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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



4471
Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 2.48.9


nan Yet the land is good for the growing of palms, wherever it happens to be traversed by rivers with usable water or to be supplied with springs which can irrigate it. And there is also found in these regions in a certain valley the balsam tree, as it is called, from which they receive a substantial revenue, since this tree is found nowhere else in the inhabited world and the use of it for medicinal purposes is most highly valued by physicians. •  That part of Arabia which borders upon the waterless and desert country is so different from it that, because both of the multitude of fruits which grow therein and of its other good things, it has been called Arabia Felix.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

10 results
1. Homer, Iliad, 2.751-2.754 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

2.751. /that had set their dwellings about wintry Dodona, and dwelt in the ploughland about lovely Titaressus, that poureth his fair-flowing streams into Peneius; yet doth he not mingle with the silver eddies of Peneius, but floweth on over his waters like unto olive oil; 2.752. /that had set their dwellings about wintry Dodona, and dwelt in the ploughland about lovely Titaressus, that poureth his fair-flowing streams into Peneius; yet doth he not mingle with the silver eddies of Peneius, but floweth on over his waters like unto olive oil; 2.753. /that had set their dwellings about wintry Dodona, and dwelt in the ploughland about lovely Titaressus, that poureth his fair-flowing streams into Peneius; yet doth he not mingle with the silver eddies of Peneius, but floweth on over his waters like unto olive oil; 2.754. /that had set their dwellings about wintry Dodona, and dwelt in the ploughland about lovely Titaressus, that poureth his fair-flowing streams into Peneius; yet doth he not mingle with the silver eddies of Peneius, but floweth on over his waters like unto olive oil;
2. Herodotus, Histories, 6.76 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.76. As Cleomenes was seeking divination at Delphi, the oracle responded that he would take Argos. When he came with Spartans to the river Erasinus, which is said to flow from the Stymphalian lake (this lake issues into a cleft out of sight and reappears at Argos, and from that place onwards the stream is called by the Argives Erasinus)—when Cleomenes came to this river he offered sacrifices to it. ,The omens were in no way favorable for his crossing, so he said that he honored the Erasinus for not betraying its countrymen, but even so the Argives would not go unscathed. Then he withdrew and led his army seaward to Thyrea, where he sacrificed a bull to the sea and carried his men on shipboard to the region of Tiryns and to Nauplia.
3. Theophrastus, Research On Plants, 9.6.1-9.6.4 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 24.13-24.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

24.13. I grew tall like a cedar in Lebanon,and like a cypress on the heights of Hermon. 24.14. I grew tall like a palm tree in En-gedi,and like rose plants in Jericho;like a beautiful olive tree in the field,and like a plane tree I grew tall.
5. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 2.48.6-2.48.8, 19.98, 19.99.3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.48.6.  There is also in the land of the Nabataeans a rock, which is exceedingly strong since it has but one approach, and using this ascent they mount it a few at a time and thus store their possessions in safety. And a large lake is also there which produces asphalt in abundance, and from it they derive not a little revenue. 2.48.7.  It has a length of about five hundred stades and a width of about sixty, and its water is so ill-smelling and so very bitter that it cannot support fish or any of the other animals which commonly live in water. And although great rivers of remarkable sweetness empty into it, the lake gets the better of them by reason of its evil smell, and from its centre it spouts forth once a year a great mass of asphalt, which sometimes extends for more than three plethra, and sometimes for only two; and when this occurs the barbarians who live about the lake usually call the larger flow a "bull" and to the smaller one they give the name "calf. 2.48.8.  Since the asphalt floats on the surface of the lake, to those who view it from a distance it takes the appearance of an island. And the fact is that the emission of the asphalt is made known to the natives twenty days before it takes place; for to a distance of many stades around the lake the odour, borne on the wind, assails them, and every piece of silver and gold and brass in the locality loses it characteristic lustre. But this returns again as soon as all the asphalt has been spouted forth; and the region round about, by reason of its being exposed to fire and to the evil odours, renders the bodies of the inhabitants susceptible to disease and makes the people very short-lived. 19.99.3.  For this liquid by its nature supports heavy bodies that have the power of growth or of breathing, except for solid ones that seem to have a density like that of silver, gold, lead, and the like; and even these sink much more slowly than do these exact bodies if they are cast into other lakes. The barbarians who enjoy this source of income take the asphalt to Egypt and sell it for the embalming of the dead; for unless this is mixed with the other aromatic ingredients, the preservation of the bodies cannot be permanent.
6. Strabo, Geography, 8.8.4, 11.14.8, 12.8.16, 16.2.36, 16.2.40-16.2.41 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11.14.8. There are also large lakes in Armenia; one the Mantiane, which being translated means Blue; it is the largest salt water lake after Lake Maeotis, as they say, extending as far as Atropatia; and it also has salt-works. Another is Arsene, also called Thopitis. It contains soda, and it cleanses and restores clothes; but because of this ingredient the water is also unfit for drinking. The Tigris flows through this lake after issuing from the mountainous country near the Niphates; and because of its swiftness it keeps its current unmixed with the lake; whence the name Tigris, since the Median word for arrow is tigris. And while the river has fish of many kinds, the fish in the lake are of one kind only. Near the recess of the lake the river falls into a pit, and after flowing underground for a considerable distance rises near Chalonitis. Thence the river begins to flow down towards Opis and the wall of Semiramis, as it is called, leaving the Gordiaeans and the whole of Mesopotamia on the right, while the Euphrates, on the contrary, has the same country on the left. Having approached one another and formed Mesopotamia, the former flows through Seleuceia to the Persian Gulf and the latter through Babylon, as I have already said somewhere in my arguments against Eratosthenes and Hipparchus. 12.8.16. Laodiceia, though formerly small, grew large in our time and in that of our fathers, even though it had been damaged by siege in the time of Mithridates Eupator. However, it was the fertility of its territory and the prosperity of certain of its citizens that made it great: at first Hieron, who left to the people an inheritance of more than two thousand talents and adorned the city with many dedicated offerings, and later Zeno the rhetorician and his son Polemon, the latter of whom, because of his bravery and honesty, was thought worthy even of a kingdom, at first by Antony and later by Augustus. The country round Laodiceia produces sheep that are excellent, not only for the softness of their wool, in which they surpass even the Milesian wool, but also for its raven-black color, so that the Laodiceians derive splendid revenue from it, as do also the neighboring Colosseni from the color which bears the same name. And here the Caprus River joins the Maeander, as does also the Lycus, a river of good size, after which the city is called the Laodiceia near Lycus. Above the city lies Mt. Cadmus, whence the Lycus flows, as does also another river of the same name as the mountain. But the Lycus flows under ground for the most part, and then, after emerging to the surface, unites with the other rivers, thus indicating that the country is full of holes and subject to earthquakes; for if any other country is subject to earthquakes, Laodiceia is, and so is Carura in the neighboring country. 16.2.36. By such doctrine Moses persuaded a large body of right-minded persons to accompany him to the place where Jerusalem now stands. He easily obtained possession of it, as the spot was not such as to excite jealousy, nor for which there could be any fierce contention; for it is rocky, and, although well supplied with water, it is surrounded by a barren and waterless territory. The space within [the city] is 60 stadia [in circumference], with rock underneath the surface.Instead of arms, he taught that their defence was in their sacred things and the Divinity, for whom he was desirous of finding a settled place, promising to the people to deliver such a kind of worship and religion as should not burthen those who adopted it with great expense, nor molest them with [so-called] divine possessions, nor other absurd practices.Moses thus obtained their good opinion, and established no ordinary kind of government. All the nations around willingly united themselves to him, allured by his discourses and promises. 16.2.40. When Judaea openly became subject to a tyrannical government, the first person who exchanged the title of priest for that of king was Alexander. His sons were Hyrcanus and Aristobulus. While they were disputing the succession to the kingdom, Pompey came upon them by surprise, deprived them of their power, and destroyed their fortresses, first taking Jerusalem itself by storm. It was a stronghold, situated on a rock, well fortified and well supplied with water within, but externally entirely parched with drought. A ditch was cut in the rock, 60 feet in depth, and in width 250 feet. On the wall of the temple were built towers, constructed of the materials procured when the ditch was excavated. The city was taken, it is said, by waiting for the day of fast, on which the Jews were in the habit of abstaining from all work. Pompey [availing himself of this], filled up the ditch, and threw bridges over it. He gave orders to raze all the walls, and he destroyed, as far as was in his power, the haunts of the robbers and the treasure-holds of the tyrants. Two of these forts, Thrax and Taurus, were situated in the passes leading to Jericho. Others were Alexandrium, Hyrcanium, Machaerus, Lysias, and those about Philadelphia, and Scythopolis near Galilee. 16.2.41. Jericho is a plain encompassed by a mountainous district, which slopes towards it somewhat in the manner of a theatre. Here is the Phoenicon (or palm plantation), which contains various other trees of the cultivated kind, and producing excellent fruit; but its chief production is the palm tree. It is 100 stadia in length; the whole is watered with streams, and filled with dwellings. Here also is a palace and the garden of the balsamum. The latter is a shrub with an aromatic smell, resembling the cytisus and the terminthus. Incisions are made in the bark, and vessels are placed beneath to receive the sap, which is like oily milk. After it is collected in vessels, it becomes solid. It is an excellent remedy for headache, incipient suffusion of the eyes, and dimness of sight. It bears therefore a high price, especially as it is produced in no other place. This is the case also with the Phoenicon, which alone contains the caryotes palm, if we except the Babylonian plain, and the country above it towards the east: a large revenue is derived from the palms and balsamum; xylobalsamum is also used as a perfume.
7. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 3.35-3.58, 4.456-4.475 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.35. 3. Now, as Josephus began to hesitate with himself about Nicanor’s proposal, the soldiery were so angry, that they ran hastily to set fire to the den; but the tribune would not permit them so to do, as being very desirous to take the man alive. 3.35. 1. Now Phoenicia and Syria encompass about the Galilees, which are two, and called the Upper Galilee and the Lower. They are bounded toward the sunsetting, with the borders of the territory belonging toPtolemais, and by Carmel; which mountain had formerly belonged to the Galileans, but now belonged to the Tyrians; 3.36. but if unwillingly, thou wilt die as a traitor to them.” As soon as they said this, they began to thrust their swords at him, and threatened they would kill him, if he thought of yielding himself to the Romans. 3.36. to which mountain adjoins Gaba, which is called the City of Horsemen, because those horsemen that were dismissed by Herod the king dwelt therein; 3.37. nor indeed is there any animal that dies by its own contrivance, or by its own means, for the desire of life is a law engraven in them all; on which account we deem those that openly take it away from us to be our enemies, and those that do it by treachery are punished for so doing. 3.37. they are bounded on the south with Samaria and Scythopolis, as far as the river Jordan; on the east with Hippene and Gadaris, and also with Gaulanitis, and the borders of the kingdom of Agrippa; 3.38. If we have a mind to preserve ourselves, let us do it; for to be preserved by those our enemies, to whom we have given so many demonstrations of our courage, is no way inglorious; but if we have a mind to die, it is good to die by the hand of those that have conquered us. 3.38. its northern parts are bounded by Tyre, and the country of the Tyrians. As for that Galilee which is called the Lower, it, extends in length from Tiberias to Zabulon, and of the maritime places Ptolemais is its neighbor; 3.39. and when he had prevailed with them to determine this matter by lots, he drew one of the lots for himself also. He who had the first lot laid his neck bare to him that had the next, as supposing that the general would die among them immediately; for they thought death, if Josephus might but die with them, was sweeter than life; 3.39. its breadth is from the village called Xaloth, which lies in the great plain, as far as Bersabe, from which beginning also is taken the breadth of the Upper Galilee, as far as the village Baca, which divides the land of the Tyrians from it; 3.41. 2. These two Galilees, of so great largeness, and encompassed with so many nations of foreigners, have been always able to make a strong resistance on all occasions of war; 3.41. the citizens here received both the Roman army and its general, with all sorts of acclamations and rejoicings, and this partly out of the goodwill they bore to the Romans, but principally out of the hatred they bore to those that were conquered by them; on which account they came clamoring against Josephus in crowds, and desired he might be put to death. 3.42. for the Galileans are inured to war from their infancy, and have been always very numerous; nor hath the country been ever destitute of men of courage, or wanted a numerous set of them; for their soil is universally rich and fruitful, and full of the plantations of trees of all sorts, insomuch that it invites the most slothful to take pains in its cultivation, by its fruitfulness; 3.42. where there are deep precipices, and great stones that jut out into the sea, and where the chains wherewith Andromeda was bound have left their footsteps, which attest to the antiquity of that fable. 3.43. accordingly, it is all cultivated by its inhabitants, and no part of it lies idle. Moreover, the cities lie here very thick, and the very many villages there are here are everywhere so full of people, by the richness of their soil, that the very least of them contain above fifteen thousand inhabitants. 3.43. that these last might stay there and guard the camp, and the horsemen might spoil the country that lay round it, and might destroy the neighboring villages and smaller cities. 3.44. 3. In short, if anyone will suppose that Galilee is inferior to Perea in magnitude, he will be obliged to prefer it before it in its strength; for this is all capable of cultivation, and is everywhere fruitful; but for Perea, which is indeed much larger in extent, the greater part of it is desert and rough, and much less disposed for the production of the milder kinds of fruits; 3.44. and what usually becomes an occasion of caution to wise men, I mean affliction, became a spur to them to venture on further calamities, and the end of one misery became still the beginning of another; 3.45. yet hath it a moist soil [in other parts], and produces all kinds of fruits, and its plains are planted with trees of all sorts, while yet the olive tree, the vine, and the palm tree are chiefly cultivated there. It is also sufficiently watered with torrents, which issue out of the mountains, and with springs that never fail to run, even when the torrents fail them, as they do in the dog-days. 3.45. their leader was one whose name was Jesus, the son of Shaphat, the principal head of a band of robbers. 3.46. Now the length of Perea is from Macherus to Pella, and its breadth from Philadelphia to Jordan; 3.46. But as the army was a great while in getting in at the gates, they were so narrow, Vespasian commanded the south wall to be broken down, and so made a broad passage for their entrance. 3.47. its northern parts are bounded by Pella, as we have already said, as well as its Western with Jordan; the land of Moab is its southern border, and its eastern limits reach to Arabia, and Silbonitis, and besides to Philadelphene and Gerasa. 3.47. But Vespasian hearing that a great multitude of them were gotten together in the plain that was before the city, he thereupon sent his son, with six hundred chosen horsemen, to disperse them. 3.48. 4. Now, as to the country of Samaria, it lies between Judea and Galilee; it begins at a village that is in the great plain called Ginea, and ends at the Acrabbene toparchy, and is entirely of the same nature with Judea; 3.48. Nay, indeed, your fighting is to be on greater motives than those of the Jews; for although they run the hazard of war for liberty, and for their country, yet what can be a greater motive to us than glory? and that it may never be said, that after we have got dominion of the habitable earth, the Jews are able to confront us. 3.49. for both countries are made up of hills and valleys, and are moist enough for agriculture, and are very fruitful. They have abundance of trees, and are full of autumnal fruit, both that which grows wild, and that which is the effect of cultivation. They are not naturally watered by many rivers, but derive their chief moisture from rain-water, of which they have no want; 3.49. So Titus pressed upon the hindmost, and slew them; and of the rest, some he fell upon as they stood on heaps, and some he prevented, and met them in the mouth, and run them through; many also he leaped upon as they fell one upon another, and trod them down 3.51. 5. In the limits of Samaria and Judea lies the village Anuath, which is also named Borceos. This is the northern boundary of Judea. The southern parts of Judea, if they be measured lengthways, are bounded by a Village adjoining to the confines of Arabia; the Jews that dwell there call it Jordan. However, its breadth is extended from the river Jordan to Joppa. 3.51. this place lies as you go up to Trachonitis, and is a hundred and twenty furlongs from Caesarea, and is not far out of the road on the right hand; 3.52. The city Jerusalem is situated in the very middle; on which account some have, with sagacity enough, called that city the Navel of the country. 3.52. Some have thought it to be a vein of the Nile, because it produces the Coracin fish as well as that lake does which is near to Alexandria. 3.53. Nor indeed is Judea destitute of such delights as come from the sea, since its maritime places extend as far as Ptolemais: 3.53. And a terrible stink, and a very sad sight there was on the following days over that country; for as for the shores, they were full of shipwrecks, and of dead bodies all swelled; and as the dead bodies were inflamed by the sun, and putrefied, they corrupted the air, insomuch that the misery was not only the object of commiseration to the Jews, but to those that hated them, and had been the authors of that misery. 3.54. it was parted into eleven portions, of which the royal city Jerusalem was the supreme, and presided over all the neighboring country, as the head does over the body. As to the other cities that were inferior to it, they presided over their several toparchies; 3.54. Out of the young men he chose six thousand of the strongest, and sent them to Nero, to dig through the Isthmus, and sold the remainder for slaves, being thirty thousand and four hundred, besides such as he made a present of to Agrippa; 3.55. Gophna was the second of those cities, and next to that Acrabatta, after them Thamna, and Lydda, and Emmaus, and Pella, and Idumea, and Engaddi, and Herodium, and Jericho; 3.56. and after them came Jamnia and Joppa, as presiding over the neighboring people; and besides these there was the region of Gamala, and Gaulanitis, and Batanea, and Trachonitis, which are also parts of the kingdom of Agrippa. 3.57. This [last] country begins at Mount Libanus, and the fountains of Jordan, and reaches breadthways to the lake of Tiberias; and in length is extended from a village called Arpha, as far as Julias. Its inhabitants are a mixture of Jews and Syrians. 3.58. And thus have I, with all possible brevity, described the country of Judea, and those that lie round about it. 4.456. its length is two hundred and thirty furlongs, and its breadth a hundred and twenty, and it is divided in the midst by Jordan. It hath two lakes in it, that of Asphaltitis, and that of Tiberias, whose natures are opposite to each other; for the former is salt and unfruitful, but that of Tiberias is sweet and fruitful. 4.457. This plain is much burnt up in summertime, and, by reason of the extraordinary heat, contains a very unwholesome air; 4.458. it is all destitute of water excepting the river Jordan, which water of Jordan is the occasion why those plantations of palm trees that are near its banks are more flourishing, and much more fruitful, as are those that are remote from it not so flourishing, or fruitful. 4.459. 3. Notwithstanding which, there is a fountain by Jericho, that runs plentifully, and is very fit for watering the ground; it arises near the old city, which Joshua, the son of Nun, the general of the Hebrews, took the first of all the cities of the land of Canaan, by right of war. 4.461. who, when he once was the guest of the people at Jericho, and the men of the place had treated him very kindly, he both made them amends as well as the country, by a lasting favor; 4.462. for he went out of the city to this fountain, and threw into the current an earthen vessel full of salt; after which he stretched out his righteous hand unto heaven, and, pouring out a mild drink-offering, he made this supplication,—That the current might be mollified, and that the veins of fresh water might be opened; 4.463. that God also would bring into the place a more temperate and fertile air for the current, and would bestow upon the people of that country plenty of the fruits of the earth, and a succession of children; and that this prolific water might never fail them, while they continued to be righteous. 4.464. To these prayers Elisha joined proper operations of his hands, after a skillful manner, and changed the fountain; and that water, which had been the occasion of barrenness and famine before, from that time did supply a numerous posterity, and afforded great abundance to the country. 4.465. Accordingly, the power of it is so great in watering the ground, that if it does but once touch a country, it affords a sweeter nourishment than other waters do, when they lie so long upon them, till they are satiated with them. 4.466. For which reason, the advantage gained from other waters, when they flow in great plenty, is but small, while that of this water is great when it flows even in little quantities. 4.467. Accordingly, it waters a larger space of ground than any other waters do, and passes along a plain of seventy furlongs long, and twenty broad; wherein it affords nourishment to those most excellent gardens that are thick set with trees. 4.468. There are in it many sorts of palm trees that are watered by it, different from each other in taste and name; the better sort of them, when they are pressed, yield an excellent kind of honey, not much inferior in sweetness to other honey. 4.469. This country withal produces honey from bees; it also bears that balsam which is the most precious of all the fruits in that place, cypress trees also, and those that bear myrobalanum; so that he who should pronounce this place to be divine would not be mistaken, wherein is such plenty of trees produced as are very rare, and of the most excellent sort. 4.471. the cause of which seems to me to be the warmth of the air, and the fertility of the waters; the warmth calling forth the sprouts, and making them spread, and the moisture making every one of them take root firmly, and supplying that virtue which it stands in need of in summertime. Now this country is then so sadly burnt up, that nobody cares to come at it; 4.472. and if the water be drawn up before sunrising, and after that exposed to the air, it becomes exceeding cold, and becomes of a nature quite contrary to the ambient air; 4.473. as in winter again it becomes warm; and if you go into it, it appears very gentle. The ambient air is here also of so good a temperature, that the people of the country are clothed in linen-only, even when snow covers the rest of Judea. 4.474. This place is one hundred and fifty furlongs from Jerusalem, and sixty from Jordan. The country, as far as Jerusalem, is desert and stony; but that as far as Jordan and the lake Asphaltitis lies lower indeed, though it be equally desert and barren. 4.475. But so much shall suffice to have been said about Jericho, and of the great happiness of its situation.
8. Tacitus, Histories, 5.6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Galen, On Antidotes, 1.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 9.35 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adriatic sea, head of Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
aesculapius, spring of Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
alexander jannaeus Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 221
alexander of aphrodisias Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 211
alum (stupteria) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 311
antigonus i monophthalmus Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 211, 212
aquileia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
arcadia, region in peloponnesus Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
aresene lake Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
aretissa lake Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
argolid Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
armenia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
asia minor Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
asphalt, and embalming (egypt) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 212
asphaltites/asphaltitis, lake, in diodorus siculus Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 211
asphaltites/asphaltitis, lake Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 211
asphaltitis lake Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
athens, athenians Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
atilius regulus, c., atina, plain of Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
balsam (opobalsam), and the hasmoneans Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 221
balsam (opobalsam), in bede Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 311
balsam (opobalsam), in en gedi Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 311
balsam (opobalsam), in pliny Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 311
balsam (opobalsam), in theophrastus Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 311
balsam (opobalsam), medical use of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 212, 311
balsam (opobalsam), of gilead Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 221, 311
balsam (opobalsam) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 212
bitumen (dead sea) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 311
byzantine anchorites, callirhoe kallirrhoë Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 314
cairo genizah, medical texts of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 311, 314
cairo genizah Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 311, 314
callirhoe kallirrhoë, date palms in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 314
ciconians Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
colchis Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
darekh Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
date palms, and date honey Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 311, 314
date palms, and essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 314
date palms, as judaean symbol Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 314
date palms, as medicinal plants Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 314
dead sea Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
dead sea and area, and soap production Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 311
dead sea and area, and the hasmonean dynasty Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 221
dead sea and area, dead sea and healing Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 311, 314
dead sea and area, in aristotle Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 211
dead sea and area, in strabo Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 221
dead sea and area, medicinal products of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 311, 314
dead sea and area, name of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 221
dead sea and area, salt, collection and quarrying, salt, descriptions of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 211, 311
dead sea and area Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 211, 212, 221
demetrius poliorcetes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 211, 221
earth Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
egypt Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 212
en gedi, date palms in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 314
en gedi, fortresses connecting to jericho Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 221
en gedi, opobalsam in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 311
en gedi Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 311
erasinus river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
fish Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
galen Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 311
galilee Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 109
gibson, s. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 221
gilead Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 221
gottwald, n. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 221
great revolt Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 109
hadassa hospital natural medicine research center Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 314
hasmonean dynasty, dead sea territory of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 221
hasmonean dynasty, fortresses and settlements of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 221
hasmonean dynasty Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 221
hieronymous of cardia (history) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 211, 212, 221
hieronymus of cardia Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 109
hyrcanus i (john hyrcanus) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 221
idumaea Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 212, 221
italy (italia) Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
jericho, area of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 311
jericho, connection to en gedi Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 221
jericho, crops grown in Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 311
jericho valley Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 109
jerusalem, strabo on Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 109
josephus, on agricultural qualities of jewish territory Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 109
judea, characteristics of Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 109
karst topography Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
laodikeia Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
lucania Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
lykos, rivers so named Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
madaba mosaic Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 314
mandrake (baaras) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 311
manduria Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
masada Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 221, 314
medicinal plants, in pliny Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 314
mining Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
nabataea/nabataeans, asphalt, selling of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 211
nabataea/nabataeans Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 211, 221
peraea Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 109
phalerum Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
pliny (gaius plinius secundus), medicinal plants, description of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 314
pompeius trogus Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 109
posidonius, dead sea, description Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 221
posidonius Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 221
posidonius of apamea Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 109
rivers, underground Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
sallentinus, sallentini Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
sallon, s.' "187.0_314.0@solinus' essenes, dates, use of" Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 314
samaria (region), agricultural qualities of Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 109
solowey, e. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 314
strabo, dead sea description of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 221
strabo Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 109
sulphur, dead sea, mining of' Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 311
sulphur, dead sea Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 311
surius river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
tanager river Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
tarichea Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 109
taylor, j. e. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 221
timochares Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 109
velinus lake Roller, A Guide to the Geography of Pliny the Elder (2022) 96
vespasian Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 109
zoara (of arabia) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 221, 311, 314