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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



4636
Egeria (Eucheria), Itinerarium, 12.7
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1. Herodotus, Histories, 1.30 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.30. So for that reason, and to see the world, Solon went to visit Amasis in Egypt and then to Croesus in Sardis . When he got there, Croesus entertained him in the palace, and on the third or fourth day Croesus told his attendants to show Solon around his treasures, and they pointed out all those things that were great and blest. ,After Solon had seen everything and had thought about it, Croesus found the opportunity to say, “My Athenian guest, we have heard a lot about you because of your wisdom and of your wanderings, how as one who loves learning you have traveled much of the world for the sake of seeing it, so now I desire to ask you who is the most fortunate man you have seen.” ,Croesus asked this question believing that he was the most fortunate of men, but Solon, offering no flattery but keeping to the truth, said, “O King, it is Tellus the Athenian.” ,Croesus was amazed at what he had said and replied sharply, “In what way do you judge Tellus to be the most fortunate?” Solon said, “Tellus was from a prosperous city, and his children were good and noble. He saw children born to them all, and all of these survived. His life was prosperous by our standards, and his death was most glorious: ,when the Athenians were fighting their neighbors in Eleusis, he came to help, routed the enemy, and died very finely. The Athenians buried him at public expense on the spot where he fell and gave him much honor.”
2. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 10.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

10.7. Evidence of their wickedness still remains:a continually smoking wasteland,plants bearing fruit that does not ripen,and a pillar of salt standing as a monument to an unbelieving soul.
3. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.56 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.56. Therefore on this occasion, as the holy scriptures tell us, thunderbolts fell from heaven, and burnt up those wicked men and their cities; and even to this day there are seen in Syria monuments of the unprecedented destruction that fell upon them, in the ruins, and ashes, and sulphur, and smoke, and dusky flame which still is sent up from the ground as of a fire smouldering beneath;
4. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.203, 8.46 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.203. God then cast a thunderbolt upon the city, and set it on fire, with its inhabitants; and laid waste the country with the like burning, as I formerly said when I wrote the Jewish War. But Lot’s wife continually turning back to view the city as she went from it, and being too nicely inquisitive what would become of it, although God had forbidden her so to do, was changed into a pillar of salt; for I have seen it, and it remains at this day. 8.46. and this method of cure is of great force unto this day; for I have seen a certain man of my own country, whose name was Eleazar, releasing people that were demoniacal in the presence of Vespasian, and his sons, and his captains, and the whole multitude of his soldiers. The manner of the cure was this:
5. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 4.483-4.485 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.483. The country of Sodom borders upon it. It was of old a most happy land, both for the fruits it bore and the riches of its cities, although it be now all burnt up. 4.484. It is related how, for the impiety of its inhabitants, it was burnt by lightning; in consequence of which there are still the remainders of that Divine fire, and the traces [or shadows] of the five cities are still to be seen, as well as the ashes growing in their fruits; which fruits have a color as if they were fit to be eaten, but if you pluck them with your hands, they dissolve into smoke and ashes. 4.485. And thus what is related of this land of Sodom hath these marks of credibility which our very sight affords us.
6. New Testament, Galatians, 1.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem tovisit Peter, and stayed with him fifteen days.
7. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

54a. מתני׳ big strongהרואה /strong /big מקום שנעשו בו נסים לישראל אומר ברוך שעשה נסים לאבותינו במקום הזה מקום שנעקרה ממנו עכו"ם אומר ברוך שעקר עכו"ם מארצנו,על הזיקין ועל הזועות ועל הרעמים ועל הרוחות ועל הברקים אומר ברוך שכחו וגבורתו מלא עולם על ההרים ועל הגבעות ועל הימים ועל הנהרות ועל המדברות אומר ברוך עושה בראשית רבי יהודה אומר הרואה את הים הגדול אומר ברוך שעשה את הים הגדול בזמן שרואהו לפרקים,על הגשמים ועל בשורות טובות אומר ברוך הטוב והמטיב על בשורות רעות אומר ברוך דיין האמת בנה בית חדש וקנה כלים חדשים אומר ברוך שהחיינו וקיימנו והגיענו לזמן הזה מברך על הרעה מעין על הטובה ועל הטובה מעין על הרעה,והצועק לשעבר הרי זו תפלת שוא היתה אשתו מעוברת ואומר יהי רצון שתלד אשתי זכר הרי זו תפלת שוא היה בא בדרך ושמע קול צוחה בעיר ואומר יהי רצון שלא תהא בתוך ביתי הרי זו תפלת שוא,הנכנס לכרך מתפלל שתים אחת בכניסתו ואחת ביציאתו בן עזאי אומר ארבע שתים בכניסתו ושתים ביציאתו נותן הודאה על שעבר וצועק על העתיד,חייב אדם לברך על הרעה כשם שמברך על הטובה שנאמר (דברים ו, ה) ואהבת את ה' אלהיך בכל לבבך וגו' בכל לבבך בשני יצריך ביצר טוב וביצר הרע ובכל נפשך אפילו הוא נוטל את נפשך ובכל מאדך בכל ממונך ד"א בכל מאדך בכל מדה ומדה שהוא מודד לך הוי מודה לו,לא יקל אדם את ראשו כנגד שער המזרח שהוא מכוון כנגד בית קדשי הקדשים ולא יכנס להר הבית במקלו ובמנעלו ובפונדתו ובאבק שעל רגליו ולא יעשנו קפנדריא ורקיקה מקל וחומר,כל חותמי ברכות שבמקדש היו אומרים עד העולם משקלקלו הצדוקים ואמרו אין עולם אלא אחד התקינו שיהו אומרים מן העולם ועד העולם,והתקינו שיהא אדם שואל את שלום חברו בשם שנאמר (רות ב, ד) והנה בעז בא מבית לחם ויאמר לקוצרים ה' עמכם ויאמרו לו יברכך ה' ואומר (שופטים ו, יב) ה' עמך גבור החיל ואומר (משלי כג, כב) אל תבוז כי זקנה אמך ואומר (תהלים קיט, קכו) עת לעשות לה' הפרו תורתך רבי נתן אומר הפרו תורתך משום עת לעשות לה':, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנא הני מילי אמר רבי יוחנן דאמר קרא (שמות יח, י) ויאמר יתרו ברוך ה' אשר הציל וגו',אניסא דרבים מברכינן אניסא דיחיד לא מברכינן והא ההוא גברא דהוה קא אזיל בעבר ימינא נפל עליה אריא אתעביד ליה ניסא ואיתצל מיניה אתא לקמיה דרבא וא"ל כל אימת דמטית להתם בריך ברוך שעשה לי נס במקום הזה,מר בריה דרבינא הוה קאזיל בפקתא דערבות וצחא למיא איתעביד ליה ניסא איברי ליה עינא דמיא ואישתי,ותו זמנא חדא הוה קאזיל ברסתקא דמחוזא ונפל עליה גמלא פריצא איתפרקא ליה אשיתא על לגוה כי מטא לערבות בריך ברוך שעשה לי נס בערבות ובגמל כי מטא לרסתקא דמחוזא בריך ברוך שעשה לי נס בגמל ובערבות אמרי אניסא דרבים כולי עלמא מיחייבי לברוכי אניסא דיחיד איהו חייב לברוכי,תנו רבנן הרואה מעברות הים ומעברות הירדן מעברות נחלי ארנון אבני אלגביש במורד בית חורון ואבן שבקש לזרוק עוג מלך הבשן על ישראל ואבן שישב עליה משה בשעה שעשה יהושע מלחמה בעמלק ואשתו של לוט וחומת יריחו שנבלעה במקומה על כולן צריך שיתן הודאה ושבח לפני המקום,בשלמא מעברות הים דכתיב (שמות יד, טז) ויבאו בני ישראל בתוך הים ביבשה מעברות הירדן דכתיב (יהושע ג, יז) ויעמדו הכהנים נושאי הארון ברית ה' בחרבה בתוך הירדן הכן וכל ישראל עוברים בחרבה עד אשר תמו כל הגוי לעבור את הירדן,אלא מעברות נחלי ארנון מנלן דכתיב (במדבר כא, יד) על כן יאמר בספר מלחמות ה' את והב בסופה וגו' תנא את והב בסופה שני מצורעים היו דהוו מהלכין בסוף מחנה ישראל כי הוו קא חלפי ישראל אתו אמוראי 54a. This mishna, which includes all of this chapter’s imishnayot /i, contains a series of blessings and ihalakhotthat are not recited at specific times, but rather in response to various experiences and events. br br strongMISHNA: strong span class="gemarra-regular"One who sees a place where miracles occurred /span span class="gemarra-regular" on Israel’s behalf recites: Blessed…Who performed miracles /span span class="gemarra-regular"for our forefathers in this place. /spanOne who sees span class="gemarra-regular" a /span span class="gemarra-regular"place from which idolatry was eradicated recites: Blessed…Who eradicated /span span class="gemarra-regular"idolatry from our land. /span /strong /strong,One who sees conspicuous natural occurrences recites a blessing. bFor izikinand izeva’ot /i,which the Gemara will discuss below, bfor thunder,gale force bwinds, and lightning,manifestations of the power of the Creator, one brecites: Blessed…Whose strength and power fill the world. Forextraordinary (Rambam) bmountains, hills, seas, rivers, and deserts, one recites: Blessed…Author of creation.Consistent with his opinion that a separate blessing should be instituted for each individual species, bRabbi Yehuda says: One who sees the great sea recitesa special blessing: bBlessed…Who made the great sea.As with all blessings of this type, one only recites it bwhen he seesthe sea bintermittently,not on a regular basis., bFor rain andother bgood tidings, one recitesthe special blessing: bBlessed…Who is good and Who does good.Even bfor bad tidings, one recitesa special blessing: bBlessed…the true Judge.Similarly, when bone built a new house or purchased new vessels, he recites: Blessed…Who has given us life, sustained us, and brought us to this time.The mishna articulates a general principle: bOne recites a blessing for the badthat befalls him bjust ashe does bfor the good.In other words, one recites the appropriate blessing for the trouble that he is experiencing at present despite the fact that it may conceal some positive element in the future. bSimilarly,one must recite a blessing for bthe goodthat befalls him bjust as for the bad. /b,The mishna states: bAnd one who cries out over the pastin an attempt to change that which has already occurred, bit is a vain prayer.For example, bone whose wife was pregt and he says: May it beGod’s bwill that my wife will give birth to a male child, it is a vain prayer.Or bone who was walking on the pathhome band he heard the sound of a scream in the city, and he says: May it beGod’s bwill thatthis scream bwill not be from my house, it is a vain prayer.In both cases, the event already occurred.,The Sages also said: bOne who enters a large city,the Gemara explains below that this is in a case where entering the city is dangerous, brecites two prayers: One upon his entrance,that he may enter in peace, band one upon his exit,that he may leave in peace. bBen Azzai says:He recites bfourprayers, btwo upon his entrance and two upon his exit.In addition to praying that he may enter and depart in peace, he bgives thanks for the past and cries outin prayer bfor the future. /b,The mishna articulates a general principle: bOne is obligated to recite a blessing for the badthat befalls him bjust as he recites a blessing for the goodthat befalls him, bas it is stated: “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart,with all your soul, and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). The mishna explains this verse as follows: “ bWith all your heart”means bwith your two inclinations, with your good inclination and your evil inclination,both of which must be subjugated to the love of God. b“With all your soul”means beven if God takes your soul. “And with all your might”means bwith all your money,as money is referred to in the Bible as might. bAlternatively,it may be explained that “ bwith all your might”means bwith every measure that He metes out to you;whether it is good or troublesome, bthank Him. /b,The mishna teaches several Temple-related ihalakhot /i. bOne may not act irreverentlyor conduct himself flippantly bopposite the eastern gateof the Temple Mount, bwhich is aligned opposite the Holy of Holies.In deference to the Temple, one bmay not enter the Temple Mount with his staff, his shoes, his money belt [ ipunda /i], oreven bthe dust on his feet. One may not makethe Temple ba shortcutto pass through it, band through an ia fortioriinference,all the more so bone may not spiton the Temple Mount.,The mishna relates: bAt the conclusion of all blessingsrecited bin the Temple, thosereciting the blessing bwould say:Blessed are You Lord, God of Israel, buntil everlasting [ ihaolam /i] /b, the world. But bwhen the Sadducees strayed and declaredthat bthere is but one worldand there is no World-to-Come, the Sages binstituted thatat the conclusion of the blessing bone recites: From everlasting [ ihaolam /i] to everlasting [ ihaolam /i] /b.,The Sages also binstituted that one should greet another in the nameof God, i.e., one should mention God’s name in his greeting, bas it is stated: “And presently Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the harvesters, The Lord is with you, and they said to him, May the Lord bless you”(Ruth 2:4). bAnd it says:“And the angel of God appeared to him band said to him, God is with you, mighty man of valor”(Judges 6:12). bAnd it says: “And despise not your mother when she is old”(Proverbs 23:22), i.e., one must not neglect customs which he inherits. bAndlest you say that mentioning God’s name is prohibited, bit says: “It is time to work for the Lord; they have made void Your Torah”(Psalms 119:126), i.e., it is occasionally necessary to negate biblical precepts in order to perform God’s will, and greeting another is certainly God’s will. bRabbi Natan saysanother interpretation of the verse: b“Make void Your Torah” because “it is the time to work for the Lord,”i.e., occasionally it is necessary to negate biblical precepts in order to bolster the Torah., strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to the obligation to recite a blessing for a miracle, the Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bRabbi Yoḥa said: The verse states: “And Jethro said: Blessed be the Lord, Who deliveredyou out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pharaoh; Who delivered the people from under the hand of the Egyptians” (Exodus 18:10); a blessing is recited for a miracle.,The Gemara asks: bFor a miraclethat occurs for the bmultitudes we recite a blessing,but bfor a miraclethat befalls ban individualperson bwe do not recite a blessing? Wasn’tthere an incident where ba certain man was walking along the right sideof the Euphrates River when ba lion attacked him, a miracle was performed for him, and he was rescued? He came before Rava, who said to him: Every time that you arrive there,to the site of the miracle, brecite the blessing, “Blessed…Who performed a miracle for me in this place.” /b, bAndonce when bMar, son of Ravina, was walking in a valley of willows andwas bthirsty for water, a miracle was performed for himand ba spring of water was created for him, and he drank. /b, bFurthermore, oncewhen Mar, son of Ravina, bwas walking in the marketplace [ iristeka /i] of Meḥoza and a wild camel [ igamla peritza /i] attacked him. The wall cracked open, he went inside it,and he was rescued. Ever since, bwhen he came to the willows he recited: Blessed…Who performed a miracle for me in the willows and with the camel.And, bwhen he came to the marketplace of Meḥoza he recited: Blessed…Who performed a miracle for me with the camel and in the willows,indicating that one recites a blessing even for a miracle that occurs to an individual. The Sages bsay: On a miracleperformed on behalf bof the multitudes, everyone is obligated to recite a blessing; on a miracleperformed on behalf bof an individual,only the individual bis obligated to recite a blessing. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitaa list of places where one is required to recite a blessing due to miracles that were performed there: bOne who sees the crossings of theRed bSea,where Israel crossed; band the crossings of the Jordan; and the crossings of the streams of Arnon; the hailstones of Elgavish on the descent of Beit Ḥoron; the rock that Og, King of Bashan, sought to hurl upon Israel; and the rock upon which Moses sat when Joshua waged war against Amalek; and Lot’s wife; and the wall of Jericho that was swallowed up in its place. On all of thesemiracles bone must give thanks andoffer bpraise before God. /b,The Gemara elaborates: bGranted,the miracles at bthe crossings of the seaare recorded explicitly in the Torah, bas it is stated: “And the Israelites went into the sea on dry groundand the water was a wall for them on their right and on their left” (Exodus 14:22). So too, the miracle at bthe crossings of the Jordan, as it is stated: “The priests who bore the ark of God’s covet stood on dry land within the Jordan, while all Israel crossed on dry land until the entire nation finished crossing the Jordan”(Joshua 3:17)., bHowever, from where do wederive the miracle that occurred at bthe crossing of the streams of Arnon? As it is stated: “Wherefore it is said in the Book of the Wars of the Lord: iVahevin iSufa/b, and the valleys of Arnon. And the slope of the valleys that incline toward the seat of Ar, and lean upon the border of Moab” (Numbers 21:14–15). It was btaught: i“Vahev in Sufa”;there were two lepers,one named Et and the second named Hev, bwho were walking at the rear of the camp of Israel. As Israel passed, the Emorites came /b
8. Egeria (Eucheria), Itinerarium, 12.5



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, absalom, tomb of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 232
arculf Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 232
benjamin of tudela Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 232
caiaphas Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 102
dead sea and area, byzantine period Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 232
dead sea and area Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 232
egeria Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 102
eleazar (exorcist) Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 102
jerusalem Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 102
john the baptist, cave of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 232
jordan, river Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 232
josephus, josephus dead sea area Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 232
lots wife Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 102
madaba mosaic Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 232
moses Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 232
nebo, mount Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 232
niobe Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 102
paul Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 102
pilgrimage Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 102
relics Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 102
segor Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 232
sodom Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 102
sodom and gomorra, in josephus Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 232
sodom and gomorra, location of sodom Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 232
sodom and gomorra, pillar of salt (lots wife) and Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 232
tourism Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 102
vespasian Bloch, Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism (2022) 102
zoara (of arabia)' Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 232