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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



2784
Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 8.16
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

18 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 1.13, 6.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.13. הָבוּ לָכֶם אֲנָשִׁים חֲכָמִים וּנְבֹנִים וִידֻעִים לְשִׁבְטֵיכֶם וַאֲשִׂימֵם בְּרָאשֵׁיכֶם׃ 6.24. וַיְצַוֵּנוּ יְהוָה לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ לְטוֹב לָנוּ כָּל־הַיָּמִים לְחַיֹּתֵנוּ כְּהַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 1.13. Get you, from each one of your tribes, wise men, and understanding, and full of knowledge, and I will make them heads over you.’" 6.24. And the LORD commanded us to do all these statutes, to fear the LORD our God, for our good always, that He might preserve us alive, as it is at this day."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 37.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

37.29. וַיָּשָׁב רְאוּבֵן אֶל־הַבּוֹר וְהִנֵּה אֵין־יוֹסֵף בַּבּוֹר וַיִּקְרַע אֶת־בְּגָדָיו׃ 37.29. And Reuben returned unto the pit; and, behold, Joseph was not in the pit; and he rent his clothes."
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 21.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.18. בְּאֵר חֲפָרוּהָ שָׂרִים כָּרוּהָ נְדִיבֵי הָעָם בִּמְחֹקֵק בְּמִשְׁעֲנֹתָם וּמִמִּדְבָּר מַתָּנָה׃ 21.18. The well, which the princes digged, Which the nobles of the people delved, With the sceptre, and with their staves. And from the wilderness to Mattanah;"
4. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 19.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.8. תּוֹרַת יְהוָה תְּמִימָה מְשִׁיבַת נָפֶשׁ עֵדוּת יְהוָה נֶאֱמָנָה מַחְכִּימַת פֶּתִי׃ 19.8. The law of the LORD is perfect, restoring the soul; the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. ."
5. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 5.27 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

5.27. וְהִגְלֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵהָלְאָה לְדַמָּשֶׂק אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ 5.27. Therefore will I cause you to go into captivity beyond Damascus, saith He, whose name is the LORD God of hosts."
6. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 22.19-22.21 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

22.19. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה יַעַן הֱיוֹת כֻּלְּכֶם לְסִגִים לָכֵן הִנְנִי קֹבֵץ אֶתְכֶם אֶל־תּוֹךְ יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 22.21. וְכִנַּסְתִּי אֶתְכֶם וְנָפַחְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם בְּאֵשׁ עֶבְרָתִי וְנִתַּכְתֶּם בְּתוֹכָהּ׃ 22.19. Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Because ye are all become dross, therefore, behold, I will gather you into the midst of Jerusalem." 22.20. As they gather silver and brass and iron and lead and tin into the midst of the furnace, to blow the fire upon it, to melt it; so will I gather you in Mine anger and in My fury, and I will cast you in, and melt you." 22.21. Yea, I will gather you, and blow upon you with the fire of My wrath, and ye shall be melted in the midst thereof."
7. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 3.16, 5.2-5.5, 5.7, 6.2-6.11, 6.16, 6.19, 7.5, 7.15, 7.19, 8.4-8.14, 8.17, 8.19, 15.7, 16.12, 19.34, 20.6, 20.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Habakkuk, 2.10, 5.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 3.16, 5.2-5.5, 5.7, 6.2-6.11, 6.16, 6.19, 7.5, 7.15, 7.19, 8.4-8.14, 8.16-8.17, 8.19, 15.7, 16.12, 19.34, 20.6, 20.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 2.21, 6.9, 8.12-8.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 8.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 8.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Dead Sea Scrolls, Scroll of Blessings, 4.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 12.4, 12.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.4. וְאַתָּה דָנִיֵּאל סְתֹם הַדְּבָרִים וַחֲתֹם הַסֵּפֶר עַד־עֵת קֵץ יְשֹׁטְטוּ רַבִּים וְתִרְבֶּה הַדָּעַת׃ 12.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ דָּנִיֵּאל כִּי־סְתֻמִים וַחֲתֻמִים הַדְּבָרִים עַד־עֵת קֵץ׃ 12.4. But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end; many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased.’" 12.9. And he said: ‘Go thy way, Daniel; for the words are shut up and sealed till the time of the end."
15. Mishnah, Makkot, 3.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.15. All who have incurred [the penalty of] kareth, on being flogged are exempt from their punishment of kareth, for it says, “[He may be given up to forty lashes, but not more] ... lest your brother shall be dishonored before your eyes” (Deut. 25;3) once he has been lashed he is [considered] “your brother”, the words of Rabbi Haiah ben Gamaliel. Rabbi Haiah ben Gamaliel said: “Just as one who transgresses one transgression forfeits his life, how much more does one who performs one commandment have his life granted him.” Rabbi Shimon says: “You can learn this from its own passage; as it says: “[All who do any of those abhorrent things] such persons shall be cut off from their people” (Lev. 18:29), and it says: “You shall keep my statutes and my ordices which if a man do, he shall live by them” (Lev. 18:5), which means that one who desists from transgressing is granted reward like one who performs a precept. Rabbi Shimon bar Rabbi says: Behold [the Torah] says, “But makes sure that you do not partake of the blood; for the blood is the life, and you must not consume the life with the flesh…[that it may go well with you and with your descendents to come..” (Deut. 12:23-25”-- now, if in the case of blood which a person’s soul loathes, anyone who refrains from it receives reward, how much more so in regard to robbery and sexual sin for which a person’s soul craves and longs shall one who refrains from them acquire merit for himself and for generations and generations to come, to the end of all generations!
16. Babylonian Talmud, Makkot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

23b. (ויקרא יח, ה) אשר יעשה אותם האדם וחי בהם הא כל היושב ולא עבר עבירה נותנין לו שכר כעושה מצוה,ר"ש בר רבי אומר הרי הוא אומר (דברים יב, כג) רק חזק לבלתי אכול (את) הדם כי הדם הוא הנפש וגו' ומה אם הדם שנפשו של אדם קצה ממנו הפורש ממנו מקבל שכר גזל ועריות שנפשו של אדם מתאוה להן ומחמדתן הפורש מהן על אחת כמה וכמה שיזכה לו ולדורותיו ולדורות דורותיו עד סוף כל הדורות,ר' חנניא בן עקשיא אומר רצה הקב"ה לזכות את ישראל לפיכך הרבה להם תורה ומצות שנאמר (ישעיהו מב, כא) ה' חפץ למען צדקו יגדיל תורה ויאדיר:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big א"ר יוחנן חלוקין עליו חבריו על רבי חנניה בן גמליאל אמר רב אדא בר אהבה אמרי בי רב תנינן אין בין שבת ליום הכפורים אלא שזה זדונו בידי אדם וזה זדונו בהכרת ואם איתא אידי ואידי בידי אדם הוא,רב נחמן (בר יצחק) אומר הא מני רבי יצחק היא דאמר מלקות בחייבי כריתות ליכא דתניא רבי יצחק אומר חייבי כריתות בכלל היו ולמה יצאת כרת באחותו לדונו בכרת ולא במלקות,רב אשי אמר אפילו תימא רבנן זה עיקר זדונו בידי אדם וזה עיקר זדונו בידי שמים,אמר רב אדא בר אהבה אמר רב הלכה כר' חנניה בן גמליאל אמר רב יוסף מאן סליק לעילא ואתא ואמר אמר ליה אביי אלא הא דאמר רבי יהושע בן לוי שלשה דברים עשו ב"ד של מטה והסכימו ב"ד של מעלה על ידם מאן סליק לעילא ואתא ואמר אלא קראי קא דרשינן ה"נ קראי קא דרשינן,גופא א"ר יהושע בן לוי שלשה דברים עשו ב"ד של מטה והסכימו ב"ד של מעלה על ידם [אלו הן] מקרא מגילה ושאילת שלום [בשם] והבאת מעשר,מקרא מגילה דכתיב (אסתר ט, כז) קימו וקבלו היהודים קיימו למעלה מה שקבלו למטה,ושאילת שלום דכתיב (רות ב, ד) והנה בועז בא מבית לחם ויאמר לקוצרים ה' עמכם ואומר (שופטים ו, יב) ה' עמך גבור החיל מאי ואומר וכי תימא בועז הוא דעביד מדעתיה ומשמיא לא אסכימו על ידו ת"ש ואומר ה' עמך גבור החיל,הבאת מעשר דכתיב (מלאכי ג, י) הביאו את כל המעשר אל בית האוצר ויהי טרף בביתי ובחנוני נא בזאת אמר ה' צבאות אם לא אפתח לכם את ארובות השמים והריקותי לכם ברכה עד בלי די מאי עד בלי די אמר רמי בר רב עד שיבלו שפתותיכם מלומר די,א"ר אלעזר בג' מקומות הופיע רוח הקודש בבית דינו של שם ובבית דינו של שמואל הרמתי ובבית דינו של שלמה בבית דינו של שם דכתיב (בראשית לח, כו) ויכר יהודה ויאמר צדקה ממני מנא ידע דלמא כי היכי דאזל איהו לגבה אזל נמי אינש אחרינא [לגבה] יצאת בת קול ואמרה ממני יצאו כבושים:,בבית דינו של שמואל דכתיב (שמואל א יב, ג) הנני ענו בי נגד ה' ונגד משיחו את שור מי לקחתי ויאמרו לא עשקתנו ולא רצותנו ויאמר עד ה' ועד משיחו כי לא מצאתם בידי מאומה ויאמר עד ויאמר ויאמרו מיבעי ליה יצאת בת קול ואמרה אני עד בדבר זה,בבית דינו של שלמה דכתיב (מלכים א ג, כז) ויען המלך ויאמר תנו לה את הילד החי והמת לא תמיתוהו (כי) היא אמו מנא ידע דלמא איערומא מיערמא יצאת בת קול ואמרה היא אמו,אמר רבא ממאי דלמא יהודה כיון דחשיב ירחי ויומי ואיתרמי דחזינן מחזקינן דלא חזינן לא מחזקינן,שמואל נמי כולהו ישראל קרי להו בלשון יחידי דכתיב (ישעיהו מה, יז) ישראל נושע בה',שלמה נמי מדהא קא מרחמתא והא לא קא מרחמתא אלא גמרא:,דרש רבי שמלאי שש מאות ושלש עשרה מצות נאמרו לו למשה שלש מאות וששים וחמש לאוין כמנין ימות החמה ומאתים וארבעים ושמונה עשה כנגד איבריו של אדם אמר רב המנונא מאי קרא (דברים לג, ד) תורה צוה לנו משה מורשה תורה בגימטריא 23b. b“That a person shall perform and live by them”(Leviticus 18:5). It is inferred bthatwith regard to bone who sits and did not perform a transgression,God bgives him a reward likethat received by one who bperforms a mitzva. /b, bRabbi Shimon bar RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaysthat as the verse bstates: “Only be steadfast to not eat the blood, as the blood is the soul”(Deuteronomy 12:23), it can be derived ia fortiori /i: bAnd ifwith regard to bthe blood, which a person’s soul loathes, one who abstains from itsconsumption breceives a rewardfor that action, as it is written in a subsequent verse: “You shall not eat it, so that it shall be good for you and for your children after you” (Deuteronomy 12:25); then concerning brobbery andintercourse with bforbidden relatives, which a person’s soul desires and covets, one who abstains from theirperformance and overcomes his inclination, ball the more so that he and his descendants and the descendants of his descendants until the end of all generations will merita reward., bRabbi Ḥaya ben Akashya says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to confer merit upon the Jewish people; therefore, He increased for them Torah and mitzvot,as each mitzva increases merit, bas it is stated: “It pleased the Lord for the sake of His righteousness to make the Torah great and glorious”(Isaiah 42:21). God sought to make the Torah great and glorious by means of the proliferation of mitzvot., strongGEMARA: /strong bRabbi Yoḥa says: Rabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel’s colleagues are in disagreement with himand hold that lashes do not exempt the sinner from ikaret /i. bRav Adda bar Ahava saidthat this is so, as bthey sayin bthe school of Ravthat bwe learnedin a mishna ( iMegilla7b): bThe difference between Shabbat and Yom Kippurwith regard to the labor prohibited on those days bis only thatin bthiscase, Shabbat, bits intentionaldesecration is punishable bby human hands,as he is stoned by a court based on the testimony of witnesses who forewarned the transgressor, bandin bthatcase, Yom Kippur, bits intentionaldesecration is punishable at the hand of God, bwith ikaret /i. And ifthe statement of Rabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel bis so,in both bthiscase, Shabbat, band thatcase, Yom Kippur, the punishment would be bby human hands.Apparently, the itannaof the mishna, the Rabbis, disagrees with Rabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says:There is no proof from here that Rabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel’s colleagues disagree with him, as in accordance with bwhoseopinion bis thismishna taught? bIt isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yitzḥak, who says: There are no lashes incases of bthose liableto receive ikaret /i. As it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yitzḥak says:All bthose liableto receive ikaret /iin cases of forbidden relations bwere included inthe principle: “For whoever shall commit any of these abominations, even the people who commit them shall be cut off from among their people” (Leviticus 18:29). bAnd why was ikaret /iin the case of relations with bone’s sister excludedfrom this verse and mentioned independently (Leviticus 20:17)? It is bto sentenceone who transgresses a prohibition punishable with ikaret btobe punished bwith ikaret /ialone, band not with lashes.Other Sages disagree with Rabbi Yitzḥak (see 13b)., bRav Ashi said: Evenif byou saythat the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis,who disagree with Rabbi Yitzḥak and hold that there are lashes even in cases where there is liability for ikaret /i, there is no proof that Rabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel’s colleagues disagree with him. The mishna can be understood as follows: In bthiscase, Shabbat, the bprimarypunishment for bits intentionaldesecration is bby human hands, andin bthatcase, Yom Kippur, the bprimarypunishment for bits intentionaldesecration is ikaret /i, which is a punishment bat the hand of Heaven.If he was flogged, he is exempt from ikaret /i., bRav Adda bar Ahava saysthat bRav says: The ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel,who ruled that lashes exempt the sinner from ikaret /i. bRav Yosef said: Who ascended on high and came and saidto you that one who is flogged is exempted from ikaret /i? That is not dependent upon the decision of an earthly court. bAbaye said toRav Yosef: bButaccording to your reasoning, then with regard to bthat which Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says:There are bthree mattersthat the bearthly court implemented and the heavenly court agreed with them,the same question applies: bWho ascended on high and came and saidto him that this is so? bRather,in arriving at Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s conclusion bwehomiletically binterpret verses. Here too,with regard to lashes and ikaret /i, bwehomiletically binterpret verses. /b,§ With regard to bthematter bitself, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says:There are bthree mattersthat the bearthly court implemented and the heavenly court agreed with them, and these are they: Reading the Scrollof Esther on Purim, band greetinganother bwith the name of God, and bringingthe first btitheto the Temple treasury in Jerusalem. From where is it derived that the heavenly court agreed with them?, bReading the Scrollof Esther is derived from a verse, bas it is written: “The Jews confirmed, and they took upon themselves”(Esther 9:27). The verse could have simply said: They took upon themselves. From the formulation of the verse it is interpreted: bThey confirmed abovein Heaven that bwhich they took upon themselves belowon earth., bAnd greetinganother with the name of God is derived from a verse, bas it is written: “And presently Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the harvesters: The Lord is with you, and they said to him: May the Lord bless you”(Ruth 2:4). bAnd it states:“And the angel of the Lord appeared to him and said to him: bThe Lord is with you, mighty man of valor”(Judges 6:12). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the reason that the Gemara cites the additional source about Gideon, introduced with the phrase: bAnd it states?Why was the proof from Boaz’s statement to the harvesters insufficient? The Gemara explains: bAnd if you would say: It is Boaz who didso bon his own, and from Heaven they did not agree with him; comeand bhearproof, band it says: “The Lord is with you, mighty man of valor.”The angel greeted Gideon with the name of God, indicating that there is agreement in Heaven that this is an acceptable form of greeting.,From where is it derived that the heavenly court agreed to the bbringingof the first btitheto the Temple treasury in Jerusalem? It is derived from a verse, bas it is written: “Bring you the whole tithe into the storehouse, that there may be food in My house, and try Me now with this, says the Lord of hosts, if I will not open for you the windows of heaven and pour you out a blessing, that there shall be more than sufficiency [ iad beli dai /i]”(Malachi 3:10). This indicates that the heavenly court agreed that the first tithe should be brought to the Temple treasury. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of b“ iad beli dai /i”? Rami bar Rav says:It means that the abundance will be so great bthat your lips will be worn out [ iyivlu /i], from saying enough [ idai /i]. /b,The Gemara cites a somewhat similar statement. bRabbi Elazar says: In three places the Divine Spirit appearedbefore all to affirm that the action taken was appropriate: bIn the court of Shem, in the court of Samuel the Ramathite, and in the court of Solomon.The Gemara elaborates: This occurred bin the court of Shem, as it is writtenin the context of the episode of Judah and Tamar: b“And Judah acknowledged them and said: She is more righteous than I [ imimmenni /i]”(Genesis 38:26). bHow didJudah bknowthat Tamar’s assertion that she was bearing his child was correct? bPerhaps, just as he went to herand hired her as a prostitute, banother person went to herand hired her bas well,and he is not the father. Rather, ba Divine Voice emerged and said:It is bfrom Me [ imimmenni /i]that these bsecrets emerged.God affirmed that her assertion was correct and that it was His divine plan that Judah would father a child from Tamar.,Likewise, this occurred bin the court of Samuel, as it is written: “Here I am; testify against me before the Lord and before His anointed: Whose ox have I taken…And they said: You have neither defrauded us nor oppressed us…And he said to them: The Lord is witness against you, and His anointed is witness this day, that you have not found anything in my hand. And he said: He is witness”(I Samuel 12:3–5). Based on the context, instead of the singular: b“And he said,”the plural: bAnd they said, should havebeen written, as the verse appears to be the reply of the Jewish people to Samuel’s challenge, attesting to the truth of his statement. Rather, ba Divine Voice emerged and said: I,God, bam witness to this matter. /b,This occurred bin the court of Solomon,when the Divine Spirit appeared in the dispute between two prostitutes over who was the mother of the surviving child, bas it is written: “And the king answered and said: Give her the living child, and do not slay him; she is his mother”(I Kings 3:27). bHow didSolomon bknowthat she was the mother? bPerhaps she was deviousand was not the mother of the surviving child at all. Rather, ba Divine Voice emerged and said: She is his mother. /b, bRava said: From wheredo you draw these conclusions? None of these proofs is absolute. bPerhapsin the case of bJudah, once he calculatedthe passage of the bmonths and the daysfrom when he engaged in intercourse with Tamar band it happenedto correspond with the duration of her pregcy, he realized that her assertion is correct. There is no room to suspect that another man was the father, as the principle is: Based on that bwhich we see, we establish presumptive status;based on that bwhich we do not see, we do not establish presumptive status. /b,With regard to bSamuel too,no proof may be cited from the use of the singular, as on occasion the bentire Jewish people is referred to in the singular, as it is written,e.g.: b“The Jewish people is saved by the Lord”(Isaiah 45:17).,With regard to bSolomon too,perhaps he reasoned that bdue tothe fact bthat thiswoman bis mercifuland seeks to spare the baby band thiswoman bis not merciful,it is evident that the former is its mother. bRather,Rava concludes: There is no proof from the verses that a Divine Spirit appeared in those circumstances; rather, there is ba traditionthat this is the case.,§ bRabbi Simlai taught:There were b613 mitzvot stated to Mosesin the Torah, consisting of b365 prohibitions corresponding to the number of daysin bthe solar year, and 248 positivemitzvot bcorresponding tothe number of ba person’s limbs. Rav Hamnuna said: What is the versethat alludes to this? It is written: b“Moses commanded to us the Torah, an inheritanceof the congregation of Jacob” (Deuteronomy 33:4). The word bTorah, interms of bits numerical value [ igimatriyya /i], /b
17. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

28a. ולא ברכתי לפני כהן ולא אכלתי מבהמה שלא הורמו מתנותיה,דא"ר יצחק א"ר יוחנן אסור לאכול מבהמה שלא הורמו מתנותיה ואמר ר' יצחק כל האוכל מבהמה שלא הורמו מתנותיה כאילו אוכל טבלים ולית הלכתא כוותיה,ולא ברכתי לפני כהן,למימרא דמעליותא היא והא א"ר יוחנן כל תלמיד חכם שמברך לפניו אפילו כ"ג עם הארץ אותו ת"ח חייב מיתה שנאמר (משלי ח, לו) כל משנאי אהבו מות אל תקרי משנאי אלא משניאי,כי קאמר איהו בשוין,שאלו תלמידיו את רבי נחוניא בן הקנה במה הארכת ימים אמר להם מימי לא נתכבדתי בקלון חברי ולא עלתה על מטתי קללת חברי וותרן בממוני הייתי,לא נתכבדתי בקלון חברי כי הא דרב הונא דרי מרא אכתפיה אתא רב חנא בר חנילאי וקא דרי מיניה א"ל אי רגילת דדרית במאתיך דרי ואי לא אתייקורי אנא בזילותא דידך לא ניחא לי,ולא עלתה על מטתי קללת חברי כי הא דמר זוטרא כי הוה סליק לפורייה אמר שרי ליה לכל מאן דצערן,וותרן בממוני הייתי דאמר מר איוב וותרן בממוניה הוה שהיה מניח פרוטה לחנוני מממוניה,שאל ר"ע את רבי נחוניא הגדול (אמר לו) במה הארכת ימים אתו גווזי וקא מחו ליה סליק יתיב ארישא דדיקלא א"ל רבי אם נאמר (במדבר כח, ד) כבש למה נאמר אחד אמר להו צורבא מדרבנן הוא שבקוהו,א"ל אחד מיוחד שבעדרו,א"ל מימי לא קבלתי מתנות ולא עמדתי על מדותי וותרן בממוני הייתי,לא קבלתי מתנות כי הא דר' אלעזר כי הוו משדרי ליה מתנות מבי נשיאה לא הוה שקיל כי הוה מזמני ליה לא הוה אזיל אמר להו לא ניחא לכו דאחיה דכתיב (משלי טו, כז) שונא מתנות יחיה ר' זירא כי הוו משדרי ליה מבי נשיאה לא הוה שקיל כי הוה מזמני ליה אזיל אמר אתייקורי דמתייקרי בי,ולא עמדתי על מדותי דאמר רבא כל המעביר על מדותיו מעבירין ממנו כל פשעיו שנאמר (מיכה ז, יח) נושא עון ועובר על פשע למי נושא עון למי שעובר על פשע,שאל רבי את ר' יהושע בן קרחה במה הארכת ימים א"ל קצת בחיי אמר לו רבי תורה היא וללמוד אני צריך א"ל מימי לא נסתכלתי בדמות אדם רשע דאמר ר' יוחנן אסור לאדם להסתכל בצלם דמות אדם רשע שנאמר (מלכים ב ג, יד) לולא פני יהושפט מלך יהודה אני נושא אם אביט אליך ואם אראך,ר"א אמר עיניו כהות שנאמר (בראשית כז, א) ויהי כי זקן יצחק ותכהין עיניו מראות משום דאסתכל בעשו הרשע,והא גרמא ליה והאמר ר' יצחק לעולם אל תהי קללת הדיוט קלה בעיניך שהרי אבימלך קלל את שרה ונתקיים בזרעה שנאמר (בראשית כ, טז) הנה הוא לך כסות עינים אל תקרי כסות אלא כסיית עינים,הא והא גרמא ליה רבא אמר מהכא (משלי יח, ה) שאת פני רשע לא טוב,בשעת פטירתו א"ל [רבי] ברכני א"ל יהי רצון שתגיע לחצי ימי ולכולהו לא אמר לו הבאים אחריך בהמה ירעו,אבוה בר איהי ומנימן בר איהי חד אמר תיתי לי דלא אסתכלי בכותי וחד אמר תיתי לי דלא עבדי שותפות בהדי כותי,שאלו תלמידיו את ר' זירא במה הארכת ימים אמר להם מימי לא הקפדתי בתוך ביתי ולא צעדתי בפני מי שגדול ממני ולא הרהרתי במבואות המטונפות ולא הלכתי ד"א בלא תורה ובלא תפילין ולא ישנתי בבית המדרש לא שינת קבע ולא שינת עראי ולא ששתי בתקלת חבירי ולא קראתי לחבירי (בחניכתו) ואמרי לה (בחכינתו):, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ועוד א"ר יהודה בית הכנסת שחרב אין מספידין בתוכו ואין מפשילין בתוכו חבלים ואין פורשין לתוכו מצודות ואין שוטחין על גגו פירות ואין עושין אותו קפנדריא,שנאמר (ויקרא כו, לא) והשמותי את מקדשכם קדושתן אף כשהן שוממין,עלו בו עשבים לא יתלוש מפני עגמת נפש:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר בתי כנסיות אין נוהגין בהן קלות ראש אין אוכלין בהן ואין שותין בהן 28a. bAnd I never recitedGrace after Meals bin the presence of a priest,but rather I gave him the privilege to lead. bAnd I never ate from an animal whosepriestly bportions,i.e., the foreleg, the jaw, and the maw, bhad notalready bbeen set aside. /b,Another example of Rabbi Perida’s meticulous behavior is based on that bwhich Rabbi Yitzḥak saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: It is prohibited to eatmeat bfrom an animal whosepriestly bportions have not been set aside. And Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who eatsmeat bfrom an animal whosepriestly bportions have not been set aside isregarded bas if he were eating untithed produce.The Gemara comments: bAnd the ihalakhais not in accordance with hisopinion. Rather, it is permitted to eat meat from such an animal. Nevertheless, Rabbi Perida acted stringently and did not eat from it.,The Gemara considers another of Rabbi Perida’s actions: He said: bAnd I never blessedGrace after Meals bin the presence of a priest,but rather I gave him the privilege to lead., bIs this to say thatdoing so bisespecially bvirtuous? Buthasn’t bRabbi Yoḥa said: Any Torah scholar whoallows someone else bto blessGrace after Meals bin his presence,i.e., to lead for him, bevenif that person is ba High Priest who is an ignoramus,then bthat Torah scholar is liable toreceive the bdeath penaltyfor belittling his own honor? This is bas it is stated: “All those who hate me, love death”(Proverbs 8:36). bDo not readit as b“those who hate Me [ imesan’ai /i],” ratherread it as though it said: bThose who make Me hated [ imasni’ai /i].The honor due to a Torah scholar is representative of the honor of God in the world. Therefore, by belittling his own honor, he causes others to fail to respect God, which can ultimately develop into hate. If so, why did Rabbi Perida consider his behavior to be so deserving of praise?,The Gemara answers: bWhenRabbi Perida bsays this,he was speaking bofpeople of bequalstature. He was particular to honor the priesthood only when the priest was also a Torah scholar.,The Gemara discusses the fourth Sage who was blessed with longevity: bRabbi Neḥunya ben HaKana wasonce basked by his disciples: Inthe merit of bwhichvirtue bwere youblessed with blongevity? He said to them: Inall bmy days, I never attained veneration atthe expense of bmy fellow’s degradation. Nor did my fellow’s curseever bgo up with me upon my bed.If ever I offended someone, I made sure to appease him that day. Therefore, when I went to bed I knew that no one had any grievances against me. bAnd I wasalways bopenhanded with my money. /b,The Gemara clarifies the meaning of his statement: Rabbi Neḥunya said: bI never attained veneration atthe expense of bmy fellow’s denigration.This is referring to conduct bsuch as that of Rav Huna, who was carrying a hoe over his shoulderas he returned from his work. bRav Ḥana bar Ḥanilai came and,out of respect for his teacher, btook the hoe from himto carry it for him. Rav Huna bsaid to him: If you are accustomed to carrysuch objects bin your own city,you may bcarry it; but if not,then bfor me to be venerated through your denigration is not pleasing for me. /b,Rabbi Neḥunya also said: bNor didI ever allow the resentment caused by bmy fellow’s curseto bgo up with me upon my bed.This is referring to conduct bsuch as that of Mar Zutra. When he would go to bedat night, bhe wouldfirst bsay: I forgive anyone who has vexed me. /b,Lastly, Rabbi Neḥunya said: bAnd I wasalways bopenhanded with my money.This is referring to conduct such as bthat which the Master said: Job was openhanded with his money, as he wouldalways bleaveat least ba iperutaof his money with the shopkeeper.He never demanded the change from his transactions.,On a similar occasion, bRabbi Akiva asked Rabbi Neḥunya the Great; he said to him: Inthe merit of bwhichvirtue bwere youblessed with blongevity?Rabbi Neḥunya’s battendants [ igavzei /i] came andstarted bbeatingRabbi Akiva, for they felt that he was acting disrespectfully by highlighting Rabbi Neḥunya’s old age. Rabbi Akiva ran away from them, and bhe climbed up and sat upon the top of a date palm.From there, bhe said toRabbi Neḥunya: bMy teacher,I have a question about the verse concerning the daily offering that states “one lamb” (Numbers 28:4). bIf it is stated “lamb”in the singular, bwhy is italso bstated “one”;isn’t this superfluous? Upon hearing Rabbi Akiva’s scholarly question, Rabbi Neḥunya bsaid tohis attendants: bHe isclearly ba young Torah scholar, let him be. /b,Rabbi Neḥunya then addressed Rabbi Akiva’s questions. With regard to the second question, bhe said to him:The word b“one”teaches that the lamb should be bthe unique one of its flock,i.e., only the best quality lamb should be used.,With regard to the original question, Rabbi Neḥunya bsaid to him: Inall bmy days I never accepted gifts. Nor was Iever binflexibleby exacting ba measureof retribution against those who wronged me. bAnd I wasalways bopenhanded with my money. /b,The Gemara explains: bI never accepted gifts;this is referring to conduct bsuch as that of Rabbi Elazar. When they would send him gifts from the house of the iNasi /i, he would not takethem, band when they would invite him, he would not gothere, as he considered hospitality to be a type of gift. bHewould bsay to them: Is it not pleasing to you that I should live, as it is written: “He that hates gifts shall live”(Proverbs 15:27)? In contrast, it was reported about bRabbi Zeirathat bwhen they would send himgifts bfrom the house of the iNasi /i, he would not acceptthem, bbut when they would invite him, he would gothere. bHe said: They are honored by mypresence; therefore my visiting is not considered like I am taking a gift from them.,He also said: bNor was Iever binflexiblein exacting ba measureof retribution against those who wronged me. This is referring to conduct such as that bwhich Rava said: Anyone who overlooksexacting ba measureof retribution against those who wronged him, ball his transgressions are removed from him, as it is stated: “He pardons iniquity and overlooks transgression”(Micah 7:18), which is homiletically read as saying: bFor whom does He pardon iniquity? For he who overlooks transgressionsthat others have committed against him.,In a similar incident, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi once basked Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa: Inthe merit of bwhichvirtue bwere youblessed with blongevity? He said to him:Why do you ask me, bare you wearied of mylong blife?Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: My teacher, it is Torah andso bI must learnit. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa bsaid to him: Inall bmy days I never gazed at the likeness of a wicked man, as Rabbi Yoḥa said: It is prohibited for a person to gaze in the image of the likeness of a wicked man, as it is statedthat the prophet Elisha said to Jehoram king of Israel: b“Were it not that I regard the presence of Jehoshaphat, the king of Judea, I would not look toward you, nor see you”(II Kings 3:14)., bRabbi Elazar said:One who gazes at the likeness of an evil man, bhis eyes become dim, as it is stated: “And it came to pass, that when Isaac was old, and his eyes were dim so that he could not see”(Genesis 27:1). This happened bbecause he gazed at the wicked Esau. /b,The Gemara asks: bDid this causeIsaac’s blindness? bDidn’t Rabbi Yitzḥak say: A curse of an ordinary person should not be lightly regarded in your eyes, because Abimelech cursed Sarah, andalthough he was not a righteous man, his curse bwasnevertheless bfulfilled,albeit bin her descendant. As it is statedthat Abimelech said to Sarah with regard to the gift that he gave to Abraham: b“Behold, it is for you a covering of the eyes”(Genesis 20:16). bDo not readit as b“a covering [ ikesut /i]of the eyes,” but bratherread it as: bA blindness [ ikesiat /i] of the eyes.Abimelech’s words were a veiled curse for Sarah to suffer from blindness. While she herself did not suffer, the curse was apparently fulfilled in the blindness of her son, Isaac.,According to Rabbi Yitzḥak, Abimelech’s curse was the cause of Isaac’s blindness, and it was not, as Rabbi Elazar suggested, the fact he gazed at Esau. The Gemara explains: Both bthis and thatjointly bcaused it. Rava said:The prohibition against gazing at the likeness of a wicked person is derived bfrom here: “It is not good to raise the face of the wicked”(Proverbs 18:5)., bAt the time ofRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa’s bdeparturefrom this world, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: My teacher, bless me. He said to him: May it beGod’s bwill that youlive to breach to half of my days.When Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi heard this, he asked in astonishment: Are you saying that bto the entirety ofyour days I should bnotreach? Why? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa bsaid to him: Shall those who come after youjust btend cattle?If you live as long as me, your sons will never be able to succeed you in the position of Nasi. As such, they will never achieve greatness in Torah, and it will be as if they just tended cattle throughout their lives. It is therefore better that your life not be so prolonged, so that they have the opportunity to rise to eminence., bAvuh bar Ihi and Minyamin bar Ihiboth spoke on this topic: bOneof them bsaid: Maya blessing bcome to me for I never gazed ata wicked bgentile. Andthe other bone said: Maya blessing bcome to me for I never formed a partnership witha wicked bgentile,so as not to have any association with a wicked person.,The Gemara presents a similar incident: bRabbi Zeira wasonce basked by his disciples: Inthe merit of bwhichvirtue bwere youblessed with blongevity? He said to them: Inall bmy days, I was never angry inside my housewith members of my household who acted against my wishes. bNor did Iever bwalk ahead of someone who was a greaterTorah scholar bthan me. Nor did Iever bmeditateupon words of Torah bin filthy alleyways,as doing so is a disgrace to the Torah. bNor did Iever bwalk four cubits withoutmeditating on words of bTorah or withoutwearing bphylacteries. Nor did Iever bsleep in a study hall, neither a deep sleep or a brief nap. Nor did Iever brejoice when my fellow stumbled. Nor did Iever bcall my fellow by his derogatory nickname [ iḥanikhato /i]. And some saythat he said: I never called my fellow by bhis nickname [ iḥakhinato /i],i.e., even one that is not derogatory., strongMISHNA: /strong bAnd Rabbi Yehuda said further: A synagogue that fell into ruinstill may not be used for a mundane purpose. Therefore, bone may not eulogize in it. And nor may one stretch outand repair bropes in it.The wide expanse of the synagogue would have been particularly suitable for this. bAnd nor may one spreadanimal btraps within it. And nor may one spread out produce upon its roofto dry. bAnd nor may one make itinto ba shortcut. /b,The ihalakhathat a synagogue in disrepair still may not be used for mundane purposes is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “And I will bring desolation to your sanctuaries”(Leviticus 26:31). The fact that the word “sanctuaries” appears after the word “desolation” indicates that btheir sanctityremains upon them beven when they are desolate. /b,However, if bgrass sprang upof its own accord binthe ruined synagogue, although it is not befitting its sanctity, bone should not pickit, bdue tothe banguishthat it will bring to those who see it. It will remind them of the disrepair of the synagogue and the need to rebuild it., strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bsynagogues: One may not act inside them with frivolity.Therefore, bone may not eat in them; nor may one drink in them; /b
18. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31b. שמשהין עצמן בבטן כדי שיזריעו נשותיהן תחלה שיהו בניהם זכרים מעלה עליהן הכתוב כאילו הם מרבים בנים ובני בנים והיינו דאמר רב קטינא יכולני לעשות כל בני זכרים אמר רבא הרוצה לעשות כל בניו זכרים יבעול וישנה,ואמר רבי יצחק אמר רבי אמי אין אשה מתעברת אלא סמוך לוסתה שנאמר (תהלים נא, ז) הן בעון חוללתי,ורבי יוחנן אמר סמוך לטבילה שנאמר (תהלים נא, ז) ובחטא יחמתני אמי,מאי משמע דהאי חטא לישנא דדכויי הוא דכתיב (ויקרא יד, מט) וחטא את הבית ומתרגמינן וידכי ית ביתא ואי בעית אימא מהכא (תהלים נא, ט) תחטאני באזוב ואטהר,ואמר רבי יצחק אמר רבי אמי כיון שבא זכר בעולם בא שלום בעולם שנאמר (ישעיהו טז, א) שלחו כר מושל ארץ זכר זה כר,ואמר ר' יצחק דבי רבי אמי בא זכר בעולם בא ככרו בידו זכר זה כר דכתיב (מלכים ב ו, כג) ויכרה להם כירה גדולה,נקבה אין עמה כלום נקבה נקייה באה עד דאמרה מזוני לא יהבי לה דכתיב (בראשית ל, כח) נקבה שכרך עלי ואתנה,שאלו תלמידיו את רבי שמעון בן יוחי מפני מה אמרה תורה יולדת מביאה קרבן אמר להן בשעה שכורעת לילד קופצת ונשבעת שלא תזקק לבעלה לפיכך אמרה תורה תביא קרבן,מתקיף לה רב יוסף והא מזידה היא ובחרטה תליא מילתא ועוד קרבן שבועה בעי איתויי,ומפני מה אמרה תורה זכר לשבעה ונקבה לארבעה עשר זכר שהכל שמחים בו מתחרטת לשבעה נקבה שהכל עצבים בה מתחרטת לארבעה עשר,ומפני מה אמרה תורה מילה לשמונה שלא יהו כולם שמחים ואביו ואמו עצבים,תניא היה ר"מ אומר מפני מה אמרה תורה נדה לשבעה מפני שרגיל בה וקץ בה אמרה תורה תהא טמאה שבעה ימים כדי שתהא חביבה על בעלה כשעת כניסתה לחופה,שאלו תלמידיו את רבי דוסתאי ברבי ינאי מפני מה איש מחזר על אשה ואין אשה מחזרת על איש משל לאדם שאבד לו אבידה מי מחזר על מי בעל אבידה מחזיר על אבידתו,ומפני מה איש פניו למטה ואשה פניה למעלה כלפי האיש זה ממקום שנברא וזו ממקום שנבראת,ומפני מה האיש מקבל פיוס ואין אשה מקבלת פיוס זה ממקום שנברא וזו ממקום שנבראת,מפני מה אשה קולה ערב ואין איש קולו ערב זה ממקום שנברא וזו ממקום שנבראת שנאמר {שיר השירים ב } כי קולך ערב ומראך נאוה, br br big strongהדרן עלך המפלת חתיכה /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongבנות /strong /big כותים נדות מעריסתן והכותים מטמאים משכב תחתון כעליון מפני שהן בועלי נדות,והן יושבות על כל דם ודם,ואין חייבין עליהן על ביאת מקדש ואין שורפין עליהם את התרומה מפני שטומאתן ספק, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ה"ד אי דקא חזיין אפילו דידן נמי ואי דלא קחזיין דידהו נמי לא,אמר רבא בריה דרב אחא בר רב הונא אמר רב ששת הכא במאי עסקינן בסתמא דכיון דאיכא מיעוטא דחזיין חיישינן ומאן תנא דחייש למיעוטא 31b. bthey delaywhile bintheir wives’ babdomen,initially refraining from emitting semen bso that their wives will emit seed first,in order bthat their children will be male, the verse ascribes themcredit bas though they have many sons and sons’ sons. And thisstatement bisthe same as that bwhich Rav Ketina said: I could have made all of my children males,by refraining from emitting seed until my wife emitted seed first. bRava saysanother method through which one can cause his children to be males: bOne who wishes to make all of his children males should engage in intercoursewith his wife band repeatthe act.,§ bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak saysthat bRabbi Ami says: A woman becomes pregt onlyby engaging in intercourse bclose to the onset of hermenstrual bcycle, as it is stated: “Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity”(Psalms 51:7). This iniquity is referring to intercourse close to the woman’s menstrual cycle, when intercourse is prohibited. Accordingly, David is saying that his mother presumably conceived him at this time., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says:A woman becomes pregt only by engaging in intercourse bnearthe time of her bimmersionin a ritual bath, through which she is purified from her status as a menstruating woman, bas it is statedin the continuation of the same verse: b“And in sin [ iuvḥet /i] did my mother conceive me”(Psalms 51:7).,The Gemara explains this derivation: bFrom where mayit bbe inferred that this term “ iḥet /i” isa reference bto purity?The Gemara answers: bAs it is writtenwith regard to leprosy of houses: b“ iVeḥitteithe house”(Leviticus 14:52), band we translatethe verse into Aramaic as: bAnd he shall purify the house. And if you wish, saythat the interpretation is derived bfrom here: “Purge me [ iteḥatte’eni /i] with hyssop, and I shall be pure”(Psalms 51:9). Evidently, the root iḥet /i, itet /i, ialefrefers to purification.,§ bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak saysthat bRabbi Ami says: When a male comes into the world,i.e., when a male baby is born, bpeace comes to the world, as it is stated: “Send the lambs [ ikhar /i] for the ruler of the land”(Isaiah 16:1). This ikhar /i, or ikar /i, a gift one sends the ruler, contributes to the stability of the government and peace, and the word bmale [ izakhar /i]can be interpreted homiletically as an abbreviation of: bThis is a ikar[ izeh kar /i]. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yitzḥak from the school of Rabbi Ami says: When a male comes into the world, his loafof bread, i.e., his sustece, bcomes into his possession.In other words, a male can provide for himself. This is based on the aforementioned interpretation of the word bmale [ izakhar /i]as an abbreviation of: bThis is a ikar[ izeh kar /i],and the term ikarrefers to sustece, bas it is written: “And he prepared great provision [ ikera /i] for them”(II Kings 6:23).,By contrast, bwhen a female comes into the world, nothing,i.e., no sustece, comes bwith her.This is derived from the homiletic interpretation of the word bfemale [ inekeva /i]as an abbreviation of the phrase: bShe comes clean [ inekiya ba’a /i],i.e., empty. Furthermore, buntil she says:Give me bsustece,people bdo not give her, as it is writtenin Laban’s request of Jacob: b“Appoint me [ inokva /i] your wages, and I will give it”(Genesis 30:28). Laban used the word inokva /i, similar to inekeva /i, when he said that he would pay Jacob only if he explicitly demanded his wages., bThe students of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai asked him: For whatreason bdoes the Torah saythat ba woman after childbirth brings an offering? He said to them: At the time thata woman bcrouches to give birth,her pain is so great that bshe impulsively takes an oath that she will not engage in intercourse with her husbandever again, so that she will never again experience this pain. bTherefore, the Torah saysthat bshe must bring an offeringfor violating her oath and continuing to engage in intercourse with her husband., bRav Yosef objects to thisanswer: bBut isn’tthe woman ban intentional violatorof her oath? bAndif she wishes that her oath be dissolved, so that she may engage in intercourse with her husband, bthe matter depends onher bregretof her oath. One is obligated to bring an offering for violating an oath of an utterance only if his transgression is unwitting. bAnd furthermore,if the purpose of the offering that a woman brings after childbirth is to atone for violating an oath, then bsheshould be brequired to bringa female lamb or goat as ban offering,which is the requirement of one who violated ban oath,rather than the bird offering brought by a woman after childbirth., bAndthe students of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai further inquired of him: bFor whatreason bdoes the Torah saythat a woman who gives birth to ba maleis ritually impure bfor sevendays, bbuta woman who gives birth to ba femaleis impure bfor fourteendays? Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai answered them: When a woman gives birth to ba male, over which everyone is happy, she regretsher oath, that she will never again engage in intercourse with her husband, already bsevendays after giving birth. By contrast, after giving birth to ba female, over which everyone is unhappy, she regretsher oath only bfourteendays after giving birth., bAndthe students further asked him: bFor whatreason bdoes the Torah saythat bcircumcisionis performed only bon the eighthday of the baby’s life, and not beforehand? He answered them: It is bso thatthere bwill not bea situation where beveryoneis bhappyat the circumcision ceremony bbut the father and mother ofthe infant bare unhappy,as they are still prohibited from engaging in intercourse., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Meir would say: For whatreason bdoes the Torah saythat ba menstruating womanis prohibited from engaging in intercourse with her husband bfor sevendays? It is bbecauseif a woman were permitted to engage in intercourse with her husband all the time, her husband would be too baccustomed to her, andwould eventually be brepulsed by her.Therefore, bthe Torah saysthat a menstruating woman bshall be ritually impurefor bseven days,during which she is prohibited from engaging in intercourse with her husband, bso thatwhen she becomes pure again bshe will be dear to her husband asat bthe time when she entered the wedding canopywith him.,§ bThe students of Rabbi Dostai, son of Rabbi Yannai, asked him: For whatreason is it the norm that ba man pursues a womanfor marriage, bbut a woman does not pursue a man?Rabbi Dostai answered them by citing ba parable of a person who lost an item. Who searches for what?Certainly bthe owner of the lost item searches for his item;the item does not search for its owner. Since the first woman was created from the body of the first man, the man seeks that which he has lost., bAndthe students of Rabbi Dostai further asked him: bFor whatreason does ba manengage in intercourse bfacing down, and a womanengage in intercourse bfacing up toward the man?Rabbi Dostai answered them: bThisman faces bthe place from which he was created,i.e., the earth, band thatwoman faces bthe place from which she was created,namely man., bAndthe students also inquired: bFor whatreason is ba manwho is angry likely to baccept appeasement, but a womanis bnotas likely to baccept appeasement?Rabbi Dostai answered them: It is bbecause thisman behaves like bthe place from which he was created,i.e., the earth, which yields to pressure, band thatwoman behaves like bthe place from which she was created,i.e., from bone, which cannot be molded easily.,The students continued to ask Rabbi Dostai: bFor whatreason bis a woman’s voice pleasant, but a man’s voice is not pleasant?He answered: bThisman is similar to bthe place from which he was created,the earth, which does not issue a sound when it is struck, band thatwoman is similar to bthe place from which she was created,a bone, which makes a sound when it is struck. The proof that a woman’s voice is pleasant is bthat it is statedin Song of Songs that the man says to his beloved: b“For sweet is your voice, and your countece is beautiful”(Song of Songs 2:14).,, strongMISHNA: /strong Samaritan bgirlsare considered bmenstruating women fromthe time they lie in btheir cradle. And the Samaritanmen bimpart ritual impurityto the blower bedding like the upperbedding, i.e., all layers of bedding beneath them are impure, and their status is like the bedding above a man who experiences a gonorrhea-like discharge [ izav /i]: The status of both levels of bedding is that of first-degree ritual impurity, which can impart impurity to food and drink. This is bdue tothe fact bthatSamaritan men are considered men who bengage in intercourse with menstruating women. /b, bAndthey are considered men who engage in intercourse with menstruating women because Samaritan women bobservethe seven-day menstrual period of ritual impurity bfor each and everyemission of bblood,even for blood that does not render them impure. Accordingly, if a Samaritan woman has an emission of impure blood during the seven-day period, she will nevertheless continue counting seven days from the first emission. It is therefore possible that the Samaritan men will engage in intercourse with their wives while they are still halakhically considered menstruating women, as the seven-day period of impurity should have been counted from the emission of the impure blood., bButone who enters the Temple while wearing bthosegarments upon which a Samaritan had lain bis not liableto bring an offering bfor entering the Templein a status of impurity, bnor does one burn iteruma /ithat came into contact with bthosegarments, bbecause their impurityis buncertain. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that Samaritan girls are considered menstruating women from the time they lie in their cradle. The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof this statement? bIfthe mishna is referring to girls bwhoalready bseemenstrual blood, then beven our own,i.e., Jewish girls, are balsoconsidered menstruating women under such circumstances. bAnd ifit is referring to girls bwho do notyet bseemenstrual blood, then btheirgirls, i.e., those of the Samaritans, should balso nothave the status of menstruating women., bRava, son of Rav Aḥa bar Rav Huna, saysthat bRav Sheshet says: Here we are dealing with an unspecifiedcase, i.e., it is unknown whether these girls have experienced their first menstrual period. bSince there is a minorityof girls bwho seemenstrual blood, bwe are concernedwith regard to each Samaritan girl that she might be from this minority. The Gemara asks: bAnd whois the itannawho btaught that one must be concerned for the minority? /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
admonition Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
apostates/apostasy Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 54
audience Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 83
cairo genizah Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
essenes Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
exegesis, pesher Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8, 185
exile/exilic Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 54
god Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185
hebrew, biblical Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185
hebrew, medieval Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185
hebrew, mishnaic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185
hebrew, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185
holiness Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 83
initiation ceremony, process Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 54
jerusalem Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185
joshua Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 54
laity, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 54
law, jewish Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
manual of discipline, literary structure of, history of text Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185
manual of discipline Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
novitiate, novice Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
penal code of the manual of discipline Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 54, 83
priests, aaronide Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 54
qumran, headquarters of sect Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
qumran/qumran community Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 54
revelation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 54
sages, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 54
sect, admittance to Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8, 185
sect, enemies of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185
sect, history of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
sect, replacement temple Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
sectarian/sectarianism Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 54, 83
sectarian settlements, texts, composition and redaction Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
sectarian settlements Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
teacher of righteousness Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 54
tetragrammaton Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185
torah' Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 54
zadokite fragments Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8, 185