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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



4479
Diogenes Laertius, Lives Of The Philosophers, 9.5


nanHe was exceptional from his boyhood; for when a youth he used to say that he knew nothing, although when he was grown up he claimed that he knew everything. He was nobody's pupil, but he declared that he inquired of himself, and learned everything from himself. Some, however, had said that he had been a pupil of Xenophanes, as we learn from Sotion, who also tells us that Ariston in his book On Heraclitus declares that he was cured of the dropsy and died of another disease. And Hippobotus has the same story.As to the work which passes as his, it is a continuous treatise On Nature, but is divided into three discourses, one on the universe, another on politics, and a third on theology.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

10 results
1. Heraclitus of Ephesus, Fragments, 45, 101 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2. Herodotus, Histories, 1.29 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.29. and after these were subdued and subject to Croesus in addition to the Lydians, all the sages from Hellas who were living at that time, coming in different ways, came to Sardis, which was at the height of its property; and among them came Solon the Athenian, who, after making laws for the Athenians at their request, went abroad for ten years, sailing forth to see the world, he said. This he did so as not to be compelled to repeal any of the laws he had made,,since the Athenians themselves could not do that, for they were bound by solemn oaths to abide for ten years by whatever laws Solon should make.
3. Plato, Gorgias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

5. Marcus Aurelius Emperor of Rome, Meditations, 4.3, 7.59 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6. Numenius of Apamea, Fragments, 25 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Numenius of Apamea, Fragments, 25 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Sextus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism, 1.209-1.241 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.13-1.16, 3.6-3.7, 7.174, 7.177, 8.3, 8.87, 9.20, 9.34-9.35, 9.61-9.63 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.6. From that time onward, having reached his twentieth year (so it is said), he was the pupil of Socrates. When Socrates was gone, he attached himself to Cratylus the Heraclitean, and to Hermogenes who professed the philosophy of Parmenides. Then at the age of twenty-eight, according to Hermodorus, he withdrew to Megara to Euclides, with certain other disciples of Socrates. Next he proceeded to Cyrene on a visit to Theodorus the mathematician, thence to Italy to see the Pythagorean philosophers Philolaus and Eurytus, and thence to Egypt to see those who interpreted the will of the gods; and Euripides is said to have accompanied him thither. There he fell sick and was cured by the priests, who treated him with sea-water, and for this reason he cited the line:The sea doth wash away all human ills. 3.7. Furthermore he said that, according to Homer, beyond all men the Egyptians were skilled in healing. Plato also intended to make the acquaintance of the Magians, but was prevented by the wars in Asia. Having returned to Athens, he lived in the Academy, which is a gymnasium outside the walls, in a grove named after a certain hero, Hecademus, as is stated by Eupolis in his play entitled Shirkers:In the shady walks of the divine Hecademus.Moreover, there are verses of Timon which refer to Plato:Amongst all of them Plato was the leader, a big fish, but a sweet-voiced speaker, musical in prose as the cicala who, perched on the trees of Hecademus, pours forth a strain as delicate as a lily. 7.174. To the solitary man who talked to himself he remarked, You are not talking to a bad man. When some one twitted him on his old age, his reply was, I too am ready to depart; but when again I consider that I am in all points in good health and that I can still write and read, I am content to wait. We are told that he wrote down Zeno's lectures on oyster-shells and the blade-bones of oxen through lack of money to buy paper. Such was he; and yet, although Zeno had many other eminent disciples, he was able to succeed him in the headship of the school.He has left some very fine writings, which are as follows:of Time.of Zeno's Natural Philosophy, two books.Interpretations of Heraclitus, four books.De Sensu.of Art.A Reply to Democritus.A Reply to Aristarchus.A Reply to Herillus.of Impulse, two books. 7.177. 6. SPHAERUSAmongst those who after the death of Zeno became pupils of Cleanthes was Sphaerus of Bosporus, as already mentioned. After making considerable progress in his studies, he went to Alexandria to the court of King Ptolemy Philopator. One day when a discussion had arisen on the question whether the wise man could stoop to hold opinion, and Sphaerus had maintained that this was impossible, the king, wishing to refute him, ordered some waxen pomegranates to be put on the table. Sphaerus was taken in and the king cried out, You have given your assent to a presentation which is false. But Sphaerus was ready with a neat answer. I assented not to the proposition that they are pomegranates, but to another, that there are good grounds for thinking them to be pomegranates. Certainty of presentation and reasonable probability are two totally different things. Mnesistratus having accused him of denying that Ptolemy was a king, his reply was, Being of such quality as he is, Ptolemy is indeed a king. 8.3. Now he was in Egypt when Polycrates sent him a letter of introduction to Amasis; he learnt the Egyptian language, so we learn from Antiphon in his book On Men of Outstanding Merit, and he also journeyed among the Chaldaeans and Magi. Then while in Crete he went down into the cave of Ida with Epimenides; he also entered the Egyptian sanctuaries, and was told their secret lore concerning the gods. After that he returned to Samos to find his country under the tyranny of Polycrates; so he sailed away to Croton in Italy, and there he laid down a constitution for the Italian Greeks, and he and his followers were held in great estimation; for, being nearly three hundred in number, so well did they govern the state that its constitution was in effect a true aristocracy (government by the best). 8.87. After spending two months there, he went home and, aided by the liberality of his friends, he proceeded to Egypt with Chrysippus the physician, bearing with him letters of introduction from Agesilaus to Nectanabis, who recommended him to the priests. There he remained one year and four months with his beard and eyebrows shaved, and there, some say, he wrote his Octateris. From there he went to Cyzicus and the Propontis, giving lectures; afterwards he came to the court of Mausolus. Then at length he returned to Athens, bringing with him a great number of pupils: according to some, this was for the purpose of annoying Plato, who had originally passed him over. 9.20. He also said that the mass of things falls short of thought; and again that our encounters with tyrants should be as few, or else as pleasant, as possible. When Empedocles remarked to him that it is impossible to find a wise man, Naturally, he replied, for it takes a wise man to recognize a wise man. Sotion says that he was the first to maintain that all things are incognizable, but Sotion is in error.One of his poems is The Founding of Colophon, and another The Settlement of a Colony at Elea in Italy, making 2000 lines in all. He flourished about the 60th Olympiad. That he buried his sons with his own hands like Anaxagoras is stated by Demetrius of Phalerum in his work On Old Age and by Panaetius the Stoic in his book of Cheerfulness. He is believed to have been sold into slavery by [... and to have been set free by] the Pythagoreans Parmeniscus and Orestades: so Favorinus in the first book of his Memorabilia. There was also another Xenophanes, of Lesbos, an iambic poet.Such were the sporadic philosophers. 9.34. 7. DEMOCRITUSDemocritus was the son of Hegesistratus, though some say of Athenocritus, and others again of Damasippus. He was a native of Abdera or, according to some, of Miletus. He was a pupil of certain Magians and Chaldaeans. For when King Xerxes was entertained by the father of Democritus he left men in charge, as, in fact, is stated by Herodotus; and from these men, while still a boy, he learned theology and astronomy. Afterwards he met Leucippus and, according to some, Anaxagoras, being forty years younger than the latter. But Favorinus in his Miscellaneous History tells us that Democritus, speaking of Anaxagoras, declared that his views on the sun and the moon were not original but of great antiquity, and that he had simply stolen them. 9.35. Democritus also pulled to pieces the views of Anaxagoras on cosmogony and on mind, having a spite against him, because Anaxagoras did not take to him. If this be so, how could he have been his pupil, as some suggest?According to Demetrius in his book on Men of the Same Name and Antisthenes in his Successions of Philosophers, he travelled into Egypt to learn geometry from the priests, and he also went into Persia to visit the Chaldaeans as well as to the Red Sea. Some say that he associated with the Gymnosophists in India and went to Aethiopia. Also that, being the third son, he divided the family property. Most authorities will have it that he chose the smaller portion, which was in money, because he had need of this to pay the cost of travel; besides, his brothers were crafty enough to foresee that this would be his choice. 9.61. 11. PYRRHOPyrrho of Elis was the son of Pleistarchus, as Diocles relates. According to Apollodorus in his Chronology, he was first a painter; then he studied under Stilpo's son Bryson: thus Alexander in his Successions of Philosophers. Afterwards he joined Anaxarchus, whom he accompanied on his travels everywhere so that he even forgathered with the Indian Gymnosophists and with the Magi. This led him to adopt a most noble philosophy, to quote Ascanius of Abdera, taking the form of agnosticism and suspension of judgement. He denied that anything was honourable or dishonourable, just or unjust. And so, universally, he held that there is nothing really existent, but custom and convention govern human action; for no single thing is in itself any more this than that. 9.62. He led a life consistent with this doctrine, going out of his way for nothing, taking no precaution, but facing all risks as they came, whether carts, precipices, dogs or what not, and, generally, leaving nothing to the arbitrament of the senses; but he was kept out of harm's way by his friends who, as Antigonus of Carystus tells us, used to follow close after him. But Aenesidemus says that it was only his philosophy that was based upon suspension of judgement, and that he did not lack foresight in his everyday acts. He lived to be nearly ninety.This is what Antigonus of Carystus says of Pyrrho in his book upon him. At first he was a poor and unknown painter, and there are still some indifferent torch-racers of his in the gymnasium at Elis. 9.63. He would withdraw from the world and live in solitude, rarely showing himself to his relatives; this he did because he had heard an Indian reproach Anaxarchus, telling him that he would never be able to teach others what is good while he himself danced attendance on kings in their courts. He would maintain the same composure at all times, so that, even if you left him when he was in the middle of a speech, he would finish what he had to say with no audience but himself, although in his youth he had been hasty. often, our informant adds, he would leave his home and, telling no one, would go roaming about with whomsoever he chanced to meet. And once, when Anaxarchus fell into a slough, he passed by without giving him any help, and, while others blamed him, Anaxarchus himself praised his indifference and sang-froid.
10. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 14.5.12 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
academy, sceptical Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 68
academy Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 112
aenesidemus Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 112
alexandria Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 112
arcesilaus Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 68
aristo of chios Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 68
biography/biographical Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 232
blank, d. l. Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 97
cicero Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 68
cleanthes Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 68
consciousness Gerson and Wilberding, The New Cambridge Companion to Plotinus (2022) 263
conversion, models/variations Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 232
conversion, philosophical Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 232
diogenes laertius Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 112
disciple Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 232
dogmatics, heraclitus as a dogmatic philosopher Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 68
gymnosophists Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 232
heraclitus Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 68; Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 112
indian Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 232
magoi/magi Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 232
man measure statement (protagoras) Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 74, 97
marcus aurelius Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 68
money, payment of ethical teachers Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 97
numenius Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 68
pericles Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 74
philosopher, in progress/potential Despotis and Lohr, Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions (2022) 232
physics Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 68
plato, phaedo Gerson and Wilberding, The New Cambridge Companion to Plotinus (2022) 263
plato Gerson and Wilberding, The New Cambridge Companion to Plotinus (2022) 263
platonic dialogues, theaetetus Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 68
presocratics Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 68
protagoras, and fee-charging Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 97
pyrrhonism Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 112
pyrrhonists Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 112
skepticism, academic skepticism' Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 112
skepticism Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 112
socrates (platonic character) Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 68
sotion Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 112
soul Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 68
sphaerus Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 68
stoics Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 68; Gerson and Wilberding, The New Cambridge Companion to Plotinus (2022) 263
system Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 68
xenophanes Vogt, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (2015) 112
zeno of citium Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 68