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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



5662
Eusebius Of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 8.2.4


nanIt was in the nineteenth year of the reign of Diocletian, in the month Dystrus, called March by the Romans, when the feast of the Saviour's passion was near at hand, that royal edicts were published everywhere, commanding that the churches be leveled to the ground and the Scriptures be destroyed by fire, and ordering that those who held places of honor be degraded, and that the household servants, if they persisted in the profession of Christianity, be deprived of freedom.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

12 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 11.1-11.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.1. וְיָצָא חֹטֶר מִגֵּזַע יִשָׁי וְנֵצֶר מִשָּׁרָשָׁיו יִפְרֶה׃ 11.1. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא שֹׁרֶשׁ יִשַׁי אֲשֶׁר עֹמֵד לְנֵס עַמִּים אֵלָיו גּוֹיִם יִדְרֹשׁוּ וְהָיְתָה מְנֻחָתוֹ כָּבוֹד׃ 11.2. וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ יְהוָה רוּחַ חָכְמָה וּבִינָה רוּחַ עֵצָה וּגְבוּרָה רוּחַ דַּעַת וְיִרְאַת יְהוָה׃ 11.3. וַהֲרִיחוֹ בְּיִרְאַת יְהוָה וְלֹא־לְמַרְאֵה עֵינָיו יִשְׁפּוֹט וְלֹא־לְמִשְׁמַע אָזְנָיו יוֹכִיחַ׃ 11.1. And there shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, And a twig shall grow forth out of his roots." 11.2. And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and might, The spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD." 11.3. And his delight shall be in the fear of the LORD; And he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, Neither decide after the hearing of his ears;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 15.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 43.1, 53.1, 56.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

43.1. Καὶ τί θαυμαστόν, εἰ οἱ ἐν Χριστῷ πιστευθέντες παρὰ θεοῦ ἔργον τοιοῦτο κατέστησαν τοὺς προειρημένους; ὅπου καὶ ὁ μακάριος πιστὸς θεράπων ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ οἴκῳ Μωϋσῆς τὰ διατεταγμένα αὐτῷ πάντα ἐσημειώσατο ἐν ταῖς ἱεραῖς βίβλοις, ᾧ καὶ ἐπηκολούθησαν οἱ λοιποὶ προφῆται, συνεπιμαρτυροῦντες τοῖς ὑπ̓ αὐτοῦ νενομοθετημένοις. Num. 17 53.1. Ἐπίστασθε γὰρ καὶ καλῶς ἐπίστασθε τὰς ἱερὰς γραφάς, ἀγαπητοί, καὶ ἐγκεκύφατε εἰς τὰ λόγια τοῦ θεοῦ. πρὸς ἀνάμνησιν οὖν ταῦτα γράφομεν. 56.3. οὕτως γάρ Ps. 115, 18 φησιν ὁ ἅγιος λόγος: Παιδεύων ἐπαίδευσέν με ὁ Prov. 8, 12 (Heb. 12, 6) κύριος, καὶ τῷ θανάτῳ οὐ παρέδωκέν με:
4. New Testament, John, 1.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made.
5. Constantine I Emperor of Rome, Oratio Ad Sanctorum Coetum, 25 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

6. Eusebius of Caesarea, Martyrs of Palestine, 1.1, 3.1, 13.12 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

7. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 6.1.1, 7.10.3, 7.13, 7.13.1, 7.15, 7.30.20-7.30.21, 8.2.1, 8.2.5, 8.5.1, 8.6.8-8.6.10, 8.13.11, 9.9.4-9.9.9, 9.10.8, 10.5.2-10.5.5, 10.5.9-10.5.12, 11.2 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

6.1.1. BOOK VIWhen Severus began to persecute the churches, glorious testimonies were given everywhere by the athletes of religion. This was especially the case in Alexandria, to which city, as to a most prominent theater, athletes of God were brought from Egypt and all Thebais according to their merit, and won crowns from God through their great patience under many tortures and every mode of death. Among these was Leonides, who was called the father of Origen, and who was beheaded while his son was still young. How remarkable the predilection of this son was for the Divine Word, in consequence of his father's instruction, it will not be amiss to state briefly, as his fame has been very greatly celebrated by many. 7.10.3. It is wonderful that both of these things occurred under Valerian; and it is the more remarkable in this case when we consider his previous conduct, for he had been mild and friendly toward the men of God, for none of the emperors before him had treated them so kindly and favorably; and not even those who were said openly to be Christians received them with such manifest hospitality and friendliness as he did at the beginning of his reign. For his entire house was filled with pious persons and was a church of God. 7.13.1. Shortly after this Valerian was reduced to slavery by the barbarians, and his son having become sole ruler, conducted the government more prudently. He immediately restrained the persecution against us by public proclamations, and directed the bishops to perform in freedom their customary duties, in a rescript which ran as follows: 7.30.20. Such was Aurelian's treatment of us at that time; but in the course of his reign he changed his mind in regard to us, and was moved by certain advisers to institute a persecution against us. And there was great talk about this on every side. 7.30.21. But as he was about to do it, and was, so to speak, in the very act of signing the decrees against us, the divine judgment came upon him and restrained him at the very verge of his undertaking, showing in a manner that all could see clearly, that the rulers of this world can never find an opportunity against the churches of Christ, except the hand that defends them permits it, in divine and heavenly judgment, for the sake of discipline and correction, at such times as it sees best. 8.2.1. All these things were fulfilled in us, when we saw with our own eyes the houses of prayer thrown down to the very foundations, and the Divine and Sacred Scriptures committed to the flames in the midst of the market-places, and the shepherds of the churches basely hidden here and there, and some of them captured ignominiously, and mocked by their enemies. When also, according to another prophetic word, Contempt was poured out upon rulers, and he caused them to wander in an untrodden and pathless way. 8.2.5. Such was the first edict against us. But not long after, other decrees were issued, commanding that all the rulers of the churches in every place be first thrown into prison, and afterwards by every artifice be compelled to sacrifice. 8.5.1. Immediately on the publication of the decree against the churches in Nicomedia, a certain man, not obscure but very highly honored with distinguished temporal dignities, moved with zeal toward God, and incited with ardent faith, seized the edict as it was posted openly and publicly, and tore it to pieces as a profane and impious thing; and this was done while two of the sovereigns were in the same city — the oldest of all, and the one who held the fourth place in the government after him. 8.6.8. Such things occurred in Nicomedia at the beginning of the persecution. But not long after, as persons in the country called Melitene, and others throughout Syria, attempted to usurp the government, a royal edict directed that the rulers of the churches everywhere should be thrown into prison and bonds. 8.6.9. What was to be seen after this exceeds all description. A vast multitude were imprisoned in every place; and the prisons everywhere, which had long before been prepared for murderers and robbers of graves, were filled with bishops, presbyters and deacons, readers and exorcists, so that room was no longer left in them for those condemned for crimes. 8.6.10. And as other decrees followed the first, directing that those in prison if they would sacrifice should be permitted to depart in freedom, but that those who refused should be harassed with many tortures, how could any one, again, number the multitude of martyrs in every province, and especially of those in Africa, and Mauritania, and Thebais, and Egypt? From this last country many went into other cities and provinces, and became illustrious through martyrdom. 8.13.11. For a severe sickness came upon the chief of those of whom we have spoken, by which his understanding was distracted; and with him who was honored with the second rank, he retired into private life. Scarcely had he done this when the entire empire was divided; a thing which is not recorded as having ever occurred before. 9.9.4. Then, that he might not be compelled to wage war with the Romans for the sake of the tyrant, God himself drew the latter, as if bound in chains, some distance without the gates, and confirmed those threats against the impious which had been anciently inscribed in sacred books — disbelieved, indeed, by most as a myth, but believed by the faithful, — confirmed them, in a word, by the deed itself to all, both believers and unbelievers, that saw the wonder with their eyes. 9.9.5. Thus, as in the time of Moses himself and of the ancient God-beloved race of Hebrews, he cast Pharaoh's chariots and host into the sea, and overwhelmed his chosen charioteers in the Red Sea, and covered them with the flood, in the same way Maxentius also with his soldiers and body-guards went down into the depths like a stone, when he fled before the power of God which was with Constantine, and passed through the river which lay in his way, over which he had formed a bridge with boats, and thus prepared the means of his own destruction. 9.9.6. In regard to him one might say, he dug a pit and opened it and fell into the hole which he had made; his labor shall turn upon his own head, and his unrighteousness shall fall upon his own crown. 9.9.7. Thus, then, the bridge over the river being broken, the passageway settled down, and immediately the boats with the men disappeared in the depths, and that most impious one himself first of all, then the shield-bearers who were with him, as the divine oracles foretold, sank like lead in the mighty waters; so that those who obtained the victory from God, if not in words, at least in deeds, like Moses, the great servant of God, and those who were with him, fittingly sang as they had sung against the impious tyrant of old, saying, Let us sing unto the Lord, for he has gloriously glorified himself; horse and rider has he thrown into the sea; a helper and a protector has he become for my salvation; and Who is like you, O Lord; among the gods, who is like you glorious in holiness, marvelous in glory, doing wonders. 9.9.8. These and the like praises Constantine, by his very deeds, sang to God, the universal Ruler, and Author of his victory, as he entered Rome in triumph. 9.9.9. Immediately all the members of the senate and the other most celebrated men, with the whole Roman people, together with children and women, received him as their deliverer, their saviour, and their benefactor, with shining eyes and with their whole souls, with shouts of gladness and unbounded joy. 9.10.8. When, therefore, before this, it became clear to our mind that under pretext of the command of our parents, the most divine Diocletian and Maximianus, which enjoined that the meetings of the Christians should be abolished, many extortions and spoliations had been practiced by officials; and that those evils were continually increasing, to the detriment of our provincials toward whom we are especially anxious to exercise proper care, and that their possessions were in consequence perishing, letters were sent last year to the governors of each province, in which we decreed that, if any one wished to follow such a practice or to observe this same religion, he should be permitted without hindrance to pursue his purpose and should be impeded and prevented by no one, and that all should have liberty to do without any fear or suspicion that which each preferred. 10.5.2. Perceiving long ago that religious liberty ought not to be denied, but that it ought to be granted to the judgment and desire of each individual to perform his religious duties according to his own choice, we had given orders that every man, Christians as well as others, should preserve the faith of his own sect and religion. 10.5.3. But since in that rescript, in which such liberty was granted them, many and various conditions seemed clearly added, some of them, it may be, after a little retired from such observance. 10.5.4. When I, Constantine Augustus, and I, Licinius Augustus, came under favorable auspices to Milan and took under consideration everything which pertained to the common good and prosperity, we resolved among other things, or rather first of all, to make such decrees as seemed in many respects for the benefit of every one; namely, such as should preserve reverence and piety toward the deity. We resolved, that is, to grant both to the Christians and to all men freedom to follow the religion which they choose, that whatever heavenly divinity exists may be propitious to us and to all that live under our government. 10.5.5. We have, therefore, determined, with sound and upright purpose, that liberty is to be denied to no one, to choose and to follow the religious observances of the Christians, but that to each one freedom is to be given to devote his mind to that religion which he may think adapted to himself, in order that the Deity may exhibit to us in all things his accustomed care and favor. 10.5.9. And we decree still further in regard to the Christians, that their places, in which they were formerly accustomed to assemble, and concerning which in the former letter sent to your devotedness a different command was given, if it appear that any have bought them either from our treasury or from any other person, shall be restored to the said Christians, without demanding money or any other equivalent, with no delay or hesitation. 10.5.10. If any happen to have received the said places as a gift, they shall restore them as quickly as possible to these same Christians: with the understanding that if those who have bought these places, or those who have received them as a gift, demand anything from our bounty, they may go to the judge of the district, that provision may be made for them by our clemency. All these things are to be granted to the society of Christians by your care immediately and without any delay. 10.5.11. And since the said Christians are known to have possessed not only those places in which they were accustomed to assemble, but also other places, belonging not to individuals among them, but to the society as a whole, that is, to the society of Christians, you will command that all these, in virtue of the law which we have above stated, be restored, without any hesitation, to these same Christians; that is, to their society and congregation: the above-mentioned provision being of course observed, that those who restore them without price, as we have before said, may expect indemnification from our bounty. 10.5.12. In all these things, for the benefit of the aforesaid society of Christians, you are to use the utmost diligence, to the end that our command may be speedily fulfilled, and that in this also, by our clemency, provision may be made for the common and public tranquillity.
8. Eusebius of Caesarea, Life of Constantine, 1.26-1.29, 2.51 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

1.26. While, therefore, he regarded the entire world as one immense body, and perceived that the head of it all, the royal city of the Roman empire, was bowed down by the weight of a tyrannous oppression; at first he had left the task of liberation to those who governed the other divisions of the empire, as being his superiors in point of age. But when none of these proved able to afford relief, and those who had attempted it had experienced a disastrous termination of their enterprise, he said that life was without enjoyment to him as long as he saw the imperial city thus afflicted, and prepared himself for the overthrowal of the tyranny. 1.27. Being convinced, however, that he needed some more powerful aid than his military forces could afford him, on account of the wicked and magical enchantments which were so diligently practiced by the tyrant, he sought Divine assistance, deeming the possession of arms and a numerous soldiery of secondary importance, but believing the co-operating power of Deity invincible and not to be shaken. He considered, therefore, on what God he might rely for protection and assistance. While engaged in this enquiry, the thought occurred to him, that, of the many emperors who had preceded him, those who had rested their hopes in a multitude of gods, and served them with sacrifices and offerings, had in the first place been deceived by flattering predictions, and oracles which promised them all prosperity, and at last had met with an unhappy end, while not one of their gods had stood by to warn them of the impending wrath of heaven; while one alone who had pursued an entirely opposite course, who had condemned their error, and honored the one Supreme God during his whole life, had found him to be the Saviour and Protector of his empire, and the Giver of every good thing. Reflecting on this, and well weighing the fact that they who had trusted in many gods had also fallen by manifold forms of death, without leaving behind them either family or offspring, stock, name, or memorial among men: while the God of his father had given to him, on the other hand, manifestations of his power and very many tokens: and considering farther that those who had already taken arms against the tyrant, and had marched to the battlefield under the protection of a multitude of gods, had met with a dishonorable end (for one of them had shamefully retreated from the contest without a blow, and the other, being slain in the midst of his own troops, became, as it were, the mere sport of death ); reviewing, I say, all these considerations, he judged it to be folly indeed to join in the idle worship of those who were no gods, and, after such convincing evidence, to err from the truth; and therefore felt it incumbent on him to honor his father's God alone. 1.28. Accordingly he called on him with earnest prayer and supplications that he would reveal to him who he was, and stretch forth his right hand to help him in his present difficulties. And while he was thus praying with fervent entreaty, a most marvelous sign appeared to him from heaven, the account of which it might have been hard to believe had it been related by any other person. But since the victorious emperor himself long afterwards declared it to the writer of this history, when he was honored with his acquaintance and society, and confirmed his statement by an oath, who could hesitate to accredit the relation, especially since the testimony of after-time has established its truth? He said that about noon, when the day was already beginning to decline, he saw with his own eyes the trophy of a cross of light in the heavens, above the sun, and bearing the inscription, Conquer by this . At this sight he himself was struck with amazement, and his whole army also, which followed him on this expedition, and witnessed the miracle. intensest reality the vision of the words, so that for the moment he was living in the intensest reality of such a vision. His mind had just that intense activity to which such a thing is possible or actual. It is like Goethe's famous meeting of his own self. It is that genius power for the realistic representation of ideal things. This is not the same exactly as "hallucination," or even "imagination." The hallucination probably came later when Constantine gradually represented to himself and finally to Eusebius the vivid idea with its slight ground, as an objective reality,—a common phenomenon. When the emperor went to sleep, his brain molecules vibrating to the forms of his late intense thought, he inevitably dreamed, and dreaming naturally confirmed his thought. This does not say that the suggestive form seen, or the idea itself, and the direction of the dream itself, were not providential and the work of the Holy Spirit, for they were, and were special in character, and so miraculous (or why do ideas come?); but it is to be feared that Constantine's own spirit or something else furnished some of the later details. There is a slight difference of authority as to when and where the vision took place. The panegyrist seems to make it before leaving Gaul, and Malalas is inaccurate as usual in having it happen in a war against the barbarians. For farther discussion of the subject see monographs under Literature in the Prolegomena, especially under the names: Baring, Du Voisin, Fabricius, Girault, Heumann, Jacutius Mamachi, Molinet, St. Victor, Suhr, Toderini, Weidener, Wernsdorf, Woltereck. The most concise, clear, and admirable supporter of the account of Eusebius, or rather Constantine, as it stands, is Newman, Miracles (Lond. 1875), 271-286.}-- 1.29. He said, moreover, that he doubted within himself what the import of this apparition could be. And while he continued to ponder and reason on its meaning, night suddenly came on; then in his sleep the Christ of God appeared to him with the same sign which he had seen in the heavens, and commanded him to make a likeness of that sign which he had seen in the heavens, and to use it as a safeguard in all engagements with his enemies. 2.51. I call now on you, most high God, to witness that, when young, I heard him who at that time was chief among the Roman emperors, unhappy, truly unhappy as he was, and laboring under mental delusion, make earnest enquiry of his attendants as to who these righteous ones on earth were, and that one of the Pagan priests then present replied that they were doubtless the Christians. This answer he eagerly received, like some honeyed draught, and unsheathed the sword which was ordained for the punishment of crime, against those whose holiness was beyond reproach. Immediately, therefore, he issued those sanguinary edicts, traced, if I may so express myself, with a sword's point dipped in blood; at the same time commanding his judges to tax their ingenuity for the invention of new and more terrible punishments.
9. Lactantius, Deaths of The Persecutors, 13.1 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

10. Anon., The Acts of The Scillitan Martyrs Or The Passion of Speratus And Companions, 12

11. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 84-89, 9, 90-91, 10

10. and he replied, 'More than two hundred thousand, O king, and I shall make endeavour in the immediate future to gather together the remainder also, so that the total of five hundred thousand may be reached. I am told that the laws of the Jews are worth transcribing and deserve a place in
12. Anon., Martyrdom of Agape, Eirene, And Chione, 4.2



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(great) library of alexandria, as multicultural landmark Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 36
(great) library of alexandria Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 36
acta martyrum, acts of the martyrs Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 247
africa proconsularis, and the great persecution Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 65
agrikolaos/agricola Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 67
alchemy Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 28
altar Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 247
antioch, residents fear diocletian Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 43
armenia minor/prima Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 67
athenagoras Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 230
athenogenes of pedachthoe Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 67
aurelian (emperor) Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 169
barnes, t. d. Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 43
bishop Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 28
buddhism Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 28
burning alive Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 28
callimachus Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 36
christianity, relationship to rome Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 248
church Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 247
churches, destruction of Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 203, 230
cirta (constantine), and the great persecution Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 65
constantine Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 230; Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 248
cult Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 247
diocletian, humiliates galerius Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 43
diocletian, roman emperor (284-305), 1st edict Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 43
diocletian Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 248; Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 67
donatists Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 28
egyptian priests, high priest of heliopolis Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 36
enslavement Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 203
eusebius, and the 1st edict Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 65
eusebius of caesarea Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 67
fire (as purification) Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 28
galerius, diocletians eastern caesar and later emperor (caesar, persian victory of Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 43
galerius Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 248
gallienus Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 203
gnosticism, gnostic Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 28
great persecution Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 28
hagiography Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 247
hell Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 28
idolatry Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 230
irenaeus of lyon Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 230
justin martyr Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 230
lactantius, and the beginning of the persecution Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 43
lactantius Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 65
letter of aristeas, inclusion of jewish law into alexandrian library Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 36
licinius Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 194
manetho Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 36
manichaeism, manichaeans Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 28
martyrdom Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 230; Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 837; Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 67
martyrdom and book-burning Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 28
martyrs, martyrdom Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 247
maxentius Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 194
maximian, emperor Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 67
maximian (emperor) Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 194
maximin ii daia Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 194
melitene (eski malatya) Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 67
milan (mediolanum), edict of Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 194
museum/mouseion Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 36
nero Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 169
nicomedia, christian church at Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 43
nicomedia Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 203; Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 67
numidia, and great persecution Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 65
offices (christian), chorepiskopos (country bishop) Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 67
offices (state), governor (provincial) Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 67
origen Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 230
pagan, paganism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 247
palestine Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 67
paul, pauline, paulinism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 247
persecution, great persecution Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 248
persecution, history of Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 248
persecution Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 247
persecution of Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 203
persecutions, of christians, 1st edict Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 43
persecutions, of christians, beginning of great persecution' Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 43
persecutions, of christians Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 65
persecutions Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 169, 194
philo, and alexandrias museum/great library Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 36
ptolemy i Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 36
ritual Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 247
roman/byzantine empire Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 194
rome, persecution of christianity Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 248
rome, roman Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 247
rome (roma) Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 194
schism Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 28
scriptures, destruction of Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 203, 230
sebaste(a)/megalopolis (sivas) Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 67
septimius severus Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 169
septuagint, initiative for translation of hebrew scripture Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 36
syncretism Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 28
syria Mitchell and Pilhofer, Early Christianity in Asia Minor and Cyprus: From the Margins to the Mainstream (2019) 67
terminalia Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 203
terminus Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 203
tetrarchy Simmons, Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian (1995) 43, 65
valeria Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 169, 194
zoroastrianism Rohmann, Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity (2016) 28