Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



4479
Diogenes Laertius, Lives Of The Philosophers, 8.19-8.20


nanAbove all, he forbade as food red mullet and blacktail, and he enjoined abstinence from the hearts of animals and from beans, and sometimes, according to Aristotle, even from paunch and gurnard. Some say that he contented himself with just some honey or a honeycomb or bread, never touching wine in the daytime, and with greens boiled or raw for dainties, and fish but rarely. His robe was white and spotless, his quilts of white wool, for linen had not yet reached those parts.


nanHe was never known to over-eat, to behave loosely, or to be drunk. He would avoid laughter and all pandering to tastes such as insulting jests and vulgar tales. He would punish neither slave nor free man in anger. Admonition he used to call setting right. He used to practise divination by sounds or voices and by auguries, never by burnt-offerings, beyond frankincense. The offerings he made were always inanimate; though some say that he would offer cocks, sucking goats and porkers, as they are called, but lambs never. However, Aristoxenus has it that he consented to the eating of all other animals, and only abstained from ploughing oxen and rams.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

16 results
1. Hesiod, Works And Days, 171-172, 170 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

170. For fair-tressed Helen. They were screened as well
2. Homer, Odyssey, 4.561-4.564 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

3. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2. Now it is said, that the most sacred sect of the Pythagoreans, among many other excellent doctrines, taught this one also, that it was not well to proceed by the plain ordinary roads, not meaning to urge us to talk among precipices (for it was not their object to weary our feet with labour), but intimating, by a figurative mode of speech, that we ought not, either in respect of our words or actions, to use only such as are ordinary and unchanged;
4. Plutarch, On Isis And Osiris, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

361b. Xenocrates also is of the opinion that such days as are days of ill omen, and such festivals as have associated with them either beatings or lamentations or fastings or scurrilous language or ribald jests have no relation to the honours paid to the gods or to worthy demigods, but he believes that there exist in the space about us certain great and powerful natures, obdurate, however, and morose, which take pleasure in such things as these, and, if they succeed in obtaining them, resort to nothing worse. Then again, Hesiod calls the worthy and good demigods "holy deities" and "guardians of mortals" and Givers of wealth, and having therein a reward that is kingly.
5. Plutarch, On The Education of Children, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. This also I assert, that children ought to be led to honourable practices by means of encouragement and reasoning, and most certainly not by blows or ill-treatment, for it surely is agreed that these are fitting rather for slaves than for the freeborn; for so they grow numb and shudder at their tasks, partly from the pain of the blows, partly from the degradation. Praise and reproof are more helpful for the free-born than any sort of ill-usage, since the praise incites them toward what is honourable, and reproof keeps them from what is disgraceful. But rebukes and praise should be used alternately and in a variety of ways; it is well to choose some time when the children are full of confidence to put them to shame by rebuke, and then in turn to cheer them up by praises, and to imitate the nurses, who, when they have made their babies cry, in turn offer them the breast for comfort. Moreover in praising them it is essential not to excite and puff them up, for they are made conceited and spoiled by excess of praise. 12. This also I assert, that children ought to be led to honourable practices by means of encouragement and reasoning, and most certainly not by blows or ill-treatment, for it surely is agreed that these are fitting rather for slaves than for the free-born; for so they grow numb and shudder at their tasks, partly from the pain of the blows, partly from the degradation. Praise and reproof are more helpful for the free-born than any sort of ill-usage, since the praise incites them toward what is honourable, and reproof keeps them from what is disgraceful. But rebukes and praises should be used alternately and in a variety of ways; it is well to choose some time when the children are full of confidence to put them to shame by rebuke, and then in turn to cheer them up by praises, and to imitate the nurses, who, when they have made their babies cry, in turn offer them the breast for comfort. Moreover in praising them it is essential not to excite and puff them up, for they are made conceited and spoiled by excess of praise.
6. Plutarch, Table Talk, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 18-22, 17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Aelian, Varia Historia, 4.17 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9. Athenaeus, The Learned Banquet, None (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 5.5.31.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

11. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.76, 1.114, 2.73, 2.130, 2.140, 7.1, 8.9, 8.12-8.13, 8.17-8.18, 8.24, 8.33-8.35, 10.6 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.76. Pamphila in the second book of her Memorabilia narrates that, as his son Tyrraeus sat in a barber's shop in Cyme, a smith killed him with a blow from an axe. When the people of Cyme sent the murderer to Pittacus, he, on learning the story, set him at liberty and declared that It is better to pardon now than to repent later. Heraclitus, however, says that it was Alcaeus whom he set at liberty when he had got him in his power, and that what he said was: Mercy is better than vengeance.Among the laws which he made is one providing that for any offence committed in a state of intoxication the penalty should be doubled; his object was to discourage drunkenness, wine being abundant in the island. One of his sayings is, It is hard to be good, which is cited by Simonides in this form: Pittacus's maxim, 'Truly to become a virtuous man is hard.' 1.114. This is the tenor of the letter. But Demetrius reports a story that he received from the Nymphs food of a special sort and kept it in a cow's hoof; that he took small doses of this food, which was entirely absorbed into his system, and he was never seen to eat. Timaeus mentions him in his second book. Some writers say that the Cretans sacrifice to him as a god; for they say that he had superhuman foresight. For instance, when he saw Munichia, at Athens, he said the Athenians did not know how many evils that place would bring upon them; for, if they did, they would destroy it even if they had to do so with their teeth. And this he said so long before the event. It is also stated that he was the first to call himself Aeacus; that he foretold to the Lacedaemonians their defeat by the Arcadians; and that he claimed that his soul had passed through many incarnations. 2.73. Being once compelled by Dionysius to enunciate some doctrine of philosophy, It would be ludicrous, he said, that you should learn from me what to say, and yet instruct me when to say it. At this, they say, Dionysius was offended and made him recline at the end of the table. And Aristippus said, You must have wished to confer distinction on the last place. To some one who boasted of his diving, Are you not ashamed, said he, to brag of that which a dolphin can do? Being asked on one occasion what is the difference between the wise man and the unwise, Strip them both, said he, and send them among strangers and you will know. To one who boasted that he could drink a great deal without getting drunk, his rejoinder was, And so can a mule. 2.130. The tyrant having replied to this by saying that on this day he had the leisure to hear philosophers, he pressed the point still more stubbornly, declaring, while the feast was going on, that any and every occasion should be employed in listening to philosophers. The consequence was that, if a certain flute-player had not got them away, they would have been put to death. Hence when they were in a storm in the boat Asclepiades is reported to have said that the fluteplayer through good playing had proved their salvation when the free speech of Menedemus had been their undoing.He shirked work, it is said, and was indifferent to the fortunes of his school. At least no order could be seen in his classes, and no circle of benches; but each man would listen where he happened to be, walking or sitting, Menedemus himself behaving in the same way. 2.140. All of these facts are mentioned by Lycophron in his satiric drama entitled Menedemus, which was composed as a tribute to him. Here is a specimen of it:And after a temperate feast the modest cup was passed round with discretion, and their dessert was temperate discourse for such as cared to listen.At first he was despised, being called a cynic and a humbug by the Eretrians. But afterwards he was greatly admired, so much so that they entrusted him with the government of the state. He was sent as envoy to Ptolemy and to Lysimachus, being honoured wherever he went. He was, moreover, envoy to Demetrius, and he caused the yearly tribute of two hundred talents which the city used to pay Demetrius to be reduced by fifty talents. And when he was accused to Demetrius of intriguing to hand over the city to Ptolemy, he defended himself in a letter which commences thus: 7.1. BOOK 7: 1. ZENOZeno, the son of Mnaseas (or Demeas), was a native of Citium in Cyprus, a Greek city which had received Phoenician settlers. He had a wry neck, says Timotheus of Athens in his book On Lives. Moreover, Apollonius of Tyre says he was lean, fairly tall, and swarthy – hence some one called him an Egyptian vine-branch, according to Chrysippus in the first book of his Proverbs. He had thick legs; he was flabby and delicate. Hence Persaeus in his Convivial Reminiscences relates that he declined most invitations to dinner. They say he was fond of eating green figs and of basking in the sun. 8.9. The contents in general of the aforesaid three treatises of Pythagoras are as follows. He forbids us to pray for ourselves, because we do not know what will help us. Drinking he calls, in a word, a snare, and he discounteces all excess, saying that no one should go beyond due proportion either in drinking or in eating. of sexual indulgence, too, he says, Keep to the winter for sexual pleasures, in summer abstain; they are less harmful in autumn and spring, but they are always harmful and not conducive to health. Asked once when a man should consort with a woman, he replied, When you want to lose what strength you have. 8.12. and further that Pythagoras spent most of his time upon the arithmetical aspect of geometry; he also discovered the musical intervals on the monochord. Nor did he neglect even medicine. We are told by Apollodorus the calculator that he offered a sacrifice of oxen on finding that in a right-angled triangle the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the squares on the sides containing the right angle. And there is an epigram running as follows:What time Pythagoras that famed figure found,For which the noble offering he brought.He is also said to have been the first to diet athletes on meat, trying first with Eurymenes – so we learn from Favorinus in the third book of his Memorabilia – whereas in former times they had trained on dried figs, on butter, and even on wheatmeal, as we are told by the same Favorinus in the eighth book of his Miscellaneous History. 8.13. Some say it was a certain trainer named Pythagoras who instituted this diet, and not our Pythagoras, who forbade even the killing, let alone the eating, of animals which share with us the privilege of having a soul. This was the excuse put forward; but his real reason for forbidding animal diet was to practise people and accustom them to simplicity of life, so that they could live on things easily procurable, spreading their tables with uncooked foods and drinking pure water only, for this was the way to a healthy body and a keen mind. of course the only altar at which he worshipped was that of Apollo the Giver of Life, behind the Altar of Horns at Delos, for thereon were placed flour and meal and cakes, without the use of fire, and there was no animal victim, as we are told by Aristotle in his Constitution of Delos. 8.17. The following were his watchwords or precepts: don't stir the fire with a knife, don't step over the beam of a balance, don't sit down on your bushel, don't eat your heart, don't help a man off with a load but help him on, always roll your bed-clothes up, don't put God's image on the circle of a ring, don't leave the pan's imprint on the ashes, don't wipe up a mess with a torch, don't commit a nuisance towards the sun, don't walk the highway, don't shake hands too eagerly, don't have swallows under your own roof, don't keep birds with hooked claws, don't make water on nor stand upon your nail-and hair-trimmings, turn the sharp blade away, when you go abroad don't turn round at the frontier. 8.18. This is what they meant. Don't stir the fire with a knife: don't stir the passions or the swelling pride of the great. Don't step over the beam of a balance: don't overstep the bounds of equity and justice. Don't sit down on your bushel: have the same care of to-day and the future, a bushel being the day's ration. By not eating your heart he meant not wasting your life in troubles and pains. By saying do not turn round when you go abroad, he meant to advise those who are departing this life not to set their hearts' desire on living nor to be too much attracted by the pleasures of this life. The explanations of the rest are similar and would take too long to set out. 8.24. to respect all divination, to sing to the lyre and by hymns to show due gratitude to gods and to good men. To abstain from beans because they are flatulent and partake most of the breath of life; and besides, it is better for the stomach if they are not taken, and this again will make our dreams in sleep smooth and untroubled.Alexander in his Successions of Philosophers says that he found in the Pythagorean memoirs the following tenets as well. 8.33. Right has the force of an oath, and that is why Zeus is called the God of Oaths. Virtue is harmony, and so are health and all good and God himself; this is why they say that all things are constructed according to the laws of harmony. The love of friends is just concord and equality. We should not pay equal worship to gods and heroes, but to the gods always, with reverent silence, in white robes, and after purification, to the heroes only from midday onwards. Purification is by cleansing, baptism and lustration, and by keeping clean from all deaths and births and all pollution, and abstaining from meat and flesh of animals that have died, mullets, gurnards, eggs and egg-sprung animals, beans, and the other abstinences prescribed by those who perform rites in the sanctuaries. 8.34. According to Aristotle in his work On the Pythagoreans, Pythagoras counselled abstinence from beans either because they are like the genitals, or because they are like the gates of Hades . . . as being alone unjointed, or because they are injurious, or because they are like the form of the universe, or because they belong to oligarchy, since they are used in election by lot. He bade his disciples not to pick up fallen crumbs, either in order to accustom them not to eat immoderately, or because connected with a person's death; nay, even, according to Aristophanes, crumbs belong to the heroes, for in his Heroes he says:Nor taste ye of what falls beneath the board !Another of his precepts was not to eat white cocks, as being sacred to the Month and wearing suppliant garb – now supplication ranked with things good – sacred to the Month because they announce the time of day; and again white represents the nature of the good, black the nature of evil. Not to touch such fish as were sacred; for it is not right that gods and men should be allotted the same things, any more than free men and slaves. 8.35. Not to break bread; for once friends used to meet over one loaf, as the barbarians do even to this day; and you should not divide bread which brings them together; some give as the explanation of this that it has reference to the judgement of the dead in Hades, others that bread makes cowards in war, others again that it is from it that the whole world begins.He held that the most beautiful figure is the sphere among solids, and the circle among plane figures. Old age may be compared to everything that is decreasing, while youth is one with increase. Health means retention of the form, disease its destruction. of salt he said it should be brought to table to remind us of what is right; for salt preserves whatever it finds, and it arises from the purest sources, sun and sea. 10.6. It is added that he corresponded with many courtesans, and especially with Leontion, of whom Metrodorus also was enamoured. It is observed too that in his treatise On the Ethical End he writes in these terms: I know not how to conceive the good, apart from the pleasures of taste, sexual pleasures, the pleasures of sound and the pleasures of beautiful form. And in his letter to Pythocles: Hoist all sail, my dear boy, and steer clear of all culture. Epictetus calls him preacher of effeminacy and showers abuse on him.Again there was Timocrates, the brother of Metrodorus, who was his disciple and then left the school. He in the book entitled Merriment asserts that Epicurus vomited twice a day from over-indulgence, and goes on to say that he himself had much ado to escape from those notorious midnight philosophizings and the confraternity with all its secrets;
12. Iamblichus, Life of Pythagoras, 83-86, 97-98, 82 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

13. Iamblichus, Protrepticus, 21 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

14. Plotinus, Enneads, 3.6.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

15. Porphyry, Life of Pythagoras, 38, 42-45, 34 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

34. As to food, his breakfast was chiefly of honey; at dinner he used bread made of millet, barley or herbs, raw and boiled. Only rarely did he eat the flesh of victims; nor did he take this from every part of the anatomy. When he intended to sojourn in the sanctuaries of the divinities, he would eat no more than was necessary to still hunger and thirst. To quiet hunger, he made a mixture of poppy seed and sesame, the skin of a sea-onion, well washed, till entirely drained of the outward juice; of the flower of the daffodil, and the leaves of mallows, of paste of barley and pea; taking an equal weight of which, and chopping it small, with Hymettian honey he made it into mass. Against thirst he took the seed of cucumbers, and the best dried raisins, extracting the seeds, and the flower of coriander, and the seeds of mallows, purselain, scraped cheese, meal and cream; these he made up with wild honey. SPAN
16. Orphic Hymns., Fragments, 418-420, 417



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abstinence Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 316
acusmata Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 137
acusmata (pythagorean), dietary taboos Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 11
acusmata (pythagorean), religious precepts Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9, 11
acusmata (pythagorean) Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9, 11
affective faculties (παθητικαί δυνάμεις) Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 208
aristotle Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82
ascent/ascending Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 316
banquet Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 267
bernabé, a. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 124
boehm, f. Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9
boyancé, p. Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 567
brisson, l. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 124
brontinus Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 124
burkert, w. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 124
burkert, walter Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9
cecrops Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 124
christianism Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 267
cult Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 263
cumont, f. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 124
daimones, in pythagoreanism Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 11
desire Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 368
diet, in pythagorean acusmata Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 11
diet Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 137, 368
dillon, j. and hershbell, j. Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 565
diogenes König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 238
diogenes laertius Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 124; König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 238
elysian field Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 316
emperor Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 267
epicurus, epicurean philosophy König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 238
epigenes Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 124
ether Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 316
funerary practices, pythagorean Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9
gemelli marciano, m. l. Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9, 11
generation (γένεσις) Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 316
giangiulio, m. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82
gods Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 137
hippocratic medicine Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 137
honey Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 567
hüffmeier, a. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82
iamblichus, use of singulars and plurals in the vp Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 565
iamblichus Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82
jews Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 267
keydell, r. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 124
killing, in pythagoreanism Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9, 11
kingsley, p. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 124
lambardi, n. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 124
meat Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 368
medicine Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 137, 368
metempsychosis (transmigration of soul, reincarnation), pythagoreanism Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 11
nock, a.d. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 124
norm Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 267
orpheus Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 124
orphism Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 11
parents and kin Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 208
passionate attachment (προσπάθεια) Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 316
paterlini, m. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 124
perfection (τελεότης / τελείωσις / τέλος) Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 316
perjury Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 208
philosophers, characterised by eating and drinking habits König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 238
philosophical schools Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 267
philosophy, symbols Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 316
piety Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 208
places, e. des Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82
pleasures (ήδονή) Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 208
porphyry Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82
purification (κάθαρσις) Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 316
pythagoras, pythagorean philosophy König, Saints and Symposiasts: The Literature of Food and the Symposium in Greco-Roman and Early Christian Culture (2012) 238
pythagoras Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82, 124; Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 368
pythagoreanism xxv, and mystery cults Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9
pythagorism Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 263
rational thinking (ό λογισμός) Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 208
reason(ing) (σ λόγος) Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 208
religion, in pythagorean acusmata Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 9, 11
rohde, e. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82; Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 565, 567
rome Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 267
rose, v. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 82
sacrifice, in pythagorean acusmata Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 11
sacrifice Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 137, 567
sarkophagía Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 263
sexuality Bricault and Bonnet, Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire (2013) 267
soul, desiderative (appetitive) part of Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 208
soul, irrational Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 208
soul, spirited part Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 208
staab, g. Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 565, 567
symbols Schibli, Hierocles of Alexandria (2002) 316
varro atacinus Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 124
vegetarianism Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 263; Wolfsdorf, Early Greek Ethics (2020) 11
west, m.l. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 124
zhmud, l. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 124; Huffman, A History of Pythagoreanism (2019) 368
ziegler, k. Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 124
zopyrus of tarentum' Cornelli, In Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an Historiographical Category (2013) 124