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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



4734
Epictetus, Discourses, 1.20.11
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

8 results
1. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.3.3, 1.4.18, 1.4.28-1.4.29, 1.6.12-1.6.22, 1.6.33, 1.7.1-1.7.4, 1.9.4-1.9.6, 1.10.7-1.10.8, 1.18.2-1.18.7, 1.18.9, 1.18.11, 1.20.10, 1.22.9-1.22.11, 1.22.18, 1.28.4-1.28.5, 1.28.7-1.28.9, 1.28.33, 2.1.39, 2.2.21, 2.8.1-2.8.8, 2.9.1-2.9.6, 2.10.5, 2.14.7, 2.18.8-2.18.9, 2.23.42, 3.3.1, 3.12.11, 3.15.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2. Epictetus, Enchiridion, 6, 4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3. Musonius Rufus, Fragments, 40, 42, 17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 83 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5. Galen, On The Doctrines of Hippocrates And Plato, 4.5.12 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6. Gellius, Attic Nights, 19.1.19-19.1.20 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.85-7.88, 7.111 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.85. An animal's first impulse, say the Stoics, is to self-preservation, because nature from the outset endears it to itself, as Chrysippus affirms in the first book of his work On Ends: his words are, The dearest thing to every animal is its own constitution and its consciousness thereof; for it was not likely that nature should estrange the living thing from itself or that she should leave the creature she has made without either estrangement from or affection for its own constitution. We are forced then to conclude that nature in constituting the animal made it near and dear to itself; for so it comes to repel all that is injurious and give free access to all that is serviceable or akin to it. 7.86. As for the assertion made by some people that pleasure is the object to which the first impulse of animals is directed, it is shown by the Stoics to be false. For pleasure, if it is really felt, they declare to be a by-product, which never comes until nature by itself has sought and found the means suitable to the animal's existence or constitution; it is an aftermath comparable to the condition of animals thriving and plants in full bloom. And nature, they say, made no difference originally between plants and animals, for she regulates the life of plants too, in their case without impulse and sensation, just as also certain processes go on of a vegetative kind in us. But when in the case of animals impulse has been superadded, whereby they are enabled to go in quest of their proper aliment, for them, say the Stoics, Nature's rule is to follow the direction of impulse. But when reason by way of a more perfect leadership has been bestowed on the beings we call rational, for them life according to reason rightly becomes the natural life. For reason supervenes to shape impulse scientifically. 7.87. This is why Zeno was the first (in his treatise On the Nature of Man) to designate as the end life in agreement with nature (or living agreeably to nature), which is the same as a virtuous life, virtue being the goal towards which nature guides us. So too Cleanthes in his treatise On Pleasure, as also Posidonius, and Hecato in his work On Ends. Again, living virtuously is equivalent to living in accordance with experience of the actual course of nature, as Chrysippus says in the first book of his De finibus; for our individual natures are parts of the nature of the whole universe. 7.88. And this is why the end may be defined as life in accordance with nature, or, in other words, in accordance with our own human nature as well as that of the universe, a life in which we refrain from every action forbidden by the law common to all things, that is to say, the right reason which pervades all things, and is identical with this Zeus, lord and ruler of all that is. And this very thing constitutes the virtue of the happy man and the smooth current of life, when all actions promote the harmony of the spirit dwelling in the individual man with the will of him who orders the universe. Diogenes then expressly declares the end to be to act with good reason in the selection of what is natural. Archedemus says the end is to live in the performance of all befitting actions. 7.111. They hold the emotions to be judgements, as is stated by Chrysippus in his treatise On the Passions: avarice being a supposition that money is a good, while the case is similar with drunkenness and profligacy and all the other emotions.And grief or pain they hold to be an irrational mental contraction. Its species are pity, envy, jealousy, rivalry, heaviness, annoyance, distress, anguish, distraction. Pity is grief felt at undeserved suffering; envy, grief at others' prosperity; jealousy, grief at the possession by another of that which one desires for oneself; rivalry, pain at the possession by another of what one has oneself.
8. Stoic School, Stoicor. Veter. Fragm., 3.144



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
animals (general) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 288
appearance (phantasia, impression) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 288
assent (sunkatathesis) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 288
attention Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
awakening Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
choice (hairesis) / choosing (haireisthai) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 288
city (polis) / citizen Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 288
cognitive aspect Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
conversion, moral Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
conversion, philosophical Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
cosmic Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
delusion Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 172
disciple Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
divine Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
epictetus Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 288
epiktetos Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 148
error Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 172
exile, exiles Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 172
false belief / false judgment / false opinion Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 288
foolishness (aphrosunē) / fool (phaulos, mōros) / ignorance (agnoia) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 288
god (theos) ix Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 288
gods / goddesses, zeus Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 288
gods / goddesses Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 288
good (moral) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 288
greed Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 172
harmony with nature Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 148
impression Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
irrational Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
judgment (krisis) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 288
khrysippos Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 148
medea Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 288
medicine Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
mind Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
musonius rufus Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 148
nature, according to Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
ontic/ontological Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
passions Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
path, of life Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 172
perception Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
philosophy, philosophical Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
physics Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
psychic Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
rational Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
reason (human) / rational faculty (logos, logistikon) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 288
religion, religious Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
ridicule Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 172
self-control Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
self-perception Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
senses Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
senses / sense-perception (aisthēsis) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 288
soul Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
soul / mind (psuchē, animus) vii Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 288
stoicism / stoic / stoa Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 288
student / disciple Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 288
tension of the soul Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
training (askēsis)' Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 288
virtue Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 172
way of life Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
weak Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 174
wealth Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 172
wisdom Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 172
wisdom literature, wisdom, pursuit of Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 172