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Eusebius Of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 8.2.4

nanIt was in the nineteenth year of the reign of Diocletian, in the month Dystrus, called March by the Romans, when the feast of the Saviour's passion was near at hand, that royal edicts were published everywhere, commanding that the churches be leveled to the ground and the Scriptures be destroyed by fire, and ordering that those who held places of honor be degraded, and that the household servants, if they persisted in the profession of Christianity, be deprived of freedom.

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

8 results
1. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 43.1, 53.1, 56.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

43.1. Καὶ τί θαυμαστόν, εἰ οἱ ἐν Χριστῷ πιστευθέντες παρὰ θεοῦ ἔργον τοιοῦτο κατέστησαν τοὺς προειρημένους; ὅπου καὶ ὁ μακάριος πιστὸς θεράπων ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ οἴκῳ Μωϋσῆς τὰ διατεταγμένα αὐτῷ πάντα ἐσημειώσατο ἐν ταῖς ἱεραῖς βίβλοις, ᾧ καὶ ἐπηκολούθησαν οἱ λοιποὶ προφῆται, συνεπιμαρτυροῦντες τοῖς ὑπ̓ αὐτοῦ νενομοθετημένοις. Num. 17 53.1. Ἐπίστασθε γὰρ καὶ καλῶς ἐπίστασθε τὰς ἱερὰς γραφάς, ἀγαπητοί, καὶ ἐγκεκύφατε εἰς τὰ λόγια τοῦ θεοῦ. πρὸς ἀνάμνησιν οὖν ταῦτα γράφομεν. 56.3. οὕτως γάρ Ps. 115, 18 φησιν ὁ ἅγιος λόγος: Παιδεύων ἐπαίδευσέν με ὁ Prov. 8, 12 (Heb. 12, 6) κύριος, καὶ τῷ θανάτῳ οὐ παρέδωκέν με:
2. Constantine I Emperor of Rome, Oratio Ad Sanctorum Coetum, 25 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

3. Eusebius of Caesarea, Martyrs of Palestine, 1.1, 3.1, 13.12 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

4. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 6.1.1, 7.10.3, 7.13, 7.13.1, 7.15, 7.30.20-7.30.21, 8.2.5, 8.5.1, 8.6.8-8.6.10, 8.13.11, 9.10.8, 11.2 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

6.1.1. BOOK VIWhen Severus began to persecute the churches, glorious testimonies were given everywhere by the athletes of religion. This was especially the case in Alexandria, to which city, as to a most prominent theater, athletes of God were brought from Egypt and all Thebais according to their merit, and won crowns from God through their great patience under many tortures and every mode of death. Among these was Leonides, who was called the father of Origen, and who was beheaded while his son was still young. How remarkable the predilection of this son was for the Divine Word, in consequence of his father's instruction, it will not be amiss to state briefly, as his fame has been very greatly celebrated by many. 7.10.3. It is wonderful that both of these things occurred under Valerian; and it is the more remarkable in this case when we consider his previous conduct, for he had been mild and friendly toward the men of God, for none of the emperors before him had treated them so kindly and favorably; and not even those who were said openly to be Christians received them with such manifest hospitality and friendliness as he did at the beginning of his reign. For his entire house was filled with pious persons and was a church of God. 7.13.1. Shortly after this Valerian was reduced to slavery by the barbarians, and his son having become sole ruler, conducted the government more prudently. He immediately restrained the persecution against us by public proclamations, and directed the bishops to perform in freedom their customary duties, in a rescript which ran as follows: 7.30.20. Such was Aurelian's treatment of us at that time; but in the course of his reign he changed his mind in regard to us, and was moved by certain advisers to institute a persecution against us. And there was great talk about this on every side. 7.30.21. But as he was about to do it, and was, so to speak, in the very act of signing the decrees against us, the divine judgment came upon him and restrained him at the very verge of his undertaking, showing in a manner that all could see clearly, that the rulers of this world can never find an opportunity against the churches of Christ, except the hand that defends them permits it, in divine and heavenly judgment, for the sake of discipline and correction, at such times as it sees best. 8.2.5. Such was the first edict against us. But not long after, other decrees were issued, commanding that all the rulers of the churches in every place be first thrown into prison, and afterwards by every artifice be compelled to sacrifice. 8.5.1. Immediately on the publication of the decree against the churches in Nicomedia, a certain man, not obscure but very highly honored with distinguished temporal dignities, moved with zeal toward God, and incited with ardent faith, seized the edict as it was posted openly and publicly, and tore it to pieces as a profane and impious thing; and this was done while two of the sovereigns were in the same city — the oldest of all, and the one who held the fourth place in the government after him. 8.6.8. Such things occurred in Nicomedia at the beginning of the persecution. But not long after, as persons in the country called Melitene, and others throughout Syria, attempted to usurp the government, a royal edict directed that the rulers of the churches everywhere should be thrown into prison and bonds. 8.6.9. What was to be seen after this exceeds all description. A vast multitude were imprisoned in every place; and the prisons everywhere, which had long before been prepared for murderers and robbers of graves, were filled with bishops, presbyters and deacons, readers and exorcists, so that room was no longer left in them for those condemned for crimes. 8.6.10. And as other decrees followed the first, directing that those in prison if they would sacrifice should be permitted to depart in freedom, but that those who refused should be harassed with many tortures, how could any one, again, number the multitude of martyrs in every province, and especially of those in Africa, and Mauritania, and Thebais, and Egypt? From this last country many went into other cities and provinces, and became illustrious through martyrdom. 8.13.11. For a severe sickness came upon the chief of those of whom we have spoken, by which his understanding was distracted; and with him who was honored with the second rank, he retired into private life. Scarcely had he done this when the entire empire was divided; a thing which is not recorded as having ever occurred before. 9.10.8. When, therefore, before this, it became clear to our mind that under pretext of the command of our parents, the most divine Diocletian and Maximianus, which enjoined that the meetings of the Christians should be abolished, many extortions and spoliations had been practiced by officials; and that those evils were continually increasing, to the detriment of our provincials toward whom we are especially anxious to exercise proper care, and that their possessions were in consequence perishing, letters were sent last year to the governors of each province, in which we decreed that, if any one wished to follow such a practice or to observe this same religion, he should be permitted without hindrance to pursue his purpose and should be impeded and prevented by no one, and that all should have liberty to do without any fear or suspicion that which each preferred.
5. Eusebius of Caesarea, Life of Constantine, 1.26-1.29 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

1.26. While, therefore, he regarded the entire world as one immense body, and perceived that the head of it all, the royal city of the Roman empire, was bowed down by the weight of a tyrannous oppression; at first he had left the task of liberation to those who governed the other divisions of the empire, as being his superiors in point of age. But when none of these proved able to afford relief, and those who had attempted it had experienced a disastrous termination of their enterprise, he said that life was without enjoyment to him as long as he saw the imperial city thus afflicted, and prepared himself for the overthrowal of the tyranny. 1.27. Being convinced, however, that he needed some more powerful aid than his military forces could afford him, on account of the wicked and magical enchantments which were so diligently practiced by the tyrant, he sought Divine assistance, deeming the possession of arms and a numerous soldiery of secondary importance, but believing the co-operating power of Deity invincible and not to be shaken. He considered, therefore, on what God he might rely for protection and assistance. While engaged in this enquiry, the thought occurred to him, that, of the many emperors who had preceded him, those who had rested their hopes in a multitude of gods, and served them with sacrifices and offerings, had in the first place been deceived by flattering predictions, and oracles which promised them all prosperity, and at last had met with an unhappy end, while not one of their gods had stood by to warn them of the impending wrath of heaven; while one alone who had pursued an entirely opposite course, who had condemned their error, and honored the one Supreme God during his whole life, had found him to be the Saviour and Protector of his empire, and the Giver of every good thing. Reflecting on this, and well weighing the fact that they who had trusted in many gods had also fallen by manifold forms of death, without leaving behind them either family or offspring, stock, name, or memorial among men: while the God of his father had given to him, on the other hand, manifestations of his power and very many tokens: and considering farther that those who had already taken arms against the tyrant, and had marched to the battlefield under the protection of a multitude of gods, had met with a dishonorable end (for one of them had shamefully retreated from the contest without a blow, and the other, being slain in the midst of his own troops, became, as it were, the mere sport of death ); reviewing, I say, all these considerations, he judged it to be folly indeed to join in the idle worship of those who were no gods, and, after such convincing evidence, to err from the truth; and therefore felt it incumbent on him to honor his father's God alone. 1.28. Accordingly he called on him with earnest prayer and supplications that he would reveal to him who he was, and stretch forth his right hand to help him in his present difficulties. And while he was thus praying with fervent entreaty, a most marvelous sign appeared to him from heaven, the account of which it might have been hard to believe had it been related by any other person. But since the victorious emperor himself long afterwards declared it to the writer of this history, when he was honored with his acquaintance and society, and confirmed his statement by an oath, who could hesitate to accredit the relation, especially since the testimony of after-time has established its truth? He said that about noon, when the day was already beginning to decline, he saw with his own eyes the trophy of a cross of light in the heavens, above the sun, and bearing the inscription, Conquer by this . At this sight he himself was struck with amazement, and his whole army also, which followed him on this expedition, and witnessed the miracle. intensest reality the vision of the words, so that for the moment he was living in the intensest reality of such a vision. His mind had just that intense activity to which such a thing is possible or actual. It is like Goethe's famous meeting of his own self. It is that genius power for the realistic representation of ideal things. This is not the same exactly as "hallucination," or even "imagination." The hallucination probably came later when Constantine gradually represented to himself and finally to Eusebius the vivid idea with its slight ground, as an objective reality,—a common phenomenon. When the emperor went to sleep, his brain molecules vibrating to the forms of his late intense thought, he inevitably dreamed, and dreaming naturally confirmed his thought. This does not say that the suggestive form seen, or the idea itself, and the direction of the dream itself, were not providential and the work of the Holy Spirit, for they were, and were special in character, and so miraculous (or why do ideas come?); but it is to be feared that Constantine's own spirit or something else furnished some of the later details. There is a slight difference of authority as to when and where the vision took place. The panegyrist seems to make it before leaving Gaul, and Malalas is inaccurate as usual in having it happen in a war against the barbarians. For farther discussion of the subject see monographs under Literature in the Prolegomena, especially under the names: Baring, Du Voisin, Fabricius, Girault, Heumann, Jacutius Mamachi, Molinet, St. Victor, Suhr, Toderini, Weidener, Wernsdorf, Woltereck. The most concise, clear, and admirable supporter of the account of Eusebius, or rather Constantine, as it stands, is Newman, Miracles (Lond. 1875), 271-286.}-- 1.29. He said, moreover, that he doubted within himself what the import of this apparition could be. And while he continued to ponder and reason on its meaning, night suddenly came on; then in his sleep the Christ of God appeared to him with the same sign which he had seen in the heavens, and commanded him to make a likeness of that sign which he had seen in the heavens, and to use it as a safeguard in all engagements with his enemies.
6. Lactantius, Deaths of The Persecutors, 13.1 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

7. Anon., The Acts of The Scillitan Martyrs Or The Passion of Speratus And Companions, 12

8. Anon., Martyrdom of Agape, Eirene, And Chione, 4.2

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acta martyrum,acts of the martyrs Novenson (2020) 247
africa proconsularis,and the great persecution Simmons(1995) 65
agrikolaos/agricola Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 67
alchemy Rohmann (2016) 28
altar Novenson (2020) 247
antioch,residents fear diocletian Simmons(1995) 43
armenia minor/prima Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 67
athenagoras Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 230
athenogenes of pedachthoe Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 67
aurelian (emperor) Tabbernee (2007) 169
barnes,t. d. Simmons(1995) 43
bishop Rohmann (2016) 28
buddhism Rohmann (2016) 28
burning alive Rohmann (2016) 28
christianity,relationship to rome Esler (2000) 248
church Novenson (2020) 247
churches,destruction of Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 203, 230
cirta (constantine),and the great persecution Simmons(1995) 65
constantine Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 230; Esler (2000) 248
cult Novenson (2020) 247
diocletian,humiliates galerius Simmons(1995) 43
diocletian,roman emperor (284-305),1st edict Simmons(1995) 43
diocletian Esler (2000) 248; Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 67
donatists Rohmann (2016) 28
enslavement Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 203
eusebius,and the 1st edict Simmons(1995) 65
eusebius of caesarea Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 67
fire (as purification) Rohmann (2016) 28
galerius,diocletians eastern caesar and later emperor (caesar,persian victory of Simmons(1995) 43
galerius Esler (2000) 248
gallienus Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 203
gnosticism,gnostic Rohmann (2016) 28
great persecution Rohmann (2016) 28
hagiography Novenson (2020) 247
hell Rohmann (2016) 28
idolatry Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 230
irenaeus of lyon Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 230
justin martyr Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 230
lactantius,and the beginning of the persecution Simmons(1995) 43
lactantius Simmons(1995) 65
licinius Tabbernee (2007) 194
manichaeism,manichaeans Rohmann (2016) 28
martyrdom Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 230; Esler (2000) 837; Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 67
martyrdom and book-burning Rohmann (2016) 28
martyrs,martyrdom Novenson (2020) 247
maxentius Tabbernee (2007) 194
maximian,emperor Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 67
maximian (emperor) Tabbernee (2007) 194
maximin ii daia Tabbernee (2007) 194
melitene (eski malatya) Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 67
milan (mediolanum),edict of Tabbernee (2007) 194
nero Tabbernee (2007) 169
nicomedia,christian church at Simmons(1995) 43
nicomedia Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 203; Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 67
numidia,and great persecution Simmons(1995) 65
offices (christian),chorepiskopos (country bishop) Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 67
offices (state),governor (provincial) Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 67
origen Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 230
pagan,paganism Novenson (2020) 247
palestine Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 67
paul,pauline,paulinism Novenson (2020) 247
persecution,great persecution Esler (2000) 248
persecution,history of Esler (2000) 248
persecution Novenson (2020) 247
persecution of Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 203
persecutions,of christians,1st edict Simmons(1995) 43
persecutions,of christians,beginning of great persecution' Simmons(1995) 43
persecutions,of christians Simmons(1995) 65
persecutions Tabbernee (2007) 169, 194
ritual Novenson (2020) 247
roman/byzantine empire Tabbernee (2007) 194
rome,persecution of christianity Esler (2000) 248
rome,roman Novenson (2020) 247
rome (roma) Tabbernee (2007) 194
schism Rohmann (2016) 28
scriptures,destruction of Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 203, 230
sebaste(a)/megalopolis (sivas) Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 67
septimius severus Tabbernee (2007) 169
syncretism Rohmann (2016) 28
syria Mitchell and Pilhofer (2019) 67
terminalia Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 203
terminus Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 203
tetrarchy Simmons(1995) 43, 65
valeria Tabbernee (2007) 169, 194
zoroastrianism Rohmann (2016) 28