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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Diogenes Laertius, Lives Of The Philosophers, 8.32

nanThe whole air is full of souls which are called genii or heroes; these are they who send men dreams and signs of future disease and health, and not to men alone, but to sheep also and cattle as well; and it is to them that purifications and lustrations, all divination, omens and the like, have reference. The most momentous thing in human life is the art of winning the soul to good or to evil. Blest are the men who acquire a good soul; they can never be at rest, nor ever keep the same course two days together.

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

38 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.27, 2.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul."
2. Hesiod, Works And Days, 125, 254-262, 124 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

124. By sleep. Life-giving earth, of its own right
3. Homer, Iliad, 3.278-3.279, 9.454-9.456, 9.571, 19.259-19.260 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

3.278. /Then in their midst Agamemnon lifted up his hands and prayed aloud:Father Zeus, that rulest from Ida, most glorious, most great, and thou Sun, that beholdest all things and hearest all things, and ye rivers and thou earth, and ye that in the world below take vengeance on men that are done with life, whosoever hath sworn a false oath; 3.279. /Then in their midst Agamemnon lifted up his hands and prayed aloud:Father Zeus, that rulest from Ida, most glorious, most great, and thou Sun, that beholdest all things and hearest all things, and ye rivers and thou earth, and ye that in the world below take vengeance on men that are done with life, whosoever hath sworn a false oath; 9.454. /whom himself he ever cherished, and scorned his wife, my mother. So she besought me by my knees continually, to have dalliance with that other first myself, that the old man might be hateful in her eyes. I hearkened to her and did the deed, but my father was ware thereof forthwith and cursed me mightily, and invoked the dire Erinyes 9.455. /that never should there sit upon his knees a dear child begotten of me; and the gods fulfilled his curse, even Zeus of the nether world and dread Persephone. Then I took counsel to slay him with the sharp sword, but some one of the immortals stayed mine anger, bringing to my mind 9.456. /that never should there sit upon his knees a dear child begotten of me; and the gods fulfilled his curse, even Zeus of the nether world and dread Persephone. Then I took counsel to slay him with the sharp sword, but some one of the immortals stayed mine anger, bringing to my mind 9.571. /the while she knelt and made the folds of her bosom wet with tears, that they should bring death upon her son; and the Erinys that walketh in darkness heard her from Erebus, even she of the ungentle heart. Now anon was the din of the foemen risen about their gates, and the noise of the battering of walls, and to Meleager the elders 19.259. /made prayer to Zeus; and all the Argives sat thereby in silence, hearkening as was meet unto the king. And he spake in prayer, with a look up to the wide heaven:Be Zeus my witness first, highest and best of gods, and Earth and Sun, and the Erinyes, that under earth 19.260. /take vengeance on men, whosoever hath sworn a false oath, that never laid I hand upon the girl Briseis either by way of a lover's embrace or anywise else, but she ever abode untouched in my huts. And if aught of this oath be false, may the gods give me woes
4. Aeschylus, Eumenides, 274-275, 339-340, 273 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

273. μέγας γὰρ Ἅιδης ἐστὶν εὔθυνος βροτῶν
5. Aeschylus, Persians, 620-632, 619 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

619. ἀλλʼ, ὦ φίλοι, χοαῖσι ταῖσδε νερτέρων
6. Aristophanes, Frogs, 146-150, 145 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

145. δεινότατα. μή μ' ἔκπληττε μηδὲ δειμάτου:
7. Plato, Symposium, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

202e. Through it are conveyed all divination and priestcraft concerning sacrifice and ritual
8. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9. Sophocles, Antigone, 1075-1076, 1074 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10. Xenophon, The Education of Cyrus, 8.7.21 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.7.21. Consider again, he continued, that there is nothing in the world more nearly akin to death than is sleep; and the soul of man at just such times is revealed in its most divine aspect and at such times, too, it looks forward into the future; for then, it seems, it is most untrammelled by the bonds of the flesh.
11. Aristotle, Prophesying By Dreams, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

12. Aristotle, Generation of Animals, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13. Aristoxenus, Fragments, None (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14. Cicero, On Divination, 1.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.5. Atque haec, ut ego arbitror, veteres rerum magis eventis moniti quam ratione docti probaverunt. Philosophorum vero exquisita quaedam argumenta, cur esset vera divinatio, collecta sunt; e quibus, ut de antiquissumis loquar, Colophonius Xenophanes unus, qui deos esse diceret, divinationem funditus sustulit; reliqui vero omnes praeter Epicurum balbutientem de natura deorum divinationem probaverunt, sed non uno modo. Nam cum Socrates omnesque Socratici Zenoque et ii, qui ab eo essent profecti, manerent in antiquorum philosophorum sententia vetere Academia et Peripateticis consentientibus, cumque huic rei magnam auctoritatem Pythagoras iam ante tribuisset, qui etiam ipse augur vellet esse, plurumisque locis gravis auctor Democritus praesensionem rerum futurarum conprobaret, Dicaearchus Peripateticus cetera divinationis genera sustulit, somniorum et furoris reliquit, Cratippusque, familiaris noster, quem ego parem summis Peripateticis iudico, isdem rebus fidem tribuit, reliqua divinationis genera reiecit. 1.5. Now my opinion is that, in sanctioning such usages, the ancients were influenced more by actual results than convinced by reason. However certain very subtle arguments to prove the trustworthiness of divination have been gathered by philosophers. of these — to mention the most ancient — Xenophanes of Colophon, while asserting the existence of gods, was the only one who repudiated divination in its entirety; but all the others, with the exception of Epicurus, who babbled about the nature of the gods, approved of divination, though not in the same degree. For example, Socrates and all of the Socratic School, and Zeno and his followers, continued in the faith of the ancient philosophers and in agreement with the Old Academy and with the Peripatetics. Their predecessor, Pythagoras, who even wished to be considered an augur himself, gave the weight of his great name to the same practice; and that eminent author, Democritus, in many passages, strongly affirmed his belief in a presentiment of things to come. Moreover, Dicaearchus, the Peripatetic, though he accepted divination by dreams and frenzy, cast away all other kinds; and my intimate friend, Cratippus, whom I consider the peer of the greatest of the Peripatetics, also gave credence to the same kinds of divination but rejected the rest. 1.5. We read in a history by Agathocles that Hamilcar, the Carthaginian, during his siege of Syracuse heard a voice in his sleep telling him that he would dine the next day in Syracuse. At daybreak the following day a serious conflict broke out in his camp between the troops of the Carthaginians and their allies, the Siculi. When the Syracusans saw this they made a sudden assault on the camp and carried Hamilcar off alive. Thus the event verified the dream.History is full of such instances, and so is everyday life.
15. Cicero, De Finibus, 5.87 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5.87.  On this your cousin and I are agreed. Hence what we have to consider is this, can the systems of the philosophers give us happiness? They certainly profess to do so. Whether it not so, why did Plato travel through Egypt to learn arithmetic and astronomy from barbarian priests? Why did he later visit Archytas at Tarentum, or the other Pythagoreans, Echecrates, Timaeus and Arion, at Locri, intending to append to his picture of Socrates an account of the Pythagorean system and to extend his studies into those branches which Socrates repudiated? Why did Pythagoras himself scour Egypt and visit the Persian magi? why did he travel on foot through those vast barbarian lands and sail across those many seas? Why did Democritus do the same? It is related of Democritus (whether truly or falsely we are not concerned to inquire) that he deprived himself of eyesight; and it is certain that in order that his mind should be distracted as little as possible from reflection, he neglected his paternal estate and left his land uncultivated, engrossed in the search for what else but happiness? Even if he supposed happiness to consist in knowledge, still he designed that his study of natural philosophy should bring him cheerfulness of mind; since that is his conception of the Chief Good, which he entitles euthumia, or often athambia, that is freedom from alarm.
16. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 5.87 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5.87. quare hoc hoc atque hoc Non. videndum est, possitne nobis hoc ratio philosophorum dare. pollicetur certe. nisi enim id faceret, cur Plato Aegyptum peragravit, ut a sacerdotibus barbaris numeros et caelestia acciperet? cur post Tarentum ad Archytam? cur ad reliquos Pythagoreos, Echecratem, Timaeum, Arionem, Locros, ut, cum Socratem expressisset, adiungeret Pythagoreorum disciplinam eaque, quae Socrates repudiabat, addisceret? cur ipse Pythagoras et Aegyptum lustravit et Persarum magos adiit? cur tantas regiones barbarorum pedibus obiit, tot maria transmisit? cur haec eadem Democritus? qui —vere falsone, quaerere mittimus quaerere mittimus Se. quereremus BER queremus V quae- rere nolumus C.F.W. Mue. —dicitur oculis se se oculis BE privasse; privavisse R certe, ut quam minime animus a cogitationibus abduceretur, patrimonium neglexit, agros deseruit incultos, quid quaerens aliud nisi vitam beatam? beatam vitam R quam si etiam in rerum cognitione ponebat, tamen ex illa investigatione naturae consequi volebat, bono ut esset animo. id enim ille id enim ille R ideo enim ille BE id ille V id est enim illi summum bonum; eu)qumi/an cet. coni. Mdv. summum bonum eu)qumi/an et saepe a)qambi/an appellat, id est animum terrore liberum. 5.87.  On this your cousin and I are agreed. Hence what we have to consider is this, can the systems of the philosophers give us happiness? They certainly profess to do so. Whether it not so, why did Plato travel through Egypt to learn arithmetic and astronomy from barbarian priests? Why did he later visit Archytas at Tarentum, or the other Pythagoreans, Echecrates, Timaeus and Arion, at Locri, intending to append to his picture of Socrates an account of the Pythagorean system and to extend his studies into those branches which Socrates repudiated? Why did Pythagoras himself scour Egypt and visit the Persian magi? why did he travel on foot through those vast barbarian lands and sail across those many seas? Why did Democritus do the same? It is related of Democritus (whether truly or falsely we are not concerned to inquire) that he deprived himself of eyesight; and it is certain that in order that his mind should be distracted as little as possible from reflection, he neglected his paternal estate and left his land uncultivated, engrossed in the search for what else but happiness? Even if he supposed happiness to consist in knowledge, still he designed that his study of natural philosophy should bring him cheerfulness of mind; since that is his conception of the Chief Good, which he entitles euthumia, or often athambia, that is freedom from alarm.
17. Cicero, Republic, 1.16, 6.18-6.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.16. Dein Tubero: Nescio, Africane, cur ita memoriae proditum sit, Socratem omnem istam disputationem reiecisse et tantum de vita et de moribus solitum esse quaerere. Quem enim auctorem de illo locupletiorem Platone laudare possumus? cuius in libris multis locis ita loquitur Socrates, ut etiam, cum de moribus, de virtutibus, denique de re publica disputet, numeros tamen et geometriam et harmoniam studeat Pythagorae more coniungere. Tum Scipio: Sunt ista, ut dicis; sed audisse te credo, Tubero, Platonem Socrate mortuo primum in Aegyptum discendi causa, post in Italiam et in Siciliam contendisse, ut Pythagorae inventa perdisceret, eumque et cum Archyta Tarentino et cum Timaeo Locro multum fuisse et Philoleo commentarios esse ctum, cumque eo tempore in iis locis Pythagorae nomen vigeret, illum se et hominibus Pythagoreis et studiis illis dedisse. Itaque cum Socratem unice dilexisset eique omnia tribuere voluisset, leporem Socraticum subtilitatemque sermonis cum obscuritate Pythagorae et cum illa plurimarum artium gravitate contexuit. 6.18. Quae cum intuerer stupens, ut me recepi, Quid? hic, inquam, quis est, qui conplet aures meas tantus et tam dulcis sonus? Hic est, inquit, ille, qui intervallis disiunctus inparibus, sed tamen pro rata parte ratione distinctis inpulsu et motu ipsorum orbium efficitur et acuta cum gravibus temperans varios aequabiliter concentus efficit; nec enim silentio tanti motus incitari possunt, et natura fert, ut extrema ex altera parte graviter, ex altera autem acute sonent. Quam ob causam summus ille caeli stellifer cursus, cuius conversio est concitatior, acuto et excitato movetur sono, gravissimo autem hic lunaris atque infimus; nam terra nona inmobilis manens una sede semper haeret complexa medium mundi locum. Illi autem octo cursus, in quibus eadem vis est duorum, septem efficiunt distinctos intervallis sonos, qui numerus rerum omnium fere nodus est; quod docti homines nervis imitati atque cantibus aperuerunt sibi reditum in hunc locum, sicut alii, qui praestantibus ingeniis in vita humana divina studia coluerunt. 6.19. Hoc sonitu oppletae aures hominum obsurduerunt; nec est ullus hebetior sensus in vobis, sicut, ubi Nilus ad illa, quae Catadupa nomitur, praecipitat ex altissimis montibus, ea gens, quae illum locum adcolit, propter magnitudinem sonitus sensu audiendi caret. Hic vero tantus est totius mundi incitatissima conversione sonitus, ut eum aures hominum capere non possint, sicut intueri solem adversum nequitis, eiusque radiis acies vestra sensusque vincitur. Haec ego admirans referebam tamen oculos ad terram identidem.
18. Cicero, Timaeus, 1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

19. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 3.36, 4.55 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.36. quid iaces aut quid maeres aut cur succumbis cedisque fortunae? quae quae om. G 1 pervellere te forsitan potuerit et pungere, non potuit certe vires frangere. magna vis est in virtutibus; eas excita, si forte dormiunt. iam tibi aderit princeps fortitudo, quae te animo tanto esse coget, ut omnia, quae possint homini evenire, contemnas et pro nihilo putes. aderit temperantia, quae est eadem moderatio, a me quidem paulo ante appellata frugalitas, quae te turpiter et nequiter facere nihil patietur. patiatur X ( cf. coget 21 dicet 28) quid est autem nequius aut turpius ecfeminato eff. G 1 e corr. R 2 V rec viro? ne iustitia quidem sinet te ista facere, cui minimum esse videtur in hac causa loci; loqui X corr. V c? quae tamen ita dicet dupliciter esse te iniustum, cum et alienum adpetas, appetas V 2 qui mortalis natus condicionem conditionem GKV postules inmortalium et graviter feras te, quod utendum acceperis, reddidisse. 4.55. Oratorem vero irasci minime decet, simulare non dedecet. simulare n. dedecet om. V decet X an tibi irasci tum videmur, cum quid in causis acrius et vehementius dicimus? quid? cum iam rebus transactis et praeteritis orationes scribimus, num irati scribimus? ecquis ecquis s etquis X hoc animadvertit? Accius Atr. 233 animadvortet de orat. 3, 217 M (animum advertit L), quod hic quoque fort. restituendum vincite! —num aut egisse umquam iratum Aesopum aut scripsisse existimas existimamus KR iratum Accium? aguntur ista praeclare, et ab oratore quidem melius, si modo est orator, est orator melius G 1 quam ab ullo histrione, istrione X ( str. G 1 ) sed aguntur leniter et mente tranquilla. Libidinem vero laudare cuius est libidinis? lubid. GRK c Themistoclem mihi et Demosthenen demostenen X proferri G 1 profertis, additis Pythagoran Democritum Platonem. quid? vos studia libidinem libidine GK vocatis? quae vel optimarum rerum, ut ea sunt quae profertis, sedata tamen et et add. G 2 tranquilla esse debent. Iam aegritudinem laudare, unam rem maxime detestabilem, quorum est tandem philosophorum? at ad KR commode dixit Afranius: dum modo doleat aliquid, fr. 409 cf. p. 383, 13 doleat doleat lateat G 1 quidlibet. quidlibet hic X dixit enim de adulescente perdito ac dissoluto, nos autem de constanti viro ac sapienti sapienti ex -e V 1 quaerimus. et quidem ipsam illam iram centurio habeat aut signifer vel ceteri, de quibus dici non necesse est, ne rhetorum aperiamus mysteria. utile est enim uti motu utinmotu K 1 animi, qui uti ratione non potest. nos autem, ut testificor saepe, de sapiente quaerimus. quoque ( item post Afranii versum )
20. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 15.1-15.478 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

21. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 16 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

16. If, therefore, you consider that souls, and demons, and angels are things differing indeed in name, but not identical in reality, you will then be able to discard that most heavy burden, superstition. But as men in general speak of good and evil demons, and in like manner of good and evil souls, so also do they speak of angels, looking upon some as worthy of a good appellation, and calling them ambassadors of man to God, and of God to man, and sacred and holy on account of this blameless and most excellent office; others, again, you will not err if you look upon as unholy and unworthy of any address.
22. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.141 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.141. Now philosophers in general are wont to call these demons, but the sacred scripture calls them angels, using a name more in accordance with nature. For indeed they do report (diangellousi) the injunctions of the father to his children, and the necessities of the children to the father.
23. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 4.123 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

4.123. On which account Moses, in another passage, establishes a law concerning blood, that one may not eat the blood nor the Fat.{27}{#le 3:17.} The blood, for the reason which I have already mentioned, that it is the essence of the life; not of the mental and rational life, but of that which exists in accordance with the outward senses, to which it is owing that both we and irrational animals also have a common existence.CONCERNING THE SOUL OR LIFE OF MANXXIV. For the essence of the soul of man is the breath of God, especially if we follow the account of Moses, who, in his history of the creation of the world, says that God breathed into the first man, the founder of our race, the breath of life; breathing it into the principal part of his body, namely the face, where the outward senses are established, the body-guards of the mind, as if it were the great king. And that which was thus breathed into his face was manifestly the breath of the air, or whatever else there may be which is even more excellent than the breath of the air, as being a ray emitted from the blessed and thricehappy nature of God.
24. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.162 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

25. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 46 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

46. For the mind is the sight of the soul, shining transcendently with its own rays, by which the great and dense darkness which ignorance of things sheds around is dissipated. This species of soul is not composed of the same elements as those of which the other kinds were made, but it has received a purer and more excellent essence of which the divine natures were formed; on which account the intellect naturally appears to be the only thing in us which is imperishable
26. Plutarch, On The Obsolescence of Oracles, 415 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Plutarch, On Isis And Osiris, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

360d. when a certain Hermodotus in a poem proclaimed him to be "the offspring of the Sun and a god," said, "the slave who attends to my chamber-pot is not conscious of any such thing!" Moreover, Lysippus the sculptor was quite right in his disapproval of the painter Apelles, because Apelles in his portrait of Alexander had represented him with a thunderbolt in his hand, whereas he himself had represented Alexander holding a spear, the glory of which no length of years could ever dim, since it was truthful and was his by right. Better, therefore, is the judgment of those who hold that the stories about Typhon, Osiris, and Isis, are records of experiences of neither gods nor men, but of demigods
28. Aelian, Varia Historia, 4.17 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

29. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 5.9.59 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

30. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 10.28.7 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.28.7. Higher up than the figures I have enumerated comes Eurynomus, said by the Delphian guides to be one of the demons in Hades, who eats off all the flesh of the corpses, leaving only their bones. But Homer's Odyssey, the poem called the Minyad, and the Returns, although they tell of Hades, and its horrors, know of no demon called Eurynomus. However, I will describe what he is like and his attitude in the painting. He is of a color between blue and black, like that of meat flies; he is showing his teeth and is seated, and under him is spread a vulture's skin.
31. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 8.7, 8.24-8.31, 8.33-8.36, 8.41 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.7. But the book which passes as the work of Pythagoras is by Lysis of Tarentum, a Pythagorean, who fled to Thebes and taught Epaminondas. Heraclides, the son of Serapion, in his Epitome of Sotion, says that he also wrote a poem On the Universe, and secondly the Sacred Poem which begins:Young men, come reverence in quietudeAll these my words;thirdly On the Soul, fourthly of Piety, fifthly Helothales the Father of Epicharmus of Cos, sixthly Croton, and other works as well. The same authority says that the poem On the Mysteries was written by Hippasus to defame Pythagoras, and that many others written by Aston of Croton were ascribed to Pythagoras. 8.24. to respect all divination, to sing to the lyre and by hymns to show due gratitude to gods and to good men. To abstain from beans because they are flatulent and partake most of the breath of life; and besides, it is better for the stomach if they are not taken, and this again will make our dreams in sleep smooth and untroubled.Alexander in his Successions of Philosophers says that he found in the Pythagorean memoirs the following tenets as well. 8.25. The principle of all things is the monad or unit; arising from this monad the undefined dyad or two serves as material substratum to the monad, which is cause; from the monad and the undefined dyad spring numbers; from numbers, points; from points, lines; from lines, plane figures; from plane figures, solid figures; from solid figures, sensible bodies, the elements of which are four, fire, water, earth and air; these elements interchange and turn into one another completely, and combine to produce a universe animate, intelligent, spherical, with the earth at its centre, the earth itself too being spherical and inhabited round about. There are also antipodes, and our down is their up. 8.26. Light and darkness have equal part in the universe, so have hot and cold, and dry and moist; and of these, if hot preponderates, we have summer; if cold, winter; if dry, spring; if moist, late autumn. If all are in equilibrium, we have the best periods of the year, of which the freshness of spring constitutes the healthy season, and the decay of late autumn the unhealthy. So too, in the day, freshness belongs to the morning, and decay to the evening, which is therefore more unhealthy. The air about the earth is stagt and unwholesome, and all within it is mortal; but the uppermost air is ever-moved and pure and healthy, and all within it is immortal and consequently divine. 8.27. The sun, the moon, and the other stars are gods; for, in them, there is a preponderance of heat, and heat is the cause of life. The moon is illumined by the sun. Gods and men are akin, inasmuch as man partakes of heat; therefore God takes thought for man. Fate is the cause of things being thus ordered both as a whole and separately. The sun's ray penetrates through the aether, whether cold or dense – the air they call cold aether, and the sea and moisture dense aether – and this ray descends even to the depths and for this reason quickens all things. 8.28. All things live which partake of heat – this is why plants are living things – but all have not soul, which is a detached part of aether, partly the hot and partly the cold, for it partakes of cold aether too. Soul is distinct from life; it is immortal, since that from which it is detached is immortal. Living creatures are reproduced from one another by germination; there is no such thing as spontaneous generation from earth. The germ is a clot of brain containing hot vapour within it; and this, when brought to the womb, throws out, from the brain, ichor, fluid and blood, whence are formed flesh, sinews, bones, hairs, and the whole of the body, while soul and sense come from the vapour within. 8.29. First congealing in about forty days, it receives form and, according to the ratios of harmony, in seven, nine, or at the most ten, months, the mature child is brought forth. It has in it all the relations constituting life, and these, forming a continuous series, keep it together according to the ratios of harmony, each appearing at regulated intervals. Sense generally, and sight in particular, is a certain unusually hot vapour. This is why it is said to see through air and water, because the hot aether is resisted by the cold; for, if the vapour in the eyes had been cold, it would have been dissipated on meeting the air, its like. As it is, in certain [lines] he calls the eyes the portals of the sun. His conclusion is the same with regard to hearing and the other senses. 8.30. The soul of man, he says, is divided into three parts, intelligence, reason, and passion. Intelligence and passion are possessed by other animals as well, but reason by man alone. The seat of the soul extends from the heart to the brain; the part of it which is in the heart is passion, while the parts located in the brain are reason and intelligence. The senses are distillations from these. Reason is immortal, all else mortal. The soul draws nourishment from the blood; the faculties of the soul are winds, for they as well as the soul are invisible, just as the aether is invisible. 8.31. The veins, arteries, and sinews are the bonds of the soul. But when it is strong and settled down into itself, reasonings and deeds become its bonds. When cast out upon the earth, it wanders in the air like the body. Hermes is the steward of souls, and for that reason is called Hermes the Escorter, Hermes the Keeper of the Gate, and Hermes of the Underworld, since it is he who brings in the souls from their bodies both by land and sea; and the pure are taken into the uppermost region, but the impure are not permitted to approach the pure or each other, but are bound by the Furies in bonds unbreakable. 8.33. Right has the force of an oath, and that is why Zeus is called the God of Oaths. Virtue is harmony, and so are health and all good and God himself; this is why they say that all things are constructed according to the laws of harmony. The love of friends is just concord and equality. We should not pay equal worship to gods and heroes, but to the gods always, with reverent silence, in white robes, and after purification, to the heroes only from midday onwards. Purification is by cleansing, baptism and lustration, and by keeping clean from all deaths and births and all pollution, and abstaining from meat and flesh of animals that have died, mullets, gurnards, eggs and egg-sprung animals, beans, and the other abstinences prescribed by those who perform rites in the sanctuaries. 8.34. According to Aristotle in his work On the Pythagoreans, Pythagoras counselled abstinence from beans either because they are like the genitals, or because they are like the gates of Hades . . . as being alone unjointed, or because they are injurious, or because they are like the form of the universe, or because they belong to oligarchy, since they are used in election by lot. He bade his disciples not to pick up fallen crumbs, either in order to accustom them not to eat immoderately, or because connected with a person's death; nay, even, according to Aristophanes, crumbs belong to the heroes, for in his Heroes he says:Nor taste ye of what falls beneath the board !Another of his precepts was not to eat white cocks, as being sacred to the Month and wearing suppliant garb – now supplication ranked with things good – sacred to the Month because they announce the time of day; and again white represents the nature of the good, black the nature of evil. Not to touch such fish as were sacred; for it is not right that gods and men should be allotted the same things, any more than free men and slaves. 8.35. Not to break bread; for once friends used to meet over one loaf, as the barbarians do even to this day; and you should not divide bread which brings them together; some give as the explanation of this that it has reference to the judgement of the dead in Hades, others that bread makes cowards in war, others again that it is from it that the whole world begins.He held that the most beautiful figure is the sphere among solids, and the circle among plane figures. Old age may be compared to everything that is decreasing, while youth is one with increase. Health means retention of the form, disease its destruction. of salt he said it should be brought to table to remind us of what is right; for salt preserves whatever it finds, and it arises from the purest sources, sun and sea. 8.36. This is what Alexander says that he found in the Pythagorean memoirs. What follows is Aristotle's.But Pythagoras's great dignity not even Timon overlooked, who, although he digs at him in his Silli, speaks ofPythagoras, inclined to witching works and ways,Man-snarer, fond of noble periphrase.Xenophanes confirms the statement about his having been different people at different times in the elegiacs beginning:Now other thoughts, another path, I show.What he says of him is as follows:They say that, passing a belaboured whelp,He, full of pity, spake these words of dole:Stay, smite not ! 'Tis a friend, a human soul;I knew him straight whenas I heard him yelp ! 8.41. Hermippus gives another anecdote. Pythagoras, on coming to Italy, made a subterranean dwelling and enjoined on his mother to mark and record all that passed, and at what hour, and to send her notes down to him until he should ascend. She did so. Pythagoras some time afterwards came up withered and looking like a skeleton, then went into the assembly and declared he had been down to Hades, and even read out his experiences to them. They were so affected that they wept and wailed and looked upon him as divine, going so far as to send their wives to him in hopes that they would learn some of his doctrines; and so they were called Pythagorean women. Thus far Hermippus.
32. Iamblichus, Concerning The Mysteries, 3.3 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

33. Iamblichus, Life of Pythagoras, 186, 81-86, 145 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

34. Porphyry, Life of Pythagoras, 42-45, 37 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

37. His utterances were of two kinds, plain or symbolical. His teaching was twofold: of his disciples some were called Students, and others Hearers. The Students learned the fuller and more exactly elaborate reasons of science, while the Hearers heard only the chief heads of learning, without more detailed explanations. SPAN
35. Aristoxenus, Fragments, None

36. Orphic Hymns., Fragments, 509, 417

37. Papyri, Derveni Papyrus, 3.8-3.9, 4.9-4.10

38. Simplicius of Cilicia, In Aristotelis Categorias Commentarium, 63.22-63.24 (missingth cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Geljon and Runia (2019) 116
acusmata Huffman (2019) 491
acusmata (pythagorean),definitional Wolfsdorf (2020) 8
acusmata (pythagorean),history of interpretation Wolfsdorf (2020) 8
acusmata (pythagorean),religious precepts Wolfsdorf (2020) 8
acusmata (pythagorean) Wolfsdorf (2020) 8
afterlife,punishment in Wolfsdorf (2020) 556
afterlife Wolfsdorf (2020) 556
air (element) Iribarren and Koning (2022) 329, 330
alexander polyhistor Bryan (2018) 164; Cornelli (2013) 79, 139, 371, 379, 391; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 418; Wardy and Warren (2018) 164
anaximander the younger Cornelli (2013) 380
androcydes Cornelli (2013) 79
andronicus Cornelli (2013) 391
angels Geljon and Runia (2019) 116
anthropology Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 418
appropriateness Huffman (2019) 491
archytas Cornelli (2013) 391
archytas of tarentum Wardy and Warren (2018) 164
aretē/-a (virtue,excellence),in pythagorean acusmata Wolfsdorf (2020) 8
aristotle,on dreams Lloyd (1989) 33
aristotle Cornelli (2013) 79, 371, 378, 380, 391; Geljon and Runia (2019) 121
aristoxenus Wardy and Warren (2018) 164
arnobius,dreams lead to conversion Simmons(1995) 118
athenaeus Cornelli (2013) 79
atomism Lloyd (1989) 33
aëtius Cornelli (2013) 378, 379
baumbach,m. Cornelli (2013) 79
bernabé,a. Cornelli (2013) 140
bonazzi,m. Cornelli (2013) 371, 391
bryce-campbell Simmons(1995) 118
burkert,w. Cornelli (2013) 371
casadio,g. Cornelli (2013) 140
centrone,b. Cornelli (2013) 379
chrysippus Cornelli (2013) 140
cicero Bryan (2018) 164; Geljon and Runia (2019) 121; Wardy and Warren (2018) 164
clement of alexandria Cornelli (2013) 79
corssen,p. Cornelli (2013) 79
cosmology Álvarez (2019) 25
cosmos/kosmos Iribarren and Koning (2022) 329, 330
cosmos Álvarez (2019) 25
critolaos Geljon and Runia (2019) 121
cruttwell,c. t. Simmons(1995) 118
daemons Geljon and Runia (2019) 116
daimon/daimones Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 418
daimons Álvarez (2019) 25
daimôn Iribarren and Koning (2022) 329, 330
dalsgaard larsen,b. Cornelli (2013) 79
delatte,a. Cornelli (2013) 79
delphi,polygnotus paintings Wolfsdorf (2020) 556
democritus Lloyd (1989) 33
derveni author Álvarez (2019) 25
detienne,marcel Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 418
dike Álvarez (2019) 25
dikê/δίκη Iribarren and Koning (2022) 330
dillon,j. Cornelli (2013) 79
diocles of carystos Cornelli (2013) 378
diogenes laertius Bryan (2018) 164; Cornelli (2013) 79, 371, 379, 380; Geljon and Runia (2019) 121; Wardy and Warren (2018) 164
diogenes of apollonia Cornelli (2013) 378
divination Huffman (2019) 601
dreams Lloyd (1989) 33
earth/earth/gaea Iribarren and Koning (2022) 329, 330
empedocles Lloyd (1989) 33
empedokles Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 418
epic (poetry) Iribarren and Koning (2022) 329
erinyes Wolfsdorf (2020) 556; Álvarez (2019) 25
eschatology Álvarez (2019) 25
ether Geljon and Runia (2019) 116, 121
eudorus of alexandria Cornelli (2013) 391
eurydice de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 149
explanation Lloyd (1989) 33
fabius,q. fabius pictor,early roman annalist Simmons(1995) 118
festugière,a.-j. Cornelli (2013) 378, 379
forbes,p.b.r. Cornelli (2013) 79
genealogy Iribarren and Koning (2022) 329
gods Lloyd (1989) 33; Álvarez (2019) 25
golden age/race Iribarren and Koning (2022) 329
gorgias Huffman (2019) 491
hades (god) Álvarez (2019) 25
hagar Geljon and Runia (2019) 116
happiness,in pythagorean acusmata Wolfsdorf (2020) 8
harmony,in pythagoreanism Wolfsdorf (2020) 8
healing,purification ritual and law Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 418
heraclides of pontus Geljon and Runia (2019) 121
heraclitus Álvarez (2019) 25
hesiod Álvarez (2019) 25
hicks,r.d. Cornelli (2013) 139, 380
hippocrates of cos Lloyd (1989) 33
hippolytus of rome Cornelli (2013) 79
homer,afterlife in Wolfsdorf (2020) 556
huffman,c.a. Cornelli (2013) 139, 140, 371
hölk,c. Cornelli (2013) 79
iamblichus Cornelli (2013) 79; Simmons(1995) 118; Wardy and Warren (2018) 164
isnardi parente,m. Cornelli (2013) 140
jacob Geljon and Runia (2019) 116
jacobs dream Geljon and Runia (2019) 116
jacoby,f. Cornelli (2013) 79
jerome,says dreams influenced arnobius conversion Simmons(1995) 118
justice,retributive and cosmic Álvarez (2019) 25
justice (dikē),in pythagorean acusmata Wolfsdorf (2020) 8
laks,a. Cornelli (2013) 371
le bonniec Simmons(1995) 118
life de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 149
logos of god Geljon and Runia (2019) 116
lyra,orphic lyra de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 149
lyra de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 149
mansfeld,j. Cornelli (2013) 391
medicine Huffman (2019) 601
music de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 149
mystery cult Iribarren and Koning (2022) 329
myth de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 149
naturalistic accounts Lloyd (1989) 33
nigidius figulus Wardy and Warren (2018) 164
nous/νοῦς Iribarren and Koning (2022) 330
numbers de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 149
oath Álvarez (2019) 25
orpheus,catabasis de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 149
orpheus,musician de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 149
orpheus Cornelli (2013) 139, 140; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 149
orphic de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 149
ovid Wardy and Warren (2018) 164
papyri/papyrology,derveni papyrus Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 418
perjury Álvarez (2019) 25
persephone Geljon and Runia (2019) 116
philolaus Cornelli (2013) 371, 378, 379, 380, 391; Wardy and Warren (2018) 164
pindar Geljon and Runia (2019) 116; Lloyd (1989) 33
plato,myth of eros Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 418
plato,symposium Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 418
plato/platonic Geljon and Runia (2019) 116, 121
plato Cornelli (2013) 140, 371, 380, 391
pleasure (ἡδονή\u200e),in pythagorean acusmata Wolfsdorf (2020) 8
plutarch Cornelli (2013) 79, 139
polygnotus,underworld painting Wolfsdorf (2020) 556
porphyry Cornelli (2013) 79; Wardy and Warren (2018) 164
pseudepigrapha Wardy and Warren (2018) 164
pseudo-justin martyr Cornelli (2013) 140
pseudo-timaeus Cornelli (2013) 391
punishment,in the afterlife Wolfsdorf (2020) 556
punishments Álvarez (2019) 25
pythagoras,pythagoreanism Iribarren and Koning (2022) 329
pythagoras Cornelli (2013) 139, 140, 371, 379, 380; Geljon and Runia (2019) 116; Gruen (2011) 322; Wardy and Warren (2018) 164
pythagorean notes Huffman (2019) 601
pythagoreanism/pythagoreans/pythagorean Geljon and Runia (2019) 121
pythagoreanism Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 418; Álvarez (2019) 25
pythagoreanism xxv,and definitional inquiry Wolfsdorf (2020) 8
pythagoreans,division of mathematici and acousmati Wardy and Warren (2018) 164
pythagoreans,writings of Wardy and Warren (2018) 164
pythagoreans Lloyd (1989) 33
religion,in pythagorean acusmata Wolfsdorf (2020) 8
religion Iribarren and Koning (2022) 330
rhetoric Huffman (2019) 491
riedweg,c. Cornelli (2013) 140
sacrifice,in pythagorean acusmata Wolfsdorf (2020) 8
sedley,d.n. Cornelli (2013) 391
servants of the gods (minor deities) Álvarez (2019) 25
simplicius Cornelli (2013) 391
sleep Lloyd (1989) 33
song de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 149
soul,division of Geljon and Runia (2019) 121
soul,of dead de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 149
soul,orphic doctrine de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 149
soul,rational Geljon and Runia (2019) 121
soul Geljon and Runia (2019) 121; Lloyd (1989) 33
souls in the air Geljon and Runia (2019) 116
speusippus Cornelli (2013) 371, 391
spheres de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 149
spirit,divine Geljon and Runia (2019) 121
stars Geljon and Runia (2019) 121
stoa/stoic/stoicism Geljon and Runia (2019) 121
struck. p.t. Cornelli (2013) 79
thales Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 418
theology Iribarren and Koning (2022) 330
thesleff,h. Cornelli (2013) 140, 371
thracians Gruen (2011) 322
trapp,m. Cornelli (2013) 371
tryphon Cornelli (2013) 79
typhon Cornelli (2013) 140
ulysses de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 149
underworld Iribarren and Koning (2022) 329; Álvarez (2019) 25
varro Geljon and Runia (2019) 116
wellmann,m. Cornelli (2013) 378
wiersma,w. Cornelli (2013) 378
xenocrates Cornelli (2013) 140, 371, 391
zeus Álvarez (2019) 25
zhmud,l. Cornelli (2013) 371
zoroaster' Cornelli (2013) 139
ἐξώλης,ἐξώλεια Álvarez (2019) 25