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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



4559
Dioscorides Pedanius, De Materia Medica, 1.73
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1. Strabo, Geography, 7.5.8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7.5.8. After the Rhizonic Gulf comes the city of Lissus, and Acrolissus, and Epidamnus, founded by the Corcyraeans, which is now called Dyrrachium, like the peninsula on which it is situated. Then comes the Apsus River; and then the Aous, on which is situated Apollonia, an exceedingly well-governed city, founded by the Corinthians and the Corcyraeans, and ten stadia distant from the river and sixty from the sea. The Aous is called Aeas by Hecataeus, who says that both the Inachus and the Aeas flow from the same place, the region of Lacmus, or rather from the same subterranean recess, the former towards the south into Argos and the latter towards the west and towards the Adrias. In the country of the Apolloniates is a place called Nymphaion; it is a rock that gives forth fire; and beneath it flow springs of warm water and asphalt — probably because the clods of asphalt in the earth are burned by the fire. And near by, on a hill, is a mine of asphalt; and the part that is trenched is filled up again in the course of time, since, as Poseidonius says, the earth that is poured into the trenches changes to asphalt. He also speaks of the asphaltic vine-earth which is mined at the Pierian Seleuceia as a cure for the infested vine; for, he says, if it is smeared on together with olive oil, it kills the insects before they can mount the sprouts of the roots; and, he adds, earth of this sort was also discovered in Rhodes when he was in office there as Prytanis, but it required more olive oil. After Apollonia comes Bylliaca, and Oricum and its seaport Panormus, and the Ceraunian Mountains, where the mouth of the Ionian Sea and the Adrias begins.
2. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 17.173 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

17.173. and he also gave a great deal to their commanders, and to his friends, and came again to Jericho, where he grew so choleric, that it brought him to do all things like a madman; and though he were near his death, he contrived the following wicked designs.
3. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.656-1.659, 4.451-4.485 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.656. 5. After this, the distemper seized upon his whole body, and greatly disordered all its parts with various symptoms; for there was a gentle fever upon him, and an intolerable itching over all the surface of his body, and continual pains in his colon, and dropsical tumors about his feet, and an inflammation of the abdomen,—and a putrefaction of his privy member, that produced worms. Besides which he had a difficulty of breathing upon him, and could not breathe but when he sat upright, and had a convulsion of all his members, insomuch that the diviners said those diseases were a punishment upon him for what he had done to the Rabbins. 1.657. Yet did he struggle with his numerous disorders, and still had a desire to live, and hoped for recovery, and considered of several methods of cure. Accordingly, he went over Jordan, and made use of those hot baths at Callirrhoe, which ran into the lake Asphaltitis, but are themselves sweet enough to be drunk. And here the physicians thought proper to bathe his whole body in warm oil, by letting it down into a large vessel full of oil; whereupon his eyes failed him, and he came and went as if he was dying; 1.658. and as a tumult was then made by his servants, at their voice he revived again. Yet did he after this despair of recovery, and gave orders that each soldier should have fifty drachmae a piece, and that his commanders and friends should have great sums of money given them. 1.659. 6. He then returned back and came to Jericho, in such a melancholy state of body as almost threatened him with present death, when he proceeded to attempt a horrid wickedness; for he got together the most illustrious men of the whole Jewish nation, out of every village, into a place called the Hippodrome, and there shut them in. 4.451. 2. Hereupon a great multitude prevented their approach, and came out of Jericho, and fled to those mountainous parts that lay over against Jerusalem, while that part which was left behind was in a great measure destroyed; 4.452. they also found the city desolate. It is situated in a plain; but a naked and barren mountain, of a very great length, hangs over it 4.453. which extends itself to the land about Scythopolis northward, but as far as the country of Sodom, and the utmost limits of the lake Asphaltitis, southward. This mountain is all of it very uneven and uninhabited, by reason of its barrenness: 4.454. there is an opposite mountain that is situated over against it, on the other side of Jordan; this last begins at Julias, and the northern quarters, and extends itself southward as far as Somorrhon, which is the bounds of Petra, in Arabia. In this ridge of mountains there is one called the Iron Mountain, that runs in length as far as Moab. 4.455. Now the region that lies in the middle between these ridges of mountains is called the Great Plain; it reaches from the village Ginnabris, as far as the lake Asphaltitis; 4.456. its length is two hundred and thirty furlongs, and its breadth a hundred and twenty, and it is divided in the midst by Jordan. It hath two lakes in it, that of Asphaltitis, and that of Tiberias, whose natures are opposite to each other; for the former is salt and unfruitful, but that of Tiberias is sweet and fruitful. 4.457. This plain is much burnt up in summertime, and, by reason of the extraordinary heat, contains a very unwholesome air; 4.458. it is all destitute of water excepting the river Jordan, which water of Jordan is the occasion why those plantations of palm trees that are near its banks are more flourishing, and much more fruitful, as are those that are remote from it not so flourishing, or fruitful. 4.459. 3. Notwithstanding which, there is a fountain by Jericho, that runs plentifully, and is very fit for watering the ground; it arises near the old city, which Joshua, the son of Nun, the general of the Hebrews, took the first of all the cities of the land of Canaan, by right of war. 4.461. who, when he once was the guest of the people at Jericho, and the men of the place had treated him very kindly, he both made them amends as well as the country, by a lasting favor; 4.462. for he went out of the city to this fountain, and threw into the current an earthen vessel full of salt; after which he stretched out his righteous hand unto heaven, and, pouring out a mild drink-offering, he made this supplication,—That the current might be mollified, and that the veins of fresh water might be opened; 4.463. that God also would bring into the place a more temperate and fertile air for the current, and would bestow upon the people of that country plenty of the fruits of the earth, and a succession of children; and that this prolific water might never fail them, while they continued to be righteous. 4.464. To these prayers Elisha joined proper operations of his hands, after a skillful manner, and changed the fountain; and that water, which had been the occasion of barrenness and famine before, from that time did supply a numerous posterity, and afforded great abundance to the country. 4.465. Accordingly, the power of it is so great in watering the ground, that if it does but once touch a country, it affords a sweeter nourishment than other waters do, when they lie so long upon them, till they are satiated with them. 4.466. For which reason, the advantage gained from other waters, when they flow in great plenty, is but small, while that of this water is great when it flows even in little quantities. 4.467. Accordingly, it waters a larger space of ground than any other waters do, and passes along a plain of seventy furlongs long, and twenty broad; wherein it affords nourishment to those most excellent gardens that are thick set with trees. 4.468. There are in it many sorts of palm trees that are watered by it, different from each other in taste and name; the better sort of them, when they are pressed, yield an excellent kind of honey, not much inferior in sweetness to other honey. 4.469. This country withal produces honey from bees; it also bears that balsam which is the most precious of all the fruits in that place, cypress trees also, and those that bear myrobalanum; so that he who should pronounce this place to be divine would not be mistaken, wherein is such plenty of trees produced as are very rare, and of the most excellent sort. 4.471. the cause of which seems to me to be the warmth of the air, and the fertility of the waters; the warmth calling forth the sprouts, and making them spread, and the moisture making every one of them take root firmly, and supplying that virtue which it stands in need of in summertime. Now this country is then so sadly burnt up, that nobody cares to come at it; 4.472. and if the water be drawn up before sunrising, and after that exposed to the air, it becomes exceeding cold, and becomes of a nature quite contrary to the ambient air; 4.473. as in winter again it becomes warm; and if you go into it, it appears very gentle. The ambient air is here also of so good a temperature, that the people of the country are clothed in linen-only, even when snow covers the rest of Judea. 4.474. This place is one hundred and fifty furlongs from Jerusalem, and sixty from Jordan. The country, as far as Jerusalem, is desert and stony; but that as far as Jordan and the lake Asphaltitis lies lower indeed, though it be equally desert and barren. 4.475. But so much shall suffice to have been said about Jericho, and of the great happiness of its situation. 4.476. 4. The nature of the lake Asphaltitis is also worth describing. It is, as I have said already, bitter and unfruitful. It is so light [or thick] that it bears up the heaviest things that are thrown into it; nor is it easy for anyone to make things sink therein to the bottom, if he had a mind so to do. 4.477. Accordingly, when Vespasian went to see it, he commanded that some who could not swim should have their hands tied behind them, and be thrown into the deep, when it so happened that they all swam as if a wind had forced them upwards. 4.478. Moreover, the change of the color of this lake is wonderful, for it changes its appearance thrice every day; and as the rays of the sun fall differently upon it, the light is variously reflected. 4.479. However, it casts up black clods of bitumen in many parts of it; these swim at the top of the water, and resemble both in shape and bigness headless bulls; 4.481. This bitumen is not only useful for the caulking of ships, but for the cure of men’s bodies; accordingly, it is mixed in a great many medicines. 4.482. The length of this lake is five hundred and eighty furlongs, where it is extended as far as Zoar in Arabia; and its breadth is a hundred and fifty. 4.483. The country of Sodom borders upon it. It was of old a most happy land, both for the fruits it bore and the riches of its cities, although it be now all burnt up. 4.484. It is related how, for the impiety of its inhabitants, it was burnt by lightning; in consequence of which there are still the remainders of that Divine fire, and the traces [or shadows] of the five cities are still to be seen, as well as the ashes growing in their fruits; which fruits have a color as if they were fit to be eaten, but if you pluck them with your hands, they dissolve into smoke and ashes. 4.485. And thus what is related of this land of Sodom hath these marks of credibility which our very sight affords us.
4. Plutarch, Alexander The Great, 35 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
alexander the great, and mesopotamia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
alexandria in gedrosia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
alum (stupteria), medicinal use of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 320
alum (stupteria) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 320
arabia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
arcturus Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
arculf Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 320
arsenic Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
asphalt, use in medicines Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226
asphaltites/asphaltitis, lake, asphalt in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226
asphaltites/asphaltitis, lake, josephus description of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226
asphaltites/asphaltitis, lake Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226
at-tamimi Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 320
babylon, babylonia, babylonians, alexander the great and Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
balsam (opobalsam), in josephus Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226
balsam (opobalsam) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226
bear (constellation) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
bitumen Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
bitumen (dead sea), egyptian use of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 320
bitumen (dead sea), medicinal use of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 320
bloch, r. m. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 320
byzantine anchorites, callirhoe kallirrhoë Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 320
cairo genizah, medical texts of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 320
cairo genizah Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 320
callirhoe kallirrhoë, healing waters of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226
callirhoe kallirrhoë, in josephus Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226
carmania, cape Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
carmania, region Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
cinnabar Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
date palms, and date honey Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226
date palms, as medicinal plants Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226
date palms Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226
dead sea and area, dead sea and healing Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226, 320
dead sea and area, medicinal products of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226, 320
dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 320
dead sea and area Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226
dorakta Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
gold Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
gyani Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
healing and water, dead sea salt, use of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 320
hyctanis river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
india, routes to and from Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
indus river, mouth of Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
jericho, vespasians attack (68 ce) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226
jewish revolts against romans (66-73 ce) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226
josephus, josephus dead sea area Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226
josephus dead sea area, healing resources/medicinal plants Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226, 320
josephus essenes, and the judaean revolt (c. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226
juba ii of mauretania Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
julias Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226
macae Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
madaba mosaic Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 320
medicinal plants, myrobalan Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226
moab Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226
navigation Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
ocean, external Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
onesicritus of astypalaia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
oracta Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
pasargadai Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
persia, persians Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
persian gulf or sea Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
pliny (gaius plinius secundus), and dead sea minerals Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 320
posidonius of apameia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
red sea Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
septentriones Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
sitioganus river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362
sulphur, dead sea, medicinal use of' Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 320
sulphur, dead sea Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 320
vespasian Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 226
whales Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 362