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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



2784
Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 9.3-9.4
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

35 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.5, 10.12, 11.13, 17.6-17.7, 19.15, 21.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 10.12. וְעַתָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל מָה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ שֹׁאֵל מֵעִמָּךְ כִּי אִם־לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָלֶכֶת בְּכָל־דְּרָכָיו וּלְאַהֲבָה אֹתוֹ וְלַעֲבֹד אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשֶׁךָ׃ 11.13. וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־מִצְוֺתַי אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וּלְעָבְדוֹ בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶם וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁכֶם׃ 17.6. עַל־פִּי שְׁנַיִם עֵדִים אוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה עֵדִים יוּמַת הַמֵּת לֹא יוּמַת עַל־פִּי עֵד אֶחָד׃ 17.7. יַד הָעֵדִים תִּהְיֶה־בּוֹ בָרִאשֹׁנָה לַהֲמִיתוֹ וְיַד כָּל־הָעָם בָּאַחֲרֹנָה וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃ 19.15. לֹא־יָקוּם עֵד אֶחָד בְּאִישׁ לְכָל־עָוֺן וּלְכָל־חַטָּאת בְּכָל־חֵטְא אֲשֶׁר יֶחֱטָא עַל־פִּי שְׁנֵי עֵדִים אוֹ עַל־פִּי שְׁלֹשָׁה־עֵדִים יָקוּם דָּבָר׃ 21.23. לֹא־תָלִין נִבְלָתוֹ עַל־הָעֵץ כִּי־קָבוֹר תִּקְבְּרֶנּוּ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כִּי־קִלְלַת אֱלֹהִים תָּלוּי וְלֹא תְטַמֵּא אֶת־אַדְמָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה׃ 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." 10.12. And now, Israel, what doth the LORD thy God require of thee, but to fear the LORD thy God, to walk in all His ways, and to love Him, and to serve the LORD thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul;" 11.13. And it shall come to pass, if ye shall hearken diligently unto My commandments which I command you this day, to love the LORD your God, and to serve Him with all your heart and with all your soul," 17.6. At the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses, shall he that is to die be put to death; at the mouth of one witness he shall not be put to death." 17.7. The hand of the witnesses shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterward the hand of all the people. So thou shalt put away the evil from the midst of thee." 19.15. One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth; at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall a matter be establishment" 21.23. his body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt surely bury him the same day; for he that is hanged is a reproach unto God; that thou defile not thy land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance."
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 9.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.13. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר אִם־עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ טוֹב יִנָּתֵן גַּם־מָחָר לַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּשׁוּשָׁן לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּדָת הַיּוֹם וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי־הָמָן יִתְלוּ עַל־הָעֵץ׃ 9.13. Then said Esther: ‘If it please the king, let it be granted to the Jews that are in Shushan to do to-morrow also according unto this day’s decree, and let Haman’s ten sons be hanged upon the gallows.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Job, 40.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

40.14. וְגַם־אֲנִי אוֹדֶךָּ כִּי־תוֹשִׁעַ לְךָ יְמִינֶךָ׃ 40.14. Then will I also confess unto thee That thine own right hand can save thee."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 9.17, 19.16-19.18, 21.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.17. וַיַּקְרֵב אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה וַיְמַלֵּא כַפּוֹ מִמֶּנָּה וַיַּקְטֵר עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַבֹּקֶר׃ 19.16. לֹא־תֵלֵךְ רָכִיל בְּעַמֶּיךָ לֹא תַעֲמֹד עַל־דַּם רֵעֶךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.17. לֹא־תִשְׂנָא אֶת־אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא עָלָיו חֵטְא׃ 19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 21.7. אִשָּׁה זֹנָה וַחֲלָלָה לֹא יִקָּחוּ וְאִשָּׁה גְּרוּשָׁה מֵאִישָׁהּ לֹא יִקָּחוּ כִּי־קָדֹשׁ הוּא לֵאלֹהָיו׃ 9.17. And the meal-offering was presented; and he filled his hand therefrom, and made it smoke upon the altar, besides the burnt-offering of the morning." 19.16. Thou shalt not go up and down as a talebearer among thy people; neither shalt thou stand idly by the blood of thy neighbour: I am the LORD." 19.17. Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart; thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him." 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD." 21.7. They shall not take a woman that is a harlot, or profaned; neither shall they take a woman put away from her husband; for he is holy unto his God."
5. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 3.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.22. זִכְרוּ תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה עַבְדִּי אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אוֹתוֹ בְחֹרֵב עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל חֻקִּים וּמִשְׁפָּטִים׃ 3.22. Remember ye the law of Moses My servant, which I commanded unto him in Horeb for all Israel, even statutes and ordices."
6. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 6.2, 6.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.2. שִׁמְעוּ הָרִים אֶת־רִיב יְהוָה וְהָאֵתָנִים מֹסְדֵי אָרֶץ כִּי רִיב לַיהוָה עִם־עַמּוֹ וְעִם־יִשְׂרָאֵל יִתְוַכָּח׃ 6.8. הִגִּיד לְךָ אָדָם מַה־טּוֹב וּמָה־יְהוָה דּוֹרֵשׁ מִמְּךָ כִּי אִם־עֲשׂוֹת מִשְׁפָּט וְאַהֲבַת חֶסֶד וְהַצְנֵעַ לֶכֶת עִם־אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 6.2. Hear, O ye mountains, the LORD’S controversy, And ye enduring rocks, the foundations of the earth; For the LORD hath a controversy with His people, And He will plead with Israel." 6.8. It hath been told thee, O man, what is good, And what the LORD doth require of thee: Only to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God."
7. Hebrew Bible, Nahum, 1.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. אֵל קַנּוֹא וְנֹקֵם יְהוָה נֹקֵם יְהוָה וּבַעַל חֵמָה נֹקֵם יְהוָה לְצָרָיו וְנוֹטֵר הוּא לְאֹיְבָיו׃ 1.2. The LORD is a jealous and avenging God, The LORD avengeth and is full of wrath; The LORD taketh vengeance on His adversaries, And He reserveth wrath for His enemies."
8. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 30.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.15. וְאִם־הַחֲרֵשׁ יַחֲרִישׁ לָהּ אִישָׁהּ מִיּוֹם אֶל־יוֹם וְהֵקִים אֶת־כָּל־נְדָרֶיהָ אוֹ אֶת־כָּל־אֱסָרֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ הֵקִים אֹתָם כִּי־הֶחֱרִשׁ לָהּ בְּיוֹם שָׁמְעוֹ׃ 30.15. But if her husband altogether hold his peace at her from day to day, then he causeth all her vows to stand, or all her bonds, which are upon her; he hath let them stand, because he held his peace at her in the day that he heard them."
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 44.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

44.4. כִּי לֹא בְחַרְבָּם יָרְשׁוּ אָרֶץ וּזְרוֹעָם לֹא־הוֹשִׁיעָה לָּמוֹ כִּי־יְמִינְךָ וּזְרוֹעֲךָ וְאוֹר פָּנֶיךָ כִּי רְצִיתָם׃ 44.4. For not by their own sword did they get the land in possession, Neither did their own arm save them; but Thy right hand, and Thine arm, and the light of Thy countece, because Thou wast favourable unto them."
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 2.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.3. וַיָּבֹא בְנָיָהוּ אֶל־אֹהֶל יְהוָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו כֹּה־אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ צֵא וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא כִּי פֹה אָמוּת וַיָּשֶׁב בְּנָיָהוּ אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּבָר לֵאמֹר כֹּה־דִבֶּר יוֹאָב וְכֹה עָנָנִי׃ 2.3. וְשָׁמַרְתָּ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָלֶכֶת בִּדְרָכָיו לִשְׁמֹר חֻקֹּתָיו מִצְוֺתָיו וּמִשְׁפָּטָיו וְעֵדְוֺתָיו כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה לְמַעַן תַּשְׂכִּיל אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה וְאֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר תִּפְנֶה שָׁם׃ 2.3. and keep the charge of the LORD thy God, to walk in His ways, to keep His statutes, and His commandments, and His ordices, and His testimonies, according to that which is written in the law of Moses, that thou mayest prosper in all that thou doest, and whithersoever thou turnest thyself;"
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 25.26, 25.31, 25.33 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

25.26. וְעַתָּה אֲדֹנִי חַי־יְהוָה וְחֵי־נַפְשְׁךָ אֲשֶׁר מְנָעֲךָ יְהוָה מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים וְהוֹשֵׁעַ יָדְךָ לָךְ וְעַתָּה יִהְיוּ כְנָבָל אֹיְבֶיךָ וְהַמְבַקְשִׁים אֶל־אֲדֹנִי רָעָה׃ 25.31. וְלֹא תִהְיֶה זֹאת לְךָ לְפוּקָה וּלְמִכְשׁוֹל לֵב לַאדֹנִי וְלִשְׁפָּךְ־דָּם חִנָּם וּלְהוֹשִׁיעַ אֲדֹנִי לוֹ וְהֵיטִב יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי וְזָכַרְתָּ אֶת־אֲמָתֶךָ׃ 25.33. וּבָרוּךְ טַעְמֵךְ וּבְרוּכָה אָתְּ אֲשֶׁר כְּלִתִנִי הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים וְהֹשֵׁעַ יָדִי לִי׃ 25.26. Now therefore, my lord, as the Lord lives, and as thy soul lives, seeing the Lord has prevented thee from coming to shed blood, and from avenging thyself with thy own hand, now let thy enemies, and they that seek evil to my lord, be as Naval." 25.31. that this shall not be a cause of stumbling to thee, nor offence of heart to my lord, that thou hast shed blood causelessly, or that my lord has avenged himself: and the Lord shall deal well with my lord, and thou shalt remember thy handmaid." 25.33. and blessed be thy discretion, and blessed be thou who hast kept me this day from coming to shed blood, and from avenging myself with my own hand."
12. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.3. לַשָּׁוְא הִכֵּיתִי אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם מוּסָר לֹא לָקָחוּ אָכְלָה חַרְבְּכֶם נְבִיאֵיכֶם כְּאַרְיֵה מַשְׁחִית׃ 2.3. קֹדֶשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל לַיהוָה רֵאשִׁית תְּבוּאָתֹה כָּל־אֹכְלָיו יֶאְשָׁמוּ רָעָה תָּבֹא אֲלֵיהֶם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 2.3. Israel is the LORD’S hallowed portion, His first-fruits of the increase; all that devour him shall be held guilty, evil shall come upon them, saith the LORD."
13. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 15.12 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.12. וַיָּבֹאוּ בַבְּרִית לִדְרוֹשׁ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם בְּכָל־לְבָבָם וּבְכָל־נַפְשָׁם׃ 15.12. And they entered into the covet to seek the LORD, the God of their fathers, with all their heart and with all their soul;"
14. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 9.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.2. כִּי־נָשְׂאוּ מִבְּנֹתֵיהֶם לָהֶם וְלִבְנֵיהֶם וְהִתְעָרְבוּ זֶרַע הַקֹּדֶשׁ בְּעַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת וְיַד הַשָּׂרִים וְהַסְּגָנִים הָיְתָה בַּמַּעַל הַזֶּה רִאשׁוֹנָה׃ 9.2. For they have taken of their daughters for themselves and for their sons; so that the holy seed have mingled themselves with the peoples of the lands; yea, the hand of the princes and rulers hath been first in this faithlessness.’"
15. Anon., Testament of Benjamin, 6.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.5. The good mind hath not two tongues, of blessing and of cursing, of contumely and of honor, of sorrow and of joy, of quietness and of confusion, of hypocrisy and of truth, [of poverty and of wealth]; but it hath one disposition, uncorrupt and pure, concerning all men.
16. Anon., Testament of Gad, 6.3-6.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.3. Love ye one another from the heart; and if a man sin against thee, speak peaceably to him, and in thy soul hold not guile; and if he repent and confess, forgive him. 6.4. But if he deny it, do not get into a passion with him, lest catching the poison from thee he take to swearing and so thou sin doubly. 6.5. Let not another man hear thy secrets when engaged in legal strife, lest he come to hate thee and become thy enemy, and commit a great sin against thee; for ofttimes he addresseth thee guilefully or busieth himself about thee with wicked intent. 6.6. And though he deny it and yet have a sense of shame when reproved, give over reproving him. For be who denieth may repent so as not again to wrong thee; yea, he may also honour thee, and fear and be at peace with thee. 6.7. And if he be shameless and persist in his wrong-doing, even so forgive him from the heart, and leave to God the avenging.
17. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 2.5-2.6, 3.11, 6.15, 6.19, 7.2-7.3, 9.1-9.2, 9.4-9.10, 9.13-9.14, 9.16-9.23, 10.4-10.10, 10.14, 14.15, 14.22, 15.5, 16.6-16.12, 16.14-16.17, 20.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 2.5-2.6, 3.11, 6.15, 7.2-7.3, 9.1-9.10, 9.13-9.14, 9.16-9.23, 10.4-10.10, 10.14, 14.15, 14.22, 15.5, 16.6-16.12, 16.14-16.17, 20.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 2.18, 2.22, 7.8-7.9, 9.16-9.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 5.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 5.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 57.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 19.13-19.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

19.13. Question a friend, perhaps he did not do it;but if he did anything, so that he may do it no more. 19.14. Question a neighbor, perhaps he did not say it;but if he said it, so that he may not say it again. 19.15. Question a friend, for often it is slander;so do not believe everything you hear. 19.16. A person may make a slip without intending it. Who has never sinned with his tongue? 19.17. Question your neighbor before you threaten him;and let the law of the Most High take its course.
24. Mishnah, Avot, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.4. Rabbi Levitas a man of Yavneh said: be exceeding humble spirit, for the end of man is the worm. Rabbi Yoha ben Berokah said: whoever profanes the name of heaven in secret, he shall be punished in the open. Unwittingly or wittingly, it is all one in profaning the name."
25. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 3.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.15. Don't count him as an enemy, but admonish him as a brother.
26. New Testament, Galatians, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.1. Brothers, even if a man is caught in some fault, you who arespiritual must restore such a one in a spirit of gentleness; looking toyourself so that you also aren't tempted.
27. New Testament, Romans, 12.19-12.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.19. Don't seek revenge yourselves, beloved, but give place to God's wrath. For it is written, "Vengeance belongs to me; I will repay, says the Lord. 12.20. Therefore "If your enemy is hungry, feed him. If he is thirsty, give him a drink. For in doing so, you will heap coals of fire on his head.
28. New Testament, Matthew, 5.22, 5.43-5.48, 7.12, 22.34-22.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.22. But I tell you, that everyone who is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment; and whoever shall say to his brother, 'Raca!' shall be in danger of the council; and whoever shall say, 'You fool!' shall be in danger of the fire of Gehenna. 5.43. You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.' 5.44. But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you 5.45. that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. 5.46. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.47. If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.48. Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect. 7.12. Therefore whatever you desire for men to do to you, you shall also do to them; for this is the law and the prophets. 22.34. But the Pharisees, when they heard that he had put the Sadducees to silence, gathered themselves together. 22.35. One of them, a lawyer, asked him a question, testing him. 22.36. Teacher, which is the greatest commandment in the law? 22.37. Jesus said to him, "'You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.' 22.38. This is the first and great commandment. 22.39. A second likewise is this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' 22.40. The whole law and the prophets depend on these two commandments.
29. Palestinian Talmud, Peah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

30. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

38a. אפי' ימים הראויין לספירת סתירת זבה,תנן כמה הוא קשויה ר"מ אומר ארבעים וחמשים יום,בשלמא לרב משכחת לה כרב אדא בר אהבה אלא ללוי קשיא,אמר לך לוי מי קתני טהורה בכולן בימי נדה נדה בימי זיבה טהורה,לישנא אחרינא אמרי א"ר לוי אין הולד מטהר אלא ימים הראויין להיות בהן זבה גדולה מ"ט (ויקרא טו, כה) דמה ימים רבים כתיב,אבא שאול משמיה דרב אמר אפילו ימים הראויין להיות בהן זבה קטנה מ"ט ימי וכל ימי התם כתיבי,תנן כמה הוא קשויה ר"מ אומר אפי' ארבעים וחמשים יום קשיא לתרוייהו מי קתני טהורה בכולן קשתה בימי נדתה נדה בימי זיבתה טהורה,תניא היה ר"מ אומר יש מקשה ק"נ יום ואין זיבה עולה בהן כיצד שנים בלא עת,ושבעה נדה ושנים של אחר הנדה וחמשים שהולד מטהר,ושמונים של נקבה ושבעה נדה ושנים של אחר הנדה,אמרו לו א"כ יש מקשה כל ימיה ואין זיבה עולה בהן,אמר להן מאי דעתייכו משום נפלים אין קושי לנפלים,ת"ר יש רואה מאה יום ואין זיבה עולה בהן כיצד שנים בלא עת ושבעה נדה ושנים של אחר הנדה ושמונים של נקבה ושבעה נדה ושנים של אחר הנדה,מאי קמ"ל לאפוקי ממ"ד אי אפשר לפתיחת הקבר בלא דם קמ"ל דאפשר לפתיחת הקבר בלא דם,ר' יהודה אומר דיה וכו' תניא רבי יהודה אומר משום רבי טרפון דיה חדשה ויש בדבר להקל ולהחמיר,כיצד קשתה שנים בסוף שמיני ואחד בתחלת תשיעי ואפילו בתחלת תשיעי ילדה הרי זו יולדת בזוב,אבל קשתה יום אחד בסוף שמיני ושתים בתחלת תשיעי ואפילו בסוף תשיעי ילדה אין זו יולדת בזוב,אמר רב אדא בר אהבה ש"מ קסבר רבי יהודה שיפורא גרים איני והא אמר שמואל אין אשה מתעברת ויולדת אלא למאתים ושבעים ואחד יום או למאתים ושבעים ושנים יום או למאתים ושבעים ושלשה,הוא דאמר כחסידים הראשונים דתניא חסידים הראשונים לא היו משמשין מטותיהן אלא ברביעי בשבת שלא יבואו נשותיהן 38a. bevenif she continues to experience bleeding bduringthe bdays that are fit for thenew bcountingfollowing bthe negationof the days counted by ba izava /i,she remains pure. If a woman experiences bleeding during her seven clean days, she negates any days counted thus far, and must begin a new count of seven clean days. Accordingly, all the days that follow her days of izivaare effectively considered days that are fit for the counting of a izava /i. Therefore, blood emitted due to labor pains during these days is also ritually pure. Consequently, the blood that accompanies labor pains is ritually impure only if she begins to emit it during her days of menstruation.,The Gemara poses a difficulty with regard to the opinion of Levi: bWe learnedin the mishna: bHow longbefore birth bispain attributable to bherlabor bpains? Rabbi Meir says:Even bforty or fifty daysbefore the birth. Rabbi Meir apparently maintains that a woman who experiences continuous labor pains accompanied by emissions of blood for forty or fifty days remains pure.,The Gemara explains the difficulty: bGranted,the mishna is clear baccording to Rav,as byou findthat it is possible that she will remain pure for such a long period, i.e., bin accordance withthe explanation of bRav Adda bar Ahavathat Rav deems the blood pure even during the days that are fit for the new counting following the negation of the days counted by a izava /i. Accordingly, as long as the woman begins to experience labor pains during her days of iziva /i, she remains pure until birth, provided the labor pains continue without a twenty-four-hour period of resting. bBut according to Levi,who maintains that blood accompanying labor pains is pure only during the days of iziva /i, the mishna is bdifficult,as it is impossible for her blood to remain pure due to labor pains for fifty days.,The Gemara explains that bLevicould bsay to you: Doesthe mishna bteachthat she is bpure during allthese days, i.e., that she remains pure throughout the days of menstruation and iziva /i? Not so. Rather, if she emitted blood due to labor pains bduring the days of menstruationshe has the status of ba menstruating woman,whereas if she emitted the blood bduring the days of iziva /ishe is bpure.The mishna is teaching only that she will not be deemed a izavaon account of this blood.,Some Sages bstate another versionof the above disagreement: bRabbi Levi says: Thebirth of ba child rendersthe mother britually pure onlyif she experienced bleeding during the eleven bdays that are fitfor her bto become a greater izava /i,i.e., if she experienced bleeding on three consecutive days during that time. But if she experienced bleeding on only one or two days she is rendered a lesser izava /i, and she must observe a clean day for each day she experiences a discharge. bWhat is the reason?It bis written:“And if a woman has an issue of bher blood many days /b…all the days of the issue of her impurity she shall be as in the days of her menstruation: She is impure” (Leviticus 15:25). The verse is referring specifically to a greater izava /i, indicating that the ihalakhathat a woman is not rendered a izavaon account of an emission of blood caused by labor pains applies only to a greater izava /i., bAbba Shaul says in the name of Rav:The birth of a child renders the mother ritually pure bevenif she experienced bleeding on the bdays that are fitfor her bto become a lesser izava /i. What is the reason? “Days” and “many days” are written there,from which the impurity of a lesser izavais derived. Accordingly, the verse includes a lesser izavain this ihalakhaas well.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bWe learnedin the mishna: bHow longbefore birth bispain attributable to bherlabor bpains? Rabbi Meir says: Even forty or fifty daysbefore the birth. Rabbi Meir apparently maintains that a woman who experiences continuous labor pains accompanied by emissions of blood for forty or fifty days remains pure. If so, the mishna is bdifficult according to bothopinions, as all agree that only emissions of blood due to labor pains that occur during her days of izivaare pure. The Gemara responds: bDoesthe mishna bteachthat bshe is pure during allfifty days? Not so. Rather, if bshe experiencedlabor bpainsaccompanied by emissions of blood bduring the days of menstruationshe has the status of ba menstruating woman,whereas if she experienced them bduring the days of izivashe is pure. /b,With regard to the above statement of Rabbi Meir, it bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Meir would say: There isa scenario in which a woman bexperienceslabor bpainsaccompanied by emissions of blood for bone hundred and fifty days, andthe impurity of izivais not included in thosedays, i.e., she will not be rendered a greater izava /i. bHowso? First, a woman emits blood for btwodays bnot at the timeof her menstruation, e.g., she experiences bleeding on the tenth and eleventh days of iziva /i. She is not rendered a menstruating woman by these emissions, as they occurred during the days of iziva /i, nor does she become a greater izava /i, since she experienced bleeding on only two days.,Rabbi Meir continues: bAndthen she continues to experience bleeding throughout the bsevendays of bmenstruation.She is not considered to have experienced bleeding of izivafor three consecutive days, as the third emission occurred during her days of menstruation. bAndshe then experiences bleeding for the first btwodays bafter thedays of bmenstruation,i.e., on the first and second days of the eleven days of iziva /i. bAndon the third day of izivashe begins the period of bfiftydays before giving birth, during bwhich the child rendersher bpure.This constitutes a period of sixty-one days during which she is not rendered a greater izava /i.,Rabbi Meir continues: bAndthis period is followed by beightydays bofpurity from izivaafter giving birth to ba female,for a total of 141 days during which she does not become a greater izavaon account of blood emitted. bAndthere are then bsevendays of bmenstruationfollowing her days of purity, bandanother btwodays bafter thedays of bmenstruation,i.e., the first and second days of iziva /i, during which she experiences bleeding, for a total of 150 days during which she does not become a greater izavaon account of blood emitted.,The Rabbis bsaid toRabbi Meir: bIf so, there isalso a scenario in which a woman bexperiencesemissions of blood due to labor bpainsfor ball the days of herlife, bandthe impurity of izivais not included in them.For example, she gives birth to a female, and at the conclusion of her days of impurity engages in intercourse with her husband and becomes pregt. She continues to experience bleeding throughout her days of purity, after which she experiences bleeding during the seven days of menstruation and the first two days of the next cycle of iziva /i. She then experiences labor pains accompanied by blood for fifty days, after which she miscarries a female. She subsequently becomes pregt again within eighty days of the miscarriage, and the above process repeats itself. In this manner, she will never become a greater izava /i.,Rabbi Meir bsaid to them: What is your opinion,that a woman is not rendered a izava bdue tothe birth of bnon-viable newborns?The ihalakhathat blood emitted due to labor bpainsdoes not render a woman a izavadoes bnotapply bto non-viable newborns. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThere isa scenario in which a woman bseesblood for bone hundred days, andthe impurity of greater izivais not included in them. Howso? She emits blood for btwodays bnot at the timeof her menstruation, bandthen throughout the bsevendays of bmenstruation, andthen for the first btwodays bafter thedays of bmenstruation. Andthis period is followed by beightydays bofpurity from izivaafter giving birth to ba female, and sevendays of bmenstruationfollowing her days of purity, bandanother btwodays bafter thedays of bmenstruation.This amounts to one hundred days.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthis ibaraita bteaching us?The Gemara responds: The ibaraitaserves bto excludethe opinion of bthe one who saidthat bit is impossible forthere to be ban opening of the womb [ ihakever /i] withoutan emission of bblood.According to this opinion, if a woman gives birth after experiencing bleeding on the first two days after the days of menstruation, it is certain she experienced bleeding on the third day as well, as every birth is accompanied by an emission of blood. Consequently, she has experienced bleeding on three consecutive days during the days of izivaand is rendered a greater izava /i. The ibaraita bteaches us that it is possible forthere to be ban opening of the womb withoutan emission of bblood.Therefore, if she gave birth on the third day of izivaand she did not experience bleeding, she is not rendered a greater izava /i.,§ The mishna teaches that bRabbi Yehuda says:It is bsufficientthat a woman is not rendered a izavaon account of blood that is emitted due to labor pains only from within one month of her due date. In this regard, it bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda says in the name of Rabbi Tarfon:It is bsufficient for hernot to be rendered a izavafrom within one bmonthof bherdue date. bAnd there isan aspect of bleniency andan aspect of bstringency in the matter. /b,The ibaraitaexplains: bHowso? If bshe experiencedlabor bpainsaccompanied by an emission of blood for btwodays bat the end ofher beighthmonth of pregcy, which are days in which she can be rendered a izava /i, bandfor boneday bat the beginning ofher bninthmonth, then bevenif she bgave birthat bthe beginning ofthe bninthmonth, the one day from the ninth month joins together with the two days from the eighth month, and bthiswoman is considered bone who gives birth as a izava /i.This is an aspect of stringency., bButif bshe experiencedlabor bpainsaccompanied by an emission of blood for bone day at the end ofher beighthmonth, bandfor only btwodays bat the beginning ofher bninthmonth, then bevenif she bgave birth at the end ofthe bninthmonth, bthiswoman bis notconsidered bone who gives birth as a izava /i,and she is pure. This is an aspect of leniency., bRav Adda bar Ahava says: Conclude fromthe ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda holdsthat the blast of bthe shofarat the beginning of the ninth month bcausesthe blood emitted during that month to be pure. That is to say, once the ninth months begins, any blood emitted does not render her a izava /i. The Gemara asks: bIs that so,that the entire ninth month of pregcy is suitable for giving birth, and therefore any blood seen during the ninth month is attributed to the imminent labor? bBut doesn’t Shmuel saythat ba woman becomes pregt and gives birth only after 271 days,which is a full nine months, bor after 272 days, or after 273days? She will not, however, give birth during the ninth month itself.,The Gemara responds: Shmuel bsaidhis statement bin accordance withthe opinion of bthe earlygenerations of bpiousmen. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe earlygenerations of bpiousmen bwould engage in sexual intercourse only on a Wednesday, so that their wives should not come /b
31. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29b. כל היכא דליכא אלא חמש סלעים הוא קודם לבנו מאי טעמא מצוה דגופיה עדיפא כי פליגי היכא דאיכא חמש משועבדים וחמש בני חורין,ר' יהודה סבר מלוה דכתיב בתורה ככתובה בשטר דמיא בהני חמש פריק לבריה ואזיל כהן וטריף ליה לחמש משועבדים לדידיה,ורבנן סברי מלוה דכתיב באורייתא לאו ככתובה בשטר דמיא והילכך מצוה דגופיה עדיף,ת"ר לפדות את בנו ולעלות לרגל פודה את בנו ואחר כך עולה לרגל ר' יהודה אומר עולה לרגל ואח"כ פודה את בנו שזו מצוה עוברת וזו מצוה שאינה עוברת,בשלמא לר' יהודה כדקאמר טעמא אלא רבנן מאי טעמייהו דאמר קרא (שמות לד, כ) כל בכור בניך תפדה והדר לא יראו פני ריקם,ת"ר מנין שאם היו לו חמשה בנים מחמש נשים שחייב לפדות כולן ת"ל כל בכור בניך תפדה פשיטא בפטר רחם תלא רחמנא,מהו דתימא נילף בכור בכור מנחלה מה להלן ראשית אונו אף כאן ראשית אונו קמ"ל:,ללמדו תורה: מנלן דכתיב (דברים יא, יט) ולמדתם אותם את בניכם והיכא דלא אגמריה אבוה מיחייב איהו למיגמר נפשיה דכתיב ולמדתם,איהי מנלן דלא מיחייבא דכתיב ולימדתם ולמדתם כל שמצווה ללמוד מצווה ללמד וכל שאינו מצווה ללמוד אינו מצווה ללמד,ואיהי מנלן דלא מיחייבה למילף נפשה דכתיב ולימדתם ולמדתם כל שאחרים מצווין ללמדו מצווה ללמד את עצמו וכל שאין אחרים מצווין ללמדו אין מצווה ללמד את עצמו ומנין שאין אחרים מצווין ללמדה דאמר קרא ולמדתם אותם את בניכם ולא בנותיכם,ת"ר הוא ללמוד ובנו ללמוד הוא קודם לבנו ר' יהודה אומר אם בנו זריז וממולח ותלמודו מתקיים בידו בנו קודמו כי הא דרב יעקב בריה דרב אחא בר יעקב שדריה אבוה לקמיה דאביי כי אתא חזייה דלא הוה מיחדדין שמעתיה א"ל אנא עדיפא מינך תוב את דאיזיל אנא,שמע אביי דקא הוה אתי הוה ההוא מזיק בי רבנן דאביי דכי הוו עיילי בתרין אפי' ביממא הוו מיתזקי אמר להו לא ליתיב ליה אינש אושפיזא אפשר דמתרחיש ניסא,על בת בההוא בי רבנן אידמי ליה כתנינא דשבעה רישוותיה כל כריעה דכרע נתר חד רישיה אמר להו למחר אי לא איתרחיש ניסא סכינתין,ת"ר ללמוד תורה ולישא אשה ילמוד תורה ואח"כ ישא אשה ואם א"א לו בלא אשה ישא אשה ואח"כ ילמוד תורה אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה נושא אשה ואח"כ ילמוד תורה,ר' יוחנן אמר ריחיים בצוארו ויעסוק בתורה ולא פליגי הא לן והא להו:,משתבח ליה רב חסדא לרב הונא בדרב המנונא דאדם גדול הוא א"ל כשיבא לידך הביאהו לידי כי אתא חזייה דלא פריס סודרא א"ל מאי טעמא לא פריסת סודרא א"ל דלא נסיבנא אהדרינהו לאפיה מיניה א"ל חזי דלא חזית להו לאפי עד דנסבת,רב הונא לטעמיה דאמר בן עשרים שנה ולא נשא אשה כל ימיו בעבירה בעבירה סלקא דעתך אלא אימא כל ימיו בהרהור עבירה,אמר רבא וכן תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל עד כ' שנה יושב הקב"ה ומצפה לאדם מתי ישא אשה כיון שהגיע כ' ולא נשא אומר תיפח עצמותיו,אמר רב חסדא האי דעדיפנא מחבראי דנסיבנא בשיתסר ואי הוה נסיבנא בארביסר 29b. that banywhere that there are only five isela /iavailable, i.e., enough to redeem only one man, and one is obligated to redeem both himself and his son, bhe,the father, btakes precedence over his son. What is the reason?It is that bhis own mitzva is preferableto one that he performs on behalf of others. bWhen they disagreeis in a case bwhere there island worth bfive iselathat is blienedproperty that has been sold, i.e., he sold this land to other people but it can be reclaimed by his prior creditor, band five iselawhich is entirely bunsoldproperty.,And the reasoning behind the dispute is as follows: bRabbi Yehuda maintainsthat ba loan that is written in the Torah,i.e., any ficial obligation that applies by Torah law, is bconsidered as though it is written in a document,and therefore it can be collected from liened property, like any loan recorded in a document. This means that the liened property worth five iselais available for one’s own redemption, but not for that of his son, as the sale of the property occurred before the birth of his firstborn. Consequently, bwith these five iselaupon which there is no lien bhe redeems his son, andthe bpriest goes and repossessesthe land worth bfive iselathat is blienedproperty bfor hisown redemption. In this manner one can fulfill both mitzvot., bAnd the Rabbis maintain: A loan that is written in the Torah is not considered as though it is written in a document,since buyers will not be aware of this obligation, so that they should be aware that the land may be repossessed. bAnd thereforethere is no advantage for this man to redeem his son with the five iselaupon which there is no lien, and bhis own mitzva is preferable,which means he redeems himself with the free land. With the liened property that is left he cannot redeem his son, as the land was sold before the birth of his firstborn., bThe Sages taught:If one has money bto redeem his son and to ascend toJerusalem on bthe pilgrimage Festival, he redeems his son and then ascendsto Jerusalem bon the pilgrimage Festival. Rabbi Yehuda says: He ascendsto Jerusalem bon the pilgrimage Festival and then redeems his son.His reasoning is bthat thistrip to Jerusalem for the pilgrimage Festival is ba mitzvawhose time soon bpasses, and this,the redemption of the firstborn son, is ba mitzvawhose time does bnotsoon bpass,as it can be fulfilled later.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according tothe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,it is bas he statedin bhis reasoning,i.e., Rabbi Yehuda provided the rationale for his opinion. bBut what is the reasoning of the Rabbis,who say that he should first redeem his son? The Gemara answers that the reason is bthat the verse states: “All the firstborn of your sons you shall redeem”(Exodus 34:20), bandit bthenstates, in the same verse: b“And none shall appear before me empty,”referring to the pilgrimage Festival in Jerusalem. The order of the verse indicates that one should redeem his firstborn son before traveling to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festival., bThe Sages taught: From whereis it derived bthat if one had fivefirstborn bsons, from fivedifferent bwomen, he is obligated to redeem them all? The verse states: “All the firstborn of your sons you shall redeem”(Exodus 34:20), and the emphasis of “all” includes any of one’s firstborn sons. The Gemara asks: bIsn’tit bobviousthis is the case? After all, bthe Merciful One madethis mitzva bdependent upon the opening of the womb,as it states: “Sanctify to Me all the firstborn, whoever opens the womb” (Exodus 13:2). Since each of these sons is the firstborn of his mother, it is clear that the father is required to redeem each of them.,The Gemara answers that this ruling is necessary blest you saythat bwe should derivea verbal analogy between b“firstborn”stated here and b“firstborn” fromthe verses dealing with binheritance: Just as there,the verse describes a firstborn who receives a double portion of the inheritance as: b“The first fruit of his strength”(Deuteronomy 21:17), i.e., he is the firstborn son to his father, and not the first child born to his mother; bso too here,with regard to the redemption of the firstborn son, it is referring to the bfirst fruit of his strength,which would mean that the father need redeem only his oldest child. Therefore, this ibaraita bteaches usthat this is not the case. Rather, every firstborn son to his mother must be redeemed.,§ The ibaraitateaches that a father is obligated bto teachhis son bTorah.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this requirement? bAs it is written: “And you shall teach them [ ivelimadtem /i] to your sons”(Deuteronomy 11:19). bAndin a case bwhere his father did not teach him he is obligated to teach himself, as it is written,i.e., the verse can be read with a different vocalization: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i]. /b, bFrom where do wederive bthata woman bis not obligatedto teach her son Torah? bAs it is written: “And you shall teach [ ivelimadtem /i],”which can be read as: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i].This indicates that bwhoever is commanded to studyTorah bis commanded to teach, and whoever is not commanded to study is not commanded to teach.Since a woman is not obligated to learn Torah, she is likewise not obligated to teach it.,The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive bthat she is not obligated to teach herself?The Gemara answers: bAs it is written: “And you shall teach [ ivelimadtem /i],”which can be read as: bAnd you shall study [ iulmadtem /i],which indicates that bwhoever others are commanded to teach is commanded to teach himself, and whoever others are not commanded to teach is not commanded to teach himself. And from whereis it derived bthat others are not commanded to teacha woman? bAs the verse states: “And you shall teach them to your sons”(Deuteronomy 11:19), which emphasizes: bYour sons and not your daughters. /b, bThe Sages taught:If bonewishes bto studyTorah himself band his sonalso wants bto study, he takes precedence over his son. Rabbi Yehuda says: If his son is diligent and sharp, and his study will endure, his son takes precedence over him.This is blike thatanecdote bwhichis told about bRav Ya’akov, son of Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov, whose father sent him to Abayeto study Torah. bWhenthe son bcamehome, his father bsaw that his studies were not sharp,as he was insufficiently bright. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov bsaid tohis son: bI am preferable to you,and it is better that I go and study. Therefore, byou sitand handle the affairs of the house bso that I can goand study., bAbaye heardthat Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov bwas coming. There was a certain demon in the study hall of Abaye,which was so powerful bthat when twopeople would benter they would be harmed, even during the day.Abaye bsaid tothe people of the town: bDo not giveRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov blodging [ iushpiza /i]so that he will be forced to spend the night in the study hall. Since Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov is a righteous man, bperhaps a miracle will occuron his behalf and he will kill the demon.,Rav Aḥa found no place to spend the night, and bhe entered and spent the night in that study hallof bthe Sages.The demon bappeared to him like a serpentwith bseven heads.Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov began to pray, and with bevery bowthat bhe bowed oneof the demon’s bheads fell off,until it eventually died. The bnext dayRav Aḥa bsaid tothe townspeople: bIf a miracle had not occurred, you would have placed me in danger. /b, bThe Sages taught:If one has to decide whether bto study Torah or to marry a woman,which should he do first? bHe should study Torah and afterward marry a woman. And if it is impossible for himto be bwithout a wife, he should marry a woman and then study Torah. Rav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The ihalakha /iis that one should bmarry a woman and afterward study Torah. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa says:How can one do this? With ba millstonehanging bfrom his neck,i.e., with the responsibility of providing for his family weighing upon him, can bhe engage in Torahstudy? The Gemara comments: bAndthe iamora’im bdo not disagree; this is for us and that is for them.In other words, one statement applies to the residents of Babylonia, whereas the other is referring to those living in Eretz Yisrael.,§ With regard to marriage, the Gemara relates: bRav Ḥisda would praise Rav Hamnuna to Rav Hunaby saying bthat he is a great man.Rav Huna bsaid to him: When he comes to you, send him to me. WhenRav Hamnuna bcamebefore him, Rav Huna bsaw that he did not coverhis head with ba cloth,as Torah scholars did. Rav Huna bsaid to him: What is the reasonthat byou do not coveryour head bwith a cloth?Rav Hamnuna bsaid to him:The reason is bthat I am not married,and it was not customary for unmarried men to cover their heads with a cloth. Rav Huna bturned his face away from himin rebuke, and bhe said to him: Seeto it bthat you do not see my face until you marry. /b,The Gemara notes: bRav Hunaconforms bto hisstandard line of breasoning, as he says:If one is btwenty years old and has notyet bmarried a woman, all of his dayswill be bina state of bsinconcerning sexual matters. The Gemara asks: Can it benter your mindthat he will be bina state of bsinall of his days? bRather, saythat this means the following: bAll of his dayswill be bina state of bthoughts of sin,i.e., sexual thoughts. One who does not marry in his youth will become accustomed to thoughts of sexual matters, and the habit will remain with him the rest of his life., bRava said, and similarly, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Untilone reaches the age of btwenty years the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and waits for a man,saying: bWhen will he marry a woman? Once he reachesthe age of btwenty and has not married, He says: Let his bones swell,i.e., he is cursed and God is no longer concerned about him., bRav Ḥisda said:The fact bthat I am superior to my colleaguesis bbecause I marriedat the age of bsixteen, and if I would have married atthe age of bfourteen, /b
32. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

119b. מהדר אזוזי זוזי דרבנן א"ל במטותא מינייכו לא תחללוניה,אמר רבא ואיתימא ר' יהושע בן לוי אפי' יחיד המתפלל בע"ש צריך לומר ויכולו דאמר רב המנונא כל המתפלל בע"ש ואומר ויכולו מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו נעשה שותף להקב"ה במעשה בראשית שנאמר ויכולו אל תקרי ויכולו אלא ויכלו אמר רבי אלעזר מניין שהדיבור כמעשה שנאמר (תהלים לג, ו) בדבר ה' שמים נעשו,אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא כל המתפלל בע"ש ואומר ויכולו שני מלאכי השרת המלוין לו לאדם מניחין ידיהן על ראשו ואומרים לו (ישעיהו ו, ז) וסר עונך וחטאתך תכופר תניא ר' יוסי בר יהודה אומר שני מלאכי השרת מלוין לו לאדם בע"ש מבית הכנסת לביתו אחד טוב ואחד רע וכשבא לביתו ומצא נר דלוק ושלחן ערוך ומטתו מוצעת מלאך טוב אומר יהי רצון שתהא לשבת אחרת כך ומלאך רע עונה אמן בעל כרחו ואם לאו מלאך רע אומר יהי רצון שתהא לשבת אחרת כך ומלאך טוב עונה אמן בעל כרחו,אמר ר' אלעזר לעולם יסדר אדם שלחנו בע"ש אע"פ שאינו צריך אלא לכזית ואמר ר' חנינא לעולם יסדר אדם שלחנו במוצאי שבת אע"פ שאינו צריך אלא לכזית חמין במוצאי שבת מלוגמא פת חמה במוצאי שבת מלוגמא ר' אבהו הוה עבדין ליה באפוקי שבתא עיגלא תילתא הוה אכיל מיניה כולייתא כי גדל אבימי בריה א"ל למה לך לאפסודי כולי האי נשבוק כולייתא ממעלי שבתא שבקוהו ואתא אריא אכליה,אריב"ל כל העונה אמן יהא שמיה רבא מברך בכל כחו קורעין לו גזר דינו שנאמר (שופטים ה, ב) בפרוע פרעות בישראל בהתנדב עם ברכו ה' מ"ט בפרוע פרעות משום דברכו ה' רבי חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן אפילו יש בו שמץ של עבודה זרה מוחלין לו כתיב הכא בפרוע פרעות וכתיב התם (שמות לב, כה) כי פרוע הוא אמר ריש לקיש כל העונה אמן בכל כחו פותחין לו שערי ג"ע שנאמר (ישעיהו כו, ב) פתחו שערים ויבא גוי צדיק שומר אמונים אל תיקרי שומר אמונים אלא שאומרים אמן מאי אמן א"ר חנינא אל מלך נאמן,א"ר יהודה בריה דרב שמואל משמיה דרב אין הדליקה מצויה אלא במקום שיש חילול שבת שנאמר (ירמיהו יז, כז) ואם לא תשמעו אלי לקדש את יום השבת ולבלתי שאת משא וגו' והצתי אש בשעריה ואכלה ארמנות ירושלים ולא תכבה מאי ולא תכבה אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק בשעה שאין בני אדם מצויין לכבותה אמר אביי לא חרבה ירושלים אלא בשביל שחללו בה את השבת שנאמר (יחזקאל כב, כו) ומשבתותי העלימו עיניהם ואחל בתוכם,אמר ר' אבהו לא חרבה ירושלים אלא בשביל שביטלו ק"ש שחרית וערבית שנאמר (ישעיהו ה, יא) הוי משכימי בבקר שכר ירדפו וגו' וכתיב (ישעיהו ה, יב) והיה כנור ונבל תוף וחליל ויין משתיהם ואת פועל ה' לא יביטו וכתיב (ישעיהו ה, יג) לכן גלה עמי מבלי דעת,אמר רב המנונא לא חרבה ירושלים אלא בשביל שביטלו בה תינוקות של בית רבן שנאמר (ירמיהו ו, יא) שפוך על עולל בחוץ וגו' מה טעם שפוך משום דעולל בחוץ אמר עולא לא חרבה ירושלים אלא מפני שלא היה להם בושת פנים זה מזה שנאמר (ירמיהו ו, טו) הובישו כי תועבה עשו גם בוש לא יבושו וגו' אמר ר' יצחק לא חרבה ירושלים אלא בשביל שהושוו קטן וגדול שנאמר (ישעיהו כד, ב) והיה כעם ככהן וכתיב בתריה הבוק תבוק הארץ,אמר רב עמרם בריה דר"ש בר אבא א"ר שמעון בר אבא א"ר חנינא לא חרבה ירושלים אלא בשביל שלא הוכיחו זה את זה שנאמר (איכה א, ו) היו שריה כאילים לא מצאו מרעה מה איל זה ראשו של זה בצד זנבו של זה אף ישראל שבאותו הדור כבשו פניהם בקרקע ולא הוכיחו זה את זה א"ר יהודה לא חרבה ירושלים אלא בשביל שביזו בה ת"ח שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לו, טז) ויהיו מלעיבים במלאכי האלהים ובוזים דבריו ומתעתעים בנביאיו עד עלות חמת ה' בעמו עד [ל] אין מרפא מאי עד לאין מרפא אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל המבזה ת"ח אין לו רפואה למכתו,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מאי דכתיב (דברי הימים א טז, כב) אל תגעו במשיחי ובנביאי אל תרעו אל תגעו במשיחי אלו תינוקות של בית רבן ובנביאי אל תרעו אלו ת"ח אמר ריש לקיש משום רבי יהודה נשיאה אין העולם מתקיים אלא בשביל הבל תינוקות של בית רבן א"ל רב פפא לאביי דידי ודידך מאי א"ל אינו דומה הבל שיש בו חטא להבל שאין בו חטא ואמר ריש לקיש משום ר"י נשיאה אין מבטלין תינוקות של בית רבן אפי' לבנין בית המקדש ואמר ר"ל לר"י נשיאה כך מקובלני מאבותי ואמרי לה מאבותיך כל עיר שאין בה תינוקות של בית רבן מחריבין אותה רבינא אמר מחרימין אותה,ואמר רבא לא חרבה ירושלים אלא בשביל שפסקו ממנה אנשי אמנה שנאמר (ירמיהו ה, א) שוטטו בחוצות ירושלים וראו נא [ודעו ובקשו ברחובותיה אם תמצאו איש] (אם יש איש) עושה משפט מבקש אמונה ואסלח לה איני והאמר רב קטינא אפי' בשעת כשלונה של ירושלים לא פסקו ממנה אנשי אמנה שנאמר (ישעיהו ג, ו) כי יתפש איש באחיו בית אביו (לאמר) שמלה לכה קצין תהיה לנו דברים שבני אדם מתכסין בהן כשמלה ישנן בידיך והמכשלה הזאת תחת ידך 119b. bwould seek pairs of Sagesengaged in conversation on Shabbat and bsaid to them: Please do not desecrateShabbat by failing to delight in Shabbat., bRava said, and some sayit was bRabbi Yehoshua ben Leviwho said: bEven an individual who prays on Shabbat evening must recitethe passage: “And the heavens and the earth bwere finished [ ivaykhullu /i]”(Genesis 2:1–3), bas Rav Hamnuna said: Anyone who prays on Shabbat evening and recitesthe passage of bvaykhullu, the verse ascribed himcredit bas if he became a partner with the Holy One, Blessed be He, in the act of Creation. As it is stated:“And the heavens and the earth bwere finished [ ivaykhullu /i].” Do not readit as: bWere finished [ ivaykhullu /i]; rather,as: bThey finished [ ivaykhallu /i].It is considered as though the Holy One, Blessed be He, and the individual who says this become partners and completed the work together. bRabbi Elazar said: From whereis it derived bthat speech is like action? As it is stated: “By the word of God the heavens were made,and all of their hosts by the breath of His mouth” (Psalms 33:6)., bRav Ḥisda saidthat bMar Ukva said: One who prays on Shabbat evening and recites ivaykhullu /i, the two ministering angels who accompany the personat all times bplace their hands on his head and say to him: “And your iniquity has passed, and your sin has been atoned”(Isaiah 6:7). bIt was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: Two ministering angels accompany a person on Shabbat evening from the synagogue to his home, one goodangel band one evilangel. bAnd whenhe breaches his home and finds a lamp burning and a table set and his bed made, the good angel says: May it beYour bwill that it shall be like this for another Shabbat. And the evil angel answers against his will: Amen. And ifthe person’s home is bnotprepared for Shabbat in that manner, bthe evil angel says: May it beYour bwill that it shall be so for another Shabbat, and the good angel answers against his will: Amen. /b, bRabbi Elazar said: A person should always set his table on Shabbat evewith all the preparations for an important feast, beven if he only needsthe table set for ban olive-bulkof food. bAnd Rabbi Ḥanina said: A person should always set his table at the conclusion of Shabbat,Saturday night, for a feast in deference to the Shabbat that passed, beven if he only needsthe table set for ban olive-bulkof food. And with regard to the meal at the conclusion of Shabbat, they said: bHot water after Shabbatis a bremedy [ imelugma /i], warm bread at the conclusion of Shabbatis a bremedy.The Gemara relates: bThey would prepare for Rabbi Abbahu at the conclusion of Shabbat a third-born calf,and bhe would eatone bkidney from it. When his son Avimi grew up,he bsaid tohis father: bWhy do you waste so much? Let us leave a kidney over from Shabbat eve,and you will not need to slaughter an entire calf for that purpose. Indeed, bthey leftthe calf and did not slaughter it, band a lion came and ate it.This teaches that one should not be miserly when it comes to honoring Shabbat.,Apropos the reward for honoring Shabbat, the Gemara cites statements about the reward for answering amen. bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saidthat banyone who answers: Amen, may His great name be blessed,wholeheartedly, bwith all his might,they brip his sentence, as it is stated: “When punishments are annulled in Israel, when the people offer themselves, bless the Lord”(Judges 5:2). bWhat is the reason for when punishments are annulled? Becausethe Jewish people bblessed God.When one recites: Amen, may His great name be blessed, and blesses God, his punishment is annulled. bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abbasaid that bRabbi Yoḥa said: Evenif bone has within him a trace of idolatry,when he answers amen bhe is forgiven. It is written here,in the verse above: b“When punishments [ ipera’ot /i] are annulled.” And it is written there,with regard to the sin of the Golden Calf: “And Moses saw bthatthe nation bwas wild [ iparu’a /i],for Aaron had let them loose for anyone who might rise against them” (Exodus 32:25). Even one with the wildness of idolatry is forgiven. bReish Lakish said: One who answers amen with all his strength, they open the gates of the Garden of Eden before him, as it is stated: “Open the gates, and a righteous nation shall come who keeps the faith”(Isaiah 26:2). bDo not read: Who keeps [ ishomer /i] the faith [ iemunim /i], but rather: Who say [ ishe’omerim /i] amen. Whatis the allusion of the word iamen /i? Rabbi Ḥanina said:It is an acronym of the words: bGod, faithful King [ iEl Melekh ne’eman /i]. /b, bRav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel, said in the name of Rav: Fire is only found in a place where there is desecration of Shabbat, as it is stated: “And if you do not heed Me to sanctify the day of Shabbat, and to refrain from carrying burdensand come to the gates of Jerusalem on the day of Shabbat, band I will light a fire in its gates and it will consume the palaces of Jerusalem and it will not be extinguished”(Jeremiah 17:27). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of: bAnd it will not be extinguished? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:Fire will break out bat a time when people are not found to extinguish it. Abaye said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because people desecrated the Shabbat in it, as it is stated: “And from My iShabbatotthey averted their eyes, and I was profaned among them”(Ezekiel 22:26). Several punishments were decreed to befall Jerusalem as punishment for this transgression.,The Gemara suggests additional reasons for the destruction of Jerusalem. br bRabbi Abbahu said: Jerusalem was destroyed only becauseits citizens intentionally bomitted recitation of iShemamorning and evening, as it is stated: “Woe to those who rise early in the morning and pursue the drinkand are aflame from wine until late in the evening” (Isaiah 5:11). bAnd it is writtenin the continuation of that passage: b“And their drinking parties have lyre and lute, drum and flute and wine, and they do not look upon the actions of God,and they do not see His hands’ creations” (Isaiah 5:12). This means that in the morning and evening, when the Jews should have been reciting iShema /i, they were drinking wine and liquor. bAnd it is writtenin that passage: b“Therefore My nation is being exiled for its ignorance;its honor will die of hunger and its multitudes will be parched with thirst” (Isaiah 5:13)., bRav Hamnuna said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because schoolchildren there were interruptedfrom studying Torah, bas it is stated:“And I am filled with the wrath of God, I cannot contain it, bpour it onto the infants in the streetand onto the gathering of youths together, for men and women alike will be captured, the elderly along with those of advanced years” (Jeremiah 6:11). Rav Hamnuna explains: bWhat is the reason thatthe wrath is bpoured?It is bbecause infants are outsidein the streets and are not studying Torah. br bUlla said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because people had no shame before each other, as it is stated: “They acted shamefully; they have performed abominations, yet they neither were ashamednor did they know humiliation. Therefore, they will fall among the fallen, they will fail at the time that I punish them, said God” (Jeremiah 6:15). br bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Jerusalem was destroyed only becauseits bsmall andthe bgreatcitizens bwere equated.They did not properly value the prominent leaders of their generation, bas it is stated: “And the common people were like the priest,the slave like his master, the maidservant like her mistress, the buyer like the seller, the lender like the borrower, the creditor like the one indebted to him” (Isaiah 24:2). bAnd it is written afterward: “The land shall be utterly desolateand completely plundered, for God has said this” (Isaiah 24:3)., bRav Amram, sonof bRabbi Shimon bar Abba, saidthat bRabbi Shimon bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Ḥanina said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because the people did not rebuke one another, as it is stated: “Her ministers were like stags that found no pasture,and they walked without strength before their pursuer” (Lamentations 1:6). bJust as this stagturns bits head toward the other’s tailwhen it grazes, and each one feeds on its own, bso too, the Jewish people in that generation lowered their faces to the ground and did not rebuke one another. br bRabbi Yehuda said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because they disparaged the Torah scholars in it, as it is stated: “And they mocked the messengers of God and disdained His words and taunted His prophets, until the wrath of God arose against His people, until it could not be healed”(II Chronicles 36:16). bWhatis the meaning of: bUntil it could not be healed? Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said:It means that banyone who disparages Torah scholars cannot be healed from his wound. /b, bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Do not touch My anointed ones and do My prophets no harm”(I Chronicles 16:22)? b“Do not touch My anointed ones,” these are the schoolchildren,who are as precious and important as kings and priests (Maharsha); b“and do not harm My prophets,” these are Torah scholars. Reish Lakish said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda Nesia: The world only exists because of the breath,i.e., reciting Torah, bof schoolchildren. Rav Pappa said to Abaye: MyTorah study band yours, whatis its status? Why is the Torah study of adults worth less? He bsaid to him: The breathof adults, bwhich istainted by bsin, is not similar to the breathof children, bwhich is nottainted by bsin. And Reish Lakish said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda Nesia: One may not interrupt schoolchildrenfrom studying Torah, beven in order to build the Temple. And Reish Lakish said to Rabbi Yehuda Nesia: I have received from my ancestors, and some saythat he said to him: I have received bfrom your ancestors as follows: Any city in which there are no schoolchildrenstudying Torah, they bdestroy it. Ravina said:They leave bit desolate. /b, bAnd Rava said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because there were no more trustworthy people there, as it is stated: “Roam about the streets of Jerusalem and see, and search its plazas, if you can find a person, who acts justly, who seeks integrity, that I should forgive it”(Jeremiah 5:1). The Gemara asks: bIs that so? Didn’t Rav Ketina say: Even at the time of Jerusalem’s failure, trustworthy people did not cease there, as it is stated: “For a man will grab his brother of his father’s house and say: You have a garment. Come be a chief over usand let this ruin be under your care” (Isaiah 3:6)? bThings that people use to cover up like a garment,secrets, bare in your handsand you know about them. Therefore, you should be a leader of the community. And that which is stated: b“And let this ruin be under your care,”meaning:
33. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

7a. נימרינהו לתרוייהו אל ההודאות ורוב ההודאות,אמר ר' אבהו גדול יום הגשמים מתחיית המתים דאילו תחיית המתים לצדיקים ואילו גשמים בין לצדיקים בין לרשעים ופליגא דרב יוסף דאמר רב יוסף מתוך שהיא שקולה כתחיית המתים קבעוה בתחיית המתים,אמר רב יהודה גדול יום הגשמים כיום שניתנה בו תורה שנא' (דברים לב, ב) יערף כמטר לקחי ואין לקח אלא תורה שנא' (משלי ד, ב) כי לקח טוב נתתי לכם תורתי אל תעזובו רבא אמר יותר מיום שניתנה בו תורה שנאמר יערף כמטר לקחי מי נתלה במי הוי אומר קטן נתלה בגדול,רבא רמי כתיב יערף כמטר לקחי וכתיב תזל כטל אמרתי אם תלמיד חכם הגון הוא כטל ואם לאו עורפהו כמטר,תניא היה ר' בנאה אומר כל העוסק בתורה לשמה תורתו נעשית לו סם חיים שנאמר (משלי ג, יח) עץ חיים היא למחזיקים בה ואומר (משלי ג, ח) רפאות תהי לשרך ואומר (משלי ח, לה) כי מוצאי מצא חיים וכל העוסק בתורה שלא לשמה נעשית לו סם המות שנאמר יערף כמטר לקחי ואין עריפה אלא הריגה שנאמר (דברים כא, ד) וערפו שם את העגלה בנחל,א"ל ר' ירמיה לר' זירא ליתי מר ליתני א"ל חלש לבאי ולא יכילנא לימא מר מילתא דאגדתא א"ל הכי אמר ר' יוחנן מאי דכתיב (דברים כ, יט) כי האדם עץ השדה וכי אדם עץ שדה הוא,אלא משום דכתיב (דברים כ, יט) כי ממנו תאכל ואותו לא תכרת וכתיב אותו תשחית וכרת הא כיצד אם ת"ח הגון הוא ממנו תאכל ואותו לא תכרת ואם לאו אותו תשחית וכרת,אמר רבי חמא (אמר רבי) חנינא מאי דכתיב (משלי כז, יז) ברזל בברזל יחד לומר לך מה ברזל זה אחד מחדד את חבירו אף שני תלמידי חכמים מחדדין זה את זה בהלכה,אמר רבה בר בר חנה למה נמשלו דברי תורה כאש שנאמר (ירמיהו כג, כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' לומר לך מה אש אינו דולק יחידי אף דברי תורה אין מתקיימין ביחידי,והיינו דאמר רבי יוסי בר חנינא מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו נ, לו) חרב אל הבדים ונואלו חרב על שונאיהן של תלמידי חכמים שעוסקין בד בבד בתורה ולא עוד אלא שמטפשין שנאמר ונואלו,ולא עוד אלא שחוטאין כתיב הכא ונואלו וכתיב התם (במדבר יב, יא) אשר נואלנו ואשר חטאנו ואיבעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו יט, יג) נואלו שרי צוען [וגו'] והתעו את מצרים,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק למה נמשלו דברי תורה כעץ שנאמר (משלי ג, יח) עץ חיים היא למחזיקים בה לומר לך מה עץ קטן מדליק את הגדול אף תלמידי חכמים קטנים מחדדים את הגדולים והיינו דאמר ר' חנינא הרבה למדתי מרבותי ומחבירי יותר מרבותי ומתלמידי יותר מכולן,רבי חנינא בר פפא רמי כתיב (ישעיהו כא, יד) לקראת צמא התיו מים וכתיב (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים אם תלמיד הגון הוא לקראת צמא התיו מים ואי לא הוי כל צמא לכו למים,רבי חנינא בר חמא רמי כתיב (משלי ה, טז) יפוצו מעינותיך חוצה וכתיב (משלי ה, יז) יהיו לך לבדך אם תלמיד הגון הוא יפוצו מעינותיך חוצה ואם לאו יהיו לך לבדך,(ואמר) רבי חנינא בר אידי למה נמשלו דברי תורה למים דכתיב הוי כל צמא לכו למים לומר לך מה מים מניחין מקום גבוה והולכין למקום נמוך אף דברי תורה אין מתקיימין אלא במי שדעתו שפלה,ואמר רבי אושעיא למה נמשלו דברי תורה לשלשה משקין הללו במים וביין ובחלב דכתיב הוי כל צמא לכו למים וכתיב (ישעיהו נה, א) לכו שברו ואכלו ולכו שברו בלא כסף ובלא מחיר יין וחלב לומר לך מה שלשה משקין הללו אין מתקיימין אלא בפחות שבכלים אף דברי תורה אין מתקיימין אלא במי שדעתו שפלה,כדאמרה ליה ברתיה דקיסר לר' יהושע בן חנניה אי חכמה מפוארה בכלי מכוער אמר לה אביך רמי חמרא במני דפחרא אמרה ליה אלא במאי נירמי אמר לה אתון דחשביתו רמו במאני דהבא וכספא,אזלה ואמרה ליה לאבוה רמייא לחמרא במני דהבא וכספא ותקיף אתו ואמרו ליה אמר לה לברתיה מאן אמר לך הכי אמרה ליה רבי יהושע בן חנניה קריוהו אמר ליה אמאי אמרת לה הכי אמר ליה כי היכי דאמרה לי אמרי לה והא איכא שפירי דגמירי 7a. bwe will recite them both: God of thanksgivings, and: Abundant thanksgivings. /b,§ The Gemara cites statements in praise of rainfall. bRabbi Abbahu said: The day of rain is greater than the resurrection of the dead.The reason is that bwhile the resurrection of the deadbenefits only bthe righteous, rainbenefits bboth the righteous and the wicked.The Gemara comments: bAndthis statement bdisagrees withthe opinion of bRav Yosef, as Rav Yosef said: Sincerainfall bis equivalent to the resurrection of the dead,the Sages bestablishedits recitation binthe second blessing of the iAmida /i, the blessing of bthe resurrection of the dead.According to Rav Yosef, rainfall is the equivalent to, but not superior to, the resurrection of the dead.,Similarly, bRav Yehuda said: The day of the rains is as great as the dayon which bthe Torah was given, as it is stated: “My doctrine [ ilikḥi /i] shall drop as the rain”(Deuteronomy 32:2), band ilekaḥmeans nothing otherthan bTorah, as it is stated: “For I give you good doctrine [ ilekaḥ /i]; do not forsake My Torah”(Proverbs 4:2). bRava said:Rainfall is even bgreater than the day on which the Torah was given, as it is stated: “My doctrine shall drop as the rain,”and when one makes a comparison, bwhichobject bismade bdependent upon which? You must saythat bthe lesserobject bis dependent upon the greaterone. If Torah is compared to rain, it follows that rain is greater than Torah.,The Gemara cites another interpretation of the verse from Deuteronomy. bRava raised a contradiction:At the beginning of the verse bit is written: “My doctrine shall drop [ iya’arof /i] as the rain,”in a harsh manner, bandyet later in the verse, bit is written: “My speech shall distill as the dew,”in a gentle tone. He resolves this apparent contradiction as follows: bIf he is a worthy Torah scholar,the Torah flows through him blike the dew, but ifhe is bnotworthy, bit snaps his neck [ iorfehu /i] like thepowerful brain. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Bena’a would say: Anyone who engages in Torah for its own sake, his Torahstudy bwill be an elixir of life for him, as it is stated: “It is a tree of life to them who lay hold upon it”(Proverbs 3:18), band it says: “It shall be health to your navel”(Proverbs 3:8), band it says: “For whoever finds Me finds life”(Proverbs 8:35). bAnd anyone who engages in Torah not for its own sake,e.g., for self-aggrandizement, his Torah bwill be an elixir of death for him, as it is stated: “My doctrine shall drop [ iya’arof] as the rain,” and iarifa /imeans bnothing otherthan bkilling, as it is stated: “And they shall break the heifer’s neck [ iarefu /i] there in the valley”(Deuteronomy 21:4)., bRabbi Yirmeyaonce bsaid to Rabbi Zeira: Let the Master come and teacha halakhic discourse. Rabbi Zeira bsaid to him: My heart is weak and I cannotstrain myself over a halakhic discourse. Rabbi Yirmeya replied to him: In that case, blet the Master tell us a matter of iaggada /i,which does not require as much effort. Rabbi Zeira bsaid to himthat bRabbi Yoḥa said as follows: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “For man is a tree of the field”(Deuteronomy 20:19)? bAnd is manactually ba tree of the field? /b, bRather,it is bbecause it is writtenearlier in the same verse: b“You may eat of them but you may not cut them down,” and it is writtenin the next verse: b“Them you may destroy and cut down”(Deuteronomy 20:20). This indicates that there are certain trees which may be cut down, while others may not be destroyed. bHow so? If a Torah scholar is worthy: “You may eat of them but you may not cut them down,” but ifhe is bnotworthy: b“He you may destroy and cut down.” /b,The Gemara cites other expositions that deal with Torah study. bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Iron sharpens iron,so a man sharpens the countece of his friend” (Proverbs 27:17)? This verse comes bto tell youthat bjust aswith bthese iron implements, one sharpens the otherwhen they are rubbed against each other, bso too,when bTorah scholarsstudy together, they bsharpen one another in ihalakha /i. /b, bRabba bar bar Ḥana said: Why are matters of Torah compared to fire, as it is stated: “Is not My word like fire, says the Lord”(Jeremiah 23:29)? bTo tell you: Just as fire does not ignitein ba lonestick of wood but in a pile of kindling, bso too, matters of Torah are not retainedand understood properly by ba lonescholar who studies by himself, but by a group of Sages., bAnd this is what Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “A sword is upon the boasters [ ihabaddim /i], and they shall become fools [ inoalu /i]”(Jeremiah 50:36)? This verse can be interpreted homiletically: There is a bsword upon the enemies of Torah scholars,a euphemism for Torah scholars themselves, bwho sit alone [ ibad bevad /i] and study Torah. And not only that, butthose who study by themselves bgrow foolishfrom their solitary Torah study, bas it is stated: “And they shall become fools.” /b, bAnd not only that, but they sin, as it is written here: “And they shall become fools,” and it is written there: “For that we have done foolishly [ inoalnu /i] and for that we have sinned”(Numbers 12:11). bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that it is derived bfrom here: “The princes of Zoan have become fools [ inoalu /i]…they have caused Egypt to go astray”(Isaiah 19:13)., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Why are Torah matters likened to a tree, as it is stated: “It is a tree of life to them who lay hold upon it”(Proverbs 3:18)? This verse comes bto tell youthat bjust as a smallpiece of bwood can ignite a large piece, so too, minor Torah scholars can sharpen greatTorah scholars and enable them to advance in their studies. bAnd this is what Rabbi Ḥanina said: I have learned much from my teachers and even more from my friends, but from my studentsI have learned bmore thanfrom ball of them. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa raised a contradiction.In one verse bit is written: “To him who is thirsty bring water”(Isaiah 21:14), which indicates that the one who has water must bring it to the thirsty person, band it is writtenelsewhere: b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water”(Isaiah 55:1), from which it may be inferred that the thirsty person must seek out water himself. Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa resolves this apparent contradiction by explaining that bif he is a worthy studentthe teacher must seek him out, as in b“to him who is thirsty bring water,” but ifthe student is bnotworthy, then b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water,”i.e., this student must seek out a teacher himself., bRabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama raisedanother bcontradiction.In one verse bit is written: “Let your springs be dispersed abroad”(Proverbs 5:16), whereas in the next verse bit is written: “Let them be your own”(Proverbs 5:17). Rabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama explains: bIf the studentsitting before you bis worthy,then b“Let your springs be dispersed abroad,”as you should teach him, but bifhe is bnotworthy, then b“Let them be your own.” /b, bAnd Rabbi Ḥanina bar Idi said: Why are matters of Torah likened to water, as it is written: “Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water”(Isaiah 55:1)? This verse comes bto tell you: Just as water leaves a high place and flows to a low place, so too, Torah matters are retained only by one whose spirit is lowly,i.e., a humble person., bAnd Rabbi Oshaya said: Why are matters of Torah likened to these three liquids: To water, wine and milk? As it is writtenwith regard to water: b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water,” and it is writtenin the same verse: b“Come, buy and eat; yea, come, buy wine and milk without money and without price.”This verse comes bto tell you: Just as these three liquids can be retained only in the least of vessels,e.g., clay pots, but not vessels of silver and gold, as they will spoil, bso too, matters of Torah are retained only by one whose spirit is lowly. /b,The Gemara cites a related incident: This bis as the daughter of theRoman bemperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya,who was an ugly man: bWoe to glorious wisdomsuch as yours, which is contained bin an ugly vessel.Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to her,in a seemingly unrelated response: Does byour father keep his wine insimple bclay vessels?The emperor’s daughter bsaid to him: Rather, in what,then, bshould he keep it?Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to her: You, who are so important,should bput it in vessels of gold and silver. /b,The emperor’s daughter bwent and saidthis bto her father. He put the wine in vessels of gold and silver and it turned sour.When his advisors bcame and told the emperorthat the wine had turned sour, bhe said tohis daughter: bWho told youto do bthis?His daughter bresponded: Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya.The emperor bsummoned himand bsaid to him: Why did you say this to her?Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya bsaid to him: Just as she said to me, so I said say to her,to demonstrate to her that fine material is best preserved in the least of vessels. The emperor said to him: bBut there are handsome people who are learned. /b
34. Anon., Midrash On Song of Songs, 7.9

35. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 188-207, 227-228, 187

187. Taking an opportunity afforded by a pause in the banquet the king asked the envoy who sat in the seat of honour (for they were arranged according to seniority), How he could keep his kingdom


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
accusation Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 89, 96, 108
admonition Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 93
alexander jannaeus Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71
amoraim, amoraic period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 94
anger, bringing a charge in Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 89, 93, 94
apocrypha Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11
apostasy Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 73
aramaic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
atonement Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 73
bible Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11, 108
biblical Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
byzantine period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
capital matters Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 89, 96
chain of lameds Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 93
commandments Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 89, 93, 96
conditional, imprecation Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
consecration, in rabbinic writings Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 150
consecration, in the damascus document Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 150
consecration, to block access to a property by a claimant Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 150
conviction Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 89
court Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 94, 108
covenant Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 73
death penalty Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
ein gedi Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
elder Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 94
end of days, enoch, book of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11
essenes Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
examiner Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 96
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture, jesus command of scriptural exegesis Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
exegesis, midrash Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 93
exegesis, sectarian Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71, 93, 94
financial contact, matters Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 96
fines Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 96
food ration Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 96
fornication Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 93
gentiles Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 73
god Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 89
golden rule Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
greco-roman world, culture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
guilt Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 89, 93
halakhah/halakhot, and aggadah; law and narrative Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 156
hanging Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
hatred Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 93
hatred (of enemies, outsiders) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
hebrew, biblical Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11, 71, 85
hebrew, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85, 108
hebrew, tannaitic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also, interpretation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 156
high priest Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 156
jerusalem Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 94
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
jewish other, religious sensitivity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
josiah, jubilees, book of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11
law, apodictic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 156
law, biblical Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11, 93
law, casuistic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11
law, sectarian Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 89, 93, 94
litigation Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 108
love, spirit of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 93, 94
love-your-enemy Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
love Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
majority, legal Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71
manual of discipline Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11, 94
marriage, age of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 72
marriage Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 238
masoretic text Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 156; Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
mercy Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
midrash, midrashic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 156
moses Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71
moshav ha-rabbim Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 94, 108
non-pentateuchal scripture, appeal to Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 221, 223, 238
oath Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71
oaths Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 221, 223
offenses, grudge, bearing a Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 89, 93, 96
orthography, masoretic, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71, 85, 108
palestine Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 96
paraphrase Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 221
penal code of the zadokite fragments, literary organization Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11
pharisees Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 156
priests, aaronide Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71
priests Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 238
prooftexts, non-pentateuchal Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 221, 223, 238
prophets Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 156
proverbs Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 108
pseudepigrapha Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11
puberty Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71
punishment, penalty Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 93, 96
purity/impurity Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 73
purity and impurity, ritual purity Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 93
qumran, headquarters of sect, library Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11
qumran/qumran community Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 156
rabbis, and the consecration of land Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 150
rabbis, rabbinic literature Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71, 85, 89, 96
repentance Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 96
reproof, time limit on Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 93, 94
reproof Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 89, 93, 94, 96, 108
revenge' Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 238
revenge Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 223
sabbath, code of zadokite fragments Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11
sacred land, in judea, in rabbinic writings Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 150
scribal error Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 108
sect, admittance to Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71
sect, members of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 96
sect, non-members Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 96, 108
sermon on the mount Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
sermon on the plain Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 112
tannaim, tannaitic law, judaism, period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11
temple, in jerusalem, economy of Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 150
temple scroll Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85
testimony, law of, (zadokite fragments) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85, 89, 96
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 156
vengeance Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 89, 96
violation of the law Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 96
witnesses, number required Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 96
witnesses, qualifications of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71, 72
witnesses, three Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 96
witnesses, two Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 96
witnesses Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 89, 93, 94, 96
zadokite fragments Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11, 94, 108
zohar Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 85