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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



4479
Diogenes Laertius, Lives Of The Philosophers, 1.110


nanSo he became famous throughout Greece, and was believed to be a special favourite of heaven.Hence, when the Athenians were attacked by pestilence, and the Pythian priestess bade them purify the city, they sent a ship commanded by Nicias, son of Niceratus, to Crete to ask the help of Epimenides. And he came in the 46th Olympiad, purified their city, and stopped the pestilence in the following way. He took sheep, some black and others white, and brought them to the Areopagus; and there he let them go whither they pleased, instructing those who followed them to mark the spot where each sheep lay down and offer a sacrifice to the local divinity. And thus, it is said, the plague was stayed. Hence even to this day altars may be found in different parts of Attica with no name inscribed upon them, which are memorials of this atonement. According to some writers he declared the plague to have been caused by the pollution which Cylon brought on the city and showed them how to remove it. In consequence two young men, Cratinus and Ctesibius, were put to death and the city was delivered from the scourge.


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1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2-3, 1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 8.4-8.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.4. כִּי־אֶרְאֶה שָׁמֶיךָ מַעֲשֵׂי אֶצְבְּעֹתֶיךָ יָרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים אֲשֶׁר כּוֹנָנְתָּה׃ 8.5. מָה־אֱנוֹשׁ כִּי־תִזְכְּרֶנּוּ וּבֶן־אָדָם כִּי תִפְקְדֶנּוּ׃ 8.6. וַתְּחַסְּרֵהוּ מְּעַט מֵאֱלֹהִים וְכָבוֹד וְהָדָר תְּעַטְּרֵהוּ׃ 8.4. When I behold Thy heavens, the work of Thy fingers, The moon and the stars, which Thou hast established;" 8.5. What is man, that Thou art mindful of him? And the son of man, that Thou thinkest of him?" 8.6. Yet Thou hast made him but little lower than the angels, And hast crowned him with glory and honour."
3. Homer, Iliad, 1.74-1.100, 5.896 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

1.74. /and who had guided the ships of the Achaeans to Ilios by his own prophetic powers which Phoebus Apollo had bestowed upon him. He with good intent addressed the gathering, and spoke among them:Achilles, dear to Zeus, you bid me declare the wrath of Apollo, the lord who strikes from afar. 1.75. /Therefore I will speak; but take thought and swear that you will readily defend me with word and with might of hand; for I think I shall anger a man who rules mightily over all the Argives, and whom the Achaeans obey. For mightier is a king, when he is angry at a lesser man. 1.76. /Therefore I will speak; but take thought and swear that you will readily defend me with word and with might of hand; for I think I shall anger a man who rules mightily over all the Argives, and whom the Achaeans obey. For mightier is a king, when he is angry at a lesser man. 1.77. /Therefore I will speak; but take thought and swear that you will readily defend me with word and with might of hand; for I think I shall anger a man who rules mightily over all the Argives, and whom the Achaeans obey. For mightier is a king, when he is angry at a lesser man. 1.78. /Therefore I will speak; but take thought and swear that you will readily defend me with word and with might of hand; for I think I shall anger a man who rules mightily over all the Argives, and whom the Achaeans obey. For mightier is a king, when he is angry at a lesser man. 1.79. /Therefore I will speak; but take thought and swear that you will readily defend me with word and with might of hand; for I think I shall anger a man who rules mightily over all the Argives, and whom the Achaeans obey. For mightier is a king, when he is angry at a lesser man. 1.80. /Even if he swallows down his wrath for that day, yet afterwards he cherishes resentment in his heart till he brings it to fulfillment. Say then, if you will keep me safe. In answer to him spoke swift-footed Achilles:Take heart, and speak out whatever oracle you know; 1.81. /Even if he swallows down his wrath for that day, yet afterwards he cherishes resentment in his heart till he brings it to fulfillment. Say then, if you will keep me safe. In answer to him spoke swift-footed Achilles:Take heart, and speak out whatever oracle you know; 1.82. /Even if he swallows down his wrath for that day, yet afterwards he cherishes resentment in his heart till he brings it to fulfillment. Say then, if you will keep me safe. In answer to him spoke swift-footed Achilles:Take heart, and speak out whatever oracle you know; 1.83. /Even if he swallows down his wrath for that day, yet afterwards he cherishes resentment in his heart till he brings it to fulfillment. Say then, if you will keep me safe. In answer to him spoke swift-footed Achilles:Take heart, and speak out whatever oracle you know; 1.84. /Even if he swallows down his wrath for that day, yet afterwards he cherishes resentment in his heart till he brings it to fulfillment. Say then, if you will keep me safe. In answer to him spoke swift-footed Achilles:Take heart, and speak out whatever oracle you know; 1.85. /for by Apollo, dear to Zeus, to whom you, Calchas, pray when you reveal oracles to the Danaans, no one, while I live and have sight on the earth, shall lay heavy hands on you beside the hollow ships, no one of the whole host of the Danaans 1.86. /for by Apollo, dear to Zeus, to whom you, Calchas, pray when you reveal oracles to the Danaans, no one, while I live and have sight on the earth, shall lay heavy hands on you beside the hollow ships, no one of the whole host of the Danaans 1.87. /for by Apollo, dear to Zeus, to whom you, Calchas, pray when you reveal oracles to the Danaans, no one, while I live and have sight on the earth, shall lay heavy hands on you beside the hollow ships, no one of the whole host of the Danaans 1.88. /for by Apollo, dear to Zeus, to whom you, Calchas, pray when you reveal oracles to the Danaans, no one, while I live and have sight on the earth, shall lay heavy hands on you beside the hollow ships, no one of the whole host of the Danaans 1.89. /for by Apollo, dear to Zeus, to whom you, Calchas, pray when you reveal oracles to the Danaans, no one, while I live and have sight on the earth, shall lay heavy hands on you beside the hollow ships, no one of the whole host of the Danaans 1.90. /not even if you name Agamemnon, who now claims to be far the best of the Achaeans. 1.91. /not even if you name Agamemnon, who now claims to be far the best of the Achaeans. 1.92. /not even if you name Agamemnon, who now claims to be far the best of the Achaeans. 1.93. /not even if you name Agamemnon, who now claims to be far the best of the Achaeans. 1.94. /not even if you name Agamemnon, who now claims to be far the best of the Achaeans. Then the blameless seer took heart, and spoke:It is not then because of a vow that he finds fault, nor because of a hecatomb, but because of the priest whom Agamemnon dishonoured, and did not release his daughter nor accept the ransom. 1.95. /For this cause the god who strikes from afar has given woes and will still give them. He will not drive off from the Danaans the loathsome pestilence, until we give back to her dear father the bright-eyed maiden, unbought, unransomed, and lead a sacred hecatomb to Chryse. Then we might appease and persuade him. 1.96. /For this cause the god who strikes from afar has given woes and will still give them. He will not drive off from the Danaans the loathsome pestilence, until we give back to her dear father the bright-eyed maiden, unbought, unransomed, and lead a sacred hecatomb to Chryse. Then we might appease and persuade him. 1.97. /For this cause the god who strikes from afar has given woes and will still give them. He will not drive off from the Danaans the loathsome pestilence, until we give back to her dear father the bright-eyed maiden, unbought, unransomed, and lead a sacred hecatomb to Chryse. Then we might appease and persuade him. 1.98. /For this cause the god who strikes from afar has given woes and will still give them. He will not drive off from the Danaans the loathsome pestilence, until we give back to her dear father the bright-eyed maiden, unbought, unransomed, and lead a sacred hecatomb to Chryse. Then we might appease and persuade him. 1.99. /For this cause the god who strikes from afar has given woes and will still give them. He will not drive off from the Danaans the loathsome pestilence, until we give back to her dear father the bright-eyed maiden, unbought, unransomed, and lead a sacred hecatomb to Chryse. Then we might appease and persuade him. 1.100. /When he had thus spoken he sat down, and among them arose the warrior, son of Atreus, wide-ruling Agamemnon, deeply troubled. With rage his black heart was wholly filled, and his eyes were like blazing fire. To Calchas first of all he spoke, and his look threatened evil: 5.896. /Howbeit I will no longer endure that thou shouldest be in pain, for thou art mine offspring, and it was to me that thy mother bare thee; but wert thou born of any other god, thus pestilent as thou art, then long ere this hadst thou been lower than the sons of heaven.
4. Plato, Euthyphro, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4b. Euthyphro. Very far, indeed, Socrates, by Zeus. Socrates. Is the one who was killed by your father a relative? But of course he was; for you would not bring a charge of murder against him on a stranger’s account. Euthyphro. It is ridiculous, Socrates, that you think it matters whether the man who was killed was a stranger or a relative, and do not see that the only thing to consider is whether the action of the slayer was justified or not, and that if it was justified one ought to let him alone, and if not, one ought to proceed against him, even if he share one’s hearth
5. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

642d. not by outward compulsion but by inner disposition. Thus, so far as I am concerned, you may speak without fear and say all you please. Clin. My story, too, Stranger, when you hear it, will show you that you may boldly say all you wish. You have probably heard how that inspired man Epimenides, who was a family connection of ours, was born in Crete ; and how ten years before the Persian War, in obedience to the oracle of the god, he went to Athens and offered certain sacrifices which the god had ordained; and how, moreover, when the Athenians were alarmed at the Persians’ expeditionary force
6. Plato, Protagoras, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

343a. to utter such remarks is to be ascribed to his perfect education. Such men were Thales of Miletus, Pittacus of Mytilene, Bias of Priene, Solon of our city, Cleobulus of Lindus, Myson of Chen, and, last of the traditional seven, Chilon of Sparta . All these were enthusiasts, lovers and disciples of the Spartan culture; and you can recognize that character in their wisdom by the short, memorable sayings that fell from each of them they assembled together
7. Aratus Solensis, Phaenomena, 3-4, 2 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. ἄρρητον· μεσταὶ δέ Διὸς πᾶσαι μὲν ἀγυιαί
8. Aristotle, Athenian Constitution, 1.1 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 12.27, 12.61, 12.74-12.76, 30.26 (1st cent. CE

12.27.  Now concerning the nature of the gods in general, and especially that of the ruler of the universe, first and foremost an idea regarding him and a conception of him common to the whole human race, to the Greeks and to the barbarians alike, a conception that is inevitable and innate in every creature endowed with reason, arising in the course of nature without the aid of human teacher and free from the deceit of any expounding priest, has made its way, and it rendered manifest God's kinship with man and furnished many evidences of the truth, which did not suffer the earliest and most ancient men to doze and grow indifferent to them;
10. New Testament, Acts, 17.23, 17.28-17.29, 17.34 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17.23. For as I passed along, and observed the objects of your worship, I found also an altar with this inscription: 'TO AN UNKNOWN GOD.' What therefore you worship in ignorance, this I announce to you. 17.28. 'For in him we live, and move, and have our being.' As some of your own poets have said, 'For we are also his offspring.' 17.29. Being then the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Divine Nature is like gold, or silver, or stone, engraved by art and device of man. 17.34. But certain men joined with him, and believed, among whom also was Dionysius the Areopagite, and a woman named Damaris, and others with them.
11. New Testament, Titus, 1.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.12. One of them, a prophet of their own, said, "Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, and idle gluttons.
12. Plutarch, Cimon, 8.6-8.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Plutarch, Solon, 12.1-12.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12.1. Now the Cylonian pollution had for a long time agitated the city, ever since Megacles the archon had persuaded Cylon and his fellow conspirators, who had taken sanctuary in the temple of Athena, to come down and stand their trial. About 636 B.C. Cf. Hdt. 5.71 ; Thuc. 1.126 . They fastened a braided thread to the image of the goddess and kept hold of it, but when they reached the shrine of the Erinyes on their way down, the thread broke of its own accord, upon which Megacles and his fellow-archons rushed to seize them, on the plea that the goddess refused them the rights of suppliants. Those who were outside of sacred precincts were stoned to death, and those who took refuge at the altars were slaughtered there; only those were spared who made supplication to the wives of the archons. 12.2. Therefore the archons were called polluted men and were held in execration. The survivors of the followers of Cylon also recovered strength, and were forever at variance with the descendants of Megacles. At this particular time the quarrel was at its height and the people divided between the two factions. Solon, therefore, being now in high repute, interposed between them, along with the noblest of the Athenians, and by his entreaties and injunctions persuaded the men who were held to be polluted to submit to a trial, and to abide by the decision of three hundred jurors selected from the nobility. 12.3. Myron of Phlya conducted the prosecution, and the family of Megacles was found guilty. Those who were alive were banished, and the bodies of the dead were dug up and cast forth beyond the borders of the country. During these disturbances the Megarians also attacked the Athenians, who lost Nisaea, and were driven out of Salamis once more. The city was also visited with superstitious fears and strange appearances, and the seers declared that their sacrifices indicated pollutions and defilements which demanded expiation. 12.4. Under these circumstances they summoned to their aid from Crete Epimenides of Phaestus, who is reckoned as the seventh Wise Man by some of those who refuse Periander a place in the list. See note on Plut. Sol. 3.5, and cf. Aristot. Const. Ath. 1 . He was reputed to be a man beloved of the gods, and endowed with a mystical and heaven-sent wisdom in religious matters. Therefore the men of his time said that he was the son of a nymph named Balte, and called him a new Cures. The Curetes were Cretan priests of Idaean Zeus, who took their name from the demi-gods to whose care Rhea was said to have committed the infant Zeus. On coming to Athens he made Solon his friend, assisted him in many ways, and paved the way for his legislation. 12.5. For he made the Athenians decorous and careful in their religious services, and milder in their rites of mourning, by attaching certain sacrifices immediately to their funeral ceremonies and by taking away the harsh and barbaric practices in which their women had usually indulged up to that time. Most important of all, by sundry rites of propitiation and purification, and by sacred foundations, he hallowed and consecrated the city, and brought it to be observant of justice and more easily inclined to uimity. It is said that when he had seen Munychia The acropolis of the Peiraeus, stategically commanding not only that peninsula, but also Athens itself. garrisoned by conquerors of Athens and considered it for some time, he remarked to the bystanders that man was indeed blind to the future;
14. Plutarch, Theseus, 36.1-36.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 41.1-41.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Gellius, Attic Nights, 2.28 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.1, 1.1.4, 1.3, 1.5, 1.18-1.19, 1.23-1.24, 1.30, 5.14.8 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.1.4. The Athenians have also another harbor, at Munychia, with a temple of Artemis of Munychia, and yet another at Phalerum, as I have already stated, and near it is a sanctuary of Demeter. Here there is also a temple of Athena Sciras, and one of Zeus some distance away, and altars of the gods named Unknown, and of heroes, and of the children of Theseus and Phalerus; for this Phalerus is said by the Athenians to have sailed with Jason to Colchis . There is also an altar of Androgeos, son of Minos, though it is called that of Heros; those, however, who pay special attention to the study of their country's antiquities know that it belongs to Androgeos. 5.14.8. An account of the great altar I gave a little way back; it is called the altar of Olympian Zeus. By it is an altar of Unknown Gods, and after this an altar of Zeus Purifier, one of Victory, and another of Zeus—this time surnamed Underground. There are also altars of all gods, and of Hera surnamed Olympian, this too being made of ashes. They say that it was dedicated by Clymenus. After this comes an altar of Apollo and Hermes in common, because the Greeks have a story about them that Hermes invented the lyre and Apollo the lute.
18. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 6.3 (2nd cent. CE

6.3. With such conversations, the occasions providing as usual the topics he talked about, he turned his steps towards Memnon; an Egyptian showed them the way, of whom Damis gives the following account: Timasion was the name of this stripling, who was just emerging from boyhood, and was now in the prime of life and strength. He had a stepmother who had fallen in love with him; and when he rejected her overtures, she set upon him and by way of spiting him had poisoned his father's mind against him, condescending to a lower intrigue than ever Phaedra had done, for she accused him of being effeminate, and of finding his pleasure in pederasts rather than in women. He had accordingly abandoned Naucratis, for it was there that all this happened, and was living in the neighborhood of Memphis; and he had acquired and manned a boat of his own and was plying as a waterman on the Nile. He then, was going down the river when he saw Apollonius sailing up it; and he concluded that the crew consisted of wise men, because he judged them by the cloaks they wore and the books they were hard at work studying. So he asked them whether they would allow one who was so passionately fond of wisdom as himself to share their voyage; and Apollonius said: This youth is wise, my friends, so let him be granted his request. And he further related the story about his stepmother to those of his companions who were nearest to him in a low tone while the stripling was still sailing towards them. But when the ships were alongside of one another, Timasion stepped out of his boat, and after addressing a word or two to his pilot, about the cargo in his own boat, he greeted the company. Apollonius then ordered him to sit down under his eyes, and said: You stripling of Egypt, for you seem to be one of the natives, tell me what you have done of evil or what of good; for in the one case you shall be forgiven by me, in consideration of your youth; but in the other you shall reap my commendation and become a fellow-student of philosophy with me and with these gentlemen. Then noticing that Timasion blushed and checked his impulse to speak, and hesitated whether to say or not what he had been going to say, he pressed his question and repeated it, just as if he had no foreknowledge of the youth at his command. Then Timasion plucked up courage and said: O Heavens, how shall I describe myself? for I am not a bad boy, and yet I do not know whether I ought to be considered a good one, for there is no particular merit in having abstained from wrong. But Apollonius cried: Bravo, my boy, you answer me just as if you were a sage from India; for this was just the sentiment of the divine Iarchas. But tell me how you came to form these opinions, and how long ago; for it strikes me that you have been on your guard against some sin. The youth then began to tell them of his stepmother's infatuation for himself, and of how he had rejected her advances; and when he did so, there was a shout in recognition of the divine inspiration under which Apollonius had foretold these details. Timasion, however, caught them up and said: Most excellent people, what is the matter with you? for my story is one which calls as little for your admiration, I think, as for your ridicule. But Damis said: It was not that we were admiring, but something else which you don't know about yet. As for you, my boy, we praise you because you think that you did nothing very remarkable. And Apollonius said: Do you sacrifice to Aphrodite, my boy? And Timasion answered: Yes, by Zeus, every day; for I consider that this goddess has great influence in human and divine affairs. Thereat Apollonius was delighted beyond measure, and cried: Let us, gentlemen, vote a crown to him for his continence rather than to Hippolytus the son of Theseus, for the latter insulted Aphrodite; and that perhaps is why he never fell a victim to the tender passion, and why love never ran riot in his soul; but he was allotted an austere and unbending nature. But our friend here admits that he is devoted to the goddess, and yet did not respond to his stepmother's guilty overtures, but went away in terror of the goddess herself, in case he were not on his guard against another's evil passions; and the mere aversion to any one of the gods, such as Hippolytus entertained in regard to Aphrodite, I do not class as a form of sobriety; for it is a much greater proof of wisdom and sobriety to speak well of the gods, especially at Athens, where altars are set up in honor even of unknown gods. So great was the interest which he took in Timasion. Nevertheless he called him Hippolytus for the eyes with which he looked at his stepmother. It seemed also that he was a young man who was particular about his person and enhanced its charms by attention to athletic exercises.
19. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.25, 1.109, 1.111-1.112, 1.114-1.115 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.25. (It was Pythagoras who developed to their furthest extent the discoveries attributed by Callimachus in his Iambics to Euphorbus the Phrygian, I mean scalene triangles and whatever else has to do with theoretical geometry.)Thales is also credited with having given excellent advice on political matters. For instance, when Croesus sent to Miletus offering terms of alliance, he frustrated the plan; and this proved the salvation of the city when Cyrus obtained the victory. Heraclides makes Thales himself say that he had always lived in solitude as a private individual and kept aloof from State affairs. Some authorities say that he married and had a son Cybisthus; 1.109. 10. EPIMEDESEpimenides, according to Theopompus and many other writers, was the son of Phaestius; some, however, make him the son of Dosiadas, others of Agesarchus. He was a native of Cnossos in Crete, though from wearing his hair long he did not look like a Cretan. One day he was sent into the country by his father to look for a stray sheep, and at noon he turned aside out of the way, and went to sleep in a cave, where he slept for fifty-seven years. After this he got up and went in search of the sheep, thinking he had been asleep only a short time. And when he could not find it, he came to the farm, and found everything changed and another owner in possession. Then he went back to the town in utter perplexity; and there, on entering his own house, he fell in with people who wanted to know who he was. At length he found his younger brother, now an old man, and learnt the truth from him. 1.111. The Athenians voted him a talent in money and a ship to convey him back to Crete. The money he declined, but he concluded a treaty of friendship and alliance between Cnossos and Athens.So he returned home and soon afterwards died. According to Phlegon in his work On Longevity he lived one hundred and fifty-seven years; according to the Cretans two hundred and ninety-nine years. Xenophanes of Colophon gives his age as 154, according to hearsay.He wrote a poem On the Birth of the Curetes and Corybantes and a Theogony, 5000 lines in all; another on the building of the Argo and Jason's voyage to Colchis in 6500 lines. 1.112. He also compiled prose works On Sacrifices and the Cretan Constitution, also On Minos and Rhadamanthus, running to about 4000 lines. At Athens again he founded the sanctuary of the Solemn Gods (Semnai Theai), as Lobon of Argos tells us in his work On Poets. He is stated to have been the first who purified houses and fields, and the first who founded sanctuaries. Some are found to maintain that he did not go to sleep but withdrew himself for a while, engaged in gathering simples.There is extant a letter of his to Solon the lawgiver, containing a scheme of government which Minos drew up for the Cretans. But Demetrius of Magnesia, in his work on poets and writers of the same name, endeavours to discredit the letter on the ground that it is late and not written in the Cretan dialect but in Attic, and New Attic too. However, I have found another letter by him which runs as follows:Epimenides to Solon 1.114. This is the tenor of the letter. But Demetrius reports a story that he received from the Nymphs food of a special sort and kept it in a cow's hoof; that he took small doses of this food, which was entirely absorbed into his system, and he was never seen to eat. Timaeus mentions him in his second book. Some writers say that the Cretans sacrifice to him as a god; for they say that he had superhuman foresight. For instance, when he saw Munichia, at Athens, he said the Athenians did not know how many evils that place would bring upon them; for, if they did, they would destroy it even if they had to do so with their teeth. And this he said so long before the event. It is also stated that he was the first to call himself Aeacus; that he foretold to the Lacedaemonians their defeat by the Arcadians; and that he claimed that his soul had passed through many incarnations. 1.115. Theopompus relates in his Mirabilia that, as he was building a shrine to the Nymphs, a voice came from heaven: Epimenides, not to the Nymphs but to Zeus, and that he foretold to the Cretans the defeat of the Lacedaemonians by the Arcadians, as already stated; and in very truth they were crushed at Orchomenus.And he became old in as many days as he had slept years; for this too is stated by Theopompus. Myronianus in his Parallels declares that the Cretans called him one of the Curetes. The Lacedaemonians guard his body in their own keeping in obedience to a certain oracle; this is stated by Sosibius the Laconian.There have been two other men named Epimenides, namely, the genealogist and another who wrote in Doric Greek about Rhodes.
20. Cleanthes, Hymn To Zeus, 3



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abimelech/ebed-melech, sleep of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 213, 222, 223, 225, 227, 228, 232, 238, 246
abimelech/ebed-melech Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 213, 222, 223, 225, 227, 228, 232, 238, 246
achilles Johnston, Ancient Greek Divination (2008) 122
acropolis Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 83
acts of the apostles Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
agamemnon Johnston, Ancient Greek Divination (2008) 122
agora Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 83
agrippa ii, agrippa, vineyard/estate of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 222
agurtês /-ai Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 181
alcmeonids Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 181
altars Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 83; Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 158, 159
angel Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 228
animals as divinatory Johnston, Ancient Greek Divination (2008) 123
anonymous gods, ineffable names Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 952
anonymous gods Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 952
aparchai, of eleusis Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 159
apollo, patroös Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 158
apollo, pythios Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 158, 159
apollo Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 158
aratus, phaenomena Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
aratus, zenos pupil Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
areopagus Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 83
areopagus speech, epimenides echoes Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
areopagus speech Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
aristophanes, peace Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 181
aristophanes Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 181
aristotle, athenaiôn politeia Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 181
aristotle Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 181
athens, epimenidess rescue of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
athens, plague Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
bacis Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 181
bias Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 84
bishops, dionysius Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 83
christians, resurrection Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 83
christians, teaching Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 83
chrêsmologos Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 181, 182
clazomenae Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 179
deity sculpture, sophisticated pagan view Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
dillery, john Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 181, 182
diogenes laertius Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 181, 182
dionysius, the areopagite Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 83
divination, and authority Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 181, 182
divination, and writing (see textualization) Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 182
epimenides Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 181, 182; Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 84; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
exegetai, of city Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 158
ghosts and divination Johnston, Ancient Greek Divination (2008) 122, 123
god, creator Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 83
god, offspring of, humans as Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
god, proximity, pagan view Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
god, who raised jesus Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 83
gods, images/statues of Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 83
gods, unknown Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 83
healing and divination Johnston, Ancient Greek Divination (2008) 122, 123
herodotus Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 182
hygieia Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 158, 159
idolatry, critique Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
kinship, god and humanity Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
kinship with god, pagan notions Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
kolophon Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 179
kronia Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 179
liturgical expressions/elements, long-sleepers, legends of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 213
mania, poet as Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 181
mania Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 181, 182
mantis, elucidation of past Johnston, Ancient Greek Divination (2008) 122, 123
mantis Johnston, Ancient Greek Divination (2008) 122, 123
massilia Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 179
miracle Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 225
moses Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 246
naukratis Versnel, Coping with the Gods: Wayward Readings in Greek Theology (2011) 58
nebuchadnezzar/king of the chaldeans Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 225
noah Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 246
oracles, of apollo of delphi Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 158, 159
oracles Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 84; Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 158, 159
parallelism/repetition Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 225, 246
paul, areopagus speech Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
paul Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 181
paul (apostle) Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 83
periander Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 84
phaleron (φάληρον), modern neo phaliro (νέο φάληρο) Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 83
philosophers, epicurean Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 83
philosophers, stoic Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 83
pittacus Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 84
plato Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 181
politics Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 84
pollution Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 159
polytheism Breytenbach and Tzavella, Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas (2022) 83
pompai, of theseia Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 159
prayer, dubitative formulas Versnel, Coping with the Gods: Wayward Readings in Greek Theology (2011) 58
prayer, of contestation Versnel, Coping with the Gods: Wayward Readings in Greek Theology (2011) 58
priest and high priest Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 223
psephismata Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 158
psychagogoi (invokers of souls), recommended by oracles Johnston, Ancient Greek Divination (2008) 123
purification Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 159
purifications Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 84
rest (eschatological) Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 232
righteousness/the righteous/the just Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 232, 246
sacrifice Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 158
scapegoat, in abdera' Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 179
scapegoat Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 179
seers Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 84
semitisms Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 227
seven sleepers of ephesus Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 223, 225, 232
shaman Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 84
short recension of 4 baruch Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 238
sickness Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 223
sitting (posture) Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 213, 223, 238
sixty-six years Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 222, 225, 227, 238
solon Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 84
svenbro Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 181, 182
symbolism Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 222, 223
tamiai, of boule Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 158
temple in jerusalem, destruction of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 213
temple in jerusalem Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 222, 223, 225
thales Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 84
thargelia Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 179
theodore psalter Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 238
theopompus Johnston and Struck, Mantikê: Studies in Ancient Divination (2005) 181, 182
theseus Mikalson, New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society (2016) 159
thought, epimenides redivivus Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
torah Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 227, 246
tradition Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 84
water Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 84
wisdom Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 84
wonder-workers Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 84
zeus, aratus, phaenomena Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633
zeus, cleanthes, hymn Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 633