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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



6038
Gellius, Attic Nights, 19.9


nanThe very neat reply of Antonius Julianus to certain Greeks at a banquet. A YOUNG man of equestrian rank from the land of Asia, gifted by nature, well off in manners and fortune, with a taste and talent for music, was celebrating the anniversary of the day on which he began life by giving a dinner to his friends and teachers in a little country place near the city. There had come with us then to that dinner the rhetorician Antonius Julianus, a public teacher of young men, who spoke in the Spanish manner, but was very eloquent, besides being well acquainted with our early literature. When there was an end of eating and drinking, and the time came for conversation, Julianus asked that the singers and lyre-players be produced, the most skilful of both sexes, whom he knew that the young man had at hand. And when the boys and girls were brought in, they sang in a most charming way several odes of Anacreon and Sappho, as well as some erotic elegies of more recent poets that were sweet and graceful. But we were especially pleased with some delightful verses of Anacreon, written in his old age, which I noted down, in order that sometimes the toil and worry of this task of mine might find relief in the sweetness of poetical compositions: Shaping the silver, Hephaestus, Make me no panoply, pray; What do I care for war's combats? Make me a drinking cup rather, Deep as you ever can make it; Carve on it no stars and no wains; What care I, pray, for the Pleiads, What for the star of Bootes? Make vines, and clusters upon them, Treading them Love and Bathyllus, Made of pure gold, with Lyaeus. Then several Greeks who were present at that dinner, men of refinement and not without considerable acquaintance also with our literature, began to attack and assail Julianus the rhetorician as altogether barbarous and rustic, since he was sprung from the land of Spain, was a mere ranter of violent and noisy speech, and taught exercises in a tongue which had no charm and no sweetness of Venus and the Muse; and they asked him more than once what he thought of Anacreon and the other poets of that kind, and whether any of our bards had written such smooth-flowing and delightful poems; "except," said they, "perhaps a few of Catullus and also possibly a few of Calvus; for the compositions of Laevius were involved, those of Hortensius without elegance, of Cinna harsh, of Memmius rude, and in short those of all the poets without polish or melody." Then Julianus, filled with anger and indignation, spoke as follows in behalf of his mother tongue, as if for his altars and his fires: "I must indeed grant you that in such licentiousness and baseness you would outdo Alcinus and that as you outstrip us in the pleasures of adornment and of food, so you do also in the wantonness of your ditties. But lest you should condemn us, that is, the Latin race, as lacking in Aphrodite's charm, just as if we were barbarous and ignorant, allow me, I pray, to cover my head with my cloak (as they say Socrates did when making somewhat indelicate remarks), and hear and learn that our forefathers also were lovers and devoted to Venus before those poets whom you have named." Then lying upon his back with veiled head, he chanted in exceedingly sweet tones some verses of Valerius Aedituus, an early poet, and also of Porcius Licinus and Quintus Catulus; and I think that nothing can be found neater, more graceful, more polished and more terse than those verses, either in Greek or in Latin: The verses of Aedituus are as follows: When, Pamphila, I try to tell my love, What shall I ask of you? Words fail my lips, A sudden sweat o'erflows my ardent breast; Thus fond and silent, I refrain and die. And he also added other verses of the same poet, no less sweet than the former ones: O Phileros, why a torch, that we need not? Just as we are we'll go, our hearts aflame. That flame no wild wind's blast can ever quench, Or rain that falls torrential from the skies; Venus herself alone can quell her fire, No other force there is that has such power. He also recited the following verses of Porcius Licinus: O shepherds of the lambs, the ewes' young brood, Seek ye for fire? Come hither; man is fire. Touch I the wood with finger-tip, it burns; Your flock's a flame, all I behold is fire. The verses of Quintus Catulus were these: My soul has left me; it has fled, methinks, To Theotimus; he its refuge is. But what if I should beg that he refuse The truant to admit, but cast it out? I'll go to him; but what if I be caught? What shall I do? Queen Venus, lend me aid.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

31 results
1. Plautus, Mostellaria, 960, 959 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.79 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.79. Yes, and every ant like an ant! Still, the question is, like what man? How small a percentage of handsome people there are! When I was at Athens, there was scarcely one to be found in each platoon of the training-corps — I see why you smile, but the fact is all the same. Another point: we, who with the sanction of the philosophers of old are fond of the society of young men, often find even their defects agreeable. Alcaeus 'admires a mole upon his favourite's wrist'; of course a mole is a blemish, but Alcaeus thought it a beauty. Quintus Catulus, the father of our colleague and friend to‑day, was warmly attached to your fellow-townsman Roscius, and actually wrote the following verses in his honour: By chance abroad at dawn, I stood to pray To the uprising deity of day; When lo! upon my left — propitious sight — Suddenly Roscius dawned in radiance bright. Forgive me, heavenly pow'rs, if I declare, Meseem'd the mortal than the god more fair. To Catulus, Roscius was fairer than a god. As a matter of fact he had, as he has to‑day, a pronounced squint; but no matter — in the eyes of Catulus this in itself gave him piquancy and charm.
3. Cicero, On Duties, 1.144 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.144. Talis est igitur ordo actionum adhibendus, ut, quem ad modum in oratione constanti, sic in vita omnia sint apta inter se et convenientia; turpe enimn valdeque vitiosum in re severa convivio digna aut delicatum aliquem inferre sermonem. Bene Pericles, cum haberet collegam in praetura Sophoclem poëtam iique de communi officio convenissent et casu formosus puer praeteriret dixissetque Sophocles: O puerum pulchrum, Pericle! At enim praetorem, Sophocle, decet non solum manus, sed etiam oculos abstinentes habere. Atqui hoc idem Sophocles si in athletarum probatione dixisset, iusta reprehensione caruisset. Tanta vis est et loci et temporis. Ut, si qui, cum causam sit acturus, in itinere aut in ambulatione secum ipse meditetur, aut si quid aliud attentius cogitet, non reprehendatur, at hoc idem si in convivio faciat, inhumanus videatur inscitia temporis. 1.144.  Such orderliness of conduct is, therefore, to be observed, that everything in the conduct of our life shall balance and harmonize, as in a finished speech. For it is unbecoming and highly censurable, when upon a serious theme, to introduce such jests as are proper at a dinner, or any sort of loose talk. When Pericles was associated with the poet Sophocles as his colleague in command and they had met to confer about official business that concerned them both, a handsome boy chanced to pass and Sophocles said: "Look, Pericles; what a pretty boy!" How pertinent was Pericles's reply: "Hush, Sophocles, a general should keep not only his hands but his eyes under control." And yet, if Sophocles had made this same remark at a trial of athletes, he would have incurred no just reprimand. So great is the significance of both place and circumstance. For example, if anyone, while on a journey or on a walk, should rehearse to himself a case which he is preparing to conduct in court, or if he should under similar circumstances apply his closest thought to some other subject, he would not be open to censure: but if he should do that same thing at a dinner, he would be thought ill-bred, because he ignored the proprieties of the occasion.
4. Cicero, Letters, 9.1.3, 13.52 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5. Cicero, Letters, 9.1.3, 13.52 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6. Cicero, Letters, 9.1.3, 13.52 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7. Cicero, Letters, 9.1.3, 13.52 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8. Cicero, In Verrem, 2.1.33, 2.3.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

9. Cicero, Philippicae, 2.63, 2.67, 2.105 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

10. Cicero, Pro Archia, 5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11. Ovid, Tristia, 4.10.43 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 48, 40 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

40. I wish also to speak of their common assemblies, and their very cheerful meetings at convivial parties, setting them in opposition and contrast to the banquets of others, for others, when they drink strong wine, as if they had been drinking not wine but some agitating and maddening kind of liquor, or even the most formidable thing which can be imagined for driving a man out of his natural reason, rage about and tear things to pieces like so many ferocious dogs, and rise up and attack one another, biting and gnawing each other's noses, and ears, and fingers, and other parts of their body, so as to give an accurate representation of the story related about the Cyclops and the companions of Ulysses, who ate, as the poet says, fragments of human flesh, and that more savagely than even he himself;
13. Vergil, Aeneis, 8.710 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8.710. knew that his mother in the skies redeemed
14. Juvenal, Satires, 3.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Martial, Epigrams, 3.50, 4.8.7-4.8.12, 5.16.9, 5.78.25, 10.20, 11.52 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Martial, Epigrams, 3.50, 4.8.7-4.8.12, 5.16.9, 5.78.25, 10.20, 11.52 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 13.1, 14.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.1. If I speak with the languages of men and of angels, but don'thave love, I have become sounding brass, or a clanging cymbal. 14.7. Even things without life, giving a voice, whether pipe or harp,if they didn't give a distinction in the sounds, how would it be knownwhat is piped or harped?
18. Persius, Satires, 1.32-1.43 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Persius, Saturae, 1.32-1.43 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Petronius Arbiter, Satyricon, 55 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Petronius Arbiter, Satyricon, 55 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 14.141-14.142 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Plutarch, Sulla, 36.1-36.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Suetonius, Augustus, 76-77, 74 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Suetonius, Nero, 26.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Tacitus, Annals, 14.14-14.18, 14.20 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14.14.  It was an old desire of his to drive a chariot and team of four, and an equally repulsive ambition to sing to the lyre in the stage manner. "Racing with horses," he used to observe, "was a royal accomplishment, and had been practised by the commanders of antiquity: the sport had been celebrated in the praises of poets and devoted to the worship of Heaven. As to song, it was sacred to Apollo; and it was in the garb appropriate to it that, both in Greek cities and in Roman temples, that great and prescient deity was seen standing." He could no longer be checked, when Seneca and Burrus decided to concede one of his points rather than allow him to carry both; and an enclosure was made in the Vatican valley, where he could manoeuvre his horses without the spectacle being public. Before long, the Roman people received an invitation in form, and began to hymn his praises, as is the way of the crowd, hungry for amusements, and delighted if the sovereign draws in the same direction. However, the publication of his shame brought with it, not the satiety expected, but a stimulus; and, in the belief that he was attenuating his disgrace by polluting others, he brought on the stage those scions of the great houses whom poverty had rendered venal. They have passed away, and I regard it as a debt due to their ancestors not to record them by name. For the disgrace, in part, is his who gave money for the reward of infamy and not for its prevention. Even well-known Roman knights he induced to promise their services in the arena by what might be called enormous bounties, were it not that gratuities from him who is able to command carry with them the compelling quality of necessity. 14.15.  Reluctant, however, as yet to expose his dishonour on a public stage, he instituted the so‑called Juvenile Games, for which a crowd of volunteers enrolled themselves. Neither rank, nor age, nor an official career debarred a man from practising the art of a Greek or a Latin mummer, down to attitudes and melodies never meant for the male sex. Even women of distinction studied indecent parts; and in the grove with which Augustus fringed his Naval Lagoon, little trysting-places and drinking-dens sprang up, and every incentive to voluptuousness was exposed for sale. Distributions of coin, too, were made, for the respectable man to expend under compulsion and the prodigal from vainglory. Hence debauchery and scandal throve; nor to our morals, corrupted long before, has anything contributed more of uncleanness than that herd of reprobates. Even in the decent walks of life, purity is hard to keep: far less could chastity or modesty or any vestige of integrity survive in that competition of the vices. — Last of all to tread the stage was the sovereign himself, scrupulously testing his lyre and striking a few preliminary notes to the trainers at his side. A cohort of the guards had been added to the audience — centurions and tribunes; Burrus, also, with his sigh and his word of praise. Now, too, for the first time was enrolled the company of Roman knights known as the Augustiani; conspicuously youthful and robust; wanton in some cases by nature; in others, through dreams of power. Days and nights they thundered applause, bestowed the epithets reserved for deity upon the imperial form and voice, and lived in a repute and honour, which might have been earned by virtue. 14.16.  And yet, lest it should be only the histrionic skill of the emperor which won publicity, he affected also a zeal for poetry and gathered a group of associates with some faculty for versification but not such as to have yet attracted remark. These, after dining, sat with him, devising a connection for the lines they had brought from home or invented on the spot, and eking out the phrases suggested, for better or worse, by their master; the method being obvious even from the general cast of the poems, which run without energy or inspiration and lack unity of style. Even to the teachers of philosophy he accorded a little time — but after dinner, and in order to amuse himself by the wrangling which attended the exposition of their conflicting dogmas. Nor was there any dearth of gloomy-browed and sad-eyed sages eager to figure among the diversions of majesty. 14.17.  About the same date, a trivial incident led to a serious affray between the inhabitants of the colonies of Nuceria and Pompeii, at a gladiatorial show presented by Livineius Regulus, whose removal from the senate has been noticed. During an exchange of raillery, typical of the petulance of country towns, they resorted to abuse, then to stones, and finally to steel; the superiority lying with the populace of Pompeii, where the show was being exhibited. As a result, many of the Nucerians were carried maimed and wounded to the capital, while a very large number mourned the deaths of children or of parents. The trial of the affair was delegated by the emperor to the senate; by the senate to the consuls. On the case being again laid before the members, the Pompeians as a community were debarred from holding any similar assembly for ten years, and the associations which they had formed illegally were dissolved. Livineius and the other fomenters of the outbreak were punished with exile. 14.18.  Pedius Blaesus also was removed from the senate: he was charged by the Cyrenaeans with profaning the treasury of Aesculapius and falsifying the military levy by venality and favouritism. An indictment was brought, again by Cyrene, against Acilius Strabo, who had held praetorian office and been sent by Claudius to adjudicate on the estates, once the patrimony of King Apion, which he had bequeathed along with his kingdom to the Roman nation. They had been annexed by the neighbouring proprietors, who relied on their long-licensed usurpation as a legal and fair title. Hence, when the adjudication went against them, there was an outbreak of ill-will against the adjudicator; and the senate could only answer that it was ignorant of Claudius' instructions and the emperor would have to be consulted. Nero, while upholding Strabo's verdict, wrote that none the less he supported the provincials and made over to them the property occupied. 14.20.  In the consulate of Nero — his fourth term — and of Cornelius Cossus, a quinquennial competition on the stage, in the style of a Greek contest, was introduced at Rome. Like almost all innovations it was variously canvassed. Some insisted that "even Pompey had been censured by his elders for establishing the theatre in a permanent home. Before, the games had usually been exhibited with the help of improvised tiers of benches and a stage thrown up for the occasion; or, to go further into the past, the people stood to watch: seats in the theatre, it was feared, might tempt them to pass whole days in indolence. By all means let the spectacles be retained in their old form, whenever the praetor presided, and so long as no citizen lay under any obligation to compete. But the national morality, which had gradually fallen into oblivion, was being overthrown from the foundations by this imported licentiousness; the aim of which was that every production of every land, capable of either undergoing or engendering corruption, should be on view in the capital, and that our youth, under the influence of foreign tastes, should degenerate into votaries of the gymnasia, of indolence, and of dishonourable amours, — and this at the instigation of the emperor and senate, who, not content with conferring immunity upon vice, were applying compulsion, in order that Roman nobles should pollute themselves on the stage under pretext of delivering an oration or a poem. What remained but to strip to the skin as well, put on the gloves, and practise that mode of conflict instead of the profession of arms? Would justice be promoted, would the equestrian decuries better fulfil their great judicial functions, if they had lent an expert ear to emasculated music and dulcet voices? Even night had been re­quisitioned for scandal, so that virtue should not be left with a breathing-space, but that amid a promiscuous crowd every vilest profligate might venture in the dark the act for which he had lusted in the light.
27. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 62.15.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

28. Lucian, A True Story, 2.15 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 1.15.2, 3.1.9, 9.17.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 1.15.2, 3.1.9, 9.17.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

31. Socrates Scholasticus, Ecclesiastical History, 5.18 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

5.18. The emperor Theodosius during his short stay in Italy, conferred the greatest benefit on the city of Rome, by grants on the one hand, and abrogations on the other. His largesses were indeed very munificent; and he removed two most infamous abuses which existed in the city. One of them was the following: there were buildings of immense magnitude, erected in ancient Rome in former times, in which bread was made for distribution among the people. Those who had the charge of these edifices, who Mancipes were called in the Latin language, in process of time converted them into receptacles for thieves. Now as the bake-houses in these structures were placed underneath, they build taverns at the side of each, where they kept prostitutes; by which means they entrapped many of those who went there either for the sake of refreshment, or to gratify their lusts, for by a certain mechanical contrivance they precipitated them from the tavern into the bake-house below. This was practiced chiefly upon strangers; and such as were in this way kidnapped were compelled to work in the bake-houses, where many of them were immured until old age, not being allowed to go out, and giving the impression to their friends that they were dead. It happened that one of the soldiers of the emperor Theodosius fell into this snare; who being shut up in the bake-house, and hindered from going out, drew a dagger which he wore and killed those who stood in his way: the rest being terrified, suffered him to escape. When the emperor was made acquainted with the circumstance he punished the Mancipes, and ordered these haunts of lawless and abandoned characters to be pulled down. This was one of the disgraceful nuisances of which the emperor purged the imperial city: the other was of this nature. When a woman was detected in adultery, they punished the delinquent not in the way of correction but rather of aggravation of her crime. For shutting her up in a narrow brothel, they obliged her to prostitute herself in a most disgusting manner; causing little bells to be rung at the time of the unclean deed that those who passed might not be ignorant of what was doing within. This was doubtless intended to brand the crime with greater ignominy in public opinion. As soon as the emperor was apprised of this indecent usage, he would by no means tolerate it; but having ordered the Sistra - for so these places of penal prostitution were denominated - to be pulled down, he appointed other laws for the punishment of adulteresses. Thus did the emperor Theodosius free the city from two of its most discreditable abuses: and when he had arranged all other affairs to his satisfaction, he left the emperor Valentinian at Rome, and returned himself with his son Honorius to Constantinople, and entered that city of the 10th of November, in the consulate of Tatian and Symmachus.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adultery McGinn, The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman world: A study of Social History & The Brothel (2004) 91
alcohol McGinn, The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman world: A study of Social History & The Brothel (2004) 91
augustus, and reading Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 205
brothels, and theft McGinn, The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman world: A study of Social History & The Brothel (2004) 91
brothels, elite attitudes toward McGinn, The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman world: A study of Social History & The Brothel (2004) 91
brothels, location within cities McGinn, The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman world: A study of Social History & The Brothel (2004) 91
caligula (emperor) McGinn, The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman world: A study of Social History & The Brothel (2004) 91
catasterismi (piso) Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
catulus, q. lutatius Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 231
cicero, m. tullius Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 231
cicero, on poetry as part of conversation Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204, 205
comissatio McGinn, The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman world: A study of Social History & The Brothel (2004) 91
dinner parties McGinn, The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman world: A study of Social History & The Brothel (2004) 91
drama, performances of for entertainment Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 205
entertainment, and dramatic performances Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 205
entertainment, and musical performances Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 205
entertainment, and recitations Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 205
fronto Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 231
hymn Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 225
ligurinus, and recitations Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204, 205
macer Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
martial, on reading Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
musical instruments Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 225
nero Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 205
nero (emperor) McGinn, The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman world: A study of Social History & The Brothel (2004) 91
oral performance, of poetry Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 205
ovid, and reading Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
person, third Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 231
piso, calpurnius, catasterismi Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
pliny the younger, on recitations Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
poetry, and reading aloud Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
prostitution, zoning McGinn, The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman world: A study of Social History & The Brothel (2004) 91
quinn, kenneth, on oral performance Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
quotation, aloud Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
recitation, and ligurinus Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204, 205
recitation, for entertainment Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 205
rome/romans Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 231
seneca the younger, on reading Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204
singing' Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 225
spurinna Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 204, 205
style Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 231
tacitus Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 205
theatrical performance Johnson and Parker, ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome (2009) 205
theocritus Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 231
xenophon Kingsley Monti and Rood, The Authoritative Historian: Tradition and Innovation in Ancient Historiography (2022) 231