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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



5614
Euripides, Bacchae, 13-51


nanI praise Kadmos, who has made this place hallowed, the shrine of his daughter; and I have covered it all around with the cluster-bearing leaf of the vine.I have left the wealthy lands of the Lydians and Phrygians, the sun-parched plains of the Persians


Φρυγῶν τε, Περσῶν θʼ ἡλιοβλήτους πλάκαςI praise Kadmos, who has made this place hallowed, the shrine of his daughter; and I have covered it all around with the cluster-bearing leaf of the vine.I have left the wealthy lands of the Lydians and Phrygians, the sun-parched plains of the Persians


Βάκτριά τε τείχη τήν τε δύσχιμον χθόναand the Bactrian walls, and have passed over the wintry land of the Medes, and blessed Arabia , and all of Asia which lies along the coast of the salt sea with its beautifully-towered cities full of Hellenes and barbarians mingled together;


Μήδων ἐπελθὼν Ἀραβίαν τʼ εὐδαίμοναand the Bactrian walls, and have passed over the wintry land of the Medes, and blessed Arabia , and all of Asia which lies along the coast of the salt sea with its beautifully-towered cities full of Hellenes and barbarians mingled together;


Ἀσίαν τε πᾶσαν, ἣ παρʼ ἁλμυρὰν ἅλαand the Bactrian walls, and have passed over the wintry land of the Medes, and blessed Arabia , and all of Asia which lies along the coast of the salt sea with its beautifully-towered cities full of Hellenes and barbarians mingled together;


κεῖται μιγάσιν Ἕλλησι βαρβάροις θʼ ὁμοῦand the Bactrian walls, and have passed over the wintry land of the Medes, and blessed Arabia , and all of Asia which lies along the coast of the salt sea with its beautifully-towered cities full of Hellenes and barbarians mingled together;


πλήρεις ἔχουσα καλλιπυργώτους πόλειςand the Bactrian walls, and have passed over the wintry land of the Medes, and blessed Arabia , and all of Asia which lies along the coast of the salt sea with its beautifully-towered cities full of Hellenes and barbarians mingled together;


ἐς τήνδε πρῶτον ἦλθον Ἑλλήνων πόλινand I have come to this Hellene city first, having already set those other lands to dance and established my mysteries there, so that I might be a deity manifest among men. In this land of Hellas , I have first excited Thebes to my cry, fitting a fawn-skin to my body and


τἀκεῖ χορεύσας καὶ καταστήσας ἐμὰςand I have come to this Hellene city first, having already set those other lands to dance and established my mysteries there, so that I might be a deity manifest among men. In this land of Hellas , I have first excited Thebes to my cry, fitting a fawn-skin to my body and


τελετάς, ἵνʼ εἴην ἐμφανὴς δαίμων βροτοῖς.and I have come to this Hellene city first, having already set those other lands to dance and established my mysteries there, so that I might be a deity manifest among men. In this land of Hellas , I have first excited Thebes to my cry, fitting a fawn-skin to my body and


nanbut Thebes is the first city in the land of Hellas that I have made ring with shouts of joy, girt in a fawn-skin, with a thyrsus, my ivy-bound spear, in my hand; since my mother's sisters, who least of all should have done it, denied that Dionysus was the son of Zeus, saying that Semele, when she became a mother by some mortal lover, tried to foist her sin on Zeus-a clever ruse of Cadmus, which, they boldly asserted, caused Zeus to slay her for the falsehood about the marriage. Wherefore these are they whom I have driven frenzied from their homes, and they are dwelling on the hills with mind distraught; and I have forced them to assume the dress worn in my orgies


nanand I have come to this Hellene city first, having already set those other lands to dance and established my mysteries there, so that I might be a deity manifest among men. In this land of Hellas , I have first excited Thebes to my cry, fitting a fawn-skin to my body and


ἀνωλόλυξα, νεβρίδʼ ἐξάψας χροὸςand I have come to this Hellene city first, having already set those other lands to dance and established my mysteries there, so that I might be a deity manifest among men. In this land of Hellas , I have first excited Thebes to my cry, fitting a fawn-skin to my body and


θύρσον τε δοὺς ἐς χεῖρα, κίσσινον βέλος·taking a thyrsos in my hand, a weapon of ivy. For my mother’s sisters, the ones who least should, claimed that I, Dionysus, was not the child of Zeus, but that Semele had conceived a child from a mortal father and then ascribed the sin of her bed to Zeus


ἐπεί μʼ ἀδελφαὶ μητρός, ἃς ἥκιστα χρῆνtaking a thyrsos in my hand, a weapon of ivy. For my mother’s sisters, the ones who least should, claimed that I, Dionysus, was not the child of Zeus, but that Semele had conceived a child from a mortal father and then ascribed the sin of her bed to Zeus


Διόνυσον οὐκ ἔφασκον ἐκφῦναι Διόςtaking a thyrsos in my hand, a weapon of ivy. For my mother’s sisters, the ones who least should, claimed that I, Dionysus, was not the child of Zeus, but that Semele had conceived a child from a mortal father and then ascribed the sin of her bed to Zeus


Σεμέλην δὲ νυμφευθεῖσαν ἐκ θνητοῦ τινοςtaking a thyrsos in my hand, a weapon of ivy. For my mother’s sisters, the ones who least should, claimed that I, Dionysus, was not the child of Zeus, but that Semele had conceived a child from a mortal father and then ascribed the sin of her bed to Zeus


ἐς Ζῆνʼ ἀναφέρειν τὴν ἁμαρτίαν λέχουςtaking a thyrsos in my hand, a weapon of ivy. For my mother’s sisters, the ones who least should, claimed that I, Dionysus, was not the child of Zeus, but that Semele had conceived a child from a mortal father and then ascribed the sin of her bed to Zeus


Κάδμου σοφίσμαθʼ, ὧν νιν οὕνεκα κτανεῖνa trick of Kadmos’, for which they boasted that Zeus killed her, because she had told a false tale about her marriage. Therefore I have goaded them from the house in frenzy, and they dwell in the mountains, out of their wits; and I have compelled them to wear the outfit of my mysteries.


Ζῆνʼ ἐξεκαυχῶνθʼ, ὅτι γάμους ἐψεύσατο.a trick of Kadmos’, for which they boasted that Zeus killed her, because she had told a false tale about her marriage. Therefore I have goaded them from the house in frenzy, and they dwell in the mountains, out of their wits; and I have compelled them to wear the outfit of my mysteries.


τοιγάρ νιν αὐτὰς ἐκ δόμων ᾤστρησʼ ἐγὼa trick of Kadmos’, for which they boasted that Zeus killed her, because she had told a false tale about her marriage. Therefore I have goaded them from the house in frenzy, and they dwell in the mountains, out of their wits; and I have compelled them to wear the outfit of my mysteries.


μανίαις, ὄρος δʼ οἰκοῦσι παράκοποι φρενῶν·a trick of Kadmos’, for which they boasted that Zeus killed her, because she had told a false tale about her marriage. Therefore I have goaded them from the house in frenzy, and they dwell in the mountains, out of their wits; and I have compelled them to wear the outfit of my mysteries.


σκευήν τʼ ἔχειν ἠνάγκασʼ ὀργίων ἐμῶνa trick of Kadmos’, for which they boasted that Zeus killed her, because she had told a false tale about her marriage. Therefore I have goaded them from the house in frenzy, and they dwell in the mountains, out of their wits; and I have compelled them to wear the outfit of my mysteries.


καὶ πᾶν τὸ θῆλυ σπέρμα Καδμείων, ὅσαιand all the women-folk of Cadmus' stock have I driven raving from their homes, one and all alike; and there they sit upon the roofless rocks beneath the green pine-trees, mingling amongst the sons of Thebes. For this city must learn, however loth, seeing that it is not initiated in my Bacchic rites, and I must take up my mother's defence, by showing to mortals that the child she bore to Zeus is a deity. Now Cadmus gave his sceptre and its privileges to Pentheus, his daughter's child, who wages war 'gainst my divinity, thrusting me away from his drink-offerings, and making no mention of me in his prayers. Therefore will I prove to him and all the race of Cadmus that I am a god. And when I have set all in order here, I will pass hence to a fresh country, manifesting myself; but if the city of Thebes in fury takes up arms and seeks to drive my votaries from the mountain, I will meet them at the head of my frantic rout. This is why I have assumed a mortal form, and put off my godhead to take man's nature. O ye who left Tmolus, the bulwark of Lydia, ye women, my revel rout! whom I brought from your foreign homes to be ever by my side and bear me company, uplift the cymbals native to your Phrygian home, that were by me and the great mother Rhea first devised, and march around the royal halls of Pentheus smiting them, that the city of Cadmus may see you; while I will seek Cithaeron's glens, there with my Bacchanals to join the dance. Exit DIONYSUS. Enter CHORUS.


καὶ πᾶν τὸ θῆλυ σπέρμα Καδμείων, ὅσαιAnd all the female offspring of Thebes , as many as are women, I have driven maddened from the house, and they, mingled with the daughters of Kadmos, sit on roofless rocks beneath green pines. For this city must learn, even if it is unwilling


γυναῖκες ἦσαν, ἐξέμηνα δωμάτων·And all the female offspring of Thebes , as many as are women, I have driven maddened from the house, and they, mingled with the daughters of Kadmos, sit on roofless rocks beneath green pines. For this city must learn, even if it is unwilling


ὁμοῦ δὲ Κάδμου παισὶν ἀναμεμειγμέναιAnd all the female offspring of Thebes , as many as are women, I have driven maddened from the house, and they, mingled with the daughters of Kadmos, sit on roofless rocks beneath green pines. For this city must learn, even if it is unwilling


χλωραῖς ὑπʼ ἐλάταις ἀνορόφοις ἧνται πέτραις.And all the female offspring of Thebes , as many as are women, I have driven maddened from the house, and they, mingled with the daughters of Kadmos, sit on roofless rocks beneath green pines. For this city must learn, even if it is unwilling


δεῖ γὰρ πόλιν τήνδʼ ἐκμαθεῖν, κεἰ μὴ θέλειAnd all the female offspring of Thebes , as many as are women, I have driven maddened from the house, and they, mingled with the daughters of Kadmos, sit on roofless rocks beneath green pines. For this city must learn, even if it is unwilling


ἀτέλεστον οὖσαν τῶν ἐμῶν βακχευμάτωνthat it is not initiated into my Bacchic rites, and that I plead the case of my mother, Semele, in appearing manifest to mortals as a divinity whom she bore to Zeus. Now Kadmos has given his honor and power to Pentheus, his daughter’s son


Σεμέλης τε μητρὸς ἀπολογήσασθαί μʼ ὕπερthat it is not initiated into my Bacchic rites, and that I plead the case of my mother, Semele, in appearing manifest to mortals as a divinity whom she bore to Zeus. Now Kadmos has given his honor and power to Pentheus, his daughter’s son


φανέντα θνητοῖς δαίμονʼ ὃν τίκτει Διί.that it is not initiated into my Bacchic rites, and that I plead the case of my mother, Semele, in appearing manifest to mortals as a divinity whom she bore to Zeus. Now Kadmos has given his honor and power to Pentheus, his daughter’s son


nanthat it is not initiated into my Bacchic rites, and that I plead the case of my mother, Semele, in appearing manifest to mortals as a divinity whom she bore to Zeus. Now Kadmos has given his honor and power to Pentheus, his daughter’s son


Πενθεῖ δίδωσι θυγατρὸς ἐκπεφυκότιthat it is not initiated into my Bacchic rites, and that I plead the case of my mother, Semele, in appearing manifest to mortals as a divinity whom she bore to Zeus. Now Kadmos has given his honor and power to Pentheus, his daughter’s son


ὃς θεομαχεῖ τὰ κατʼ ἐμὲ καὶ σπονδῶν ἄποwho fights against the gods as far as I am concerned and drives me away from sacrifices, and in his prayers makes no mention of me, for which I will show him and all the Thebans that I was born a god. And when I have set matters here right, I will move on to another land


ὠθεῖ μʼ, ἐν εὐχαῖς τʼ οὐδαμοῦ μνείαν ἔχει.who fights against the gods as far as I am concerned and drives me away from sacrifices, and in his prayers makes no mention of me, for which I will show him and all the Thebans that I was born a god. And when I have set matters here right, I will move on to another land


ὧν οὕνεκʼ αὐτῷ θεὸς γεγὼς ἐνδείξομαιwho fights against the gods as far as I am concerned and drives me away from sacrifices, and in his prayers makes no mention of me, for which I will show him and all the Thebans that I was born a god. And when I have set matters here right, I will move on to another land


πᾶσίν τε Θηβαίοισιν. ἐς δʼ ἄλλην χθόναwho fights against the gods as far as I am concerned and drives me away from sacrifices, and in his prayers makes no mention of me, for which I will show him and all the Thebans that I was born a god. And when I have set matters here right, I will move on to another land


τἀνθένδε θέμενος εὖ, μεταστήσω πόδαwho fights against the gods as far as I am concerned and drives me away from sacrifices, and in his prayers makes no mention of me, for which I will show him and all the Thebans that I was born a god. And when I have set matters here right, I will move on to another land


δεικνὺς ἐμαυτόν· ἢν δὲ Θηβαίων πόλιςrevealing myself. But if ever the city of Thebes should in anger seek to drive the the Bacchae down from the mountains with arms, I, the general of the Maenads, will join battle with them. On which account I have changed my form to a mortal one and altered my shape into the nature of a man.


ὀργῇ σὺν ὅπλοις ἐξ ὄρους βάκχας ἄγεινrevealing myself. But if ever the city of Thebes should in anger seek to drive the the Bacchae down from the mountains with arms, I, the general of the Maenads, will join battle with them. On which account I have changed my form to a mortal one and altered my shape into the nature of a man.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

22 results
1. Hesiod, Theogony, 792-805, 947-949, 277 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

277. Panopea, pink-armed Hipponoe
2. Homer, Odyssey, 17.485-17.487 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

3. Homeric Hymns, To Demeter, 198-201, 345-356, 197 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

197. Their father’s house and told their mother all
4. Hymn To Dionysus, To Dionysus, 7.14 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

7.14. whom he called to him by their names, and commended them before the company, and rejoiced in them in the same manner as a man would have rejoiced in his own exploits. He also put on their heads crowns of gold, and golden ornaments about their necks, and gave them long spears of gold, and ensigns that were made of silver 7.14. for many of them were so made, that they were on three or even four stories, one above another. The magnificence also of their structure afforded one both pleasure and surprise;
5. Euripides, Bacchae, 10, 100-101, 11, 116, 12, 120, 1202, 121-127, 1278, 128-139, 14, 140-149, 15, 150-159, 16, 160-169, 17-19, 2, 20-21, 212, 218-219, 22, 220, 23-24, 247, 25-27, 279, 28, 284, 29, 3, 30-39, 4, 40-43, 438-439, 44, 440, 449, 45, 453, 455-459, 46, 460, 464-469, 47, 470-479, 48, 480-489, 49, 490, 5, 50-54, 541, 55, 550-559, 56, 560-569, 57, 570-575, 58, 585-589, 59, 590-599, 6, 60, 600-609, 61-68, 688, 69, 7, 70-76, 769, 77-79, 8, 80-87, 876, 88-89, 894, 9, 90-97, 977-979, 98, 980-982, 986, 99, 1 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1. ἥκω Διὸς παῖς τήνδε Θηβαίων χθόνα 1. I, the son of Zeus, have come to this land of the Thebans—Dionysus, whom once Semele, Kadmos’ daughter, bore, delivered by a lightning-bearing flame. And having taken a mortal form instead of a god’s
6. Euripides, Helen, 1346 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1346. χαλκοῦ δ' αὐδὰν χθονίαν
7. Euripides, Hippolytus, 117-120, 41-50, 116 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8. Euripides, Ion, 1068 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9. Herodotus, Histories, 2.49, 2.173-2.174, 3.40-3.43, 4.36 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.49. Now then, it seems to me that Melampus son of Amytheon was not ignorant of but was familiar with this sacrifice. For Melampus was the one who taught the Greeks the name of Dionysus and the way of sacrificing to him and the phallic procession; he did not exactly unveil the subject taking all its details into consideration, for the teachers who came after him made a fuller revelation; but it was from him that the Greeks learned to bear the phallus along in honor of Dionysus, and they got their present practice from his teaching. ,I say, then, that Melampus acquired the prophetic art, being a discerning man, and that, besides many other things which he learned from Egypt, he also taught the Greeks things concerning Dionysus, altering few of them; for I will not say that what is done in Egypt in connection with the god and what is done among the Greeks originated independently: for they would then be of an Hellenic character and not recently introduced. ,Nor again will I say that the Egyptians took either this or any other custom from the Greeks. But I believe that Melampus learned the worship of Dionysus chiefly from Cadmus of Tyre and those who came with Cadmus from Phoenicia to the land now called Boeotia . 2.173. The following was how he scheduled his affairs: in the morning, until the the hour when the marketplace filled, he readily conducted whatever business was brought to him; the rest of the day, he drank and joked at the expense of his companions and was idle and playful. ,But this displeased his friends, who admonished him thus: “O King, you do not conduct yourself well by indulging too much in vulgarity. You, a celebrated man, ought to conduct your business throughout the day, sitting on a celebrated throne; and thus the Egyptians would know that they are governed by a great man, and you would be better spoken of; as it is, what you do is by no means kingly.” ,But he answered them like this: “Men that have bows string them when they must use them, and unstring them when they have used them; were bows kept strung forever, they would break, and so could not be used when needed. ,Such, too, is the nature of man. Were one to be always at serious work and not permit oneself a bit of relaxation, he would go mad or idiotic before he knew it; I am well aware of that, and give each of the two its turn.” Such was his answer to his friends. 2.174. It is said that even when Amasis was a private man he was fond of drinking and joking and was not at all a sober man; and that when his drinking and pleasure-seeking cost him the bare necessities, he would go around stealing. Then when he contradicted those who said that he had their possessions, they would bring him to whatever place of divination was nearby, and sometimes the oracles declared him guilty and sometimes they acquitted him. ,When he became king, he did not take care of the shrines of the gods who had acquitted him of theft, or give them anything for maintece, or make it his practice to sacrifice there, for he knew them to be worthless and their oracles false; but he took scrupulous care of the gods who had declared his guilt, considering them to be gods in very deed and their oracles infallible. 3.40. Now Amasis was somehow aware of Polycrates' great good fortune; and as this continued to increase greatly, he wrote this letter and sent it to Samos : “Amasis addresses Polycrates as follows. ,It is pleasant to learn that a friend and ally is doing well. But I do not like these great successes of yours; for I know the gods, how jealous they are, and I desire somehow that both I and those for whom I care succeed in some affairs, fail in others, and thus pass life faring differently by turns, rather than succeed at everything. ,For from all I have heard I know of no man whom continual good fortune did not bring in the end to evil, and utter destruction. Therefore if you will be ruled by me do this regarding your successes: ,consider what you hold most precious and what you will be sorriest to lose, and cast it away so that it shall never again be seen among men; then, if after this the successes that come to you are not mixed with mischances, strive to mend the matter as I have counselled you.” 3.41. Reading this, and perceiving that Amasis' advice was good, Polycrates considered which of his treasures it would most grieve his soul to lose, and came to this conclusion: he wore a seal set in gold, an emerald, crafted by Theodorus son of Telecles of Samos ; ,being resolved to cast this away, he embarked in a fifty-oared ship with its crew, and told them to put out to sea; and when he was far from the island, he took off the seal-ring in sight of all that were on the ship and cast it into the sea. This done, he sailed back and went to his house, where he grieved for the loss. 3.42. But on the fifth or sixth day from this it happened that a fisherman, who had taken a fine and great fish, and desired to make a gift of it to Polycrates, brought it to the door and said that he wished to see Polycrates. This being granted, he gave the fish, saying: ,“O King, when I caught this fish, I thought best not to take it to market, although I am a man who lives by his hands, but it seemed to me worthy of you and your greatness; and so I bring and offer it to you.” Polycrates was pleased with what the fisherman said; “You have done very well,” he answered, “and I give you double thanks, for your words and for the gift; and I invite you to dine with me.” ,Proud of this honor, the fisherman went home; but the servants, cutting up the fish, found in its belly Polycrates' seal-ring. ,As soon as they saw and seized it, they brought it with joy to Polycrates, and giving the ring to him told him how it had been found. Polycrates saw the hand of heaven in this matter; he wrote a letter and sent it to Egypt, telling all that he had done, and what had happened to him. 3.43. When Amasis had read Polycrates' letter, he perceived that no man could save another from his destiny, and that Polycrates, being so continually fortunate that he even found what he cast away, must come to an evil end. ,So he sent a herald to Samos to renounce his friendship, determined that when some great and terrible mischance overtook Polycrates he himself might not have to sadden his heart for a friend. 4.36. I have said this much of the Hyperboreans, and let it suffice; for I do not tell the story of that Abaris, alleged to be a Hyperborean, who carried the arrow over the whole world, fasting all the while. But if there are men beyond the north wind, then there are others beyond the south. ,And I laugh to see how many have before now drawn maps of the world, not one of them reasonably; for they draw the world as round as if fashioned by compasses, encircled by the Ocean river, and Asia and Europe of a like extent. For myself, I will in a few words indicate the extent of the two, and how each should be drawn.
10. Sophocles, Ajax, 52-54, 51 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11. Catullus, Poems, 64.251-64.252, 64.261, 64.264 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

12. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 3.58-3.59, 5.49 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.58. 1.  However, an account is handed down also that this goddess was born in Phrygia. For the natives of that country have the following myth: In ancient times Meïon became king of Phrygia and Lydia; and marrying Dindymê he begat an infant daughter, but being unwilling to rear her he exposed her on the mountain which was called Cybelus. There, in accordance with some divine providence, both the leopards and some of the other especially ferocious wild beasts offered their nipples to the child and so gave it nourishment,,2.  and some women who were tending the flocks in that place witnessed the happening, and being astonished at the strange event took up the babe and called her Cybelê after the name of the place. The child, as she grew up, excelled in both beauty and virtue and also came to be admired for her intelligence; for she was the first to devise the pipe of many reeds and to invent cymbals and kettledrums with which to accompany the games and the dance, and in addition she taught how to heal the sicknesses of both flocks and little children by means of rites of purification;,3.  in consequence, since the babes were saved from death by her spells and were generally taken up in her arms, her devotion to them and affection for them led all the people to speak of her as the "mother of the mountain." The man who associated with her and loved her more than anyone else, they say, was Marsyas the physician, who was admired for his intelligence and chastity; and a proof of his intelligence they find in the fact that he imitated the sounds made by the pipe of many reeds and carried all its notes over into the flute, and as an indication of his chastity they cite his abstinence from sexual pleasures until the day of his death.,4.  Now Cybelê, the myth records, having arrived at full womanhood, came to love a certain native youth who was known as Attis, but at a later time received the appellation Papas; with him she consorted secretly and became with child, and at about the same time her parents recognized her as their child.  Consequently she was brought up into the palace, and her father welcomed her at the outset under the impression that she was a virgin, but later, when he learned of her seduction, he put to death her nurses and Attis as well and cast their bodies forth to lie unburied; whereupon Cybelê, they say, because of her love for the youth and grief over the nurses, became frenzied and rushed out of the palace into the countryside. And crying aloud and beating upon a kettledrum she visited every country alone, with hair hanging free, and Marsyas, out of pity for her plight, voluntarily followed her and accompanied her in her wanderings because of the love which he had formerly borne her. 3.59. 2.  When they came to Dionysus in the city of Nysa they found there Apollo, who was being accorded high favour because of the lyre, which, they say, Hermes invented, though Apollo was the first to play it fittingly; and when Marsyas strove with Apollo in a contest of skill and the Nysaeans had been appointed judges, the first time Apollo played upon the lyre without accompanying it with his voice, while Marsyas, striking up upon his pipes, amazed the ears of his hearers by their strange music and in their opinion far excelled, by reason of his melody, the first contestant.,3.  But since they had agreed to take turn about in displaying their skill to the judges, Apollo, they say, added, this second time, his voice in harmony with the music of the lyre, whereby he gained greater approval than that which had formerly been accorded to the pipes. Marsyas, however, was enraged and tried to prove to the hearers that he was losing the contest in defiance of every principle of justice; for, he argued, it should be a comparison of skill and not of voice, and only by such a test was it possible to judge between the harmony and music of the lyre and of the pipes; and furthermore, it was unjust that two skills should be compared in combination against but one. Apollo, however, as the myth relates, replied that he was in no sense taking any unfair advantage of the other;,4.  in fact, when Marsyas blew into his pipes he was doing almost the same thing as himself; consequently the rule should be made either that they should both be accorded this equal privilege of combining their skills, or that neither of them should use his mouth in the contest but should display his special skill by the use only of his hands.,5.  When the hearers decided that Apollo presented the more just argument, their skills were again compared; Marsyas was defeated, and Apollo, who had become somewhat embittered by the quarrel, flayed the defeated man alive. But quickly repenting and being distressed at what he had done, he broke the strings of the lyre and destroyed the harmony of sounds which he had discovered.,6.  The harmony of the strings, however, was rediscovered, when the Muses added later the middle string, Linus the string struck with the forefinger, and Orpheus and Thamyras the lowest string and the one next to it. And Apollo, they say, laid away both the lyre and the pipes as a votive offering in the cave of Dionysus, and becoming enamoured of Cybelê joined in her wanderings as far as the land of the Hyperboreans.,7.  But, the myth goes on to say, a pestilence fell upon human beings throughout Phrygia and the land ceased to bear fruit, and when the unfortunate people inquired of the god how they might rid themselves of their ills he commanded them, it is said, to bury the body of Attis and to honour Cybelê as a goddess. Consequently the physicians, since the body had disappeared in the course of time, made an image of the youth, before which they sang dirges and by means of honours in keeping with his suffering propitiated the wrath of him who had been wronged; and these rites they continue to perform down to our own lifetime.,8.  As for Cybelê, in ancient times they erected altars and performed sacrifices to her yearly; and later they built for her a costly temple in Pisinus of Phrygia, and established honours and sacrifices of the greatest magnificence, Midas their king taking part in all these works out of his devotion to beauty; and beside the statue of the goddess they set up panthers and lions, since it was the common opinion that she had first been nursed by these animals. Such, then, are the myths which are told about Mother of the Gods both among the Phrygians and by the Atlantians who dwell on the coast of the ocean. 5.49. 1.  This wedding of Cadmus and Harmonia was the first, we are told, for which the gods provided the marriage-feast, and Demeter, becoming enamoured of Iasion, presented him with the fruit of the corn, Hermes gave a lyre, Athena the renowned necklace and a robe and a flute, and Electra the sacred rites of the Great Mother of the Gods, as she is called, together with cymbals and kettledrums and the instruments of her ritual; and Apollo played upon the lyre and the Muses upon their flutes, and the rest of the gods spoke them fair and gave the pair their aid in the celebration of the wedding.,2.  After this Cadmus, they say, in accordance with the oracle he had received, founded Thebes in Boeotia, while Iasion married Cybelê and begat Corybas. And after Iasion had been removed into the circle of the gods, Dardanus and Cybelê and Corybas conveyed to Asia the sacred rites of the Mother of the Gods and removed with them to Phrygia.,3.  Thereupon Cybelê, joining herself to the first Olympus, begat Alcê and called the goddess Cybelê after herself; and Corybas gave the name of Corybantes to all who, in celebrating the rites of his mother, acted like men possessed, and married Thebê, the daughter of Cilix.,4.  In like manner he also transferred the flute from Samothrace to Phrygia and to Lyrnessus the lyre which Hermes gave and which at a later time Achilles took for himself when he sacked that city. To Iasion and Demeter, according to the story the myths relate, was born Plutus or Wealth, but the reference is, as a matter of fact, to the wealth of the corn, which was presented to Iasion because of Demeter's association with him at the time of the wedding of Harmonia.,5.  Now the details of the initiatory rite are guarded among the matters not to be divulged and are communicated to the initiates alone; but the fame has travelled wide of how these gods appear to mankind and bring unexpected aid to those initiates of theirs who call upon them in the midst of perils.,6.  The claim is also made that men who have taken part in the mysteries become both more pious and more just and better in every respect than they were before. And this is the reason, we are told, why the most famous both of the ancient heroes and of the demi-gods were eagerly desirous of taking part in the initiatory rite; and in fact Jason and the Dioscori, and Heracles and Orpheus as well, after their initiation attained success in all the campaigns they undertook, because these gods appeared to them.
13. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 2.618-2.620 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14. Ovid, Fasti, 4.189, 4.207, 5.441 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4.189. I’d like to ask many things, but I’m made fearful 4.207. Now steep Ida echoed to a jingling music 5.441. He says this nine times without looking back: the shade
15. Vergil, Aeneis, 9.617-9.618 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

9.617. hall blot your names from honor's storied scroll: 9.618. not while the altars of Aeneas' line
16. Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 3.5.1-3.5.2, 3.12.1, 3.12.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.5.1. Διόνυσος δὲ εὑρετὴς ἀμπέλου γενόμενος, Ἥρας μανίαν αὐτῷ ἐμβαλούσης περιπλανᾶται Αἴγυπτόν τε καὶ Συρίαν. καὶ τὸ μὲν πρῶτον Πρωτεὺς αὐτὸν ὑποδέχεται βασιλεὺς Αἰγυπτίων, αὖθις δὲ εἰς Κύβελα τῆς Φρυγίας ἀφικνεῖται, κἀκεῖ καθαρθεὶς ὑπὸ Ῥέας καὶ τὰς τελετὰς ἐκμαθών, καὶ λαβὼν παρʼ ἐκείνης τὴν στολήν, ἐπὶ Ἰνδοὺς 1 -- διὰ τῆς Θράκης ἠπείγετο. Λυκοῦργος δὲ παῖς Δρύαντος, Ἠδωνῶν βασιλεύων, οἳ Στρυμόνα ποταμὸν παροικοῦσι, πρῶτος ὑβρίσας ἐξέβαλεν αὐτόν. καὶ Διόνυσος μὲν εἰς θάλασσαν πρὸς Θέτιν τὴν Νηρέως κατέφυγε, Βάκχαι δὲ ἐγένοντο αἰχμάλωτοι καὶ τὸ συνεπόμενον Σατύρων πλῆθος αὐτῷ. αὖθις δὲ αἱ Βάκχαι ἐλύθησαν ἐξαίφνης, Λυκούργῳ δὲ μανίαν ἐνεποίησε 2 -- Διόνυσος. ὁ δὲ μεμηνὼς Δρύαντα τὸν παῖδα, ἀμπέλου νομίζων κλῆμα κόπτειν, πελέκει πλήξας ἀπέκτεινε, καὶ ἀκρωτηριάσας αὐτὸν ἐσωφρόνησε. 1 -- τῆς δὲ γῆς ἀκάρπου μενούσης, ἔχρησεν ὁ θεὸς καρποφορήσειν αὐτήν, ἂν θανατωθῇ Λυκοῦργος. Ἠδωνοὶ δὲ ἀκούσαντες εἰς τὸ Παγγαῖον αὐτὸν ἀπαγαγόντες ὄρος ἔδησαν, κἀκεῖ κατὰ Διονύσου βούλησιν ὑπὸ ἵππων διαφθαρεὶς ἀπέθανε. 3.5.2. διελθὼν δὲ Θρᾴκην καὶ τὴν Ἰνδικὴν ἅπασαν, στήλας ἐκεῖ στήσας 1 -- ἧκεν εἰς Θήβας, καὶ τὰς γυναῖκας ἠνάγκασε καταλιπούσας τὰς οἰκίας βακχεύειν ἐν τῷ Κιθαιρῶνι. Πενθεὺς δὲ γεννηθεὶς ἐξ Ἀγαυῆς Ἐχίονι, παρὰ Κάδμου εἰληφὼς τὴν βασιλείαν, διεκώλυε ταῦτα γίνεσθαι, καὶ παραγενόμενος εἰς Κιθαιρῶνα τῶν Βακχῶν κατάσκοπος ὑπὸ τῆς μητρὸς Ἀγαυῆς κατὰ μανίαν ἐμελίσθη· ἐνόμισε γὰρ αὐτὸν θηρίον εἶναι. δείξας δὲ Θηβαίοις ὅτι θεός ἐστιν, ἧκεν εἰς Ἄργος, κἀκεῖ 2 -- πάλιν οὐ τιμώντων αὐτὸν ἐξέμηνε τὰς γυναῖκας. αἱ δὲ ἐν τοῖς ὄρεσι τοὺς ἐπιμαστιδίους ἔχουσαι 3 -- παῖδας τὰς σάρκας αὐτῶν ἐσιτοῦντο. 3.12.1. Ἠλέκτρας δὲ τῆς Ἄτλαντος καὶ Διὸς Ἰασίων καὶ Δάρδανος ἐγένοντο. Ἰασίων μὲν οὖν ἐρασθεὶς Δήμητρος καὶ θέλων καταισχῦναι τὴν θεὸν κεραυνοῦται, Δάρδανος δὲ ἐπὶ τῷ θανάτῳ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ λυπούμενος, Σαμοθρᾴκην ἀπολιπὼν εἰς τὴν ἀντίπερα ἤπειρον ἦλθε. ταύτης δὲ ἐβασίλευε Τεῦκρος ποταμοῦ Σκαμάνδρου καὶ νύμφης Ἰδαίας· ἀφʼ οὗ καὶ οἱ τὴν χώραν νεμόμενοι Τεῦκροι προσηγορεύοντο. ὑποδεχθεὶς δὲ ὑπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως, καὶ λαβὼν μέρος τῆς γῆς καὶ τὴν ἐκείνου θυγατέρα Βάτειαν, Δάρδανον ἔκτισε πόλιν· τελευτήσαντος δὲ Τεύκρου 1 -- τὴν χώραν ἅπασαν Δαρδανίαν ἐκάλεσε. 3.12.3. Ἶλος δὲ εἰς Φρυγίαν ἀφικόμενος καὶ καταλαβὼν ὑπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως αὐτόθι τεθειμένον ἀγῶνα νικᾷ πάλην· καὶ λαβὼν ἆθλον πεντήκοντα κόρους 2 -- καὶ κόρας τὰς ἴσας, δόντος αὐτῷ τοῦ βασιλέως κατὰ χρησμὸν καὶ βοῦν ποικίλην, καὶ φράσαντος ἐν ᾧπερ ἂν αὐτὴ κλιθῇ τόπῳ πόλιν κτίζειν, εἵπετο τῇ βοΐ. ἡ δὲ ἀφικομένη ἐπὶ τὸν λεγόμενον τῆς Φρυγίας Ἄτης λόφον κλίνεται· ἔνθα πόλιν κτίσας Ἶλος ταύτην μὲν Ἴλιον ἐκάλεσε, τῷ δὲ Διὶ σημεῖον εὐξάμενος αὐτῷ τι φανῆναι, μεθʼ ἡμέραν τὸ διιπετὲς παλλάδιον πρὸ τῆς σκηνῆς κείμενον ἐθεάσατο. ἦν δὲ τῷ μεγέθει τρίπηχυ, τοῖς δὲ ποσὶ συμβεβηκός, καὶ τῇ μὲν δεξιᾷ δόρυ διηρμένον 1 -- ἔχον τῇ δὲ ἑτέρᾳ ἠλακάτην καὶ ἄτρακτον. ἱστορία δὲ 1 -- ἡ περὶ τοῦ παλλαδίου τοιάδε φέρεται· φασὶ γεννηθεῖσαν τὴν Ἀθηνᾶν παρὰ Τρίτωνι τρέφεσθαι, ᾧ θυγάτηρ ἦν Παλλάς· ἀμφοτέρας δὲ ἀσκούσας τὰ κατὰ πόλεμον εἰς φιλονεικίαν ποτὲ προελθεῖν. μελλούσης δὲ πλήττειν τῆς Παλλάδος τὸν Δία φοβηθέντα τὴν αἰγίδα προτεῖναι, 2 -- τὴν δὲ εὐλαβηθεῖσαν ἀναβλέψαι, καὶ οὕτως ὑπὸ τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς τρωθεῖσαν πεσεῖν. Ἀθηνᾶν δὲ περίλυπον ἐπʼ αὐτῇ γενομένην, ξόανον ἐκείνης ὅμοιον κατασκευάσαι, 3 -- καὶ περιθεῖναι τοῖς στέρνοις ἣν ἔδεισεν αἰγίδα, καὶ τιμᾶν ἱδρυσαμένην παρὰ τῷ Διί. ὕστερον δὲ Ἠλέκτρας κατὰ 4 -- τὴν φθορὰν τούτῳ προσφυγούσης, Δία ῥῖψαι 5 -- μετʼ Ἄτης καὶ 1 -- τὸ παλλάδιον εἰς τὴν Ἰλιάδα χώραν, Ἶλον δὲ τούτῳ 2 -- ναὸν κατασκευάσαντα τιμᾶν. καὶ περὶ μὲν τοῦ παλλαδίου ταῦτα λέγεται. Ἶλος δὲ γήμας Εὐρυδίκην τὴν Ἀδράστου Λαομέδοντα ἐγέννησεν, ὃς γαμεῖ Στρυμὼ τὴν Σκαμάνδρου, κατὰ δέ τινας Πλακίαν τὴν Ὀτρέως, 3 -- κατʼ ἐνίους δὲ Λευκίππην, 4 -- καὶ τεκνοῖ παῖδας μὲν Τιθωνὸν Λάμπον 5 -- Κλυτίον Ἱκετάονα Ποδάρκην, θυγατέρας δὲ Ἡσιόνην καὶ Κίλλαν καὶ Ἀστυόχην, ἐκ δὲ νύμφης Καλύβης Βουκολίωνα.
17. Longinus, On The Sublime, 15.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Plutarch, Julius Caesar, 9.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Plutarch, Table Talk, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Clement of Alexandria, Exhortation To The Greeks, 2.12 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

21. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.29.2, 10.4.2-10.4.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.29.2. Outside the city, too, in the parishes and on the roads, the Athenians have sanctuaries of the gods, and graves of heroes and of men. The nearest is the Academy, once the property of a private individual, but in my time a gymnasium. As you go down to it you come to a precinct of Artemis, and wooden images of Ariste (Best) and Calliste (Fairest). In my opinion, which is supported by the poems of Pamphos, these are surnames of Artemis. There is another account of them, which I know but shall omit. Then there is a small temple, into which every year on fixed days they carry the image of Dionysus Eleuthereus. 10.4.2. A survey of the ancient circuit of Panopeus led me to guess it to be about seven stades. I was reminded of Homer's verses about Tityos, See Hom. Od. 11.581 where he mentions the city of Panopeus with its beautiful dancing-floors, and how in the fight over the body of Patroclus he says that Schedius, son of Iphitus and king of the Phocians, who was killed by Hector, lived in Panopeus. See Hom. Il. 17.307 foll. It seemed to me that the reason why the king lived here was fear of the Boeotians; at this point is the easiest pass from Boeotia into Phocis, so the king used Panopeus as a fortified post. 10.4.3. The former passage, in which Homer speaks of the beautiful dancing-floors of Panopeus, I could not understand until I was taught by the women whom the Athenians call Thyiads. The Thyiads are Attic women, who with the Delphian women go to Parnassus every other year and celebrate orgies in honor of Dionysus. It is the custom for these Thyiads to hold dances at places, including Panopeus, along the road from Athens . The epithet Homer applies to Panopeus is thought to refer to the dance of the Thyiads.
22. Pollux, Onomasticon, 4.53, 4.55 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aeschylus, aeschylean (dionysiac) tetralogies/plays Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
aeschylus Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
agave Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
ajax Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 320
altar Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 308
anti-hero, dionysus Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
aphrodite Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 163
apollo Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
ariadne Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
asia, asia minor Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 27
asia Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 23
athens Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
athens and athenians, and drama Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
attis, in rome Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 295
attis Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 295
aulos Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
barbarians Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114; Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 27
bellerophon Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 320
bona dea Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
cadmus Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 122, 163
cattle Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 320
chorus (male, female), of a. Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
chorus (male, female), of a. bassarae or bassarides Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
chorus (male, female), of a. edonoi Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
chorus (male, female), of e. bacchae Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
cithaeron Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 122
context/environment/milieu, socio-cultural, ideological Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 142
cult, cultic acts for specific cults, the corresponding god or place Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 308
cult-establishment/foundation Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 142, 163
cult/ritual/worship Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 122, 142, 163
cults, dionysiac Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 23
cults, foreign cult Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 23
cults, greek Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 23
cults, mystery-cult Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 27
cults, of the mother of the gods Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 23
cults Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 27
cymbal Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 295
daimon Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 309, 312
death associated with dionysos and dionysian cult or myth Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 309
deity, foreign Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 27
deity Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 27
democracy and drama Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
dindymene Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
dionysiac/dionysian, cult Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 23
dionysos, and kybele Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 295
dionysos, arrival Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 312
dionysos, dionysos xenos Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 308, 309, 312, 320
dionysos, epiphany Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 308, 309, 312
dionysos, realm Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 309
dionysos/dionysus Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 23, 27
dionysos Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 308, 309, 312, 320
dionysus, effeminate/effeminacy of Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
dionysus, epiphanies/theophany of Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
dionysus Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
dryas Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
earth, earthly Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 309
earthquake Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
effeminate Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 27
egypt Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 23, 27
euripides, bacchae Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81; Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91, 122, 142, 163
euripides, medea Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 122
euripides, on the mother of the gods Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
euripides Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91, 122
foreign, cult Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 23
foreign, deity/deities Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 27
foreign, import Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 23
foreign, new-comer from asia Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 23
foreign, sages Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 23, 27
funerary cult, and music Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
gender, female Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
gender, male Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
gender Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
great dionysia, city dionysia Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 308
greece Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 27
greek, authors Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 23
greek, culture Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 23, 27
helios Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
hellenistic, age/era/period Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 23
hera Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
heracles Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 320
homeric Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 320
identity, identity and morality Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 27
intercultural Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 27
interrogation (-scene) Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
jesus christ Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 163
joseph of arimathea Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 163
judas, and pentheus Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 142
kybebe/le, and dionysos Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 295
kybebe/le, and music Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 295
kybebe/le Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 295
kybele, as rhea Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
kybele Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
lityerses Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
lycurgus, and pentheus Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
lycurgus Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
lydia, lydian Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 309
lydia, xanthus of Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 23
lydia and lydians, and phrygian symbols Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
lysander the lacedaemonian Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 320
lyssa Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
madness (mania)/frenzy Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91, 122
maenads/maenadism Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91, 122
maenads Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 295; Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
magna mater Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
mania μανία, maniacal Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 309, 312, 320
marsyas Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
mask, masked Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 312
mater magna Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 295
meion Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
metamorphosis Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 308, 309
midas, and marsyas Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
midas, mother of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
midas Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
mother (of the gods) Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 23, 27
mother of the gods, and animals Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
mother of the gods, and music Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
mother of the gods, as daughter of phrygian king Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
mother of the gods, as mother of midas Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
mother of the gods, as rhea Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
mother of the gods, associated with mountains Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
mother of the gods, rites of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
music Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
mystery Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 122, 163
myth, mythical Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 308, 312, 320
myth Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
nicodemus Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 163
odysseus Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 320
oikos, disruption of Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
old comedy Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
olympian gods Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
on stage Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
orpheus Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
painting, vase Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
panhellenism Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
papyrus-text Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
parody Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
pattern (plot/thematic) Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
pentheus Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 320; Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 122, 142
persia, persian Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 309
persian, magus Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 23
pessinous Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 295
philosophy Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 320
phrygia, phrygian Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 309
phrygia and phrygians, dominion of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
phrygia and phrygians, music of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
phrygian, goddess Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 27
pirate Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
polis Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 308
prologue/expository opening, of bacchae Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 142, 163
prologue/expository opening Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 122, 163
punishment, divine Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
punishment Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 309
purification Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
reception, of dramatic conventions Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 122
reception, of dramatic situations and themes Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 142, 163
redemption Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 122, 142
refiguration Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91, 122
resemblances, bassarae/bassarides Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
resemblances, edonoi Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
resemblances, reception Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 122, 142, 163
resemblances, semele/hydrophoroi Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
resemblances, xantriae Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
resemblances Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91, 163
rhea Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
rite, ritual Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 308, 312
ritual Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 27
royalty Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
samothracian gods Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
semele Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91, 122
sparagmos/dismemberment Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
sparagmos Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
tambourine Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 295
teiresias Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 163
theater, theatrical Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 308, 312
thebes, theban Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 308, 309, 312
thebes Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91, 122, 142, 163
theologos (iohannes) Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 163
theomachos (–oi)/theomachia/theomachein Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 142
theotokos (mother of god) Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 122, 142, 163
thrace Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114; Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 27; Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
thymele θυμέλη Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 308
tibia Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 295
tragedy, tragic Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 312
tyranny, tyrants Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 23
underworld Lipka, Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus (2021) 114
vase-paintings Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 91
versnel, henrik Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 81
vine wood Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 309
violence/violent Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 320
wine' Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 312
wine Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 309
xxii, lack of dramatic unity/staging problems Xanthaki-Karamanou, 'Dionysiac' Dialogues: Euripides' 'Bacchae', Aeschylus and 'Christus Patiens' (2022) 122
zeus Bernabe et al., Redefining Dionysos (2013) 309
zoroaster Papadodima, Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II (2022) 23