,The Gemara relates: bWhen Rabbi Akiva came to this verse he would cry. He said: And ifwith regard to bone who intended to eat pork, andkosher blamb came up in his hand,like this woman who intended to violate her vow but in fact did not, bthe Torahnevertheless bsays: She requires atonement and forgiveness, all the more sodoes bone who intended to eat pork and pork came up in his handrequire atonement and forgiveness., bIn a similar manner, youcan bsaythat the same lesson can be derived from the verse: b“Though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity”(Leviticus 5:17). bWhen Rabbi Akiva came to this verse he would cry.He said: bAnd ifwith regard to bone who intended to eatpermitted bfat, andforbidden bfatmistakenly bcame up in his hand, the Torah states: “Though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity,” all the more sois this true for bone who intended to eatforbidden bfat andforbidden bfat came up in his hand. Isi ben Yehuda sayswith regard to the verse b“Though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity”: With regard to this matter all sufferers shall grieve,since the verse teaches that one is punished even for sinning unawares.,§ The mishna teaches that ba man may be secluded with his mother. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav Asi says: A man may be secluded with his sister, and live with his mother or with his daughterin a permanent arrangement, without concern. bWhen he said this before Shmuel,the latter bsaid: It is prohibited to be secluded with all those with whom relations are forbidden by the Torah, and even with an animal,as it is prohibited to engage in intercourse with an animal as well., bWe learnedin the mishna: bA man may be secluded with his mother, and with his daughter, and sleep alongside them with bodily contact, andthis appears to be ba conclusive refutation ofthe statement of bShmuel.The Gemara answers: bShmuelcould have bsaid to you: And according to your reasoning,how should one explain bthat which is taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bhis sister, and his mother-in-law, and all those with whom relations are forbidden,including his mother and daughter, bone may be secluded with them onlyin the presence bof witnesses,from which it can be inferred: In the presence bof witnesses, yes; withoutthe presence bof witnesses, no.This ibaraitasupports the opinion of Shmuel that one may not be secluded with his mother or sister., bRather,it bisa dispute between itanna’im /ias to whether one may be secluded with his mother or sister. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Meir said: Be careful with me because of my daughter,i.e., make sure I am not left secluded with her. Similarly, bRabbi Tarfon said: Be careful with me because of my daughter-in-law. A certain student mocked himfor being wary of the possibility of sinning with his daughter-in-law. bRabbi Abbahu said in the name of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Gamliel: Not many days passed until that student stumbledinto sin bwith his mother-in-law. /b,The Gemara stated that according to Shmuel it is prohibited for one to be alone beven with an animal.The Gemara relates: bAbaye removedthe animals bfrom the entire fieldhe was in. bRav Sheshet transferredthe animals to the other side bof the fence. Rav Ḥa from Neharde’a happenedto come bto Rav Kahana in Pum Nahara. He saw thathe bwas sitting and studying, and an animal was standing before him.Rav Ḥa bsaid to him: Doesn’t the Master holdthat one may not be secluded beven with an animal?Rav Kahana bsaid to him: Itdid bnotenter bmy mindthat an animal was before me., bRava says: A man may be secluded with two sisters-in-law and with two rival wives,i.e., two women who share a husband; bwith a woman and her mother-in-law;and bwith a woman and her husband’s daughter.Since these women typically dislike each other, each fears that the other will publicize her sins, and they will be careful not to transgress. Similarly, a man may be secluded bwith a woman and a girl who knows the meaning of sexual intercourse,i.e., one who is old enough to understand the nature of intercourse, bbutis still young enough that bshe does not submit herself to intercourse,since she does not yet desire it. In such a situation, the woman is concerned that the child will reveal her behavior.,§ The mishna teaches that bwhenone’s children bhave grown up, this one sleeps in his garmentand that one sleeps in her garment, but they may share a bed. The Gemara asks: bAnd howold must a child be to be considered grown up for the purposes of this ihalakha /i? bRav Adda bar Rav Azza saysthat bRav Asi says: A girlmust reach the bageof bnine years and one day; a boymust reach the bageof btwelve years and one day. There arethose bwho say: A girlmust reach the bageof btwelve years and one day; a boymust reach the bageof bthirteenyears band one day. Andaccording to bthis and that,according to both opinions, the girl is considered a child buntilshe has reached the stage of: b“Your breasts were fashioned, and your hair was grown”(Ezekiel 16:7), meaning the onset of puberty., bRafram bar Pappa saysthat bRav Ḥisda says: They taughtthat a man may sleep in close proximity to his minor daughter bonly if she is not ashamed to stand naked before him, butif she is bashamed to stand naked before him, it is prohibitedfor him to sleep close to her, regardless of her age. bWhat is the reason?It is that the binclination has a hold upon her,as otherwise she would not be ashamed.,The Gemara relates: bRav Aḥa bar Abba arrived at the house of Rav Ḥisda, his son-in-law. He took his daughter’s daughter and placed her on his lap.Rav Ḥisda bsaid to him: Doesn’t the Master think that shemight already be bbetrothed?Rav Aḥa bsaid to him:If that is true, byou have transgressedthe ruling bof Rav, as Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says, and some sayit was said by bRabbi Elazar: It is prohibited for a man to betroth his daughter when she is a minor, until she grows up and says: I wantto marry bso-and-so,as otherwise she might reject the designated husband and ultimately sin by committing adultery. Rav Ḥisda replied: bThe Master has likewise transgressedthe words bof Shmuel. As Shmuel says: One may not make use of a woman,so how can you hold her on your lap? bHe said to him: I hold in accordance with anotherstatement bof Shmuel, as Shmuel says: /b
27. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32a. מפני שנתעסק במלון תחילה שנאמר ויהי בדרך במלון (שמות ד, כד),רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לא למשה רבינו ביקש שטן להרוג אלא לאותו תינוק שנאמר כי חתן דמים אתה לי (שמות ד כה) צא וראה מי קרוי חתן הוי אומר זה התינוק,דרש רבי יהודה בר ביזנא בשעה שנתרשל משה רבינו מן המילה באו אף וחימה ובלעוהו ולא שיירו ממנו אלא רגליו מיד ותקח צפורה צור ותכרת את ערלת בנה (שמות ד, כה) מיד וירף ממנו (שמות ד, כו),באותה שעה ביקש משה רבינו להורגן שנאמר הרף מאף ועזוב חמה (תהלים לז, ח) ויש אומרים לחימה הֲרָגוֹ שנאמר חמה אין לי (ישעיהו כז, ד) והכתיב כי יגרתי מפני האף והחמה (דברים ט, יט) תרי חימה הוו ואיבעית אימא גונדא דחימה,תניא רבי אומר גדולה מילה שאין לך מי שנתעסק במצוות כאברהם אבינו ולא נקרא תמים אלא על שם מילה שנאמר התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א) וכתיב ואתנה בריתי ביני ובינך (בראשית יז, ב),דבר אחר גדולה מילה ששקולה כנגד כל המצוות שבתורה שנאמר כי על פי הדברים האלה וגו' (שמות לד, כז) דבר אחר גדולה מילה שאילמלא מילה לא נתקיימו שמים וארץ שנאמר אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה וגו' (ירמיהו לג, כה),ופליגא דרבי אליעזר דאמר רבי אליעזר גדולה תורה שאילמלא תורה לא נתקיימו שמים וארץ שנאמר אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה חקות שמים וארץ לא שמתי וגו',אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בשעה שאמר לו הקב"ה לאברהם אבינו התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א) אחזתו רעדה אמר שמא יש בי דבר מגונה כיוון שאמר לו ואתנה בריתי ביני ובינך (בראשית יז, ב) נתקררה דעתו,ויוצא אותו החוצה (בראשית טו, ה) אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם הסתכלתי במזל שלי ואין לי אלא בן אחד אמר לו צא מאיצטגנינות שלך אין מזל לישראל,אמר רבי יצחק כל המתמים עצמו הקב"ה מתמים עמו שנאמר עם חסיד תתחסד עם גבר תמים תתמם (תהלים יח, כו),אמר רבי הושעיא כל המתמים עצמו שעה עומדת לו שנאמר התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א) וכתיב והיית לאב המון גוים (בראשית יז, ד),אמר רבי כל המנחש לו נחש שנאמר כי לא נחש ביעקב (במדבר כג, כג) והא בלמ"ד אל"ף כתיב אלא משום מידה כנגד מידה,תני אהבה בריה דרבי זירא כל אדם שאינו מנחש מכניסין אותו במחיצה שאפילו מלאכי השרת אין יכולין ליכנס בתוכה שנאמר כי לא נחש ביעקב ולא קסם בישראל וגו' (במדבר כג, כג),אמר רבי אבהו אמר רבי אלעזר מפני מה נענש אברהם אבינו ונשתעבדו בניו למצרים מאתיים ועשר שנים מפני שעשה אנגרייא בתלמידי חכמים שנאמר וירק את חניכיו ילידי ביתו (בראשית יד, יד),ושמואל אמר מפני שהפריז על מדותיו של הקב"ה שנאמר במה אדע כי אירשנה (בראשית טו, ח) ורבי יוחנן אמר שהפריש בני אדם מלהכנס תחת כנפי השכינה שנאמר תן לי הנפש והרכוש קח לך (בראשית יד, כא),וירק את חניכיו ילידי ביתו (בראשית יד, יד) רב אמר שהוריקן בתורה ושמואל אמר שהוריקן בזהב,שמנה עשר ושלש מאות (בראשית יד, יד) אמר רבי אמי בר אבא אליעזר כנגד כולם איכא דאמרי אליעזר הוא דחושבניה הכי הוי,ואמר רבי אמי בר אבא בן שלוש שנים הכיר אברהם את בוראו שנאמר עקב אשר שמע אברהם בקולי (בראשית כו, ה) חושבניה מאה ושבעין ותרין,ואמר רמי בר אבא 32a. bBecause he was occupied with lodging firstand did not immediately perform the mitzva of circumcision, bas it is stated: “And it came to pass on the way at the lodging-place”(Exodus 4:24)., bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: It was not Moses our teacherthat bSatan wanted to kill, but rather, that infantwho was not circumcised, bas it is stated: “Surely a bridegroom of blood are you to me”(Exodus 4:25). bGo out and see: Whodoes it make sense would be the one that bis called the bridegroomin this instance? bYou must say this is the infant,since he is the one who entered the covet of Abraham by means of the circumcision., bRabbi Yehuda bar Bizna taught: At the time that Moses our teacher was negligent about the circumcision,the destructive angels named bAf,meaning anger, band Ḥeima,meaning wrath, bcame and swallowed him, and only his legs were leftoutside. bImmediately, “Zipporah took a flint, and cut off the foreskin of her son”(Exodus 4:25), and bimmediately “He let him alone”(Exodus 4:26)., bAt that moment, Moses our teacher wanted to kill them, as it is stated: “Cease from anger [ iaf] and forsake wrath [ iḥeima /i]”(Psalms 37:8), which indicates that he wanted to harm them. bAnd there are those who say: He killedthe angel named bḤeima, as it is stated: “Wrath is not in me”(Isaiah 27:4). The Gemara asks: How is it possible to say that he killed Ḥeima? bIsn’t it writtenthat Moses himself said much later: b“For I was in dread of the anger and wrath”(Deuteronomy 9:19)? The Gemara answers: bThere are twotypes of bwrath. And if you wish, saythat bthe army of Ḥeimaremained but not the angel itself., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Great isthe mitzva of bcircumcision, for there is no one who was engaged in mitzvot like Abraham our Patriarch, andyet bhe was called wholehearted only due tothe mitzva of bcircumcision, as it is stated: “Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1), band it is writtenin the next verse: b“And I will make My covet between Me and you”(Genesis 17:2), and Abraham was then commanded with regard to circumcision. This indicates that he was not called wholehearted until he performed circumcision., bAlternatively,so bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that it is equal to all the mitzvot of the Torah, as it is statedat the giving of the Torah: b“For according to these wordsI have made a covet with you and with Israel” (Exodus 34:27), and “covet” refers to circumcision. bAlternatively,so bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that if not for circumcision heaven and earth would not have been established, as it is stated: “If My covet be not with day and night,I would not have appointed the ordices of heaven and earth” (Jeremiah 33:25), and the covet that exists day and night is the covet of circumcision, as it is always found on the person’s body.,The Gemara comments: bAndthis statement bdisagreeswith the words bof Rabbi Eliezer, for Rabbi Eliezer said: Great is the Torah, for if not for Torah, heaven and earth would not have been established, as it is stated: “If My covet be not with day and night,I would not have appointed the ordices of heaven and earth” (Jeremiah 33:25). According to Rabbi Eliezer, the covet that exists day and night is the Torah, as it says: “You should contemplate it day and night” (Joshua 1:8)., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Abraham our Patriarch: “Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1), a sensation of btrembling seized himand bhe said: Perhaps there is something disgraceful about medue to a transgression that I committed, and therefore I cannot be called complete. bWhenGod bsaid to him: “And I will make My covet between Me and you”(Genesis 17:2), bhis mind was set at ease,since he understood that the removal of the foreskin that he was now commanded to do was the reason he had not yet achieved completion.,The Gemara expounds the verse b“and He brought him outside”(Genesis 15:5): Abraham bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, I looked at my constellation andaccording to it bIwill bhave only one son,and a son has already been born to me, i.e., Ishmael. bHe said to him: Emerge from your astrologybecause bthere is no constellation for the Jewish people,as they are not subject to the influence of astrology., bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who conducts himself with wholeheartedness, the Holy One, Blessed be He, treats him with wholeheartedness, as it is stated: “With the devout You act devoutly, and with the one who is strong in his wholeheartedness You act wholeheartedly”(II Samuel 22:26)., bRabbi Hoshaya said: Anyone who acts wholeheartedly, time will stand for him,i.e., he will be successful, bas it is stated: “Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1), band it is written: “And you shall be the father of a multitude of nations”(Genesis 17:4)., bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Anyone who divines,i.e., he guesses and looks for signs about the future, bthe signwill injure bhim, as it is stated: “For there is to him [ ilo /i] divination with Jacob”(Numbers 23:23). The Gemara asks: bBut it is written ilo bwiththe letters ilamed alef /i,meaning “no divination,” as opposed to with the letters ilamed vav /i, meaning “there is to him divination.” The straightforward meaning of the verse is that there is no divination with regard to Jacob. bRather,the reason that he will be injured is not based on the verse but rather bdue tothe concept of bmeasure for measure:Since he attempts to tell his fortune, it injures him., bAhava, son of Rabbi Zeira, teaches: Any person who does not divinehis future bis brought inside a partitionclose to God to a place bthat even the ministering angels cannot enter inside, as it is stated: “For there is no divination with Jacob, neither is there any enchantment with Israel,now it is said to Jacob and Israel what has God wrought” (Numbers 23:23). In other words, matters are revealed to Israel that even the angels do not know, since Israel is closer to God than the angels., bRabbi Abbahu saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: For what reason was Abraham our Patriarch punished and his children enslaved to Egyptfor b210 years? Because he made a draft [ iangarya /i] of Torah scholars, as it is stated: “He led forth his trained men, born in his house”(Genesis 14:14). These trained men that he took to war were actually his disciples, who were Torah scholars., bAnd Shmuel said: Because he greatly examined [ ihifriz /i] the characteristics of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it?”(Genesis 15:8). bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said:He was punished bbecause he distanced people from entering under the wings of the Divine Presence, as it is statedthat the king of Sodom said to him: b“Give me the people and take the goods to yourself”(Genesis 14:21), but Abraham refused to take any goods either. If he had not listened to the king of Sodom and had allowed the people to remain with him, he would have brought the prisoners under the wings of the Divine Presence.,The Gemara returns to discuss one of the verses cited previously: b“He led forth [ ivayyarek /i] his trained men, born in his house”(Genesis 14:14). bRav said: He showered them [ ihorikan /i] with Torahlike someone who pours from one vessel into another, band Shmuel said: He showered them [ ihorikan /i] with goldand gave them an abundance of money so that they would go to war with him.,The Torah states that he took b“eighteen and three hundred”(Genesis 14:14) men to war. bRabbi Ami bar Abba said: Eliezerwas bequivalentto ball of them. There arethose bwho say:Only bEliezer isreferred to here, bas the numerical valueof the letters of his name bis thisamount, i.e., 318., bAnd Rabbi Ami bar Abba said: Abraham recognized his Creator at the age of three years, as it is stated: “Because [ iekev /i] Abraham hearkened to My voice”(Genesis 26:5). bThe numerical valueof the letters of the word iekevis b172,indicating that he observed the ihalakhafor this many years. If Abraham lived until 175 then his first recognition of the Creator must have been at the age of three., bAnd Rami bar Abba saidin a similar manner:
28. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

81a. לאתרויי ביה,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ל"ש אלא בעיר אבל בדרך עד שיהיו שלשה שמא יצטרך אחד מהם להשתין ונמצא אחד מתייחד עם הערוה נימא מסייע ליה מוסרים לו שני תלמידי חכמים שמא יבא עליה בדרך תרי ואיהו הא תלתא התם כי היכי דניהוו עליה סהדי,רב ורב יהודה הוו קאזלי באורחא הוה קאזלא ההיא אתתא קמייהו א"ל רב לרב יהודה דל כרעיך מקמי גיהנם אמר ליה והא מר הוא דאמר בכשרים שפיר דמי א"ל מי יימר דבכשרים כגון אנא ואת אלא כגון מאי כגון רבי חנינא בר פפי וחביריו,אמר רב מלקין על ייחוד ואין אוסרין על הייחוד אמר רב אשי לא אמרן אלא בייחוד פנויה אבל בייחוד דאשת איש לא שלא תהא מוציא לעז על בניה,מר זוטרא מלקי ומכריז א"ל רב נחמן מפרהטיא לרב אשי מר נמי לילקי ולכריז א"ל איכא דשמע בהא ולא שמע בהא,אמר רב מלקין על לא טובה השמועה שנאמר (שמואל א ב, כד) אל בני כי לא טובה השמועה מר זוטרא מותיב לה אפסירה על כתפיה ומקרי ליה אל בני,אמר רבה בעלה בעיר אין חוששין משום ייחוד אמר רב יוסף פתח פתוח לרשות הרבים אין חוששין משום ייחוד רב ביבי איקלע לבי רב יוסף בתר דכרך ריפתא אמר להו שקולי דרגא מתותי ביבי והא אמר רבה בעלה בעיר אין חוששין משום ייחוד שאני רב ביבי דשושבינתיה הואי וגייסא ביה,אמר רב כהנא אנשים מבחוץ ונשים מבפנים אין חוששין משום ייחוד אנשים מבפנים ונשים מבחוץ חוששין משום ייחוד,במתניתא תנא איפכא אמר אביי השתא דאמר רב כהנא הכי ותנא מתניתא איפכא אנא נעביד לחומרא,אביי דייר גולפי רבא דייר קנה אמר אבין סקבא דשתא ריגלא,הנך שבוייתא דאתאי לנהרדעא אסקינהו לבי רב עמרם חסידא אשקולו דרגא מקמייהו בהדי דקא חלפה חדא מנייהו נפל נהורא באיפומא שקליה רב עמרם לדרגא דלא הוו יכלין בי עשרה למדלייא דלייא לחודיה סליק ואזיל,כי מטא לפלגא דרגא איפשח רמא קלא נורא בי עמרם אתו רבנן אמרו ליה כסיפתינן אמר להו מוטב תיכספו בי עמרם בעלמא הדין ולא תיכספו מיניה לעלמא דאתי אשבעיה דינפק מיניה נפק מיניה כי עמודא דנורא אמר ליה חזי דאת נורא ואנא בישרא ואנא עדיפנא מינך,רבי מאיר הוה מתלוצץ בעוברי עבירה יומא חד אידמי ליה שטן כאיתתא בהך גיסא דנהרא לא הוה מברא נקט מצרא וקא עבר כי מטא פלגא מצרא שבקיה אמר אי לאו דקא מכרזי ברקיעא הזהרו בר' מאיר ותורתו שויתיה לדמך תרתי מעי,ר' עקיבא הוה מתלוצץ בעוברי עבירה יומא חד אידמי ליה שטן כאיתתא בריש דיקלא נקטיה לדיקלא וקסליק ואזיל כי מטא לפלגיה דדיקלא שבקיה אמר אי לאו דמכרזי ברקיעא הזהרו ברבי עקיבא ותורתו שויתיה לדמך תרתי מעי,פלימו הוה רגיל למימר כל יומא גירא בעיניה דשטן יומא חד מעלי יומא דכיפורי הוה אידמי ליה כעניא אתא קרא אבבא אפיקו ליה ריפתא אמר ליה יומא כי האידנא כולי עלמא גואי ואנא אבראי עייליה וקריבו ליה ריפתא אמר ליה יומא כי האידנא כולי עלמא אתכא ואנא לחודאי אתיוהו אותבוהו אתכא הוה יתיב מלא נפשיה שיחנא וכיבי עליה והוה קעביד ביה מילי דמאיס א"ל 81a. how bto warn himnot to engage in intercourse with her, since that would neutralize the effectiveness of the examination of the waters., bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:The Sages btaughtthat two men may seclude themselves with one woman bonly in a city,where others are present, bbut on the roadit is not permitted bunless there are three.Why are two men insufficient on the road? bPerhaps one of them will need to urinateand will walk away, band it will turn out that oneperson bwill be secluded with a woman forbidden to him.The Gemara suggests: Shall bwe saythe mishna quoted above bsupports him: They provide him with two Torah scholarsto accompany them blest he engage in sexual intercourse with her along the way? He and twoTorah scholars bare three,which indicates that there is a requirement for three men when they are traveling. The Gemara answers: That is no proof, as bthere,in the case of the isota /i, there is a requirement for an additional two men bin order that they shouldserve as bwitnesses about him,to testify whether or not he engaged in intercourse with her along the way.,The Gemara relates: bRav and Rav Yehuda were walking along the way,and ba certain woman was walking ahead of them. Rav said to Rav Yehuda: Raise your feetand walk quickly baway from Gehennaso that we do not remain secluded with her. Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: But wasn’t ityou, bMaster, who said thatit is bpermittedin the case bofmen of bfitmorals? Rav bsaid to him: Who saysthat I referred btomen of bfitmorals bsuch as you and me?Rav Yehuda responded: bRather, such as whom?Rav answered: bSuch as Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappi and his colleagues,who have proven that they can withstand temptation (see 39b). All other people are not trusted in this matter., bRav says:The court bflogsa man bdue tohis being bsecludedwith a woman. But a wife bis not forbiddento her husband, and an unmarried woman is not prohibited from marrying a priest bdue tobeing bsecluded,as it cannot be stated definitively that the secluded pair engaged in sexual intercourse. bRav Ashi says: We statedthe ihalakhathat one is flogged bdue tobeing bsecluded onlywith ban unmarriedwoman, bbut forbeing bsecludedwith ba married woman,one is bnotflogged. Why not? It is bso that there should not be rumors spread concerning her children.If the secluded pair is flogged, everyone will assume that they engaged in intercourse, and people will consider her children to be imamzerim /i, whereas in fact they were flogged only for being secluded.,The Gemara relates: bMar Zutra wouldeven bflogone who was secluded with a married woman, band he would proclaimthe reason for the punishment. bRav Naḥman from Parhatya said to Rav Ashi: Let the Master also flog and proclaimthe reason. Rav Ashi bsaid to him:I am hesitant to do so, in case bthere are those who hear about this,i.e., the flogging, band do not hear about that,i.e., the reason for the flogging., bRav says:The court bflogsone bdue tohis being the subject of ba bad rumor,meaning that not only is a person flogged when the facts have been ascertained, but even when he has only reportedly committed transgressions he may be flogged. bAs it is stated: “No, my sons, for it is no good report”(I Samuel 2:24). When bMar Zutrawould flog a person for being the subject of a bad rumor, bhe would placethe bbridleof a donkey bonthe person’s bshoulders and recite before himwhen administering lashes: b“No, my sons,for it is no good report,” so that people would know why he was being flogged., bRabba says:If a woman’s bhusband is in town, there is no concern due toher being bsecludedwith a man. People are afraid to sin with her, since they cannot be sure when her husband will return. bRav Yosef says:If there is ban open entrance to the public domain there is no concern due tobeing bsecluded.The Gemara relates: bRav Beivai arrived at Rav Yosef’s house. After he wrappedhis bbread,i.e., ate his meal, he bsaid tothe members of the household: bRemove the ladder from beneath Beivai,who was going to sleep in the upper story, so that he not be able to climb down, due to the prohibition of being secluded with Rav Yosef’s wife. The Gemara asks: bBut doesn’t Rabba say:If bher husband is in town, there is no concern due toher being bsecludedwith a man? The Gemara answers: bRav Beivai is different, sinceRav Yosef’s wife bwas his friend and she was familiar with him,and therefore there was more cause for concern., bRav Kahana says:If the bmenare located bon the outside,i.e., in the outer room, band the women in the inside,i.e., in the inner room, bthere is no concern due tobeing bsecluded.Even if one of the men were to enter the inner room, he would be seen by the other men. By contrast, if there were bmen in the inside and women on the outside, there is a concern due tobeing bsecluded,since one of the men can claim that he is leaving and in fact join the women.,The Gemara comments: bThe opposite was taught in a ibaraita /i,that if the men are on the outside and the women are inside there is concern due to being secluded, as one of the men might venture inside without being noticed, but if the men are inside and the women are outside, he knows that one of the other men might go out through the women’s quarters at any time, and therefore there is no concern due to being secluded. bAbaye said: Now that Rav Kahana has saidthe ihalakhain bthismanner band a ibaraitateaches the opposite, we shall act stringentlyin both cases., bAbayewould barrange rowsof bpitchersbetween the men and women, so that they would not be able to cross from one area to the other without making noise. bRavawould barrange rowsof breedsto prevent passage. bAvin said: The wound [ isakva /i],i.e., the vulnerable point, bof the yearis bthe Festival,since men and women would come together on these joyous occasions, and this would lead to sin.,§ The Gemara relates: bThose captivewomen bwho were brought to Neharde’a,where they were redeemed, bwere brought up to the house of Rav Amram the Pious. They removed the ladder from before themto prevent men from climbing up after them to the attic where they were to sleep. bWhen one of them passedby the entrance to the upper chamber, it was as though ba light shone in the aperturedue to her great beauty. Out of his desire for her, bRav Amram grabbed a ladder that tenmen btogether could not lift, lifted it on his ownand bbegan climbing. /b, bWhen he was halfwayup bthe ladder, he strengthenedhis legs against the sides of the ladder to stop himself from climbing further, braised his voice,and cried out: There is ba fire in the house of Amram.Upon hearing this, bthe Sages cameand found him in that position. bThey said to him: You have embarrassed us,since everyone sees what you had intended to do. Rav Amram bsaid to them: It is better that you be shamed in Amram’s house in this world, and not be ashamed of him in the World-to-Come. He took an oath thathis evil inclination bshould emerge from him, andan apparition bsimilar to a pillar of fire emerged from him. He said tohis evil inclination: bSee, as you are fire and I ammere bflesh, andyet, bI amstill bsuperior to you,as I was able to overcome you.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Meir would ridicule transgressorsby saying it is easy to avoid temptation. bOne day, Satan appeared to him as a womanstanding bon the other side of the river.Since bthere was no ferryto cross the river, bhe took hold of a rope bridge and crossedthe river. bWhen he reached halfwayacross bthe rope bridge,the evil inclination bleft him and saidto him: bWere it not forthe fact that bthey proclaim about you in heaven: Be careful with regard to Rabbi Meir and his Torah, I would have made your blood like two ima’a /i,i.e., completely worthless, since you would have fallen completely from your spiritual level., bRabbi Akiva wouldlikewise bridicule transgressors. One day, Satan appeared to him as a woman at the top of a palm tree.Rabbi Akiva bgrabbed hold of the palm tree and began climbing. When he was halfway up the palm tree,the evil inclination bleft him and saidto him: bWere it not forthe fact that bthey proclaim about you in heaven: Be careful with regard to Rabbi Akiva and his Torah, I would have made your blood like two ima’a /i. /b,The Sage bPeleimu had the habit to say every day: An arrow in the eye of Satan,mocking the temptations of the evil inclination. bOne day, it was the eve of Yom Kippur,and Satan bappeared to him as a pauperwho bcame and calledhim bto the door,requesting alms. Peleimu bbrought out bread to him.Satan bsaid to him: On a day like today, everyone is insideeating, bandshall bIstand boutsideand eat? Peleimu bbrought him inside and gave him bread. He said to him: On a day like today, everyoneis sitting bat the table, andshall bIsit bby myself? They brought him and sat him at the table. He was sittingand had bcovered himself with boils and pus, and he was doing repulsive thingsat the table. Peleimu bsaid tothe pauper:
29. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

107a. אוכל לחמי הגדיל עלי עקב,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם אל יביא אדם עצמו לידי נסיון שהרי דוד מלך ישראל הביא עצמו לידי נסיון ונכשל אמר לפניו רבש"ע מפני מה אומרים אלהי אברהם אלהי יצחק ואלהי יעקב ואין אומרים אלהי דוד אמר אינהו מינסו לי ואת לא מינסית לי אמר לפניו רבש"ע בחנני ונסני שנאמר (תהלים כו, ב) בחנני ה' ונסני וגו',אמר מינסנא לך ועבידנא מילתא בהדך דלדידהו לא הודעתינהו ואילו אנא קא מודענא לך דמנסינא לך בדבר ערוה מיד (שמואל ב יא, ב) ויהי לעת הערב ויקם דוד מעל משכבו וגו',אמר רב יהודה שהפך משכבו של לילה למשכבו של יום ונתעלמה ממנו הלכה אבר קטן יש באדם משביעו רעב ומרעיבו שבע,(שמואל ב יא, ב) ויתהלך על גג בית המלך וירא אשה רוחצת מעל הגג והאשה טובת מראה מאד בת שבע הוה קא חייפא רישא תותי חלתא אתא שטן אידמי ליה כציפרתא פתק ביה גירא פתקה לחלתא איגליה וחזייה,מיד (שמואל ב יא, ג) וישלח דוד וידרוש לאשה ויאמר הלא זאת בת שבע בת אליעם אשת אוריה החתי וישלח דוד מלאכים ויקחה ותבא אליו וישכב עמה והיא מתקדשת מטומאתה ותשב אל ביתה והיינו דכתיב (תהלים יז, ג) בחנת לבי פקדת לילה צרפתני בל תמצא זמותי בל יעבר פי אמר איכו זממא נפל בפומיה דמאן דסני לי ולא אמר כי הא מילתא,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים יא, א) למנצח לדוד בה' חסיתי איך תאמרו לנפשי נודי הרכם צפור אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע מחול לי על אותו עון שלא יאמרו הר שבכם צפור נדדתו,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים נא, ו) לך לבדך חטאתי והרע בעיניך עשיתי למען תצדק בדברך תזכה בשפטך אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה גליא וידיעא קמך דאי בעיא למכפייה ליצרי הוה כייפינא אלא אמינא דלא לימרו עבדא זכי למריה,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים לח, יח) כי אני לצלע נכון ומכאובי נגדי תמיד ראויה היתה בת שבע בת אליעם לדוד מששת ימי בראשית אלא שבאה אליו במכאוב וכן תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל ראויה היתה לדוד בת שבע בת אליעם אלא שאכלה פגה,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים לה, טו) ובצלעי שמחו ונאספו נאספו עלי נכים [ולא ידעתי] קרעו ולא דמו אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע גלוי וידוע לפניך שאם היו קורעין בשרי לא היה דמי שותת,ולא עוד אלא בשעה שהם עוסקין בארבע מיתות ב"ד פוסקין ממשנתן ואומרים לי דוד הבא על אשת איש מיתתו במה אמרתי להם הבא על אשת איש מיתתו בחנק ויש לו חלק לעוה"ב אבל המלבין פני חבירו ברבים אין לו חלק לעולם הבא,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אפילו בשעת חליו של דוד קיים שמנה עשרה עונות שנאמר (תהלים ו, ז) יגעתי באנחתי אשחה בכל לילה מטתי בדמעתי ערשי אמסה ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב בקש דוד לעבוד ע"ז שנאמר (שמואל ב טו, לב) ויהי דוד בא עד הראש אשר ישתחוה שם לאלהים ואין ראש אלא ע"ז שנאמר (דניאל ב, לב) והוא צלמא רישיה די דהב טב,(שמואל ב טו, לב) והנה לקראתו חושי הארכי קרוע כתנתו ואדמה על ראשו אמר לו לדוד יאמרו מלך שכמותך יעבוד ע"ז אמר לו מלך שכמותי יהרגנו בנו מוטב יעבוד ע"ז ואל יתחלל שם שמים בפרהסיא,אמר מאי טעמא קנסיבת יפת תואר א"ל יפת תואר רחמנא שרייה א"ל לא דרשת סמוכין דסמיך ליה (דברים כא, יח) כי יהיה לאיש בן סורר ומורה כל הנושא יפת תואר יש לו בן סורר ומורה,דרש ר' דוסתאי דמן בירי למה דוד דומה לסוחר כותי אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע (תהלים יט, יג) שגיאות מי יבין [א"ל] שביקי לך ומנסתרות נקני שביקי לך גם מזדים חשוך עבדך שביקי לך אל ימשלו בי אז איתם דלא לישתעו בי רבנן שביקי לך,ונקיתי מפשע רב שלא יכתב סרחוני אמר לו א"א ומה יו"ד שנטלתי משרי עומד וצווח כמה שנים עד שבא יהושע והוספתי לו שנאמר (במדבר יג, טז) ויקרא משה להושע בן נון יהושע כל הפרשה כולה עאכ"ו,ונקיתי מפשע רב אמר לפניו רבש"ע מחול לי על אותו עון כולו אמר כבר עתיד שלמה בנך לומר בחכמתו (משלי ו, כז) היחתה איש אש בחיקו ובגדיו לא תשרפנה אם יהלך איש על הגחלים ורגליו לא תכוינה כן הבא על אשת רעהו לא ינקה כל הנוגע בה א"ל כל הכי נטרד ההוא גברא א"ל קבל עליך יסורין קבל עליו,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ששה חדשים נצטרע דוד ונסתלקה הימנו שכינה ופירשו ממנו סנהדרין נצטרע דכתיב (תהלים נא, ט) תחטאני באזוב ואטהר תכבסני ומשלג אלבין נסתלקה הימנו שכינה דכתיב (תהלים נא, יד) השיבה לי ששון ישעך ורוח נדיבה תסמכני ופרשו ממנו סנהדרין דכתי' (תהלים קיט, עט) ישובו לי יראיך וגו' ששה חדשים מנלן דכתי' (מלכים א ב, יא) והימים אשר מלך דוד על ישראל ארבעים שנה 107a. bwho did eat of my bread, has lifted his heel against me”(Psalms 41:10). Bread is a metaphor for Torah knowledge.,§ Apropos Ahithophel, the Gemara relates the events that led to his death. bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: A person should never bring himself toundergo ban ordeal, as David, king of Israel, brought himself toundergo ban ordeal and failed.David bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, for whatreason bdoes one sayin prayer: bGod of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, and one does not say: God of David?God bsaidto David: bThey have undergone ordeals before Me, and you have not undergone an ordeal before Me.David bsaid before Him: Examine me and subject me to an ordeal, as it is stated: “Examine me, Lord, and subject me to an ordeal;try my kidneys and my heart” (Psalms 26:2).,God bsaidto him: bI will subject you to an ordeal, and I will perform a matter for youthat I did not perform for the Patriarchs, bas for them, I did not inform themof the nature of the ordeal, bwhile I am informing you that I will subject you to an ordeal involving a matter ofa married woman, with whom brelationsare bforbidden. Immediately,it is written: b“And it came to pass one evening that David rose from his bed”(II Samuel 11:2)., bRav Yehuda says:Once David heard the nature of his ordeal, he sought to prevent himself from experiencing lust. bHe transformed his nighttime bed into his daytime bed,i.e., he engaged in intercourse with his wives during the day, in an attempt to quell his lust. bBut a ihalakha /i,i.e., a Torah statement, bescaped him: There is a small limb in manthat he employs in sexual intercourse. If bhe starvesthe limb, and does not overindulge, it bis satiated; butif bhe satiatesthe limb and overindulges in sexual intercourse, it bis starving,and desires more. Therefore, his plan had the opposite effect.,The verse states: b“And he walked upon the roof of the king’s house; from the roof he saw a woman bathing, and the woman was very fair to look upon”(II Samuel 11:2). bBathsheba was shampooing her head behind a beehive,which concealed her from sight. bSatan came and appeared toDavid bas a bird.David bshot an arrow atthe bird, the arrow bsevered the beehive,Bathsheba bwas exposed, andDavid bsaw her. /b, bImmediately,it is written: b“And David sent and inquired after the woman. And one said: Is not this Bathsheba, daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite? And David sent messengers, and took her, and she came to him, and he lay with her, for she was purified from her impurity, and then she returned to her house”(II Samuel 11:3–4). bAnd that isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “You have proved my heart; You have visited me in the night: You have tried me, but You find nothing; let no presumptuous thought pass my lips”(Psalms 17:3). David bsaid: Oh, that a muzzle would have fallen upon the mouth of the one who hates me,a euphemism for his own mouth, band I would not have said anything like thatand I would have withstood the ordeal., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “To the leader, of David. In the Lord I put my trust; how can you say to my soul: Flee like a bird to your mountain”(Psalms 11:1)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, pardon me for that sinwith Bathsheba so bthatthe wicked people bwill not say: The mountain that is among you,i.e., the luminary of the generation, David, bwas drivenfrom the world due to ba birdthat led to his transgression., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Against You, only You, have I sinned, and done what is evil in Your eyes; that You are justified when You speak, and right when You judge”(Psalms 51:6)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: It is revealed and known before You that if I sought to suppress myevil binclination, I would have suppressed it; but I said:I will sin, so bthat they will not say a servant overcame his masterand withstood the ordeal even though God said that he would not., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “For I am ready to stumble [ iletzela /i] and my pain is always before me”(Psalms 38:18)? bBathsheba, daughter of Eliam, wasdesignated as bfit for David from the six days of Creation.Rava interprets that the term iletzelais referring to Eve, who was taken from the side [ itzela /i] of Adam, the first man, and explains that she was destined for him, just as Eve was destined for Adam. bBut she came to him through pain. And likewise, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Bathsheba, daughter of Eliam, wasdesignated as bfit for David, but he partook of her unripe,before the appointed time. David would have ultimately married her in a permitted manner after the death of Uriah., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And when I limped they rejoiced and gathered, the wretched gather themselves together against me, and those whom I know not; they tore and did not cease [ idammu /i]”(Psalms 35:15)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe. It is revealed and known before you that ifmy enemies bwere to tear my flesh, my blood [ idami /i] would not flow to the ground,due to excessive fasting (see II Samuel 12:16–17).,David continued: bMoreover,my enemies torment me to the extent that bat the time when they are engaged inthe public study of the ihalakhotof the bfour court-imposed death penalties they interrupt their study and say to me: David,concerning bone who engages in intercourse with a married woman, his deathis effected bwith whatform of execution? And bI said to them:Concerning bone who engages in intercourse with a married womanbefore witnesses and with forewarning, bhis death is by strangulation, and he has a share in the World-to-Come. But one who humiliates another before the multitudes has no share in the World-to-Come.The transgression of those who humiliated David is clearly more severe than the transgression of David himself., bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Even during the time of his illness he fulfilledthe mitzva of bconjugal rights for eighteenwives, bas it is stated: “I am weary with my groaning; every night I speak in my bed; I melt away my couch with tears”(Psalms 6:7). Even when he was weary and groaning he still spoke in his bed, a euphemism for sexual intercourse. bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: David sought to engage in idol worshipduring Absalom’s coup, bas it is stated: “And it came to pass when David was at the top [ irosh /i] of the ascent, where he would bow to God”(II Samuel 15:32), band irosh /imeans bnothing other than idol worship, as it is stated: “As for that image, its head [ ireishei /i] was of fine gold”(Daniel 2:32).,It is written: b“Behold Hushai the Archite came to meet him with his coat rent and earth upon his head”(II Samuel 15:32). Hushai bsaid to David: Shall they say a king like you will engage in idol worship?David bsaid to him:Is it preferable that they say with regard to ba king like me,known to be righteous, that bhis son will kill him?David continued, referring to himself in third person: bIt is preferable that he shall engage in idol worship and the name of Heaven shall not be desecrated in publicthrough the murder of a righteous king in this manner.,Hushai bsaidto him: bWhat is the reasonthat byou married a beautiful woman,the mother of Absalom? David bsaid to him:With regard to ba beautiful woman, the Merciful One permittedmarrying bher.Hushai bsaid to him:But byou did not interpret the juxtaposedverses, bas juxtaposed tothe portion of the beautiful woman is the portion beginning: b“If a man has a stubborn and rebellious son”(Deuteronomy 21:18). From that juxtaposition it is derived: bAnyone who marries a beautiful woman has a stubborn and rebellious son.Therefore, even if Absalom kills you, there will be no desecration of God’s name, as the people will attribute his actions to his mother., bRabbi Dostai from Biri taught: To what is David comparable?He is comparable bto a Samaritan merchant,who incrementally lowers the price until the buyer agrees to purchase the merchandise. bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe: “Who can discern his errors”(Psalms 19:13), i.e., forgive me for the unwitting sins that I committed. God bsaid to him: They are forgiven for you.David asked more: b“Cleanse me from hidden faults”(Psalms 19:13), i.e., pardon me for transgressions that I committed in private, even if I performed them intentionally. God said to him: bThey are forgiven for you.David requested: b“Keep back your servant also from intentional sins”(Psalms 19:14). God said to him: bThey are forgiven for you.David requested: b“Let them not have dominion over me, then I shall be faultless”(Psalms 19:14), and I further request bthat the Sages will not speak of meand condemn me. God said to him: bThey are forgiven for you. /b,David requested: b“And I shall be clear from great transgression”(Psalms 19:14), meaning bthat my transgressionwith Bathsheba and Uriah bwill not be writtenin the Bible. God bsaid to him:That is bimpossible. And just asthe letter iyodthat I removed fromthe name of bSarai,wife of Abraham, when I changed her name to Sarah, was bstanding and screaming several yearsover its omission from the Bible buntil Joshua came and I addedthe iyod bto hisname, bas it is stated: “And Moses called Hosea, son of Nun, Joshua [ iYehoshua /i]”(Numbers 13:16); bthe entire portionof your transgression, which is fit to be included in the Bible, ball the more soit cannot be omitted.,The verse states: b“And I shall be clear from great transgression”(Psalms 19:14). David bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, pardon me for that entire sin.God bsaidto him: bYour son Solomon is already destined to say with his wisdom: “Can a man take fire in his lap and his garments not be burned? Can one walk on hot coals and his feet not be scorched? So too one who lies with his neighbor’s wife; anyone who touches her shall not go unpunished”(Proverbs 6:27–29). David bsaid to Him: Will that man,David, bbe expelledfor bthat entiretransgression, with no remedy? God bsaid toDavid: bAccept upon yourself afflictions,and that will atone for your sins. bHe acceptedafflictions bupon himself. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:For bsix months David was afflicted with leprosy and the Divine Presence abandoned him andthe members of bthe Sanhedrin dissociatedthemselves bfrom him. He was afflicted with leprosy, as it is stated: “Purge me with hyssop and I shall be clean; wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow”(Psalms 51:9), indicating that he required purification like a leper. bThe Divine Presence abandoned him, as it is stated: “Restore me to joy of Your salvation; and uphold me with a willing spirit”(Psalms 51:14). bAndthe members of bthe Sanhedrin dissociatedthemselves bfrom him, as it is stated: “Let those who fear You turn to me,and those who have known Your testimonies” (Psalms 119:79). bFrom where do wederive that this lasted for bsix months?It is derived bas it is written: “And the days that David reigned over Israel were forty years; /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
2 chronicles, in literary history of hebrew bible Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 141
abraham, test of faith for Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
angels Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
bar-jesus Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 353
census, in client kingdoms Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 170
census, in history of israel Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 211
census, of year , rebellion accompanying Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 211
census, provincial, and judea Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 211
census, provincial, not widespread Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 211
cestius gallus Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 211
d/demonisation Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 44
david (biblical) Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
delphi Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 353
demons, in rabbinic literature Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 161
demons, in the babylonian talmud Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 161
deuteronomistic history Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 141
devil Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 353
dreams Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 353
god, power/hand of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 353
heavenly court advocates, in bible and second temple literature Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
heavenly court advocates Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
herod the great, taxation under Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 170
herod the great, taxes of, poll tax (tributum capitis) Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 170
herod the great, taxes of Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 170
impurity, moral Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 44
impurity Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 44
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 353
isaac Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
jesus, as healer/exorcist Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 44
jesus, work/acts/miracles of Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 44
jesus christ, in luke-acts Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 353
jew/jewish, literature/ authors' "151.0_353.0@law, god's" Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 353
job Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
josephus, on cestius gallus asking chief priests for census Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 211
josephus, on herod, revenues from, and augustus Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 170
josephus, use of titles of officials by Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 170
judea (jewish palestine), and provincial census Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 211
judea (jewish palestine), taxation of, under governors Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 211
koµmogrammateis Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 170
langlands, rebecca Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 192
lawyers and legal system, adversarial and inquisitorial courts Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
libertas Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 192
literary history of hebrew bible, chronicles Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 141
literary history of hebrew bible, deuteronomistic history Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 141
literary history of hebrew bible, major literary complexes Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 141
literary history of hebrew bible Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 141
literature Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 353
mastema Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
moses Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
noah Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
paul (saul) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 353
peter Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 353
philo Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
prayer Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 192
pure/purity Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 44
rituals Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 44
satan, in rabbinic literature Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 161
saul (paul) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 353
spirit, characterizations as, breath (life itself) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 353
spirit, effects of, interpret dreams/scripture Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 353
spirit, effects of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 353
spirit, modes of presence, indwelling Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 353
spirit, modes of presence, receiving of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 353
spirits, evil Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 44
spirits, unclean Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 44
taxation, under herod Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 170
taxes, poll tax (tributum capitis) Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 170
torah, and askesis Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 161
tributum capitis, as poll tax, and census of population Udoh, To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E (2006) 170
truth (אלטיכסייה, ἀλήθεια)' Hidary, Rabbis and Classical Rhetoric: Sophistic Education and Oratory in the Talmud and Midrash (2017) 242
unclean/uncleanness Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 44