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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



5662
Eusebius Of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 3.18


nanIt is said that in this persecution the apostle and evangelist John, who was still alive, was condemned to dwell on the island of Patmos in consequence of his testimony to the divine word.,Irenaeus, in the fifth book of his work Against Heresies, where he discusses the number of the name of Antichrist which is given in the so-called Apocalypse of John, speaks as follows concerning him:,If it were necessary for his name to be proclaimed openly at the present time, it would have been declared by him who saw the revelation. For it was seen not long ago, but almost in our own generation, at the end of the reign of Domitian.,To such a degree, indeed, did the teaching of our faith flourish at that time that even those writers who were far from our religion did not hesitate to mention in their histories the persecution and the martyrdoms which took place during it.,And they, indeed, accurately indicated the time. For they recorded that in the fifteenth year of Domitian Flavia Domitilla, daughter of a sister of Flavius Clement, who at that time was one of the consuls of Rome, was exiled with many others to the island of Pontia in consequence of testimony borne to Christ.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

17 results
1. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 3.33 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Habakkuk, 2.1-2.3, 5.10-5.11, 7.4-7.5, 9.9-9.10, 11.4-11.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 5.143, 5.159 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

5.143. He shall come, wishing to destroy the city 5.159. Shall to the isles beam brightly. Pergamos
4. Anon., 2 Baruch, 10.2-10.3, 11.1, 67.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.413 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.413. 6. But now as the high priest Alcimus, was resolving to pull down the wall of the sanctuary, which had been there of old time, and had been built by the holy prophets, he was smitten suddenly by God, and fell down. This stroke made him fall down speechless upon the ground; and undergoing torments for many days, he at length died, when he had been high priest four years.
6. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 6.387 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.387. 3. But now at this time it was that one of the priests, the son of Thebuthus, whose name was Jesus, upon his having security given him, by the oath of Caesar, that he should be preserved, upon condition that he should deliver to him certain of the precious things that had been reposited in the temple
7. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.9, 2.7, 2.9, 2.11, 2.13, 2.22, 2.24, 3.9, 3.12, 4.11, 5.5, 6.2, 6.9, 6.11, 7.15, 9.20-9.21, 11.7-11.10, 12.9, 12.11, 13.7, 13.14-13.15, 14.8-14.11, 14.13, 15.2, 16.9-16.11, 16.15, 17.2-17.3, 17.6, 17.9, 17.14, 18.3, 18.10, 18.24, 19.2, 20.4, 20.6, 20.14, 21.2, 21.7-21.8, 22.14, 22.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.9. I John, your brother and partner with you in oppression, kingdom, and perseverance in Christ Jesus, was on the isle that is called Patmos because of God's Word and the testimony of Jesus Christ. 2.7. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the assemblies. To him who overcomes I will give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the Paradise of my God. 2.9. I know your works, oppression, and your poverty (but you are rich), and the blasphemy of those who say they are Jews, and they are not, but are a synagogue of Satan. 2.11. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the assemblies. He who overcomes won't be harmed by the second death. 2.13. I know your works and where you dwell, where Satan's throne is. You hold firmly to my name, and didn't deny my faith in the days of Antipas my witness, my faithful one, who was killed among you, where Satan dwells. 2.22. Behold, I will throw her into a bed, and those who commit adultery with her into great oppression, unless they repent of her works. 2.24. But to you I say, to the rest who are in Thyatira, as many as don't have this teaching, who don't know what some call 'the deep things of Satan,' to you I say, I am not putting any other burden on you. 3.9. Behold, I give of the synagogue of Satan, of those who say they are Jews, and they are not, but lie. Behold, I will make them to come and worship before your feet, and to know that I have loved you. 3.12. He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God, and he will go out from there no more. I will write on him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from my God, and my own new name. 4.11. Worthy are you, our Lord and our God, the Holy One, to receive the glory, the honor, and the power, for you created all things, and because of your desire they existed, and were created! 5.5. One of the elders said to me, "Don't weep. Behold, the Lion who is of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has overcome; he who opens the book and its seven seals. 6.2. And behold, a white horse, and he who sat on it had a bow. A crown was given to him, and he came forth conquering, and to conquer. 6.9. When he opened the fifth seal, I saw underneath the altar the souls of those who had been killed for the Word of God, and for the testimony of the Lamb which they had. 6.11. A long white robe was given them. They were told that they should rest yet for a while, until their fellow servants and their brothers, who would also be killed even as they were, completed their course. 7.15. Therefore they are before the throne of God, they serve him day and night in his temple. He who sits on the throne will spread his tent over them. 9.20. The rest of mankind, who were not killed with these plagues, didn't repent of the works of their hands, that they wouldn't worship demons, and the idols of gold, and of silver, and of brass, and of stone, and of wood; which can neither see, nor hear, nor walk. 9.21. They didn't repent of their murders, nor of their sorceries, nor of their sexual immorality, nor of their thefts. 11.7. When they have finished their testimony, the beast that comes up out of the abyss will make war with them, and overcome them, and kill them. 11.8. Their dead bodies will be in the street of the great city, which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt , where also their Lord was crucified. 11.9. From among the peoples, tribes, languages, and nations people will look at their dead bodies for three and a half days, and will not allow their dead bodies to be laid in a tomb. 11.10. Those who dwell on the earth rejoice over them, and they will be glad. They will give gifts to one another, because these two prophets tormented those who dwell on the earth. 12.9. The great dragon was thrown down, the old serpent, he who is called the devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world. He was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him. 12.11. They overcame him because of the Lamb's blood, and because of the word of their testimony. They didn't love their life, even to death. 13.7. It was given to him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them. Authority over every tribe, people, language, and nation was given to him. 13.14. He deceives my own people who dwell on the earth because of the signs which it was given to him to do in front of the beast; saying to those who dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast who had the sword wound and lived. 13.15. It was given to him to give breath to it, to the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause as many as wouldn't worship the image of the beast to be killed. 14.8. Another, a second angel, followed, saying, "Babylon the great has fallen, which has made all the nations to drink of the wine of the wrath of her sexual immorality. 14.9. Another angel, a third, followed them, saying with a great voice, "If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives a mark on his forehead, or on his hand 14.10. he also will drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is prepared unmixed in the cup of his anger. He will be tormented with fire and sulfur in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb. 14.11. The smoke of their torment goes up forever and ever. They have no rest day and night, those who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name. 14.13. I heard the voice from heaven saying, "Write, 'Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord from now on.'""Yes," says the Spirit, "that they may rest from their labors; for their works follow with them. 15.2. I saw something like a sea of glass mixed with fire, and those who overcame the beast, and his image, and the number of his name, standing on the sea of glass, having harps of God. 16.9. People were scorched with great heat, and people blasphemed the name of God who has the power over these plagues. They didn't repent and give him glory. 16.10. The fifth poured out his bowl on the throne of the beast, and his kingdom was darkened. They gnawed their tongues because of the pain 16.11. and they blasphemed the God of heaven because of their pains and their sores. They didn't repent of their works. 16.15. Behold, I come like a thief. Blessed is he who watches, and keeps his clothes, so that he doesn't walk naked, and they see his shame. 17.2. with whom the kings of the earth committed sexual immorality, and those who dwell in the earth were made drunken with the wine of her sexual immorality. 17.3. He carried me away in the Spirit into a wilderness. I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet-colored animal, full of blasphemous names, having seven heads and ten horns. 17.6. I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus. When I saw her, I wondered with great amazement. 17.9. Here is the mind that has wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sits. 17.14. These will war against the Lamb, and the Lamb will overcome them, for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings. They also will overcome who are with him, called and chosen and faithful. 18.3. For all the nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her sexual immorality, the kings of the earth committed sexual immorality with her, and the merchants of the earth grew rich from the abundance of her luxury. 18.10. standing far away for the fear of her torment, saying, 'Woe, woe, the great city, Babylon, the strong city! For your judgment has come in one hour.' 18.24. In her was found the blood of prophets and of saints, and of all who have been slain on the earth. 19.2. for true and righteous are his judgments. For he has judged the great prostitute, her who corrupted the earth with her sexual immorality, and he has avenged the blood of his servants at her hand. 20.4. I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was given to them. I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus, and for the word of God, and such as didn't worship the beast nor his image, and didn't receive the mark on their forehead and on their hand. They lived, and reigned with Christ for the thousand years. 20.6. Blessed and holy is he who has part in the first resurrection. Over these, the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ, and will reign with him one thousand years. 20.14. Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire. 21.2. I saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, made ready like a bride adorned for her husband. 21.7. He who overcomes, I will give him these things. I will be his God, and he will be my son. 21.8. But for the cowardly, unbelieving, sinners, abominable, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars, their part is in the lake that burns with fire and sulfur, which is the second death. 22.14. Blessed are those who do his commandments, that they may have the right to the tree of life, and may enter in by the gates into the city. 22.19. If anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, may God take away his part from the tree of life, and out of the holy city, which are written in this book.
8. Suetonius, Nero, 16.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Tacitus, Annals, 15.44 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15.44.  So far, the precautions taken were suggested by human prudence: now means were sought for appeasing deity, and application was made to the Sibylline books; at the injunction of which public prayers were offered to Vulcan, Ceres, and Proserpine, while Juno was propitiated by the matrons, first in the Capitol, then at the nearest point of the sea-shore, where water was drawn for sprinkling the temple and image of the goddess. Ritual banquets and all-night vigils were celebrated by women in the married state. But neither human help, nor imperial munificence, nor all the modes of placating Heaven, could stifle scandal or dispel the belief that the fire had taken place by order. Therefore, to scotch the rumour, Nero substituted as culprits, and punished with the utmost refinements of cruelty, a class of men, loathed for their vices, whom the crowd styled Christians. Christus, the founder of the name, had undergone the death penalty in the reign of Tiberius, by sentence of the procurator Pontius Pilatus, and the pernicious superstition was checked for a moment, only to break out once more, not merely in Judaea, the home of the disease, but in the capital itself, where all things horrible or shameful in the world collect and find a vogue. First, then, the confessed members of the sect were arrested; next, on their disclosures, vast numbers were convicted, not so much on the count of arson as for hatred of the human race. And derision accompanied their end: they were covered with wild beasts' skins and torn to death by dogs; or they were fastened on crosses, and, when daylight failed were burned to serve as lamps by night. Nero had offered his Gardens for the spectacle, and gave an exhibition in his Circus, mixing with the crowd in the habit of a charioteer, or mounted on his car. Hence, in spite of a guilt which had earned the most exemplary punishment, there arose a sentiment of pity, due to the impression that they were being sacrificed not for the welfare of the state but to the ferocity of a single man.
10. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 67.14 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

67.14. 1.  At this time the road leading from Sinuessa to Puteoli was paved with stone. And the same year Domitian slew, along with many others, Flavius Clemens the consul, although he was a cousin and had to wife Flavia Domitilla, who was also a relative of the emperor's.,2.  The charge brought against them both was that of atheism, a charge on which many others who drifted into Jewish ways were condemned. Some of these were put to death, and the rest were at least deprived of their property.,3.  Domitilla was merely banished to Pandateria. But Glabrio, who had been Trajan's colleague in the consulship, was put to death, having been accused of the same crimes as most of the others, and, in particular, of fighting as a gladiator with wild beasts. Indeed, his prowess in the arena was the chief cause of the emperor's anger against him, an anger prompted by jealousy. For in Glabrio's consulship Domitian had summoned him to his Alban estate to attend the festival called the Juvenalia and had imposed on him the task of killing a large lion; and Glabrio not only had escaped all injury but had despatched the lion with most accurate aim.,4.  As a consequence of his cruelty the emperor was suspicious of all mankind, and from now on ceased to repose hopes of safety in either the freedmen or yet the prefects, whom he usually caused to be brought to trial during their very term of office. He had first banished and now slew Epaphroditus, Nero's freedman, accusing him of having failed to defend Nero; for he wished by the vengeance that he took on Nero's behalf to terrify his own freedmen long in advance, so that they should venture no similar deed.,5.  Yet it availed him naught, for he became the object of a conspiracy in the following year, and perished in the consulship of Gaius Valens (who died after entering upon the consulship in his 90o year) and of Gaius Antistius.
11. Hermas, Visions, 2-4, 1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 2.22.5, 3.3.4, 5.30.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

13. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Tertullian, Apology, 5.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

16. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 2.25, 3.17, 3.19-3.20, 3.32-3.33, 4.8-4.9, 4.15-4.17, 4.26, 5.1-5.3, 5.21.1-5.21.5, 6.1-6.5, 6.34, 6.39-6.42, 7.10, 7.12, 7.30.20-7.30.21, 8.1-8.13, 8.15-8.17, 9.1-9.2, 9.5, 9.9 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

5.21.1. About the same time, in the reign of Commodus, our condition became more favorable, and through the grace of God the churches throughout the entire world enjoyed peace, and the word of salvation was leading every soul, from every race of man to the devout worship of the God of the universe. So that now at Rome many who were highly distinguished for wealth and family turned with all their household and relatives unto their salvation. 5.21.2. But the demon who hates what is good, being maligt in his nature, could not endure this, but prepared himself again for conflict, contriving many devices against us. And he brought to the judgment seat Apollonius, of the city of Rome, a man renowned among the faithful for learning and philosophy, having stirred up one of his servants, who was well fitted for such a purpose, to accuse him. 5.21.3. But this wretched man made the charge unseasonably, because by a royal decree it was unlawful that informers of such things should live. And his legs were broken immediately, Perennius the judge having pronounced this sentence upon him. 5.21.4. But the martyr, highly beloved of God, being earnestly entreated and requested by the judge to give an account of himself before the Senate, made in the presence of all an eloquent defense of the faith for which he was witnessing. And as if by decree of the Senate he was put to death by decapitation; an ancient law requiring that those who were brought to the judgment seat and refused to recant should not be liberated. Whoever desires to know his arguments before the judge and his answers to the questions of Perennius, and his entire defense before the Senate will find them in the records of the ancient martyrdoms which we have collected. 7.30.20. Such was Aurelian's treatment of us at that time; but in the course of his reign he changed his mind in regard to us, and was moved by certain advisers to institute a persecution against us. And there was great talk about this on every side. 7.30.21. But as he was about to do it, and was, so to speak, in the very act of signing the decrees against us, the divine judgment came upon him and restrained him at the very verge of his undertaking, showing in a manner that all could see clearly, that the rulers of this world can never find an opportunity against the churches of Christ, except the hand that defends them permits it, in divine and heavenly judgment, for the sake of discipline and correction, at such times as it sees best.
17. Anon., 4 Ezra, 3.1-3.2, 3.28-3.31

3.1. In the thirtieth year after the destruction of our city, I Salathiel, who am also called Ezra, was in Babylon. I was troubled as I lay on my bed, and my thoughts welled up in my heart 3.2. because I saw the desolation of Zion and the wealth of those who lived in Babylon. 3.28. Then I said in my heart, Are the deeds of those who inhabit Babylon any better? Is that why she has gained dominion over Zion? 3.29. For when I came here I saw ungodly deeds without number, and my soul has seen many sinners during these thirty years. And my heart failed me 3.30. for I have seen how thou dost endure those who sin, and hast spared those who act wickedly, and hast destroyed thy people, and hast preserved thy enemies 3.31. and hast not shown to any one how thy way may be comprehended. Are the deeds of Babylon better than those of Zion?


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
alexander severus Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 168
alexandria Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 115
antoninus pius (emperor) Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 168
atheism Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 30
aurelian (emperor) Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 168
babylon Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 107
crisis, of persecution Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 149
death Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 149
domitian, roman emperor Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 27
domitian passim, esp. Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 30, 31
empire, roman Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 149
endurance Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 149
ephesus Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 115
execution Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 30
faithful, the Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 149
flavia domitilla Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 30, 31, 115
flavius clemens Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 31
heresy/heretics Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 168
heresy Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 107
idolatry Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 30
imperial cult Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 30
imperial cults Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 149
interrelationship of christian and jewish martyrdom discourse, jewish appropriation of martyrdom experience Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 262
irenaeus Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 27
israel Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 107
jerusalem Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 107
kingdom Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 149
lucius verus Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 168
martyrdom/martyrs Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 168
maximin i the thracia Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 168
mission, role of women Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 447
muratorian fragment Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 27
nero, roman emperor Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 27
nero Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 107; Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 168
patmos Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 115; Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 149
persecution Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 149
persecution of christians Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 27
persecutions Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 168
philip (emperor) Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 168
pius i, pope Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 27
polytheism Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 30
roman/byzantine empire Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 168
sacrifice test Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 30, 31
schismatics, schisma' Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 168
septimius severus Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 168
shepherd, historical aspects, dating of Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 27
shepherd, historical aspects, in early christian sources Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 27
shepherd, historical aspects, terminus ante quem Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 27
shepherd, manuscripts, muratorian fragment Soyars, The Shepherd of Hermas and the Pauline Legacy (2019) 27
suffering Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 149
tax evasion Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 107
testimony Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 149
trade guilds Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 149
vespasian Heemstra, The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways (2010) 115
women, role in mission Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 447