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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



4479
Diogenes Laertius, Lives Of The Philosophers, 10.32


nanNor is there anything which can refute sensations or convict them of error: one sensation cannot convict another and kindred sensation, for they are equally valid; nor can one sensation refute another which is not kindred but heterogeneous, for the objects which the two senses judge are not the same; nor again can reason refute them, for reason is wholly dependent on sensation; nor can one sense refute another, since we pay equal heed to all. And the reality of separate perceptions guarantees the truth of our senses. But seeing and hearing are just as real as feeling pain. Hence it is from plain facts that we must start when we draw inferences about the unknown. For all our notions are derived from perceptions, either by actual contact or by analogy, or resemblance, or composition, with some slight aid from reasoning. And the objects presented to mad-men and to people in dreams are true, for they produce effects – i.e. movements in the mind – which that which is unreal never does.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

17 results
1. Theophrastus, Characters, 16.11 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 1.63 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.63. optime vero Epicurus, quod exiguam dixit fortunam intervenire sapienti maximasque ab eo et ab eo et om. R et ( ante gravissimas) om. V gravissimas res consilio ipsius et ratione administrari neque maiorem voluptatem ex infinito tempore aetatis percipi posse, quam ex hoc percipiatur, quod videamus esse finitum. In dialectica autem vestra nullam existimavit esse nec ad melius vivendum nec ad commodius disserendum viam. viam om. R In physicis plurimum posuit. ea scientia et verborum vis et natura orationis et consequentium repugtiumve ratio potest perspici. percipi R omnium autem rerum natura cognita levamur superstitione, liberamur mortis metu, non conturbamur ignoratione rerum, e qua ipsa horribiles existunt saepe formidines. denique etiam morati melius erimus, cum didicerimus quid natura desideret. tum vero, si stabilem scientiam rerum tenebimus, servata illa, quae quasi delapsa de caelo est ad cognitionem omnium, regula, ad quam omnia iudicia rerum omnium rerum regula R 1 dirigentur, numquam ullius oratione victi sententia desistemus.
3. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.18.46 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4. Horace, Sermones, 1.5.101 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 1.146-1.634, 1.951, 1.958, 1.988-1.1051, 2.352-2.366, 4.353-4.363, 4.513-4.521, 4.757-4.758, 5.22-5.51, 5.82, 5.181-5.186, 5.218-5.221, 5.751-5.770, 5.1059-5.1086, 5.1169, 6.387-6.422 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.28.28-1.28.30, 2.11.20, 2.11.22-2.11.25, 3.3.14-3.3.15, 4.12.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7. Epictetus, Enchiridion, 1.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Plutarch, Placita Philosophorum (874D-911C), 5.2.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 89.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Aelius Aristides, Orations, 48-49, 47 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Sextus, Against The Mathematicians, 7.208, 7.211-7.216, 7.248, 7.426, 9.45, 11.250-11.251 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

12. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.54, 10.27, 10.31, 10.33-10.34, 10.63 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.54. The standard of truth they declare to be the apprehending presentation, i.e. that which comes from a real object – according to Chrysippus in the twelfth book of his Physics and to Antipater and Apollodorus. Boethus, on the other hand, admits a plurality of standards, namely intelligence, sense-perception, appetency, and knowledge; while Chrysippus in the first book of his Exposition of Doctrine contradicts himself and declares that sensation and preconception are the only standards, preconception being a general notion which comes by the gift of nature (an innate conception of universals or general concepts). Again, certain others of the older Stoics make Right Reason the standard; so also does Posidonius in his treatise On the Standard. 10.27. hence he has frequently repeated himself and set down the first thought that occurred to him, and in his haste has left things unrevised, and he has so many citations that they alone fill his books: nor is this unexampled in Zeno and Aristotle. Such, then, in number and character are the writings of Epicurus, the best of which are the following:of Nature, thirty-seven books.of Atoms and Void.of Love.Epitome of Objections to the Physicists.Against the Megarians.Problems.Sovran Maxims.of Choice and Avoidance.of the End.of the Standard, a work entitled Canon.Chaeredemus.of the Gods.of Piety. 10.31. They reject dialectic as superfluous; holding that in their inquiries the physicists should be content to employ the ordinary terms for things. Now in The Canon Epicurus affirms that our sensations and preconceptions and our feelings are the standards of truth; the Epicureans generally make perceptions of mental presentations to be also standards. His own statements are also to be found in the Summary addressed to Herodotus and in the Sovran Maxims. Every sensation, he says, is devoid of reason and incapable of memory; for neither is it self-caused nor, regarded as having an external cause, can it add anything thereto or take anything therefrom. 10.33. By preconception they mean a sort of apprehension or a right opinion or notion, or universal idea stored in the mind; that is, a recollection of an external object often presented, e.g. Such and such a thing is a man: for no sooner is the word man uttered than we think of his shape by an act of preconception, in which the senses take the lead. Thus the object primarily denoted by every term is then plain and clear. And we should never have started an investigation, unless we had known what it was that we were in search of. For example: The object standing yonder is a horse or a cow. Before making this judgement, we must at some time or other have known by preconception the shape of a horse or a cow. We should not have given anything a name, if we had not first learnt its form by way of preconception. It follows, then, that preconceptions are clear. The object of a judgement is derived from something previously clear, by reference to which we frame the proposition, e.g. How do we know that this is a man? 10.34. Opinion they also call conception or assumption, and declare it to be true and false; for it is true if it is subsequently confirmed or if it is not contradicted by evidence, and false if it is not subsequently confirmed or is contradicted by evidence. Hence the introduction of the phrase, that which awaits confirmation, e.g. to wait and get close to the tower and then learn what it looks like at close quarters.They affirm that there are two states of feeling, pleasure and pain, which arise in every animate being, and that the one is favourable and the other hostile to that being, and by their means choice and avoidance are determined; and that there are two kinds of inquiry, the one concerned with things, the other with nothing but words. So much, then, for his division and criterion in their main outline.But we must return to the letter.Epicurus to Herodotus, greeting. 10.63. Next, keeping in view our perceptions and feelings (for so shall we have the surest grounds for belief), we must recognize generally that the soul is a corporeal thing, composed of fine particles, dispersed all over the frame, most nearly resembling wind with an admixture of heat, in some respects like wind, in others like heat. But, again, there is the third part which exceeds the other two in the fineness of its particles and thereby keeps in closer touch with the rest of the frame. And this is shown by the mental faculties and feelings, by the ease with which the mind moves, and by thoughts, and by all those things the loss of which causes death.
13. Epicurus, Letter To Herodotus, 38

14. Epicurus, Letters, 97

15. Epicurus, Letters, 97

16. Epicurus, Kuriai Doxai, 24, 23

17. Philodemus, De Signis, 23, 13



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
action, and cult Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 232
aetiology Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 216, 232
alcinous Osborne, Irenaeus of Lyons (2001) 144
analogy Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 80; Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 216, 232
anthropomorphization Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 232
anti-epicurean polemics Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 224
antiphon (sophist) Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 31
asmis, elizabeth Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 62
atomism Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 72
atoms, andoid Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 71, 72
atoms, nature/properties of Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 71
belief, epiphanic Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 232
belief, in gods/goddesses Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 216, 232
belief, religious Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 216
belief, theological Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 232
canon and criterion of truth Osborne, Irenaeus of Lyons (2001) 144
cicero Osborne, Irenaeus of Lyons (2001) 144
cosmology Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 71, 72
creation Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 71
cult, action Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 232
design/purpose Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 72
disease Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 31
dreams Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 31
empiricus, sextus Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 216, 232
epictetus Osborne, Irenaeus of Lyons (2001) 144
epicureans Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 31
epicurus, on sensory perception Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 143
epicurus Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 216
epicurus and epicureans Osborne, Irenaeus of Lyons (2001) 144
epiphany Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 216, 232
epistemology Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 224
ethics Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 80
fear, of the gods Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 80
gods/goddesses, belief in Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 216, 232
gods/goddesses, dispositions of Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 232
gods/goddesses, epiphanies of Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 216
gods Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 71, 72; Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 31
hercules Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 71
herophilus Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 31
hippocratic writers Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 31
hume, david Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 71
inference Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 216, 232
kemp, jerome Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 143
laurenti, renato Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 62
lejay, paul Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 143
lucretius, on the nature of things Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 143
lucretius Mackey, Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion (2022) 216, 232; Osborne, Irenaeus of Lyons (2001) 144
meteorology, thunder Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 71
participation Osborne, Irenaeus of Lyons (2001) 144
philodemus Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 72
preconception (πρόληψις) Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 224
rule Osborne, Irenaeus of Lyons (2001) 144
schiesaro, alessandro Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 143
seneca Osborne, Irenaeus of Lyons (2001) 144
sense-perception Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 80
sensory perception Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 143, 144
species expressa Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 224
species impressa (φαντασία) Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 224
stoicism Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 72
sudhaus, siegfried Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 62
truth' Osborne, Irenaeus of Lyons (2001) 144
truth Lehoux et al., Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science (2013) 71, 72; Nijs, The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus (2023) 224
tsouna(-mckirahan), voula Yona, Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire (2018) 62