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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



4471
Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 40
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14 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 17.9, 17.14-17.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.9. וּבָאתָ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם וְאֶל־הַשֹּׁפֵט אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְדָרַשְׁתָּ וְהִגִּידוּ לְךָ אֵת דְּבַר הַמִּשְׁפָּט׃ 17.14. כִּי־תָבֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ וִירִשְׁתָּהּ וְיָשַׁבְתָּה בָּהּ וְאָמַרְתָּ אָשִׂימָה עָלַי מֶלֶךְ כְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתָי׃ 17.15. שׂוֹם תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ מִקֶּרֶב אַחֶיךָ תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ לֹא תוּכַל לָתֵת עָלֶיךָ אִישׁ נָכְרִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־אָחִיךָ הוּא׃ 17.16. רַק לֹא־יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ סוּסִים וְלֹא־יָשִׁיב אֶת־הָעָם מִצְרַיְמָה לְמַעַן הַרְבּוֹת סוּס וַיהוָה אָמַר לָכֶם לֹא תֹסִפוּן לָשׁוּב בַּדֶּרֶךְ הַזֶּה עוֹד׃ 17.17. וְלֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ נָשִׁים וְלֹא יָסוּר לְבָבוֹ וְכֶסֶף וְזָהָב לֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ מְאֹד׃ 17.18. וְהָיָה כְשִׁבְתּוֹ עַל כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ וְכָתַב לוֹ אֶת־מִשְׁנֵה הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת עַל־סֵפֶר מִלִּפְנֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם׃ 17.19. וְהָיְתָה עִמּוֹ וְקָרָא בוֹ כָּל־יְמֵי חַיָּיו לְמַעַן יִלְמַד לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וְאֶת־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה לַעֲשֹׂתָם׃ 17.9. And thou shall come unto the priests the Levites, and unto the judge that shall be in those days; and thou shalt inquire; and they shall declare unto thee the sentence of judgment." 17.14. When thou art come unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, and shalt possess it, and shalt dwell therein; and shalt say: ‘I will set a king over me, like all the nations that are round about me’;" 17.15. thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee, whom the LORD thy God shall choose; one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee; thou mayest not put a foreigner over thee, who is not thy brother." 17.16. Only he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses; forasmuch as the LORD hath said unto you: ‘Ye shall henceforth return no more that way.’" 17.17. Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away; neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold." 17.18. And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book, out of that which is before the priests the Levites." 17.19. And it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life; that he may learn to fear the LORD his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them;" 17.20. that his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left; to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his children, in the midst of Israel."
2. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 8.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.6. וַיֵּרַע הַדָּבָר בְּעֵינֵי שְׁמוּאֵל כַּאֲשֶׁר אָמְרוּ תְּנָה־לָּנוּ מֶלֶךְ לְשָׁפְטֵנוּ וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 8.6. But the thing displeased Shemu᾽el when they said, Give us a king to judge us. And Shemu᾽el prayed to the Lord."
3. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 23.2-23.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23.2. וַיִּזְבַּח אֶת־כָּל־כֹּהֲנֵי הַבָּמוֹת אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם עַל־הַמִּזְבְּחוֹת וַיִּשְׂרֹף אֶת־עַצְמוֹת אָדָם עֲלֵיהֶם וַיָּשָׁב יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 23.2. וַיַּעַל הַמֶּלֶךְ בֵּית־יְהוָה וְכָל־אִישׁ יְהוּדָה וְכָל־יֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם אִתּוֹ וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַנְּבִיאִים וְכָל־הָעָם לְמִקָּטֹן וְעַד־גָּדוֹל וַיִּקְרָא בְאָזְנֵיהֶם אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית הַנִּמְצָא בְּבֵית יְהוָה׃ 23.3. וַיַּרְכִּבֻהוּ עֲבָדָיו מֵת מִמְּגִדּוֹ וַיְבִאֻהוּ יְרוּשָׁלִַם וַיִּקְבְּרֻהוּ בִּקְבֻרָתוֹ וַיִּקַּח עַם־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־יְהוֹאָחָז בֶּן־יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ וַיִּמְשְׁחוּ אֹתוֹ וַיַּמְלִיכוּ אֹתוֹ תַּחַת אָבִיו׃ 23.3. וַיַּעֲמֹד הַמֶּלֶךְ עַל־הָעַמּוּד וַיִּכְרֹת אֶת־הַבְּרִית לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לָלֶכֶת אַחַר יְהוָה וְלִשְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתָיו וְאֶת־עֵדְוֺתָיו וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתָיו בְּכָל־לֵב וּבְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ לְהָקִים אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַבְּרִית הַזֹּאת הַכְּתֻבִים עַל־הַסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה וַיַּעֲמֹד כָּל־הָעָם בַּבְּרִית׃ 23.2. And the king went up to the house of the LORD, and all the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with him, and the priests, and the prophets, and all the people, both small and great; and he read in their ears all the words of the book of the covet which was found in the house of the LORD." 23.3. And the king stood on the platform, and made a covet before the LORD, to walk after the LORD, and to keep His commandments, and His testimonies, and His statutes, with all his heart, and all his soul, to confirm the words of this covet that were written in this book; and all the people stood to the covet."
4. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.1-8.10, 8.12 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.1. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לְכוּ אִכְלוּ מַשְׁמַנִּים וּשְׁתוּ מַמְתַקִּים וְשִׁלְחוּ מָנוֹת לְאֵין נָכוֹן לוֹ כִּי־קָדוֹשׁ הַיּוֹם לַאֲדֹנֵינוּ וְאַל־תֵּעָצֵבוּ כִּי־חֶדְוַת יְהוָה הִיא מָעֻזְּכֶם׃ 8.1. וַיֵּאָסְפוּ כָל־הָעָם כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד אֶל־הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמָּיִם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לְעֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר לְהָבִיא אֶת־סֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 8.2. וַיָּבִיא עֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה לִפְנֵי הַקָּהָל מֵאִישׁ וְעַד־אִשָּׁה וְכֹל מֵבִין לִשְׁמֹעַ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃ 8.3. וַיִּקְרָא־בוֹ לִפְנֵי הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמַּיִם מִן־הָאוֹר עַד־מַחֲצִית הַיּוֹם נֶגֶד הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַמְּבִינִים וְאָזְנֵי כָל־הָעָם אֶל־סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה׃ 8.4. וַיַּעֲמֹד עֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר עַל־מִגְדַּל־עֵץ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ לַדָּבָר וַיַּעֲמֹד אֶצְלוֹ מַתִּתְיָה וְשֶׁמַע וַעֲנָיָה וְאוּרִיָּה וְחִלְקִיָּה וּמַעֲשֵׂיָה עַל־יְמִינוֹ וּמִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ פְּדָיָה וּמִישָׁאֵל וּמַלְכִּיָּה וְחָשֻׁם וְחַשְׁבַּדָּנָה זְכַרְיָה מְשֻׁלָּם׃ 8.5. וַיִּפְתַּח עֶזְרָא הַסֵּפֶר לְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם כִּי־מֵעַל כָּל־הָעָם הָיָה וּכְפִתְחוֹ עָמְדוּ כָל־הָעָם׃ 8.6. וַיְבָרֶךְ עֶזְרָא אֶת־יְהוָה הָאֱלֹהִים הַגָּדוֹל וַיַּעֲנוּ כָל־הָעָם אָמֵן אָמֵן בְּמֹעַל יְדֵיהֶם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוֻּ לַיהוָה אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃ 8.7. וְיֵשׁוּעַ וּבָנִי וְשֵׁרֵבְיָה יָמִין עַקּוּב שַׁבְּתַי הוֹדִיָּה מַעֲשֵׂיָה קְלִיטָא עֲזַרְיָה יוֹזָבָד חָנָן פְּלָאיָה וְהַלְוִיִּם מְבִינִים אֶת־הָעָם לַתּוֹרָה וְהָעָם עַל־עָמְדָם׃ 8.8. וַיִּקְרְאוּ בַסֵּפֶר בְּתוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים מְפֹרָשׁ וְשׂוֹם שֶׂכֶל וַיָּבִינוּ בַּמִּקְרָא׃ 8.9. וַיֹּאמֶר נְחֶמְיָה הוּא הַתִּרְשָׁתָא וְעֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן הַסֹּפֵר וְהַלְוִיִּם הַמְּבִינִים אֶת־הָעָם לְכָל־הָעָם הַיּוֹם קָדֹשׁ־הוּא לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אַל־תִּתְאַבְּלוּ וְאַל־תִּבְכּוּ כִּי בוֹכִים כָּל־הָעָם כְּשָׁמְעָם אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה׃ 8.12. וַיֵּלְכוּ כָל־הָעָם לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת וּלְשַׁלַּח מָנוֹת וְלַעֲשׂוֹת שִׂמְחָה גְדוֹלָה כִּי הֵבִינוּ בַּדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר הוֹדִיעוּ לָהֶם׃ 8.1. all the people gathered themselves together as one man into the broad place that was before the water gate; and they spoke unto Ezra the scribe to bring the book of the Law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded to Israel." 8.2. And Ezra the priest brought the Law before the congregation, both men and women, and all that could hear with understanding, upon the first day of the seventh month." 8.3. And he read therein before the broad place that was before the water gate from early morning until midday, in the presence of the men and the women, and of those that could understand; and the ears of all the people were attentive unto the book of the Law." 8.4. And Ezra the scribe stood upon a pulpit of wood, which they had made for the purpose; and beside him stood Mattithiah, and Shema, and Anaiah, and Uriah, and Hilkiah, and Maaseiah, on his right hand; and on his left hand, Pedaiah, and Mishael, and Malchijah, and Hashum, and Hashbaddanah, Zechariah, and Meshullam." 8.5. And Ezra opened the book in the sight of all the people—for he was above all the people—and when he opened it, all the people stood up." 8.6. And Ezra blessed the LORD, the great God. And all the people answered: ‘Amen, Amen’, with the lifting up of their hands; and they bowed their heads, and fell down before the LORD with their faces to the ground." 8.7. Also Jeshua, and Bani, and Sherebiah, Jamin, Akkub, Shabbethai, Hodiah, Maaseiah, Kelita, Azariah, Jozabad, Ha, Pelaiah, even the Levites, caused the people to understand the Law; and the people stood in their place." 8.8. And they read in the book, in the Law of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading." 8.9. And Nehemiah, who was the Tirshatha, and Ezra the priest the scribe, and the Levites that taught the people, said unto all the people: ‘This day is holy unto the LORD your God; mourn not, nor weep.’ For all the people wept, when they heard the words of the Law." 8.10. Then he said unto them: ‘Go your way, eat the fat, and drink the sweet, and send portions unto him for whom nothing is prepared; for this day is holy unto our Lord; neither be ye grieved; for the joy of the LORD is your strength.’" 8.12. And all the people went their way to eat, and to drink, and to send portions, and to make great mirth, because they had understood the words that were declared unto them."
5. Aristotle, Politics, 7 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

6. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 1.29, 1.46, 1.67.11, 1.69.4, 1.76, 1.88.5 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.29. 1.  In the same way, they continue, Erechtheus also, who was by birth an Egyptian, became king of Athens, and in proof of this they offer the following considerations. Once when there was a great drought, as is generally agreed, which extended over practically all the inhabited earth except Egypt because of the peculiar character of that country, and there followed a destruction both of crops and of men in great numbers, Erechtheus, through his racial connection with Egypt, brought from there to Athens a great supply of grain, and in return those who had enjoyed this aid made their benefactor king.,2.  After he had secured the throne he instituted the initiatory rites of Demeter in Eleusis and established the mysteries, transferring their ritual from Egypt. And the tradition that an advent of the goddess into Attica also took place at that time is reasonable, since it was then that the fruits which are named after her were brought to Athens, and this is why it was thought that the discovery of the seed had been made again, as though Demeter had bestowed the gift.,3.  And the Athenians on their part agree that it was in the reign of Erechtheus, when a lack of rain had wiped out the crops, that Demeter came to them with the gift of grain. Furthermore, the initiatory rites and mysteries of this goddess were instituted at Eleusis at that time.,4.  And their sacrifices as well as their ancient ceremonies are observed by the Athenians in the same way as by the Egyptians; for the Eumolpidae were derived from the priests of Egypt and the Ceryces from the pastophoroi. They are also the only Greeks who swear by Isis, and they closely resemble the Egyptians in both their appearance and manners.,5.  By many other statements like these, spoken more out of a love for glory than with regard for the truth, as I see the matter, they claim Athens as a colony of theirs because of the fame of that city. In general, the Egyptians say that their ancestors sent forth numerous colonies to many parts of the inhabited world, the pre-eminence of their former kings and their excessive population;,6.  but since they offer no precise proof whatsoever for these statements, and since no historian worthy of credence testifies in their support, we have not thought that their accounts merited recording. So far as the ideas of the Egyptians about the gods are concerned, let what we have said suffice, since we are aiming at due proportion in our account, but with regard to the land, the Nile, and everything else worth hearing about we shall endeavour, in each case, to give the several facts in summary. 1.67.11.  Indeed, it was because of the objection to strangers on the part of the people that the impiety of Busiris became a byword among the Greeks, although this impiety was not actually such as it was described, but was made into a fictitious myth because of the exceptional disrespect of the Egyptians for ordinary customs. 1.69.4.  For despite the fact that for the reasons mentioned above strangers found it difficult in early times to enter the country, it was nevertheless eagerly visited by Orpheus and the poet Homer in the earliest times and in later times by many others, such as Pythagoras of Samos and Solon the lawgiver. 1.76. 1.  This was the manner, as their account goes, in which the Egyptians conducted all court proceedings, since they believed that if the advocates were allowed to speak they would greatly becloud the justice of a case; for they knew that the clever devices of orators, the cunning witchery of their delivery, and the tears of the accused would influence many to overlook the severity of the laws and the strictness of truth;,2.  at any rate they were aware that men who are highly respected as judges are often carried away by the eloquence of the advocates, either because they are deceived, or because they are won over by the speaker's charm, or because the emotion of pity has been aroused in them; but by having the parties to a suit present their pleas in writing, it was their opinion that the judgments would be strict, only the bare facts being taken into account.,3.  For in that case there would be the least chance that gifted speakers would have an advantage over the slower, or the well-practised over the inexperienced, or the audacious liars over those who were truth-loving and restrained in character, but all would get their just dues on an equal footing, since by the provision of the laws ample time is taken, on the one hand by the disputants for the examination of the arguments of the other side, and, on the other hand, by the judges for the comparison of the allegations of both parties. 1.88.5.  Men also, if they were of the same colour as Typhon, were sacrificed, they say, in ancient times by the kings at the tomb of Osiris; however, only a few Egyptians are now found red in colour, and but the majority of such are non-Egyptians, and this is why the story spread among the Greeks of the slaying of foreigners by Busiris, although Busiris was not the name of the king but of the tomb of Osiris, which is called that in the language of the land.
7. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.209, 4.218, 4.224, 4.304, 5.234, 5.238-5.245, 6.35-6.36, 6.38-6.43, 6.84-6.85, 11.111-11.112, 14.41, 14.78, 14.490-14.491, 16.187, 19.328-19.331, 20.229, 20.251 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.209. 12. When the multitude are assembled together unto the holy city for sacrificing every seventh year, at the feast of tabernacles, let the high priest stand upon a high desk, whence he may be heard, and let him read the laws to all the people; and let neither the women nor the children be hindered from hearing, no, nor the servants neither; 4.218. But if these judges be unable to give a just sentence about the causes that come before them, (which case is not unfrequent in human affairs,) let them send the cause undetermined to the holy city, and there let the high priest, the prophet, and the sanhedrim, determine as it shall seem good to them. 4.224. let him submit to the laws, and esteem God’s commands to be his highest wisdom; but let him do nothing without the high priest and the votes of the senators: let him not have a great number of wives, nor pursue after abundance of riches, nor a multitude of horses, whereby he may grow too proud to submit to the laws. And if he affect any such things, let him be restrained, lest he become so potent that his state be inconsistent with your welfare. 4.304. Accordingly, he delivered these books to the priest, with the ark; into which he also put the ten commandments, written on two tables. He delivered to them the tabernacle also, and exhorted the people, that when they had conquered the land, and were settled in it, they should not forget the injuries of the Amalekites, but make war against them, and inflict punishment upon them for what mischief they did them when they were in the wilderness; 5.234. and when he had got money of such of them as were eminent for many instances of injustice, he came with them to his father’s house, and slew all his brethren, except Jotham, for he had the good fortune to escape and be preserved; but Abimelech made the government tyrannical, and constituted himself a lord, to do what he pleased, instead of obeying the laws; and he acted most rigidly against those that were the patrons of justice. 5.238. (it is a sort of wood good for firing,) it promised to take the government, and to be zealous in the exercise of it; but that then they must sit down under its shadow, and if they should plot against it to destroy it, the principle of fire that was in it should destroy them. 5.239. He told them, that what he had said was no laughing matter; for that when they had experienced many blessings from Gideon, they overlooked Abimelech, when he overruled all, and had joined with him in slaying his brethren; and that he was no better than a fire himself. So when he had said this, he went away, and lived privately in the mountains for three years, out of fear of Abimelech. 5.241. Now at the season of vintage, the people were afraid to go out and gather their fruits, for fear Abimelech should do them some mischief. Now it happened that there had come to them a man of authority, one Gaal, that sojourned with them, having his armed men and his kinsmen with him; so the Shechemites desired that he would allow them a guard during their vintage; whereupon he accepted of their desires, and so the people went out, and Gaal with them at the head of his soldiery. 5.242. So they gathered their fruit with safety; and when they were at supper in several companies, they then ventured to curse Abimelech openly; and the magistrates laid ambushes in places about the city, and caught many of Abimelech’s followers, and destroyed them. 5.243. 4. Now there was one Zebul, a magistrate of the Shechemites, that had entertained Abimelech. He sent messengers, and informed him how much Gaal had irritated the people against him, and excited him to lay ambushes before the city, for that he would persuade Gaal to go out against him, which would leave it in his power to be revenged on him; and when that was once done, he would bring him to be reconciled to the city. 5.244. So Abimelech laid ambushes, and himself lay with them. Now Gaal abode in the suburbs, taking little care of himself; and Zebul was with him. Now as Gaal saw the armed men coming on, he said to Zebul, That some armed men were coming; 5.245. but the other replied, They were only shadows of huge stones: and when they were come nearer, Gaal perceived what was the reality, and said, They were not shadows, but men lying in ambush. Then said Zebul, “Didst not thou reproach Abimelech for cowardice? why dost thou not then show how very courageous thou art thyself, and go and fight him?” 6.35. 3. But the people, upon these injuries offered to their former constitution and government by the prophet’s sons, were very uneasy at their actions, and came running to the prophet, who then lived at the city Ramah, and informed him of the transgressions of his sons; and said, That as he was himself old already, and too infirm by that age of his to oversee their affairs in the manner he used to do 6.35. I could say more than this about Saul and his courage, the subject affording matter sufficient; but that I may not appear to run out improperly in his commendation, I return again to that history from which I made this digression. 6.36. o they begged of him, and entreated him, to appoint some person to be king over them, who might rule over the nation, and avenge them of the Philistines, who ought to be punished for their former oppressions. These words greatly afflicted Samuel, on account of his innate love of justice, and his hatred to kingly government, for he was very fond of an aristocracy, as what made the men that used it of a divine and happy disposition; 6.36. And when the high priest bade him to pursue after them, he marched apace, with his four hundred men, after the enemy; and when he was come to a certain brook called Besor, and had lighted upon one that was wandering about, an Egyptian by birth, who was almost dead with want and famine, (for he had continued wandering about without food in the wilderness three days,) he first of all gave him sustece, both meat and drink, and thereby refreshed him. He then asked him to whom he belonged, and whence he came. 6.38. 4. While he was thus disposed, God appeared to him, and comforted him, saying, That he ought not to be uneasy at what the multitude desired, because it was not he, but Himself whom they so insolently despised, and would not have to be alone their king; that they had been contriving these things from the very day that they came out of Egypt; that however in no long time they would sorely repent of what they did, which repentance yet could not undo what was thus done for futurity; that they would be sufficiently rebuked for their contempt, and the ungrateful conduct they have used towards me, and towards thy prophetic office. 6.39. “So I command thee to ordain them such a one as I shall name beforehand to be their king, when thou hast first described what mischiefs kingly government will bring upon them, and openly testified before them into what a great change of affairs they are hasting.” 6.41. nor will there be any thing which they will not do at their commands, as if they were slaves bought with money. They will also appoint your daughters to be confectioners, and cooks, and bakers; and these will be obliged to do all sorts of work which women slaves, that are in fear of stripes and torments, submit to. They will, besides this, take away your possessions, and bestow them upon their eunuchs, and the guards of their bodies, and will give the herds of your cattle to their own servants: 6.42. and to say briefly all at once, you, and all that is yours, will be servants to your king, and will become no way superior to his slaves; and when you suffer thus, you will thereby be put in mind of what I now say. And when you repent of what you have done, you will beseech God to have mercy upon you, and to grant you a quick deliverance from your kings; but he will not accept your prayers, but will neglect you, and permit you to suffer the punishment your evil conduct has deserved.” 6.43. 6. But the multitude was still so foolish as to be deaf to these predictions of what would befall them; and too peevish to suffer a determination which they had injudiciously once made, to be taken out of their mind; for they could not be turned from their purpose, nor did they regard the words of Samuel, but peremptorily insisted on their resolution, and desired him to ordain them a king immediately, and not to trouble himself with fears of what would happen hereafter 6.84. for in the days of Moses, and his disciple Joshua, who was their general, they continued under an aristocracy; but after the death of Joshua, for eighteen years in all, the multitude had no settled form of government, but were in an anarchy; 6.85. after which they returned to their former government, they then permitted themselves to be judged by him who appeared to be the best warrior and most courageous, whence it was that they called this interval of their government the Judges. 11.111. So these men offered the largest sacrifices on these accounts, and used great magnificence in the worship of God, and dwelt in Jerusalem, and made use of a form of government that was aristocratical, but mixed with an oligarchy, for the high priests were at the head of their affairs, until the posterity of the Asamoneans set up kingly government; 11.112. for before their captivity, and the dissolution of their polity, they at first had kingly government from Saul and David for five hundred and thirty-two years, six months, and ten days; but before those kings, such rulers governed them as were called judges and monarchs. Under this form of government they continued for more than five hundred years after the death of Moses, and of Joshua their commander. 14.41. and there it was that he heard the causes of the Jews, and of their governors Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, who were at difference one with another, as also of the nation against them both, which did not desire to be under kingly’ government, because the form of government they received from their forefathers was that of subjection to the priests of that God whom they worshipped; and [they complained], that though these two were the posterity of priests, yet did they seek to change the government of their nation to another form, in order to enslave them. 14.41. However, Herod was not idle in the mean time, for he took ten bands of soldiers, of whom five were of the Romans, and five of the Jews, with some mercenaries among them, and with some few horsemen, and came to Jericho; and as they found the city deserted, but that five hundred of them had settled themselves on the tops of the hills, with their wives and children, those he took and sent away; but the Romans fell upon the city, and plundered it, and found the houses full of all sorts of good things. 14.78. Moreover, the Romans exacted of us, in a little time, above ten thousand talents; and the royal authority, which was a dignity formerly bestowed on those that were high priests, by the right of their family, became the property of private men. But of these matters we shall treat in their proper places. 14.491. but these men lost the government by their dissensions one with another, and it came to Herod, the son of Antipater, who was of no more than a vulgar family, and of no eminent extraction, but one that was subject to other kings. And this is what history tells us was the end of the Asamonean family. 16.187. As for ourselves, who come of a family nearly allied to the Asamonean kings, and on that account have an honorable place, which is the priesthood, we think it indecent to say any thing that is false about them, and accordingly we have described their actions after an unblemished and upright manner. And although we reverence many of Herod’s posterity, who still reign, yet do we pay a greater regard to truth than to them, and this though it sometimes happens that we incur their displeasure by so doing. 19.328. 3. Now this king was by nature very beneficent and liberal in his gifts, and very ambitious to oblige people with such large donations; and he made himself very illustrious by the many chargeable presents he made them. He took delight in giving, and rejoiced in living with good reputation. He was not at all like that Herod who reigned before him; 19.329. for that Herod was ill-natured, and severe in his punishments, and had no mercy on them that he hated; and every one perceived that he was more friendly to the Greeks than to the Jews; for he adorned foreign cities with large presents in money; with building them baths and theatres besides; nay, in some of those places he erected temples, and porticoes in others; but he did not vouchsafe to raise one of the least edifices in any Jewish city, or make them any donation that was worth mentioning. 19.331. Accordingly, he loved to live continually at Jerusalem, and was exactly careful in the observance of the laws of his country. He therefore kept himself entirely pure; nor did any day pass over his head without its appointed sacrifice. 20.229. for at the first they held the high priesthood till the end of their life, although afterward they had successors while they were alive. Now these thirteen, who were the descendants of two of the sons of Aaron, received this dignity by succession, one after another; for their form of government was an aristocracy, and after that a monarchy, and in the third place the government was regal. 20.251. Some of these were the political governors of the people under the reign of Herod, and under the reign of Archelaus his son, although, after their death, the government became an aristocracy, and the high priests were intrusted with a dominion over the nation. And thus much may suffice to be said concerning our high priests.
8. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.3, 1.169-1.170, 3.352 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. I have proposed to myself, for the sake of such as live under the government of the Romans, to translate those books into the Greek tongue, which I formerly composed in the language of our country, and sent to the Upper Barbarians; I, Joseph, the son of Matthias, by birth a Hebrew, a priest also, and one who at first fought against the Romans myself, and was forced to be present at what was done afterward [am the author of this work]. 1.3. 12. I have comprehended all these things in seven books, and have left no occasion for complaint or accusation to such as have been acquainted with this war; and I have written it down for the sake of those that love truth, but not for those that please themselves [with fictitious relations]. And I will begin my account of these things with what I call my First Chapter. 1.3. When Antigonus heard of this, he sent some of his party with orders to hinder, and lay ambushes for these collectors of corn. This command was obeyed, and a great multitude of armed men were gathered together about Jericho, and lay upon the mountains, to watch those that brought the provisions. 1.169. After this Gabinius brought Hyrcanus to Jerusalem, and committed the care of the temple to him; but ordained the other political government to be by an aristocracy. 3.352. Now Josephus was able to give shrewd conjectures about the interpretation of such dreams as have been ambiguously delivered by God. Moreover, he was not unacquainted with the prophecies contained in the sacred books, as being a priest himself, and of the posterity of priests:
9. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.29-1.30, 1.54, 2.164-2.165, 2.184-2.188, 2.193-2.195 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.29. but now, as to our forefathers, that they took no less care about writing such records (for I will not say they took greater care than the others I spoke of), and that they committed that matter to their high priests and to their prophets, and that these records have been written all along down to our own times with the utmost accuracy; nay, if it be not too bold for me to say it, our history will be so written hereafter;—I shall endeavor briefly to inform you. /p 1.29. That Amenophis accordingly chose out two hundred and fifty thousand of those that were thus diseased, and cast them out of the country: that Moses and Joseph were scribes, and Joseph was a sacred scribe; that their names were Egyptian originally; that of Moses had been Tisithen, and that of Joseph, Peteseph: 1.54. Now, both these methods of knowledge I may very properly pretend to in the composition of both my works; for, as I said, I have translated the Antiquities out of our sacred books; which I easily could do, since I was a priest by my birth, and have studied that philosophy which is contained in those writings; 2.164. Now there are innumerable differences in the particular customs and laws that are among all mankind, which a man may briefly reduce under the following heads:—Some legislators have permitted their governments to be under monarchies, others put them under oligarchies, and others under a republican form; 2.165. but our legislator had no regard to any of these forms, but he ordained our government to be what, by a strained expression, may be termed a Theocracy, by ascribing the authority and the power to God 2.184. 22. But while we are ourselves persuaded that our law was made agreeably to the will of God, it would be impious for us not to observe the same, for what is there in it that any body would change! and what can be invented that is better! or what can we take out of other people’s laws that will exceed it? Perhaps some would have the entire settlement of our government altered. 2.185. And where shall we find a better or more righteous constitution than ours, while this makes us esteem God to be the governor of the universe, and permits the priests in general to be the administrators of the principal affairs, and withal intrusts the government over the other priests to the chief high priest himself! 2.186. which priests our legislator, at their first appointment, did not advance to that dignity for their riches, or any abundance of other possessions, or any plenty they had as the gifts of fortune; but he intrusted the principal management of divine worship to those that exceeded others in an ability to persuade men, and in prudence of conduct. 2.187. These men had the main care of the law and of the other parts of the people’s conduct committed to them; for they were the priests who were ordained to be the inspectors of all, and the judges in doubtful cases, and the punishers of those that were condemned to suffer punishment. /p 2.188. 23. What form of government then can be more holy than this! what more worthy kind of worship can be paid to God than we pay, where the entire body of the people are prepared for religion, where an extraordinary degree of care is required in the priests, and where the whole polity is so ordered as if it were a certain religious solemnity! 2.193. 24. There ought also to be but one temple for one God; for likeness is the constant foundation of agreement. This temple ought to be common to all men, because he is the common God of all men. His priests are to be continually about his worship, over whom he that is the first by his birth is to be their ruler perpetually. 2.194. His business must be to offer sacrifices to God, together with those priests that are joined with him, to see that the laws be observed, to determine controversies, and to punish those that are convicted of injustice; while he that does not submit to him shall be subject to the same punishment, as if he had been guilty of impiety towards God himself. 2.195. When we offer sacrifices to him we do it not in order to surfeit ourselves, or to be drunken; for such excesses are against the will of God, and would be an occasion of injuries and of luxury: but by keeping ourselves sober, orderly, and ready for our other occupations, and being more temperate than others.
10. Josephus Flavius, Life, 198, 2-9, 1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Babylonian Talmud, Horayot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

13a. פר כהן משוח ופר עדה כו': מנא הני מילי דת"ר (ויקרא ד, כא) ושרף אותו כאשר שרף את הפר הראשון מה ת"ל הראשון שיהא ראשון קודם לפר העדה בכל מעשיו,ת"ר פר כהן משיח ופר העדה עומדים פר כהן משיח קודם לפר העדה בכל מעשיו הואיל ומשיח מכפר ועדה מתכפרת דין הוא שיקדים המכפר למתכפר וכן הוא אומר (ויקרא טז, יז) וכפר בעדו ובעד ביתו ובעד כל קהל ישראל,פר העלם דבר של צבור קודם לפר של עבודת כוכבים מ"ט האי חטאת והאי עולה ותניא (ויקרא ה, ח) והקריב את אשר לחטאת ראשונה מה ת"ל אם ללמד שתהא חטאת ראשונה הרי כבר נאמר ואת השני יעשה עולה כמשפט אלא זה בנה אב שיהו כל חטאות קודמות לעולות הבאים עמהם וקיי"ל דאפילו חטאת העוף קודמת לעולת בהמה,פר עבודת כוכבים קודם לשעיר עבודת כוכבים אמאי האי חטאת והאי עולה אמרי במערבא משמיה דרבא בר מרי חטאת עבודת כוכבים חסירא אל"ף (במדבר טו, כד) לחטת כתיב רבא אמר כמשפט כתיב ביה,שעיר עבודת כוכבים קודם לשעיר נשיא מ"ט האי צבור והאי יחיד שעיר נשיא קודם לשעירת יחיד מ"ט האי מלך והאי הדיוט,שעירת יחיד קודמת לכבשת יחיד והא תניא כבשת יחיד קודמת לשעירת יחיד אמר אביי תנאי היא מר סבר שעירה עדיפא שכן נתרבתה אצל עבודת כוכבים ביחיד ומר סבר כבשה עדיפא שכן נתרבתה באליה,עומר קודם לכבש הבא עמו שתי הלחם קודמים לכבשים הבאים עמהם זה הכלל דבר הבא בגין ליום קודם לדבר הבא בגין לחם:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big האיש קודם לאשה להחיות ולהשב אבדה והאשה קודמת לאיש לכסות ולהוציא מבית השבי בזמן ששניהם עומדים בקלקלה האיש קודם לאשה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר היה הוא ואביו ורבו בשבי הוא קודם לרבו ורבו קודם לאביו אמו קודמת לכולם,חכם קודם למלך ישראל חכם שמת אין לנו כיוצא בו מלך ישראל שמת כל ישראל ראוים למלכות,מלך קודם לכהן גדול שנאמר (מלכים א א, לג) ויאמר המלך (אליהם) [להם] קחו עמכם (או מעבדי) [את עבדי] אדוניכם וגו',כהן גדול קודם לנביא שנאמר (מלכים א א, לד) ומשח אותו שם צדוק הכהן ונתן הנביא הקדים צדוק לנתן ואומר (זכריה ג, ח) שמע נא יהושע הכהן הגדול אתה ורעיך וגו' יכול הדיוטות היו ת"ל (זכריה ג, ח) כי אנשי מופת המה ואין מופת אלא נביא שנאמר (דברים יג, ב) ונתן אליך אות או מופת,משוח בשמן המשחה קודם למרובה בגדים מרובה בגדים קודם למשיח שעבר מחמת קריו משיח שעבר מחמת קריו קודם לעבר מחמת מומו עבר מחמת מומו קודם למשוח מלחמה משוח מלחמה קודם לסגן,סגן קודם לאמרכל מאי אמרכל אמר רב חסדא אמר כולא אמרכל קודם לגזבר גזבר קודם לראש משמר ראש משמר קודם לראש בית אב ראש בית אב קודם לכהן הדיוט,איבעיא להו לענין טומאה סגן ומשוח מלחמה איזה מהם קודם,אמר מר זוטרא בריה דרב נחמן ת"ש דתניא סגן ומשוח מלחמה שהיו מהלכים בדרך ופגע בהם מת מצוה מוטב שיטמא משוח מלחמה ואל יטמא סגן שאם יארע בו פסול בכהן גדול נכנס הסגן ומשמש תחתיו והתניא משוח מלחמה קודם לסגן אמר רבינא כי תניא ההיא להחיותו:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big כהן קודם ללוי לוי לישראל ישראל לממזר וממזר לנתין ונתין לגר וגר לעבד משוחרר אימתי בזמן שכולם שוים אבל אם היה ממזר תלמיד חכם וכהן גדול עם הארץ ממזר תלמיד חכם קודם לכהן גדול עם הארץ:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big כהן קודם ללוי שנאמר (דברי הימים א כג, יג) (ובני) [בני] עמרם אהרן ומשה ויבדל אהרן (להקריב) [להקדישו] קדש (הקדשים) [קדשים] לוי קודם לישראל שנאמר (דברים י, ח) בעת ההיא הבדיל ה' את שבט הלוי (מתוך) וגו',ישראל קודם לממזר שזה מיוחס וזה אינו מיוחס ממזר קודם לנתין זה בא מטפה כשרה וזה בא מטפה פסולה נתין קודם לגר זה גדל עמנו בקדושה וזה לא גדל עמנו בקדושה גר קודם לעבד משוחרר זה היה בכלל ארור וזה לא היה בכלל ארור:,אימתי בזמן שכולן שוין כו': מה"מ א"ר אחא ברבי חנינא דאמר קרא (משלי ג, טו) יקרה היא מפנינים מכהן גדול שנכנס לפני ולפנים,תניא רשב"י אומר בדין הוא שיקדים עבד משוחרר לגר שזה גדל עמנו בקדושה וזה לא גדל עמנו בקדושה אלא זה היה בכלל ארור וזה לא היה בכלל ארור,שאלו תלמידיו את רבי אלעזר ברבי צדוק מפני מה הכל רצין לישא גיורת ואין הכל רצין לישא משוחררת אמר להם זו היתה בכלל ארור וזו לא היתה בכלל ארור דבר אחר זו היתה בחזקת שמור וזו לא היתה בחזקת שמור,שאלו תלמידיו את רבי אלעזר מפני מה הכלב מכיר את קונו וחתול אינו מכיר את קונו אמר להם ומה האוכל ממה שעכבר אוכל משכח האוכל עכבר עצמו עאכ"ו,שאלו תלמידיו את ר"א מפני מה הכל מושלים בעכברים מפני שסורן רע מאי היא רבא אמר אפילו גלימי גייצי 13a. § The mishna teaches: If bthe bull of the anointed priest and the bull of the congregation,which are brought for absence of awareness of the matter, are pending, the bull of the anointed priest precedes the bull of the congregation in all its actions. The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? It is bas the Sages taught: “And he shall burn it as he burned the first bull”(Leviticus 4:21). bWhymust bthe verse state “the first”?The verse could simply state that he shall burn it as he burned the bull. It is in order to establish bthat the firstoffering bprecedes the bull of the congregation in all its actions. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: If bthe bull of the anointed priest and the bull of the congregation are pending, the bull of the anointed priest precedes the bull of the congregation in all its actions. Since the anointedpriest batonesfor the entire Jewish people, band the congregation gains atonement, it is logical that the one who atones will precede the one who gains atonement. And sothe verse bstates: “And he shall atone for himself, and for his household, and for all the congregation of Israel”(Leviticus 16:17).,The ibaraitacontinues: bA bull for an unwitting communal sin precedes a bull for idol worship. What is the reasonfor this ihalakha /i? bThis,i.e., the bull for an unwitting communal sin, is ba sin-offering, and that,i.e., the bull for idol worship, is ba burnt-offering, and it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“And he shall sacrifice that which is for the sin-offering first”(Leviticus 5:8); bwhymust bthe verse statethis? bIfit is bto teach that the sin /b- boffering will be first, it is already stated: “And the second he shall prepare as a burnt-offering according to the ordice”(Leviticus 5:10). bRather, this established a paradigmfrom which all similar cases may be derived, teaching bthat all sin-offerings precede the burnt-offerings that accompany them, and we maintain that even bird sin-offerings precede animal burnt-offerings. /b, bA bull for idol worshipbrought by the entire congregation bprecedes a goat for idol worshipbrought by the entire congregation. The Gemara asks: bWhyis this so; bthis,i.e., the goat is ba sin-offering, and that,i.e., the bull is ba burnt-offering? In the West,Eretz Yisrael, bthey say in the name of Rava bar Mari:In the verse: “If it is performed unwittingly by the congregation, being hidden from their eyes, the entire congregation shall bring one young bull for a burnt-offering, for a pleasing aroma to the Lord, with its meal-offering, and its libation, according to the ordice, and one goat as a sin-offering [ ileḥattat /i]” (Numbers 15:24), bthe sin-offering for idol worship is lacking an ialef /i,i.e., b“ ileḥattat /i” is writtenwithout an ialef /i. This indicates that not all the ihalakhotof sin-offerings apply to it. bRava said: “According to the ordice” is written concerning it,indicating that the service must be performed in accordance with the order stated in the verse, i.e., the bull is sacrificed before the goat., bThe goat for idol worshipof the congregation bprecedes the goat of the king. What is the reasonfor this? The reason is that bthisgoat is brought by the general bpublic and thatgoat is brought by ban individual,and the communal precedes the individual even if that individual is the king. bThe male goat of the king precedes the female goat of the individual. What is the reasonfor this? bThismale goat is brought by ba king, and thatfemale goat is brought by ba commoner. /b, bThe female goat of an individualbrought as a standard sin-offering bprecedes the ewe of an individualbrought as a standard sin-offering. The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe ewe of an individual precedes the female goat of an individual? Abaye said: It isa dispute between itanna’im /i.One bSage holdsthat ba female goat is preferableand takes precedence, bas it has an increasedapplicability in that it is brought bfor idol worship by an individual,in which case one must bring a female goat, not a female sheep. bAndone bSage holdsthat the bewe is preferableand takes precedence, bas it has moresacrificial portions than a female goat, as its btailis also included, which indicates that it is a preferable offering.,The iomer /ioffering bprecedes the lamb that accompanies it; the two loaves,i.e., the public offering on iShavuotof two loaves of bread from the new wheat, bprecede the sheep that accompany them. This is the principle: A matter that comes due toa mitzva of bthe day precedes a matter that comes due tothe bbread.The iomerand two loaves are meal-offerings brought due to the day. The accompanying sheep are brought due to the meal-offerings., strongMISHNA: /strong bThe man precedes the womanwhen there is uncertainty with regard to which of them bto rescue or to return a lost itemto first. bAnd the woman precedes the manwith regard to which of them btoprovide with ba garmentfirst, because her humiliation is great, bor to release from captivityfirst, due to the concern that she will be raped. bWhen they are both subject to degradation,i.e., there is also concern that the man will be raped in captivity, the release of bthe man precedesthe release of bthe woman. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong Apropos precedence, bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: If bone and his father and his teacher were in captivity, hisrelease bprecedes his teacher’sbecause one’s own life takes precedence, band his teacher’srelease bprecedes his father’srelease. bHis mother’srelease bprecedesthe release of ball of them. /b, bA Torah scholar precedes the king of Israel,because in the case of ba Sage who dies, we have no one like him, butin the case of ba king of Israel who dies, all of Israel are fit for royalty. /b, bA king precedes a High Priest, as it is stated: “And the king said unto them: Take with you the servants of your lord”(I Kings 1:33). King David was referring to himself as lord when speaking to Zadok the priest., bA High Priest precedes a prophet, as it is stated: “And let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him there”(I Kings 1:34); bZadokis written bbefore Natan. Andsimilarly, the prophet bsays: “Hear now, Joshua the High Priest, you and your colleagueswho sit before you, for they are men that are a sign; for behold, I will bring forth My servant Zemah” (Zechariah 3:8). One bmighthave thought that these colleagues bwere laymen.Therefore, bthe verse states: “For they are men that are a sign,” and “sign”means bnothing other than a prophet, as it is stated: “And he gives you a sign or a wonder”(Deuteronomy 13:2).,A High Priest banointed with anointing oil precedesa priest consecrated by donning bmultiple garments.A High Priest consecrated by donning bmultiple garments precedes an anointedHigh Priest bwho stepped down,even if he did so bdue to his seminal emission. An anointedHigh Priest bwho stepped down due to his seminal emission precedesan anointed High Priest who bstepped down due to his blemish.An anointed High Priest who bstepped down due to his blemish precedesa priest banointed for war.A priest banointed for war precedes a deputyHigh Priest, who replaces the High Priest when he is unable to serve in the Temple.,The ibaraitaconcludes: bA deputyHigh Priest bprecedes the overseer [ ila’amarkal /i],one of the seven appointed officials in the Temple. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of iamarkal /i? Rav Ḥisda said: iAmarkalis an acronym for iamar kulla /i,meaning: He says it all. The overseer of the Temple has the final word in matters concerning the administration of the Temple. The boverseer precedesthe Temple btreasurer.The btreasurer precedesthe bhead ofthe priestly bwatchthat would serve in the Temple for a period of one week at a time. The bhead ofthe priestly bwatch precedesthe bhead ofthe bpatrilineal family.Each patrilineal family performed the Temple service for one day during the week of its priestly watch. The bhead ofthe bpatrilineal family precedes an ordinary priest. /b, bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bWith regard to the matter of ritual impurity,when there is a corpse with no one to bury it [ imet mitzva /i], which even a priest and a nazirite are commanded to bury, and the bdeputyHigh Priest bandthe priest banointed for warare available to bury it, bwhich of them precedesthe other and becomes impure?, bMar Zutra, son of Rav Naḥman, said: Comeand bheara resolution, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: In the case of ba deputyHigh Priest banda priest banointed for war who were walking along the path and they encountered a imet mitzva /iand one of them must bury him and become ritually impure, bit is preferable thatthe priest banointed for war will become ritually impure and the deputyHigh Priest bwill not become ritually impure.The reason is bthat if disqualification befalls the High Priest, the deputy enters and performsthe Temple bservice in his stead.Therefore, one must ensure to every possible extent that the deputy High Priest remain ritually pure. The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: A priest banointed for war precedes a deputyHigh Priest? bRavina said: When that ibaraita bis taught,it is not with regard to ritual impurity; rather, it is taught bwith regard to rescuing him,as the standing of the priest anointed for war is higher than that of the deputy High Priest., strongMISHNA: /strong bA priest precedes a Levite. A Leviteprecedes ban Israelite. An Israeliteprecedes ba son born from an incestuous or adulterous relationship [ imamzer /i], and a imamzer /iprecedes ba Gibeonite, and a Gibeoniteprecedes ba convert, and a convertprecedes ban emancipated slave. Whendo these ihalakhotof precedence take effect? In circumstances bwhen they are all equalin terms of wisdom. bBut if there were a imamzer /iwho is ba Torah scholar and a High Priestwho is ban ignoramus, a imamzer /iwho is ba Torah scholar precedes a High Priestwho is ban ignoramus,as Torah wisdom surpasses all else., strongGEMARA: /strong bA priest precedes a Levite, as it is stated: “The sons of Amram: Aaron and Moses, and Aaron was separated that he should be sanctified as the most sacred”(I Chronicles 23:13). bA Levite precedes an Israelite, as it is stated: “At that time the Lord separated the tribe of Levi,to bear the Ark of the Covet of the Lord, to stand before the Lord to minister unto Him, and to bless in His name, unto this day” (Deuteronomy 10:8)., bAn Israelite precedes a imamzerbecause thisIsraelite is boflegitimate blineage and that imamzeris bnot oflegitimate blineageand is disqualified from entering into the congregation of Israel. bA imamzerprecedes a Gibeonite because this imamzer bcomes from a fit dropof semen, i.e., from Jewish parentage, band thatGibeonite bcomes from an unfit dropof semen, from gentile parentage. bA Gibeonite precedes a convert,as bthisGibeonite bgrew among us in sanctityand conducted his life as a Jew, band thatconvert bdid not grow among us in sanctity. A convert precedes an emancipatedCanaanite bslaveas bthisemancipated Canaanite slave bwasincluded bin the category ofthe bcursewhile he was enslaved, band thatconvert bwas notincluded bin the category ofthe bcurse. /b,The mishna teaches: bWhendo these ihalakhotof precedence take effect? In circumstances bwhen they are all equalin terms of wisdom. The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bRav Aḥa, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said:This is derived from a verse, bas the verse states: “She is more precious than rubies [ imipeninim /i]”(Proverbs 3:15). The Torah is more precious bthanthe bHigh Priest who enters the innermost sanctum [ ilifnai velifnim /i],the Holy of Holies., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai says: By right, an emancipatedCanaanite bslave should have preceded a convert, because thisemancipated Canaanite slave bgrew among us in sanctity, and thatconvert bdid not grow among us in sanctity. Butthe convert precedes the Canaanite slave because bthisCanaanite slave bwas in the category ofthe bcurse, and thatconvert bwas not in the category ofthe bcurse. /b, bThe students of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, askedhim: bFor whatreason bdoes everyone,i.e., do many people, brun to marry a female convert, and not everyone runs to marry an emancipatedCanaanite maidservant? bHe said to them: ThisCanaanite maidservant bwas in the category ofthe bcurse,and bthatconvert bwas not in the category ofthe bcurse. Alternatively,the reason is that bthisconvert bhas the presumptive status of chastity, and thatCanaanite maidservant bdoes not have the presumptive status of chastity. /b, bThe students of Rabbi Elazar askedhim: bFor whatreason bdoes a dog recognize its master, while a cat does not recognize its master?Rabbi Elazar bsaid to them: Ifit is established that with regard to bone who eats from that which a mouse eats,eating that item bcauses him to forget,with regard to the cat, bwho eats the mouse itself, all the more sodoes eating it cause it to forget., bThe students of Rabbi Eliezer askedhim: bFor whatreason do ballpredators bdominate miceand prey on them? He said to them: bBecauseconcerning mice, btheir inclination [ ishesuran /i] is evil.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe indication of this? Rava said: bThey gnaw even at cloaks,despite the fact that cloaks do not provide nourishment for them.
13. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

41b. מאתחלתא דמועד,וחזן הכנסת נוטל ס"ת ונותנו לראש הכנסת שמעת מינה חולקין כבוד לתלמיד במקום הרב אמר אביי כולה משום כבודו דמלך,והמלך עומד ומקבל וקורא יושב אגריפס המלך עמד וקיבל וקרא עומד עומד מכלל דיושב והאמר מר אין ישיבה בעזרה אלא למלכי בית דוד בלבד שנא' (שמואל ב ז, יח) ויבא המלך דוד וישב לפני ה' ויאמר וגו' כדאמר רב חסדא בעזרת נשים הכא נמי בעזרת נשים,ושבחוהו חכמים שבחוהו מכלל דשפיר עבד האמר רב אשי אפי' למ"ד נשיא שמחל על כבודו כבודו מחול מלך שמחל על כבודו אין כבודו מחול שנא' (דברים יז, טו) שום תשים עליך מלך שתהא אימתו עליך,מצוה שאני,וכשהגיע ללא תוכל לתת תנא משמיה דרבי נתן באותה שעה נתחייבו שונאי ישראל כלייה שהחניפו לו לאגריפס,אמר ר' שמעון בן חלפתא מיום שגבר אגרופה של חנופה נתעוותו הדינין ונתקלקלו המעשים ואין אדם יכול לומר לחבירו מעשי גדולים ממעשיך,דרש ר' יהודה בר מערבא ואיתימא ר' שמעון בן פזי מותר להחניף לרשעים בעולם הזה שנאמר (ישעיהו לב, ה) לא יקרא עוד לנבל נדיב ולכילי לא יאמר שוע מכלל דבעולם הזה שרי,ר' שמעון בן לקיש אמר מהכא (בראשית לג, י) כראות פני אלהים ותרצני,ופליגא דרבי לוי דאמר רבי לוי משל של יעקב ועשו למה הדבר דומה לאדם שזימן את חבירו והכיר בו שמבקש להורגו אמר לו טעם תבשיל זה שאני טועם כתבשיל שטעמתי בבית המלך אמר ידע ליה מלכא מיסתפי ולא קטיל ליה,אמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו חנופה מביא אף לעולם שנא' (איוב לו, יג) וחנפי לב ישימו אף ולא עוד אלא שאין תפלתו נשמעת שנאמר (איוב לו, יג) לא ישועו כי אסרם,סימן א"ף עוב"ר גיהנ"ם ביד"ו ניד"ה גול"ה,ואמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו חנופה אפילו עוברין שבמעי אמן מקללין אותו שנא' (משלי כד, כד) אומר לרשע צדיק אתה יקבוהו עמים יזעמוהו לאומים ואין קוב אלא קללה שנא' (במדבר כג, ח) לא קבה אל ואין לאום אלא עוברין שנא' (בראשית כה, כג) ולאום מלאום יאמץ,ואמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו חנופה נופל בגיהנם שנא' (ישעיהו ה, כ) הוי האומרים לרע טוב ולטוב רע וגו' מה כתיב אחריו לכן כאכל קש לשון אש וחשש להבה ירפה וגו',ואמר רבי אלעזר כל המחניף לחבירו סוף נופל בידו ואם אינו נופל בידו נופל ביד בניו ואם אינו נופל ביד בניו נופל ביד בן בנו שנא' (ירמיהו כח, ה) ויאמר ירמיה לחנניה אמן כן יעשה ה' יקם ה' את דבריך וכתי' 41b. implying that the assembly takes place bat the beginning of the Festival,when the entire Jewish people comes to Jerusalem.,§ It is taught in the mishna: bAnd the synagogue attendant takes a Torah scroll and gives it to the head of the synagogue,until it is eventually passed to the king. The Gemara suggests: bYou can learn fromthe fact that all of these dignitaries receive the Torah scroll before the king that bhonor may be given to a student in the presence of the teacher. Abaye said:A proof may not be adduced from here, as the bentireprocess bis for the honor of the king,to show that he is removed from ordinary people by many ranks.,It is taught in the mishna: bAnd the king stands, and receivesthe Torah scroll, band readsfrom it while bsitting. King Agrippa arose, and receivedthe Torah scroll, band readfrom it while bstanding.The Gemara asks: bBy inference,until that point he had been bsitting. But didn’t the Master say( iTosefta /i, iSanhedrin4:4) that bsitting in theTemple bcourtyardis permitted bonly for kings from the house of David, as it is stated: “Then King David went in, and sat before the Lord; and he said:Who am I?” (II Samuel 7:18). The Gemara answers: bAs Rav Ḥisda saidin a similar context: This took place not in the Israelite courtyard, where the prohibition against sitting applies, but bin the women’s courtyard. Here too,the assembly was bin the women’s courtyard. /b,It is stated in the mishna that King Agrippa read from the Torah while standing, band the Sages praised himfor this. The Gemara asks: bFrom the factthat bthey praised him,can it be concluded bthat he acted appropriately? Didn’t Rav Ashi say: Even according to the one who sayswith regard to ba iNasiwho relinquishedthe bhonordue bhim, his honor is relinquished,i.e., he may do so, with regard to ba king who relinquishedthe bhonordue bhim, his honor is not relinquished, as it is stated: “You shall place a king over you”(Deuteronomy 17:15). This is interpreted to mean bthat his awe shall be upon you.The Torah establishes that awe is an essential component of kingship, and it is not the prerogative of the king to relinquish it.,The Gemara answers: Since he relinquished his honor for the sake of ba mitzva,this situation bis differentand does not dishonor him.,The mishna continues: bAnd whenAgrippa barrived atthe verse: b“You may not appointa foreigner over you” (Deuteronomy 17:15), tears flowed from his eyes because he was a descendant of the house of Herod and was not of Jewish origin. The entire nation said to him: You are our brother. It is btaught in the name of Rabbi Natan: At that moment the enemies of the Jewish people,a euphemism for the Jewish people, bwere sentenced to destruction for flattering Agrippa. /b, bRabbi Shimon ben Ḥalafta says: From the day that the power of flattery prevailed, the judgment has become corrupted, andpeople’s bdeeds have become corrupted, and a person cannot say to another: My deeds are greater than your deeds,as everyone flatters one another and people no longer know the truth., bRabbi Yehuda of the West,Eretz Yisrael, band some say Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, taught: It is permitted to flatter wicked people in this world, as it is statedconcerning the future: b“The vile person shall no longer be called generous, nor shall the churl be said to be noble”(Isaiah 32:5). bBy inference,this indicates bthat in this world it is permittedto flatter them., bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish saidthat this can be proven bfrom here.Jacob said to Esau: “I have seen your face, bas one sees the face of angels, and you were pleased with me”(Genesis 33:10). Jacob flattered him by comparing seeing him to seeing a divine vision.,The Gemara notes: bAndRabbi Shimon ben Lakish, in interpreting Jacob’s statement, bdisagrees with Rabbi Levi, as Rabbi Levi says:With regard to the interaction between bJacob and Esau, to what is this matter comparable? To a person who invited anotherto his home bandthe guest brealized that he wants to kill him.The guest bsaid to him: The flavor of this dish that I taste is like a dish that I tasted in the king’s house.The host then bsaidto himself: bThe kingmust bknow him.Therefore, bhe was afraid and did not kill him.Similarly, when Jacob told Esau that his face is like the face of an angel, he intended to let him know that he had seen angels, in order to instill fear in him so that Esau would not seek to harm him., bRabbi Elazar says: Any person who has flattery in him brings wrath to the world, as it is stated: “But those with flattery in their hearts bring about wrath”(Job 36:13). bAnd moreover, his prayer is not heard, as it is statedin that same verse: b“They do not cry for help when He binds them.” /b,The Gemara cites ba mnemonicdevice for the statements of Rabbi Elazar: bWrath, fetus, Gehenna, in his hands, menstruating woman, exiled. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Any person who has flattery in him, even fetuses in their mothers’ wombs curse him, as it is stated: “He who says to the wicked: You are righteous, peoples shall curse him [ iyikkevuhu /i], nations [ ileummim /i] shall execrate him”(Proverbs 24:24); band ikov /i,the linguistic root of the word iyikkevuhu /i, means bonly a curse, as it is stated:Balaam explained that he did not curse the Jewish people, as he said: “How can I curse [ iekkov /i] bwhom God has not cursed [ ikabbo /i]?”(Numbers 23:8). bAnd ile’om /iis homiletically interpreted to mean bonly fetuses, as it is statedwith regard to Jacob and Esau, when they were still in Rebecca’s womb: b“And one people [ ile’om /i] shall be stronger than the other people [ ile’om /i]”(Genesis 25:23)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Any person who has flattery in him falls into Gehenna, as it is stated: “Woe to those who call evil good, and good evil”(Isaiah 5:20). bWhat is written afterward? “Therefore, as the tongue of fire devours straw, and as the chaff is consumed by the flame”(Isaiah 5:24), meaning that the people described in the earlier verse will end up burning like straw in the fires of Gehenna., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Anyone who flatters another ultimately falls into his hands. And if he does not fall into his hands, he falls into his children’s hands. And if he does not fall into his children’s hands, he falls into his grandchild’s hands, as it is stated: “Then the prophet Jeremiah said to Haiah…Amen, the Lord should do so, the Lord should perform your words”(Jeremiah 28:5–6). This was a form of flattery, as Jeremiah did not explicitly say that Haiah was a false prophet. bAnd it is written: /b
14. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 103-104, 113, 122, 31, 310, 32, 39, 46-50, 97, 102

102. much higher than the circle of walls which I have mentioned. The towers were guarded too by most trusty men who had given the utmost proof of their loyalty to their country. These men were never allowed to leave the citadel, except on feast days and then only in detachments. nor did they permit any


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aegyptiaca Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 151, 218
alexandria Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 151, 218
anti-judaism Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 218
aristotle Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40
aurum coronarium Ando, Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire (2013) 182
character Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40
citadel Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 218
consecration' Ando, Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire (2013) 182
courage Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 151
demetrius of phalerum Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40
diaspora Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 218
diodorus, criticized by photius Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 18
egypt Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 151, 218
elders/council of elders Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 306, 341
eleazar, high priest Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 151, 218
greek, literature/sources Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40
greek Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 218
hasmonean rule/rulers Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 341
hecataeus of abdera, jewish excursus in appendix of the origo section Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 18
hecataeus of abdera, on the egyptians Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 18
hecataeus of abdera, structure of ethnographies Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 18
hecataeus of abdera Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40, 151, 218
high priests, vestments Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 151
high priests Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 151, 218
honor Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 306
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 341
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 306, 341
israel Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40, 151
jerusalem Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 341; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40, 151, 218
josephus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40
judaism, alexandrian Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 218
judaism Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40, 151
judea Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40, 151
judeans Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 218
kings, biblical Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 306, 341
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 306, 341
law, jewish/of moses Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40, 151
lydda Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 18
manetho Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40
middle way Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40
moses, hecataeus on Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 18
moses Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 151, 218
myth, historical Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 151
patriarchs Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 341
pescennius niger Ando, Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire (2013) 182
philo of alexandria Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 151
philosophy, pythagorean Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40
philosophy peripatetic/aristotelean Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40
philosophystoic Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40
photius Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 18; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40, 151, 218
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 306, 341
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 341
ps.-aristeas Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40, 151, 218
pseudo-hecataeus, on the jews Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40
pseudo-hecataeus Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40
ptolemy i soter Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 151
religion, judean/jewish Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 151
sacrifice/offering Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 218
sages, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 306
severus, accession of Ando, Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire (2013) 182
symposium/symposia Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40
tannaitic literature Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 306
temple, jewish Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 151, 218
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 306, 341
translators, jewish Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40, 151, 218
travelogue Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 151
twelve tribes Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 151
vestments, high priests Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 151
wealth Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 40
wisdom/wisdom Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 151