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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



4742
Epicurus, Letter To Menoeceus, 132
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1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 31.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

31.7. וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה לִיהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו לְעֵינֵי כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל חֲזַק וֶאֱמָץ כִּי אַתָּה תָּבוֹא אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתָם לָתֵת לָהֶם וְאַתָּה תַּנְחִילֶנָּה אוֹתָם׃ 31.7. And Moses called unto Joshua, and said unto him in the sight of all Israel: ‘Be strong and of good courage; for thou shalt go with this people into the land which the LORD hath sworn unto their fathers to give them; and thou shalt cause them to inherit it."
2. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 27.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

27.20. And thou shalt put of thy honour upon him, that all the congregation of the children of Israel may hearken."
3. Homer, Odyssey, 6.200-6.207 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

4. Alcaeus, Fragments, 338 (7th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

5. Alcaeus, Fragments, 338 (7th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

6. Alcaeus Comicus, Fragments, 338 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7. Alcaeus Comicus, Fragments, 338 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

114e. has rejected the pleasures and ornaments of the body, thinking they are alien to him and more likely to do him harm than good, and has sought eagerly for those of learning, and after adorning his soul with no alien ornaments, but with its own proper adornment of self-restraint and justice and
9. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

485d. By no means. Then the true lover of knowledge must, from childhood up, be most of all a striver after truth in every form. By all means. But, again, we surely are aware that when in a man the desires incline strongly to any one thing, they are weakened for other things. It is as if the stream had been diverted into another channel. Surely. So, when a man’s desires have been taught to flow in the channel of learning and all that sort of thing, they will be concerned, I presume, with the pleasures of the soul in itself, and will be indifferent to those of which the body is the instrument, if the man is a true and not a sham philosopher.
10. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

11. Aristotle, Soul, 1.1 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

12. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 1.29-1.32, 1.37-1.41, 1.45-1.53, 1.66-1.70, 2.9-2.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.29. Certe, inquam, pertinax non ero tibique, si mihi probabis ea, quae dices, libenter assentiar. Probabo, inquit, modo ista sis aequitate, quam ostendis. sed uti oratione perpetua malo quam interrogare aut interrogari. Ut placet, inquam. Tum dicere exorsus est. Primum igitur, inquit, sic agam, ut ipsi auctori huius disciplinae placet: constituam, quid et quale sit id, de quo quaerimus, non quo ignorare vos arbitrer, sed ut ratione et via procedat oratio. quaerimus igitur, quid sit extremum et ultimum bonorum, quod omnium philosophorum sententia tale debet esse, ut ad id omnia referri oporteat, ipsum autem nusquam. hoc Epicurus in voluptate ponit, quod summum bonum esse vult, summumque malum dolorem, idque instituit docere sic: 1.30. omne animal, simul atque natum sit, voluptatem appetere eaque gaudere ut summo bono, dolorem aspernari ut summum malum et, quantum possit, a se repellere, idque facere nondum depravatum ipsa natura incorrupte atque integre iudicante. itaque negat opus esse ratione neque disputatione, quam ob rem voluptas expetenda, fugiendus dolor sit. sentiri haec haec ħ BE hoc NV putat, ut calere ignem, nivem esse albam, dulce mel. dulce esse mel R mel dulce A quorum nihil oportere oportere V oporteret exquisitis rationibus confirmare, tantum tantum om. BE satis esse esse satis A admonere. interesse enim inter inter om. BE argumentum argumentumque BE argumentatum R augmentatum A conclusionemque rationis et inter mediocrem animadversionem atque admonitionem. altera occulta quaedam et quasi involuta aperiri, altera prompta promta AR et aperta iudicari. indicari NV etenim quoniam detractis de homine sensibus reliqui nihil est, necesse est quid aut ad naturam aut ad naturam AR ad naturam ( om. aut) BE aut naturam ( om. ad) N 1 aut secundum naturam N 2 aut verum (compend scr) V aut contra sit a natura ipsa iudicari. post iudicari add. in V voluptatem etiam per se expetendam esse et dolorem ipsum per se esse fugiendum; idem in N ab alt. m. in marg. adscr. posito post iudicari signo eo- demque in marg. ea quid percipit aut quid iudicat, quo aut petat aut fugiat aliquid, praeter voluptatem et et aut NV dolorem? 1.31. Sunt autem quidam e nostris, qui haec subtilius velint tradere et negent satis esse quid bonum sit aut quid malum sensu iudicari, sed animo etiam ac ratione intellegi posse et voluptatem ipsam per se esse expetendam et dolorem ipsum per se esse fugiendum. esse. Et fugiendum itaque aiunt (om. expetendam et dolorem ipsum per se esse cf. ad p. 12, 5) R itaque aiunt hanc quasi naturalem atque insitam in animis nostris inesse notionem, ut alterum esse appetendum, alterum asperdum sentiamus. Alii autem, quibus ego assentior, cum a philosophis compluribus permulta dicantur, cur nec voluptas in bonis sit numeranda nec in malis dolor, non existimant oportere nimium nos causae confidere, sed et argumentandum et accurate disserendum et rationibus conquisitis de voluptate et dolore disputandum putant. 1.32. Sed ut perspiciatis, unde omnis iste natus error sit natus sit error BE error natus sit V voluptatem accusantium doloremque laudantium, totam rem aperiam eaque ipsa, quae ab illo inventore veritatis et quasi architecto beatae vitae dicta sunt, explicabo. nemo enim ipsam voluptatem, quia voluptas sit, sit si BE aspernatur aut odit aut fugit, sed quia consequuntur consecuntur A magni dolores eos, qui ratione voluptatem sequi nesciunt, neque porro quisquam est, qui dolorem ipsum, quia dolor sit, amet, consectetur, adipisci velit, sed quia non numquam eius modi tempora incidunt, ut labore et dolore dolore et labore BE magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem. Ut enim ad minima veniam, quis nostrum exercitationem ullam corporis suscipit suscepit BER laboriosam, nisi ut aliquid ex ea commodi consequatur? quis autem vel eum iure reprehenderit, qui in ea voluptate velit esse, quam nihil molestiae consequatur, vel illum, qui dolorem eum fugiat, quo voluptas nulla pariatur? 1.37. Sed de clarorum hominum factis illustribus et gloriosis satis hoc loco dictum sit. erit enim iam de omnium virtutum cursu ad voluptatem proprius disserendi locus. nunc autem explicabo, voluptas ipsa quae qualisque sit, ut tollatur error omnis imperitorum inp. R intellegaturque ea, quae voluptaria, delicata, mollis habeatur disciplina, disciplinata ABER quam gravis, quam continens, quam severa sit. Non enim hanc solam sequimur, quae suavitate aliqua naturam ipsam movet et cum iucunditate quadam percipitur sensibus, sed maximam voluptatem illam habemus, quae percipitur omni dolore detracto. nam quoniam, cum privamur dolore, ipsa liberatione et vacuitate omnis molestiae gaudemus, omne autem id, quo gaudemus, voluptas est, ut omne, quo offendimur, dolor, doloris omnis privatio recte nominata est voluptas. ut enim, cum cibo et potione fames sitisque depulsa est, ipsa detractio molestiae consecutionem affert voluptatis, sic in omni re doloris amotio successionem efficit voluptatis. 1.38. itaque non placuit Epicuro medium esse quiddam quiddam A quoddam inter dolorem et voluptatem; illud enim ipsum, quod quibusdam medium videretur, videretur N (?), Rath.; videtur cum om. R cum omni dolore careret, non modo voluptatem esse, verum etiam summam voluptatem. quisquis enim sentit, quem ad modum sit affectus, eum necesse est aut in voluptate esse aut in dolore. omnis omnis Morel. omni autem privatione doloris putat Epicurus terminari summam voluptatem, ut postea variari voluptas distinguique possit, augeri amplificarique non possit. 1.39. At etiam Athenis, ut e patre epatre AN audiebam facete et urbane Stoicos irridente, irridente R arridente statua est in Ceramico Chrysippi sedentis porrecta manu, quae manus significet illum in hac esse rogatiuncula delectatum: 'Numquidnam manus tua sic affecta, quem ad modum affecta nunc est, desiderat?'—Nihil sane.—'At, si voluptas esset bonum, desideraret.'—Ita credo.— Non est igitur voluptas bonum. credo ita B (desideraret — voluptas bonum om. E) Hoc ne statuam quidem dicturam pater aiebat, si loqui posset. conclusum est enim contra Cyrenaicos satis acute, nihil ad Epicurum. nam si ea sola voluptas esset, quae quasi titillaret sensus, ut ita dicam, et ad eos cum suavitate afflueret et illaberetur, nec nec ulla par A ut ulla pars BE ulla ( om. nec et pars) RN illa ( om. nec et pars) V manus esse contenta posset nec ulla pars vacuitate doloris sine iucundo motu voluptatis. sin autem summa voluptas est, ut Epicuro placet, nihil dolere, primum tibi recte, Chrysippe, concessum est nihil desiderare manum, cum ita esset affecta, secundum non recte, si voluptas esset bonum, fuisse desideraturam. idcirco enim non desideraret, quia, quod dolore caret, id in voluptate est. 1.40. Extremum autem esse bonorum voluptatem ex hoc facillime perspici potest: Constituamus aliquem magnis, multis, perpetuis fruentem et animo et corpore voluptatibus nullo dolore nec impediente nec inpendente, quem tandem hoc statu praestabiliorem aut magis expetendum possimus possumus BE dicere? inesse enim necesse est in eo, qui ita sit affectus, et firmitatem animi nec mortem nec dolorem timentis, quod mors sensu careat, dolor in longinquitate levis, lenis ARN in gravitate brevis soleat esse, ut eius magnitudinem celeritas, diuturnitatem allevatio consoletur. 1.41. ad ea cum accedit, ut neque divinum numen horreat nec praeteritas voluptates effluere patiatur earumque assidua recordatione laetetur, quid est, quod huc possit, quod melius sit, accedere? Statue contra aliquem confectum tantis animi corporisque doloribus, quanti in hominem maximi maximi dett. maxime cadere possunt, nulla spe proposita fore levius aliquando, aliquando dett. aliquanto nulla praeterea neque praesenti nec expectata voluptate, quid eo miserius dici aut fingi potest? quodsi vita doloribus referta maxime fugienda est, summum profecto malum est vivere cum dolore, cui sententiae consentaneum est ultimum esse bonorum cum voluptate vivere. nec enim habet nostra habet praeter voluptatem nostra V fortasse recte mens quicquam, ubi consistat tamquam in extremo, omnesque et metus et aegritudines ad dolorem referuntur, nec praeterea est res ulla, quae sua natura aut sollicitare possit aut angere. aut angere Vict. aut tangere 1.45. quae est enim aut utilior aut ad bene vivendum aptior partitio quam illa, qua est usus Epicurus? qui unum genus posuit earum cupiditatum, quae essent et naturales et ante naturales om. BE et necessariae, alterum, quae naturales essent nec nec non BE tamen necessariae, tertium, quae nec naturales nec necessariae. quarum ea ratio est, ut necessariae nec opera multa nec impensa inp. R expleantur; ne naturales quidem multa desiderant, propterea quod ipsa natura divitias, quibus contenta sit, et parabilis parabilis A 1 R parabiles (in N e ex corr. alt. m.) et terminatas habet; iium autem cupiditatum nec modus ullus nec finis inveniri potest. 1.46. quodsi Quid si A 1 vitam omnem perturbari videmus errore et inscientia, sapientiamque esse solam, quae nos a libidinum impetu et a formidinum terrore vindicet et ipsius fortunae modice ferre doceat iniurias et omnis monstret vias, quae ad quietem et ad tranquillitatem et ad tranquillitatem AR et tranquillitatem ferant, quid est cur dubitemus dicere et sapientiam propter voluptates expetendam et insipientiam propter molestias esse fugiendam? 1.47. Eademque ratione ne temperantiam quidem propter se expetendam esse dicemus, sed quia pacem animis afferat et eos quasi concordia quadam placet ac leniat. temperantia est enim, quae in rebus aut expetendis aut fugiendis ut rationem sequamur monet. nec enim satis est iudicare quid faciendum non faciendumve sit, sed stare etiam oportet in eo, quod sit iudicatum. plerique autem, quod tenere atque servare id, quod ipsi statuerunt, non possunt, victi et debilitati obiecta specie voluptatis tradunt se libidinibus constringendos nec quid eventurum proventurum R sit provident ob eamque causam propter voluptatem et parvam et non non om. A 1 RN 1 necessariam et quae vel aliter pararetur et qua etiam carere possent sine dolore tum in morbos gravis, tum in damna, tum in dedecora incurrunt, saepe etiam legum iudiciorumque poenis obligantur. 1.48. Qui autem ita frui volunt voluptatibus, ut nulli propter eas consequantur dolores, et qui suum iudicium retinent, ne voluptate victi faciant id, quod sentiant non esse faciendum, ii ii A 1 V in BE hi A 2 hii RN voluptatem maximam adipiscuntur praetermittenda voluptate. idem etiam dolorem saepe perpetiuntur, ne, si id non faciant, incidant in maiorem. ex quo intellegitur nec intemperantiam propter se esse fugiendam temperantiamque expetendam, non quia voluptates fugiat, sed quia maiores consequatur. 1.49. Eadem fortitudinis ratio reperietur. nam neque laborum perfunctio neque perpessio dolorum per se ipsa allicit nec patientia nec assiduitas assiduitates ANV nec vigiliae nec ea ea om. BE ipsa, quae laudatur, industria, ne fortitudo quidem, sed ista sequimur, ut sine cura metuque vivamus animumque et corpus, quantum efficere possimus, possimus AEN possumus molestia liberemus. ut enim mortis metu omnis quietae vitae status perturbatur, et ut succumbere doloribus eosque humili animo inbecilloque ferre miserum est, ob eamque debilitatem animi multi parentes, parentis R multi amicos, non nulli patriam, plerique autem se ipsos penitus perdiderunt, sic robustus animus et excelsus omni est liber cura et angore, cum et mortem contemnit, qua qui qui quia A 1 BE affecti sunt in eadem causa sunt, qua ante quam nati, et ad dolores ita paratus est, ut meminerit maximos morte finiri, parvos multa habere intervalla requietis, mediocrium nos esse dominos, ut, si tolerabiles sint, feramus, si minus, animo aequo e vita, cum ea non placeat, tamquam e theatro exeamus. quibus rebus intellegitur nec timiditatem ignaviamque vituperari nec fortitudinem patientiamque laudari suo nomine, sed illas reici, quia dolorem pariant, has optari, quia voluptatem. 1.50. Iustitia restat, ut de omni virtute sit dictum. sed similia fere dici possunt. ut enim sapientiam, temperantiam, fortitudinem copulatas esse docui cum voluptate, ut ab ea nullo modo nec divelli nec distrahi possint, sic de iustitia iudicandum est, quae non modo numquam nocet cuiquam, sed contra semper afficit afficit ( cf. Tusc. 3,11 qui contra affecti sint) Se. aliquid ( in N ante aliquid ab alt. m. superscr. est alit) cum vi sua vi sua V, N (vi ab alt. m. in ras. scr. ); in sua BER sua vi A atque natura, quod tranquillat tranquillat Se. tranquillet animos, tum spe nihil earum rerum defuturum, quas natura non non om. RNV depravata desiderat. desiderat R 1 V desideret Et add. Lamb. quem ad modum temeritas et libido et ignavia semper animum excruciant et semper sollicitant turbulentaeque sunt, sic inprobitas si add. Mdv. cuius in mente consedit, hoc ipso, quod adest, turbulenta est est: si Grut. et si ABE turbulenta non potest fieri Et si RN turbulenta non potest fieri Si V ; si vero molita quippiam est, quamvis occulte fecerit, numquam tamen id confidet fore semper occultum. plerumque improborum facta primo suspicio insequitur, dein deinde NV sermo atque fama, tum accusator, tum iudex; index A multi etiam, ut te consule, ipsi se indicaverunt. indicaverunt A 2 RN indicaverat A 1 iudicaverunt BEV 1.51. quodsi qui satis sibi contra hominum sibi contra hominum ibi contra hominum V hominum sibi contra R conscientiam conscientiam t n scientiam R cumscientiam A 1 saepti esse et et om. E muniti et muniti om. R videntur, deorum tamen horrent easque ipsas sollicitudines, quibus eorum animi noctesque diesque noctes diesque R diesque noctesque B exeduntur, a diis inmortalibus supplicii causa importari inport. N putant. quae autem tanta ex improbis factis ad minuendas vitae molestias accessio potest fieri, quanta ad augendas, cum conscientia factorum, tum poena legum odioque civium? et tamen in quibusdam neque pecuniae modus est neque honoris neque imperii nec libidinum nec epularum nec reliquarum cupiditatum, quas nulla praeda umquam improbe parta minuit, minuit imminit BE sed add. dett. (sed auget potius atque inflammat) potius inflammat, ut coe+rcendi magis quam dedocendi esse videantur. 1.52. Invitat igitur vera ratio bene sanos ad iustitiam, aequitatem, fidem, neque homini infanti aut inpotenti iniuste facta conducunt, qui nec facile efficere possit, quod conetur, nec optinere, si effecerit, et opes vel fortunae fortuna E vel ingenii ingenii edd. ingenia liberalitati magis conveniunt, qua qui utuntur, utantur ARNV benivolentiam sibi conciliant et, quod aptissimum est ad quiete vivendum, caritatem, praesertim cum omnino nulla sit causa peccandi. 1.53. quae enim cupiditates a natura proficiscuntur, facile explentur sine ulla iniuria, iniuria ulla BE quae autem ies sunt, iis parendum non est. nihil enim desiderabile concupiscunt, plusque in ipsa iniuria detrimenti est quam in iis rebus emolumenti, quae pariuntur iniuria. Itaque ne iustitiam quidem recte quis dixerit per se ipsam optabilem, sed quia iucunditatis vel plurimum afferat. nam diligi et carum esse iucundum est propterea, quia tutiorem vitam et voluptatem pleniorem pleniorem voluptatem BE efficit. itaque non ob ea solum incommoda, quae eveniunt eveniunt et veniunt ARN inprobis, fugiendam inprobitatem putamus, sed multo etiam magis, quod, cuius in animo versatur, numquam sinit eum respirare, numquam adquiescere. 1.66. Tribus igitur igitur ergo BE modis video esse a nostris a nostris esse BE de amicitia disputatum. alii cum eas voluptates, quae ad amicos pertinerent, negarent esse per se ipsas tam expetendas, quam nostras expeteremus, quo loco videtur quibusdam stabilitas amicitiae vacillare, tuentur tamen eum locum seque facile, ut mihi videtur, expediunt. ut enim virtutes, de quibus ante dictum est, sic amicitiam negant posse a voluptate discedere. nam cum solitudo et vita sine amicis insidiarum et metus plena sit, ratio ipsa monet amicitias comparare, quibus partis confirmatur confirmetur ABE animus et a spe et a spe ad spem et ABE pariendarum voluptatum seiungi non potest. 1.67. atque ut odia, odiā BE invidiae, invidiae A 2 invidie (e ab alt. m. in ras. scr. ) N invidiā B invidia A 1 EV, R ( sequente una litt. erasa, quae vi-detur fuisse e) despicationes adversantur voluptatibus, sic amicitiae non modo fautrices fidelissimae, sed etiam effectrices sunt voluptatum tam amicis quam sibi, quibus non solum praesentibus fruuntur, sed etiam spe eriguntur consequentis ac posteri temporis. quod quia nullo modo sine amicitia firmam et perpetuam iucunditatem vitae tenere possumus possumus etiam B neque vero ipsam amicitiam tueri, nisi nisi ipsi ARV aeque amicos et nosmet ipsos diligamus, idcirco et hoc ipsum efficitur in amicitia, et amicitia et amicitia om. R, A 1 (ab alt. m. in mg. exteriore sinistro ita add. amicitia, ut a ligatore et desectum esse possit) cōnect. BE cum voluptate conectitur. nam et laetamur amicorum laetitia aeque atque ut RNV atque nostra et pariter dolemus angoribus. 1.68. quocirca eodem modo sapiens erit affectus erga amicum, quo in se ipsum, quosque labores propter suam voluptatem susciperet, susciperet susceperit R (suam susceperit voluptatem), NV eosdem suscipiet suscipiet susciperet BE propter amici voluptatem. quaeque de virtutibus dicta sunt, quem ad modum eae eae A hc B hec E hee RV ea N semper voluptatibus inhaererent, eadem de amicitia dicenda sunt. praeclare enim Epicurus his paene verbis: 'Eadem', his paene verbis eadem eadem hys pene verbis BE hiis pene eadem verbis V inquit, scientia scientia sententia BE confirmavit animum, ne quod aut sempiternum aut diuturnum timeret malum, quae perspexit in hoc ipso vitae spatio amicitiae praesidium esse firmissimum. 1.69. Sunt autem quidam Epicurei timidiores paulo contra vestra convicia, nostra convitia V convicia nostra BE sed tamen satis acuti, qui verentur ne, si amicitiam propter nostram voluptatem expetendam putemus, tota amicitia quasi claudicare videatur. itaque primos congressus copulationesque et consuetudinum instituendarum voluntates fieri propter voluptatem; voluntates A voluptates R voluptatum NV om. BE voluptatem voluptates R cum autem usus progrediens familiaritatem effecerit, tum amorem efflorescere tantum, ut, etiamsi nulla sit utilitas ex amicitia, tamen ipsi amici propter se ipsos amentur. etenim si loca, si fana, si urbes, si gymnasia, si campum, si canes, si equos, si ludicra si ludicras A 2 si ludicrica R exercendi aut vedi consuetudine consuetudines A consuetudinēs R adamare solemus, quanto id in hominum consuetudine facilius fieri poterit poterit edd. potuerit et iustius? 1.70. Sunt autem, qui dicant foedus esse quoddam sapientium, sapientum V sap ia (= sapientia, pro sap iu = sapientiū) R ut ne minus amicos quam minus amicos quam P. Man. minus quidem amicos quam ARNV minus quam amicos BE se ipsos diligant. quod et posse fieri fieri posse BE intellegimus et saepe etiam etiam Dav. enim videmus, et perspicuum est nihil ad iucunde vivendum reperiri posse, quod coniunctione tali sit aptius. Quibus ex omnibus iudicari potest non modo non impediri rationem amicitiae, si summum bonum in voluptate ponatur, sed sine hoc institutionem omnino amicitiae non posse reperiri. et 26 repp. A 2.9. Negat esse eam, inquit, propter se expetendam. Aliud igitur esse censet gaudere, aliud non dolere. Et quidem, inquit, vehementer errat; nam, ut paulo ante paulo ante I 37—39 docui, augendae voluptatis finis est doloris omnis amotio. Non Non cum non RN' tum non N 2 tum vero (~uo) V; tuum non dolere Lamb. dolere, inquam, istud quam vim habeat postea videro; aliam vero vim voluptatis esse, aliam nihil dolendi, nisi valde pertinax fueris, concedas necesse est. Atqui reperies, inquit, in hoc quidem pertinacem; dici enim nihil potest verius. Estne, quaeso, inquam, sitienti in bibendo voluptas? Quis istud possit, inquit, negare? Eademne, quae restincta siti? Immo alio genere; restincta enim sitis enim om. RN (siti immo alio genere restincta enim om. V) stabilitatem voluptatis habet, inquit, inquit om. BE illa autem voluptas ipsius restinctionis in motu est. Cur igitur, inquam, res tam dissimiles dissimiles ( etiam A 2 )] difficiles A 1 eodem nomine appellas? Quid paulo ante, paulo ante p. 17, 17 sqq. inquit, dixerim nonne meministi, cum omnis dolor detractus esset, variari, non augeri voluptatem? 2.10. Memini vero, inquam; sed tu istuc tu quidem istuc V dixti dixisti RNV bene Latine, parum plane. varietas enim Latinum verbum est, idque proprie quidem in disparibus coloribus dicitur, sed transfertur in multa disparia: varium poe+ma, varia oratio, varii mores, varia fortuna, voluptas etiam varia dici solet, cum percipitur e multis dissimilibus rebus dissimilis dissimilis dissimiliter RNV efficientibus voluptates. eam si varietatem diceres, intellegerem, ut etiam non dicente te intellego; ista varietas quae sit non satis perspicio, quod ais, cum dolore careamus, tum in summa voluptate nos esse, cum autem vescamur iis rebus, quae dulcem motum afferant sensibus, tum esse in motu voluptatem, qui qui Dav. quae (que); in BE compend. incert. faciat varietatem voluptatum, sed non augeri illam non dolendi voluptatem, quam cur voluptatem appelles nescio. An potest, inquit ille, ille inquit BE quicquam esse suavius quam nihil dolere? 2.9.  "He thinks that pleasure is not desirable in itself." "Then in his opinion to feel pleasure is a different thing from not feeling pain?" "Yes," he said, "and there he is seriously mistaken, since, as I have just shown, the complete removal of pain is the limit of the increase of pleasure." "Oh," I said, "as for the formula 'freedom from pain,' I will consider its meaning later on; but unless you are extraordinarily obstinate you are bound to admit that 'freedom from pain' does not mean the same as 'pleasure.' " "Well, but on this point you will find me obstinate," said he; "for it is as true as any proposition can be." "Pray," said I, "when a man is thirsty, is there any pleasure in the act of drinking?" "That is undeniable," he answered. "Is it the same pleasure as the pleasure of having quenched one's thirst?" "No, it is a different kind of pleasure. For the pleasure of having quenched one's thirst is a 'static' pleasure, but the pleasure of actually quenching it is a 'kinetic' pleasure." "Why then," I asked, "do you call two such different things by the same name? 2.10.  "Do you not remember," he replied, "what I said just now, that when all pain has been removed, pleasure may vary in kind but cannot be increased in degree?" "Oh, yes, I remember," said I; "but though your language was quite correct in form, your meaning was far from clear. 'Variation' is a good Latin term; we use it strictly of different colours, but it is applied metaphorically to a number of things that differ: we speak of a varied poem, a varied speech, a varied character, varied fortunes. Pleasure too can be termed varied when it is derived from a number of unlike things producing unlike feelings of pleasure. If this were the variation you spoke of, I could understand the term, just as I understand it without your speaking of it. But I cannot quite grasp what you mean by 'variation' when you say that when we are free from pain we experience the highest pleasure, and that when we are enjoying things that excite a pleasant activity of the senses, we then experience an active or 'kinetic' pleasure that causes a variation of our pleasant sensations, but no increase in the former pleasure that consists in absence of pain — although why you should call this 'pleasure' I cannot make out.
14. Cicero, Republic, 1.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.10. Illa autem exceptio cui probari tandem potest, quod negant sapientem suscepturum ullam rei publicae partem, extra quam si eum tempus et necessitas coegerit? quasi vero maior cuiquam necessitas accidere possit, quam accidit nobis; in qua quid facere potuissem, nisi tum consul fuissem? Consul autem esse qui potui, nisi eum vitae cursum tenuissem a pueritia, per quem equestri loco natus pervenirem ad honorem amplissimum? Non igitur potestas est ex tempore, aut cum velis, opitulandi rei publicae, quamvis ea prematur periculis, nisi eo loco sis, ut tibi id facere liceat.
15. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 3.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.22. Haec sic sic R c? V c si X dicuntur a Stoicis concludunturque contortius. sed latius aliquando aliquando cf. 323,22 aliquanto s male, cf. de orat. 1, 133 opt. gen. 23 dicenda sunt et diffusius; sententiis tamen utendum eorum potissimum, qui qui ex quā ut v. G 2 maxime forti et, ut ita dicam, virili utuntur ratione atque sententia. nam Peripatetici, familiares nostri, quibus nihil est uberius, nihil eruditius, nihil gravius, mediocritates vel perturbationum vel morborum animi mihi non sane probant. omne enim malum, etiam mediocre, mediocre iocre in r. G 2 malum malum Bouh. magnum alt. id om. H est; nos autem id agimus, ut id in sapiente nullum sit omnino. nam ut corpus, etiamsi mediocriter aegrum est, sanum non est, sic in animo ista mediocritas caret sanitate. itaque praeclare nostri, ut alia multa, molestiam sollicitudinem angorem propter similitudinem corporum aegrorum aegritudinem aegritudinem cf. Aug. civ. 14,17 ext. nominaverunt.
16. Philodemus, De Oeconomia, 9.32 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

17. Philodemus of Gadara, De Ira \ , 1.12-1.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

18. Philodemus of Gadara, De Morte \ , 3.32-3.39 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

19. Horace, Sermones, 1.4.110, 1.4.114, 1.4.134-1.4.137, 2.2.15-2.2.22 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

20. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 2.20, 3.152-3.160, 3.307-3.322, 3.912-3.930, 4.1149-4.1179, 4.1192, 4.1278-4.1287, 5.45-5.50, 5.1161, 5.1169-5.1171 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

21. Ovid, Ars Amatoria, 2.599-2.600, 2.643-2.644, 2.657-2.668 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.176 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.176. Moses now knew that a great plot was in agitation against him; for he had appointed his brother high priest in accordance with the will of God, which had been declared to him. And now false accusations were brought against him, as if he had falsified the oracles of God, and as if he had done so and made the appointment by reason of his family affection and goodwill towards his brother.
23. Diogenes of Oenoanda, Fragments, 3.4.3-3.4.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Plutarch, Against Colotes, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Seneca The Younger, On Anger, 1.17.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 22.5-22.6, 25.1-25.3, 88.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Athenaeus, The Learned Banquet, None (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

28. Galen, On The Doctrines of Hippocrates And Plato, 2.8.40, 2.8.44, 2.8.47-2.8.49, 4.3.1-4.3.4, 4.7.24-4.7.38, 4.7.41, 5.2.3-5.2.7, 5.5.8-5.5.26, 5.6.22-5.6.26, 5.6.42, 5.7.29, 5.7.74-5.7.87 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

29. Gellius, Attic Nights, 9.9, 19.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. Lucian, The Parasite, 11, 10 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. And that it does I will soon show you. The wise Homer, admiring the sponger’s life as the only blissful enviable one, has this:I say no fairer end may be attained Than when the people is attuned to mirth, . . . . . and groans the festal board With meat and bread, and the cup bearer’s ladle From flowing bowl to cup the sweet wine dips.As if this had not made his admiration quite clear enough, he lays a little more emphasis, good man, on his personal opinion:This in my heart I count the highest bliss.Moreover, the character to whom he entrusts these words is not just anyone; it is the wisest of the Greeks. Well now, if Odysseus had cared to say a word for the end approved by the Stoics, he had plenty of chances — when he brought back Philoctetes from Lemnos, when he sacked Troy, when he stopped the Greeks from giving up, or when he made his way into Troy by scourging himself and putting on rags bad enough for any Stoic. But no; he never said theirs was a fairer end. And again, when he was living an Epicurean life with Calypso, when he could spend idle luxurious days, enjoying the daughter of Atlas and giving the rein to every soft emotion, even then he had not his fairer end; that was still the life of the sponger. Banqueter was the word used for sponger in his day; what does he say? I must quote the lines again; nothing like repetition: ‘The banqueters in order set’; and ‘groans the festal board With meat and bread.’
31. Sextus, Against The Mathematicians, 7.206-7.210, 11.118, 11.141, 11.158-11.159 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

32. Sextus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism, 1.17, 1.22-1.28, 1.231, 3.173-3.175, 3.177, 3.235-3.236 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

33. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.85-7.86, 10.117-10.121, 10.127-10.128, 10.136 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.85. An animal's first impulse, say the Stoics, is to self-preservation, because nature from the outset endears it to itself, as Chrysippus affirms in the first book of his work On Ends: his words are, The dearest thing to every animal is its own constitution and its consciousness thereof; for it was not likely that nature should estrange the living thing from itself or that she should leave the creature she has made without either estrangement from or affection for its own constitution. We are forced then to conclude that nature in constituting the animal made it near and dear to itself; for so it comes to repel all that is injurious and give free access to all that is serviceable or akin to it. 7.86. As for the assertion made by some people that pleasure is the object to which the first impulse of animals is directed, it is shown by the Stoics to be false. For pleasure, if it is really felt, they declare to be a by-product, which never comes until nature by itself has sought and found the means suitable to the animal's existence or constitution; it is an aftermath comparable to the condition of animals thriving and plants in full bloom. And nature, they say, made no difference originally between plants and animals, for she regulates the life of plants too, in their case without impulse and sensation, just as also certain processes go on of a vegetative kind in us. But when in the case of animals impulse has been superadded, whereby they are enabled to go in quest of their proper aliment, for them, say the Stoics, Nature's rule is to follow the direction of impulse. But when reason by way of a more perfect leadership has been bestowed on the beings we call rational, for them life according to reason rightly becomes the natural life. For reason supervenes to shape impulse scientifically. 10.117. Such are his views on celestial phenomena.But as to the conduct of life, what we ought to avoid and what to choose, he writes as follows. Before quoting his words, however, let me go into the views of Epicurus himself and his school concerning the wise man.There are three motives to injurious acts among men – hatred, envy, and contempt; and these the wise man overcomes by reason. Moreover, he who has once become wise never more assumes the opposite habit, not even in semblance, if he can help it. He will be more susceptible of emotion than other men: that will be no hindrance to his wisdom. However, not every bodily constitution nor every nationality would permit a man to become wise.Even on the rack the wise man is happy. He alone will feel gratitude towards friends, present and absent alike, and show it by word and deed. 10.118. When on the rack, however, he will give vent to cries and groans. As regards women he will submit to the restrictions imposed by the law, as Diogenes says in his epitome of Epicurus' ethical doctrines. Nor will he punish his servants; rather he will pity them and make allowance on occasion for those who are of good character. The Epicureans do not suffer the wise man to fall in love; nor will he trouble himself about funeral rites; according to them love does not come by divine inspiration: so Diogenes in his twelfth book. The wise man will not make fine speeches. No one was ever the better for sexual indulgence, and it is well if he be not the worse. 10.119. Nor, again, will the wise man marry and rear a family: so Epicurus says in the Problems and in the De Natura. Occasionally he may marry owing to special circumstances in his life. Some too will turn aside from their purpose. Nor will he drivel, when drunken: so Epicurus says in the Symposium. Nor will he take part in politics, as is stated in the first book On Life; nor will he make himself a tyrant; nor will he turn Cynic (so the second book On Life tells us); nor will he be a mendicant. But even when he has lost his sight, he will not withdraw himself from life: this is stated in the same book. The wise man will also feel grief, according to Diogenes in the fifth book of his Epilecta. 10.127. For if he truly believes this, why does he not depart from life? It were easy for him to do so, if once he were firmly convinced. If he speaks only in mockery, his words are foolishness, for those who hear believe him not.We must remember that the future is neither wholly ours nor wholly not ours, so that neither must we count upon it as quite certain to come nor despair of it as quite certain not to come.We must also reflect that of desires some are natural, others are groundless; and that of the natural some are necessary as well as natural, and some natural only. And of the necessary desires some are necessary if we are to be happy, some if the body is to be rid of uneasiness, some if we are even to live. 10.128. He who has a clear and certain understanding of these things will direct every preference and aversion toward securing health of body and tranquillity of mind, seeing that this is the sum and end of a blessed life. For the end of all our actions is to be free from pain and fear, and, when once we have attained all this, the tempest of the soul is laid; seeing that the living creature has no need to go in search of something that is lacking, nor to look for anything else by which the good of the soul and of the body will be fulfilled. When we are pained because of the absence of pleasure, then, and then only, do we feel the need of pleasure. Wherefore we call pleasure the alpha and omega of a blessed life. Pleasure is our first and kindred good. 10.136. He differs from the Cyrenaics with regard to pleasure. They do not include under the term the pleasure which is a state of rest, but only that which consists in motion. Epicurus admits both; also pleasure of mind as well as of body, as he states in his work On Choice and Avoidance and in that On the Ethical End, and in the first book of his work On Human Life and in the epistle to his philosopher friends in Mytilene. So also Diogenes in the seventeenth book of his Epilecta, and Metrodorus in his Timocrates, whose actual words are: Thus pleasure being conceived both as that species which consists in motion and that which is a state of rest. The words of Epicurus in his work On Choice are: Peace of mind and freedom from pain are pleasures which imply a state of rest; joy and delight are seen to consist in motion and activity.
34. Stobaeus, Anthology, 2.59.4 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

35. Epicurus, On Nature, 12

36. Epicurus, Letter To Menoeceus, 124, 127-131, 133-135, 122

37. Epicurus, Vatican Sayings, 33, 29

38. Epicurus, Kuriai Doxai, 18-19, 25, 29, 3, 30, 5, 15

39. Stobaeus, Eclogues, 2.39.5

40. Stoic School, Stoicor. Veter. Fragm., 3.394



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 180
action, and cult Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 214
action, in pursuit of pleasure Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 214
aeneas Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 60
aetiology Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 214
affect/affection Hockey, The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter (2019) 82
anger / irascibility, empty Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 20
anger / irascibility, natural (ὀργή) Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 20
apatheia, freedom from, eradication of, emotion (; nicasicrates Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
apatheia\u2003 Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 75
arcesilaus Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 32
aristippus Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 27
aristotle, natural and necessary emotions Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
aristotle, on desire Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 198
aristotle Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 42; Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32; Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 75; Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 188
arius didymus Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
arrogance Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 20, 250
art of life Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 30
assimilation, to god/gods Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 71
ataraxia Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 30
athenaeus Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 32
bailey, cyril Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 155
bato Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 31, 32
belief, empty Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 214
belief, in gods/goddesses Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 214
belief, in pursuit of pleasure Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 214
belief, religious Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 214
belief (doxa), bentham, j. Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 189
belief (doxa) Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 188
bignone, e. Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
body Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 75
causation, cause Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 187, 188
character, excellence of Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 30
choice Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 187, 188
choices/avoidances, motivations Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 254
chrysippus Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32; Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 332
chrysippus of soli Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 67
cicero, influence of de officiis on ars amatoria Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 80
cicero, marcus tullius Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 67
cicero Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32; Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 332
cleanthes Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 32
cognitive theory Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 75
colotes Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 332
cooper, j. Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 187
cult, action Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 214
cult, cause of Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 214
cyrenaics Seaford, Wilkins, Wright, Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill (2017) 104
cyreniacs Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 27
damoxenus Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 27, 31
de rerum natura (lucretius) Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 214
death Seaford, Wilkins, Wright, Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill (2017) 104
decorum/to prepon Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 80
desire, but plato says the same of pleasure Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
desire, natural and/or necessary desires Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
desire Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 198, 415; Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 187
dido Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 60
diogenes of oenoanda Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 332; Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 188, 189
disdain (καταφρόνησις) Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 20
disposition (διάθεσις) Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 20
distress Hockey, The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter (2019) 82
emotion, ancient philosophical theory of Hockey, The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter (2019) 82
emotions / passions (pathē, pathēmata) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
emotions passions Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 75
end or goal of life (telos), epicurus Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
envy Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 11
epictetus Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32; Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 332
epicureanism, ethics of Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 187, 188, 189
epicureanism Seaford, Wilkins, Wright, Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill (2017) 104
epicureans, and food Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 8, 27, 32, 42, 57
epicureans, and wine Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 6, 31, 47
epicureans, as chefs Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 27
epicureans, language of Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 27, 31, 32, 60
epicureans, selective emotion Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
epicureans Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 332; Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 180
epicurus, and archestratus of gela Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 67
epicurus, and carpe diem Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 67
epicurus, and sardanapallus Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 67
epicurus, as model Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 71
epicurus, dists. between pleasure as static freedom from distress and kinetic pleasure Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
epicurus, misrepresentation of Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 67
epicurus, natural and/or necessary desires Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
epicurus, on nature and the self Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 187, 188, 189
epicurus, pleasure goal of life Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
epicurus, static cannot be increased, only varied Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
epicurus/epicureanism, hedonic calculus Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 80
epicurus/epicureanism Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 80
epicurus/epicureans Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 75
epicurus Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 198; Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32; Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 332; Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 214; Seaford, Wilkins, Wright, Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill (2017) 104
epigram, and variation Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 67
epigram Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 67
eratosthenes Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 47, 60
ethics, modern compared with ancient Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 30
ethics, of stoicism Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 188, 189
false belief / false judgment / false opinion Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
fear Seaford, Wilkins, Wright, Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill (2017) 104
filling and emptying Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 415
fish Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 6, 32, 47
frankness Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 75; Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 155
frankness (παρρησία) Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 332
freedom from, of death Seaford, Wilkins, Wright, Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill (2017) 104
friends/friendship, instrumentality of Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 75
friends/friendship Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 20, 75, 250
friendship, divine-human Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 71
friendship, epicurean Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 60
friendship Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 30
galen of pergamum Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
goal (telos) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
goal of life Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 188, 189
gods (epicurean), human friendship with Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 71
gods (epicurean), involvement in moral formation Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 71
good of others Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 189
goodness, good life Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 30
goods, benefit Hockey, The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter (2019) 82
greek terms, καταπυκνόω Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 27
greek terms, φρόνησις Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 47, 60
greek terms, ἡδονή Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 6, 47
hairesis Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 30
happiness Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 332; Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 30, 187, 188, 189; Seaford, Wilkins, Wright, Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill (2017) 104
harm Hockey, The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter (2019) 82
harmony Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 75
hatred Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 11
hedonism Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 187, 188, 189
hegesippos Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 31
hellenistic philosophy, ethics of Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 30
heraclitus (author of homeric problems) Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 42, 60
homer Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 6, 42, 47, 57, 60
horace, fathers teachings/influence on Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 155
horace Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 42, 57
humanity Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 180
idomeneus Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 11
immortality Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 180
income Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 250
inheritance Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 180
intentionality, doxastic states of Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 214
intertextuality Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 32, 42
irascibility Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 20
judgement, as basis of emotions, suspension of, see justice Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 189
judgment (krisis) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
kalon, kalos Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 189
kindness Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 250
knowledge, epicurean Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 71
labor/toil Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 250
laziness Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 75
leisure Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 250
loneliness Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 20
lucian Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 42
lucretius Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 6, 57, 60; Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 214
lucretius of rome Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
marriage Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 11
mars and venus Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 80
maturity Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 71
memory Seaford, Wilkins, Wright, Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill (2017) 104
metriopatheia, moderate, moderation of, emotion; natural and/or necessary desires Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
metriopatheia, moderate, moderation of, emotion; natural and/or necessary emotions Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
metriopatheia, moderate, moderation of, emotion; natural and/or necessary pleasures Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
moral formation, involvement of god/gods within Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 71
moral formation, via imitation Allison, Saving One Another: Philodemus and Paul on Moral Formation in Community (2020) 71
moral progress Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 75
nan, and epicurus Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 67
nan, and epigram Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 67
natural, necessary, desire Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
natural, necessary, emotion Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
natural, necessary, pleasure Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
nature, of human beings Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 30
nature Hockey, The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter (2019) 82
nature (phusis) / natural, kind / type / purpose Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
nature and convention' Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 415
nausikaa Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 47, 60
necessity Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 189
new comedy Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 27, 31, 32
odysseus Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 42, 47, 57, 60
opinion Hockey, The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter (2019) 82
opinion (doxa) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
overindulgence, condemned Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 254
ovid, and epicurus Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 80
ovid, hedonic calculus in Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 80
pain Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 6, 8; Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 332; Seaford, Wilkins, Wright, Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill (2017) 104
passion Hockey, The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter (2019) 82
passions emotions Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 75
perfection Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 30
peripateticism / peripatetic Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
persona of horace, moral worth Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 155
phaeacians Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 42, 47, 57, 60
philaenis of samos Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 67
philodemus Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 6, 57; Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 332
philodemus of gadara Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
phronesis Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 187, 188, 189; Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 80
plato, approves some pleasures Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
plato, on desire Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 198
plato, some desires and pleasures necessary Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
plato Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32; Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 75; Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 188
platonism (middle / imperial) vi–viii Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
pleasure, epicurus, pleasure goal of life Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
pleasure, epicurus dists. pleasure as static freedom from distress from kinetic pleasure Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
pleasure, katastematic and kinetic Seaford, Wilkins, Wright, Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill (2017) 104
pleasure, natural and/or necessary pleasures Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
pleasure, plato approves pleasure of intellect Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
pleasure Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 6, 8, 42; Hockey, The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter (2019) 82; Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 332; Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 30, 187, 188, 189; Seaford, Wilkins, Wright, Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill (2017) 104; Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
plutarch Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 32, 42; Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
politics Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 11
psychological hedonism Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 214
psychological mode, desire Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 214
qualifying philosophy Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 11
rational calculus Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 11
reason Hockey, The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter (2019) 82; Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 30, 187
reason (human) / rational faculty (logos, logistikon) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
reputation Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 250
revenge Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 250
rhetoric Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 332
safety Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 250
sardanapallus epitaph, reception of Rohland, Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature (2022) 67
satires (horace), depiction of father-son relationship Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 155
satires (horace), treatment of economic issues Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 254
school (scholē) / sect (hairesis) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
seelenheilung Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 75
seneca Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32; Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 20, 75
seneca (the younger) Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 57
sense-perception Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 180
skepticism / scepticism (pyrrhonism) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
slaves/servants Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 250
sober reasoning Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 20
socrates Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 27
soul Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 188, 189
soul / mind (psuchē, animus) vii Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
stobaeus Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
stoic Hockey, The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter (2019) 82
stoicism, stoics Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 188
stoicism, sun, the size of Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 31
stoicism Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 60; Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 75
stoicism / stoic / stoa, neostoicism (greco-roman) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
stoicism / stoic / stoa Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
stoics/stoicism Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 80
stoics Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 332
students Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 20, 75
teachers/teaching Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 20, 75
telos Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 6, 42, 47, 57, 60; Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 30
theophrastus Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 250
therapeia\u2003 Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 75
therapy Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 332
training (philosophical or spiritual) Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 332
tranquility Wilson, Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2010) 180
tranquillity, epicurean Seaford, Wilkins, Wright, Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill (2017) 104
utilitarianism, utility Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 187
vice Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 20
vii–viii Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
virgil Gordon, The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus (2012) 60
virtue Long, From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy (2006) 188, 189; Seaford, Wilkins, Wright, Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill (2017) 104
vulcan Williams and Vol, Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher (2022) 80
wealthy epicureans Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 250
zeno (of citium) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 32
zeno of citium, stoic, hence different conception of freedom from emotion(apatheia) Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 201
zeus Leemans et al, Longing for Perfection in Late Antiquity: Studies on Journeys between Ideal and Reality in Pagan and Christian Literature (2023) 332; Seaford, Wilkins, Wright, Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill (2017) 104