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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



2784
Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 7
NaN


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

44 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, a b c d\n0 - None\n1 . . \n2 1 1 1 None\n3 15.2 15.2 15 2 \n4 17.13 17.13 17 13 \n5 17.8 17.8 17 8 \n6 19 19 19 None\n7 2 2 2 None\n8 20 20 20 None\n9 21 21 21 None\n10 22 22 22 None\n11 23 23 23 None\n12 24.1 24.1 24 1 \n13 3 3 3 None\n14 30.4 30.4 30 4 \n15 30.5 30.5 30 5 \n16 32.35 32.35 32 35 \n17 32.47 32.47 32 47 \n18 4 4 4 None\n19 5 5 5 None\n20 5.13 5.13 5 13 \n21 7 7 7 None\n22 8 8 8 None\n23 9 9 9 None (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.16, 16.29, 20.9, 22.24, 31.14-31.15, 31.17, 35.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.16. וּבַיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם כָּל־מְלָאכָה לֹא־יֵעָשֶׂה בָהֶם אַךְ אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל לְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ הוּא לְבַדּוֹ יֵעָשֶׂה לָכֶם׃ 16.29. רְאוּ כִּי־יְהוָה נָתַן לָכֶם הַשַּׁבָּת עַל־כֵּן הוּא נֹתֵן לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי לֶחֶם יוֹמָיִם שְׁבוּ אִישׁ תַּחְתָּיו אַל־יֵצֵא אִישׁ מִמְּקֹמוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃ 20.9. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ 22.24. אִם־כֶּסֶף תַּלְוֶה אֶת־עַמִּי אֶת־הֶעָנִי עִמָּךְ לֹא־תִהְיֶה לוֹ כְּנֹשֶׁה לֹא־תְשִׂימוּן עָלָיו נֶשֶׁךְ׃ 31.14. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּת כִּי קֹדֶשׁ הִוא לָכֶם מְחַלְלֶיהָ מוֹת יוּמָת כִּי כָּל־הָעֹשֶׂה בָהּ מְלָאכָה וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִקֶּרֶב עַמֶּיהָ׃ 31.15. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים יֵעָשֶׂה מְלָאכָה וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה כָּל־הָעֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 31.17. בֵּינִי וּבֵין בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹת הִוא לְעֹלָם כִּי־שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שָׁבַת וַיִּנָּפַשׁ׃ 35.3. לֹא־תְבַעֲרוּ אֵשׁ בְּכֹל מֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת׃ 35.3. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל רְאוּ קָרָא יְהוָה בְּשֵׁם בְּצַלְאֵל בֶּן־אוּרִי בֶן־חוּר לְמַטֵּה יְהוּדָה׃ 12.16. And in the first day there shall be to you a holy convocation, and in the seventh day a holy convocation; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done by you." 16.29. See that the LORD hath given you the sabbath; therefore He giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days; abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day.’" 20.9. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;" 22.24. If thou lend money to any of My people, even to the poor with thee, thou shalt not be to him as a creditor; neither shall ye lay upon him interest." 31.14. Ye shall keep the sabbath therefore, for it is holy unto you; every one that profaneth it shall surely be put to death; for whosoever doeth any work therein, that soul shall be cut off from among his people." 31.15. Six days shall work be done; but on the seventh day is a sabbath of solemn rest, holy to the LORD; whosoever doeth any work in the sabbath day, he shall surely be put to death." 31.17. It is a sign between Me and the children of Israel for ever; for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day He ceased from work and rested.’" 35.3. Ye shall kindle no fire throughout your habitations upon the sabbath day.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 5, 2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 40.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

40.14. וְגַם־אֲנִי אוֹדֶךָּ כִּי־תוֹשִׁעַ לְךָ יְמִינֶךָ׃ 40.14. Then will I also confess unto thee That thine own right hand can save thee."
6. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2.12-2.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.12. וְגַם־עַתָּה נְאֻם־יְהוָה שֻׁבוּ עָדַי בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶם וּבְצוֹם וּבְבְכִי וּבְמִסְפֵּד׃ 2.13. וְקִרְעוּ לְבַבְכֶם וְאַל־בִּגְדֵיכֶם וְשׁוּבוּ אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כִּי־חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם הוּא אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם וְרַב־חֶסֶד וְנִחָם עַל־הָרָעָה׃ 2.12. Yet even now, saith the LORD, Turn ye unto Me with all your heart, And with fasting, and with weeping, and with lamentation;" 2.13. And rend your heart, and not your garments, And turn unto the LORD your God; For He is gracious and compassionate, long-suffering, and abundant in mercy, And repenteth Him of the evil."
7. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 4.2-4.28, 5.1, 5.6, 19.17-19.18, 21.7, 26.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.2. וְעָשָׂה לַפָּר כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְפַר הַחַטָּאת כֵּן יַעֲשֶׂה־לּוֹ וְכִפֶּר עֲלֵהֶם הַכֹּהֵן וְנִסְלַח לָהֶם׃ 4.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר נֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תֶחֱטָא בִשְׁגָגָה מִכֹּל מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְעָשָׂה מֵאַחַת מֵהֵנָּה׃ 4.3. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִדָּמָהּ בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ וְנָתַן עַל־קַרְנֹת מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־כָּל־דָּמָהּ יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסוֹד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 4.3. אִם הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ יֶחֱטָא לְאַשְׁמַת הָעָם וְהִקְרִיב עַל חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר תָּמִים לַיהוָה לְחַטָּאת׃ 4.4. וְהֵבִיא אֶת־הַפָּר אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְסָמַךְ אֶת־יָדוֹ עַל־רֹאשׁ הַפָּר וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַפָּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 4.5. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ מִדַּם הַפָּר וְהֵבִיא אֹתוֹ אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.6. וְטָבַל הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־אֶצְבָּעוֹ בַּדָּם וְהִזָּה מִן־הַדָּם שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֶת־פְּנֵי פָּרֹכֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ׃ 4.7. וְנָתַן הַכֹּהֵן מִן־הַדָּם עַל־קַרְנוֹת מִזְבַּח קְטֹרֶת הַסַּמִּים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֵת כָּל־דַּם הַפָּר יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסוֹד מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.8. וְאֶת־כָּל־חֵלֶב פַּר הַחַטָּאת יָרִים מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת־הַחֵלֶב הַמְכַסֶּה עַל־הַקֶּרֶב וְאֵת כָּל־הַחֵלֶב אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַקֶּרֶב׃ 4.9. וְאֵת שְׁתֵּי הַכְּלָיֹת וְאֶת־הַחֵלֶב אֲשֶׁר עֲלֵיהֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַכְּסָלִים וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶרֶת עַל־הַכָּבֵד עַל־הַכְּלָיוֹת יְסִירֶנָּה׃ 4.11. וְאֶת־עוֹר הַפָּר וְאֶת־כָּל־בְּשָׂרוֹ עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ וְעַל־כְּרָעָיו וְקִרְבּוֹ וּפִרְשׁוֹ׃ 4.12. וְהוֹצִיא אֶת־כָּל־הַפָּר אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה אֶל־מָקוֹם טָהוֹר אֶל־שֶׁפֶךְ הַדֶּשֶׁן וְשָׂרַף אֹתוֹ עַל־עֵצִים בָּאֵשׁ עַל־שֶׁפֶךְ הַדֶּשֶׁן יִשָּׂרֵף׃ 4.13. וְאִם כָּל־עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל יִשְׁגּוּ וְנֶעְלַם דָּבָר מֵעֵינֵי הַקָּהָל וְעָשׂוּ אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְאָשֵׁמוּ׃ 4.14. וְנוֹדְעָה הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר חָטְאוּ עָלֶיהָ וְהִקְרִיבוּ הַקָּהָל פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר לְחַטָּאת וְהֵבִיאוּ אֹתוֹ לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.15. וְסָמְכוּ זִקְנֵי הָעֵדָה אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם עַל־רֹאשׁ הַפָּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַפָּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 4.16. וְהֵבִיא הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ מִדַּם הַפָּר אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.17. וְטָבַל הַכֹּהֵן אֶצְבָּעוֹ מִן־הַדָּם וְהִזָּה שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֵת פְּנֵי הַפָּרֹכֶת׃ 4.18. וּמִן־הַדָּם יִתֵּן עַל־קַרְנֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֵת כָּל־הַדָּם יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסוֹד מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.19. וְאֵת כָּל־חֶלְבּוֹ יָרִים מִמֶּנּוּ וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה׃ 4.21. וְהוֹצִיא אֶת־הַפָּר אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְשָׂרַף אֹתוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר שָׂרַף אֵת הַפָּר הָרִאשׁוֹן חַטַּאת הַקָּהָל הוּא׃ 4.22. אֲשֶׁר נָשִׂיא יֶחֱטָא וְעָשָׂה אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תֵעָשֶׂינָה בִּשְׁגָגָה וְאָשֵׁם׃ 4.23. אוֹ־הוֹדַע אֵלָיו חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא בָּהּ וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנוֹ שְׂעִיר עִזִּים זָכָר תָּמִים׃ 4.24. וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ עַל־רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר וְשָׁחַט אֹתוֹ בִּמְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁחַט אֶת־הָעֹלָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה חַטָּאת הוּא׃ 4.25. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִדַּם הַחַטָּאת בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ וְנָתַן עַל־קַרְנֹת מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־דָּמוֹ יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסוֹד מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה׃ 4.26. וְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבּוֹ יַקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה כְּחֵלֶב זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 4.27. וְאִם־נֶפֶשׁ אַחַת תֶּחֱטָא בִשְׁגָגָה מֵעַם הָאָרֶץ בַּעֲשֹׂתָהּ אַחַת מִמִּצְוֺת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְאָשֵׁם׃ 4.28. אוֹ הוֹדַע אֵלָיו חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא וְהֵבִיא קָרְבָּנוֹ שְׂעִירַת עִזִּים תְּמִימָה נְקֵבָה עַל־חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא׃ 5.1. וְנֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תֶחֱטָא וְשָׁמְעָה קוֹל אָלָה וְהוּא עֵד אוֹ רָאָה אוֹ יָדָע אִם־לוֹא יַגִּיד וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 5.1. וְאֶת־הַשֵּׁנִי יַעֲשֶׂה עֹלָה כַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 5.6. וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ לַיהוָה עַל חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא נְקֵבָה מִן־הַצֹּאן כִּשְׂבָּה אוֹ־שְׂעִירַת עִזִּים לְחַטָּאת וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ׃ 19.17. לֹא־תִשְׂנָא אֶת־אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא עָלָיו חֵטְא׃ 19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 21.7. אִשָּׁה זֹנָה וַחֲלָלָה לֹא יִקָּחוּ וְאִשָּׁה גְּרוּשָׁה מֵאִישָׁהּ לֹא יִקָּחוּ כִּי־קָדֹשׁ הוּא לֵאלֹהָיו׃ 26.31. וְנָתַתִּי אֶת־עָרֵיכֶם חָרְבָּה וַהֲשִׁמּוֹתִי אֶת־מִקְדְּשֵׁיכֶם וְלֹא אָרִיחַ בְּרֵיחַ נִיחֹחֲכֶם׃ 4.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: If any one shall sin through error, in any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, and shall do any one of them:" 4.3. if the anointed priest shall sin so as to bring guilt on the people, then let him offer for his sin, which he hath sinned, a young bullock without blemish unto the LORD for a sin-offering." 4.4. And he shall bring the bullock unto the door of the tent of meeting before the LORD; and he shall lay his hand upon the head of the bullock, and kill the bullock before the LORD." 4.5. And the anointed priest shall take of the blood of the bullock, and bring it to the tent of meeting." 4.6. And the priest shall dip his finger in the blood, and sprinkle of the blood seven times before the LORD, in front of the veil of the sanctuary." 4.7. And the priest shall put of the blood upon the horns of the altar of sweet incense before the LORD, which is in the tent of meeting; and all the remaining blood of the bullock shall he pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering, which is at the door of the tent of meeting." 4.8. And all the fat of the bullock of the sin-offering he shall take off from it; the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards," 4.9. and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is by the loins, and the lobe above the liver, which he shall take away by kidneys," 4.10. as it is taken off from the ox of the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make them smoke upon the altar of burnt-offering." 4.11. But the skin of the bullock, and all its flesh, with its head, and with its legs, and its inwards, and its dung," 4.12. even the whole bullock shall he carry forth without the camp unto a clean place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn it on wood with fire; where the ashes are poured out shall it be burnt." 4.13. And if the whole congregation of Israel shall err, the thing being hid from the eyes of the assembly, and do any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, and are guilty:" 4.14. when the sin wherein they have sinned is known, then the assembly shall offer a young bullock for a sin-offering, and bring it before the tent of meeting." 4.15. And the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands upon the head of the bullock before the LORD; and the bullock shall be killed before the LORD." 4.16. And the anointed priest shall bring of the blood of the bullock to the tent of meeting." 4.17. And the priest shall dip his finger in the blood, and sprinkle it seven times before the LORD, in front of the veil." 4.18. And he shall put of the blood upon the horns of the altar which is before the LORD, that is in the tent of meeting, and all the remaining blood shall he pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering, which is at the door of the tent of meeting." 4.19. And all the fat thereof shall he take off from it, and make it smoke upon the altar." 4.20. Thus shall he do with the bullock; as he did with the bullock of the sin-offering, so shall he do with this; and the priest shall make atonement for them, and they shall be forgiven." 4.21. And he shall carry forth the bullock without the camp, and burn it as he burned the first bullock; it is the sin-offering for the assembly." 4.22. When a ruler sinneth, and doeth through error any one of all the things which the LORD his God hath commanded not to be done, and is guilty:" 4.23. if his sin, wherein he hath sinned, be known to him, he shall bring for his offering a goat, a male without blemish." 4.24. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the goat, and kill it in the place where they kill the burnt-offering before the LORD; it is a sin-offering." 4.25. And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin-offering with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and the remaining blood thereof shall he pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering." 4.26. And all the fat thereof shall he make smoke upon the altar, as the fat of the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin, and he shall be forgiven." 4.27. And if any one of the common people sin through error, in doing any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, and be guilty:" 4.28. if his sin, which he hath sinned, be known to him, then he shall bring for his offering a goat, a female without blemish, for his sin which he hath sinned." 5.1. And if any one sin, in that he heareth the voice of adjuration, he being a witness, whether he hath seen or known, if he do not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity;" 5.6. and he shall bring his forfeit unto the LORD for his sin which he hath sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a goat, for a sin-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin." 19.17. Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart; thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him." 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD." 21.7. They shall not take a woman that is a harlot, or profaned; neither shall they take a woman put away from her husband; for he is holy unto his God." 26.31. And I will make your cities a waste, and will bring your sanctuaries unto desolation, and I will not smell the savour of your sweet odours."
8. Hebrew Bible, Nahum, 1.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. אֵל קַנּוֹא וְנֹקֵם יְהוָה נֹקֵם יְהוָה וּבַעַל חֵמָה נֹקֵם יְהוָה לְצָרָיו וְנוֹטֵר הוּא לְאֹיְבָיו׃ 1.2. The LORD is a jealous and avenging God, The LORD avengeth and is full of wrath; The LORD taketh vengeance on His adversaries, And He reserveth wrath for His enemies."
9. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 21.17-21.20, 24.17, 30.15, 31.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.17. אָז יָשִׁיר יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת עֲלִי בְאֵר עֱנוּ־לָהּ׃ 21.18. בְּאֵר חֲפָרוּהָ שָׂרִים כָּרוּהָ נְדִיבֵי הָעָם בִּמְחֹקֵק בְּמִשְׁעֲנֹתָם וּמִמִּדְבָּר מַתָּנָה׃ 21.19. וּמִמַּתָּנָה נַחֲלִיאֵל וּמִנַּחֲלִיאֵל בָּמוֹת׃ 24.17. אֶרְאֶנּוּ וְלֹא עַתָּה אֲשׁוּרֶנּוּ וְלֹא קָרוֹב דָּרַךְ כּוֹכָב מִיַּעֲקֹב וְקָם שֵׁבֶט מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וּמָחַץ פַּאֲתֵי מוֹאָב וְקַרְקַר כָּל־בְּנֵי־שֵׁת׃ 30.15. וְאִם־הַחֲרֵשׁ יַחֲרִישׁ לָהּ אִישָׁהּ מִיּוֹם אֶל־יוֹם וְהֵקִים אֶת־כָּל־נְדָרֶיהָ אוֹ אֶת־כָּל־אֱסָרֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ הֵקִים אֹתָם כִּי־הֶחֱרִשׁ לָהּ בְּיוֹם שָׁמְעוֹ׃ 31.2. נְקֹם נִקְמַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵאֵת הַמִּדְיָנִים אַחַר תֵּאָסֵף אֶל־עַמֶּיךָ׃ 31.2. וְכָל־בֶּגֶד וְכָל־כְּלִי־עוֹר וְכָל־מַעֲשֵׂה עִזִּים וְכָל־כְּלִי־עֵץ תִּתְחַטָּאוּ׃ 21.17. Then sang Israel this song: Spring up, O well—sing ye unto it—" 21.18. The well, which the princes digged, Which the nobles of the people delved, With the sceptre, and with their staves. And from the wilderness to Mattanah;" 21.19. and from Mattanah to Nahaliel; and from Nahaliel to Bamoth;" 21.20. and from Bamoth to the valley that is in the field of Moab, by the top of Pisgah, which looketh down upon the desert." 24.17. I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not nigh; There shall step forth a star out of Jacob, And a scepter shall rise out of Israel, And shall smite through the corners of Moab, And break down all the sons of Seth." 30.15. But if her husband altogether hold his peace at her from day to day, then he causeth all her vows to stand, or all her bonds, which are upon her; he hath let them stand, because he held his peace at her in the day that he heard them." 31.2. ’Avenge the children of Israel of the Midianites; afterward shalt thou be gathered unto thy people.’"
10. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 15.8, 15.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.8. זֶבַח רְשָׁעִים תּוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה וּתְפִלַּת יְשָׁרִים רְצוֹנוֹ׃ 15.29. רָחוֹק יְהוָה מֵרְשָׁעִים וּתְפִלַּת צַדִּיקִים יִשְׁמָע׃ 15.8. The sacrifice of the wicked is an abomination to the LORD; But the prayer of the upright is His delight." 15.29. The LORD is far from the wicked; But He heareth the prayer of the righteous."
11. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 44.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

44.4. כִּי לֹא בְחַרְבָּם יָרְשׁוּ אָרֶץ וּזְרוֹעָם לֹא־הוֹשִׁיעָה לָּמוֹ כִּי־יְמִינְךָ וּזְרוֹעֲךָ וְאוֹר פָּנֶיךָ כִּי רְצִיתָם׃ 44.4. For not by their own sword did they get the land in possession, Neither did their own arm save them; but Thy right hand, and Thine arm, and the light of Thy countece, because Thou wast favourable unto them."
12. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 17.1, 20.33 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

17.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלִיָּהוּ הַתִּשְׁבִּי מִתֹּשָׁבֵי גִלְעָד אֶל־אַחְאָב חַי־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר עָמַדְתִּי לְפָנָיו אִם־יִהְיֶה הַשָּׁנִים הָאֵלֶּה טַל וּמָטָר כִּי אִם־לְפִי דְבָרִי׃ 17.1. וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ צָרְפַתָה וַיָּבֹא אֶל־פֶּתַח הָעִיר וְהִנֵּה־שָׁם אִשָּׁה אַלְמָנָה מְקֹשֶׁשֶׁת עֵצִים וַיִּקְרָא אֵלֶיהָ וַיֹּאמַר קְחִי־נָא לִי מְעַט־מַיִם בַּכְּלִי וְאֶשְׁתֶּה׃ 20.33. וְהָאֲנָשִׁים יְנַחֲשׁוּ וַיְמַהֲרוּ וַיַּחְלְטוּ הֲמִמֶּנּוּ וַיֹּאמְרוּ אָחִיךָ בֶן־הֲדַד וַיֹּאמֶר בֹּאוּ קָחֻהוּ וַיֵּצֵא אֵלָיו בֶּן־הֲדַד וַיַּעֲלֵהוּ עַל־הַמֶּרְכָּבָה׃ 17.1. And Elijah the Tishbite, who was of the settlers of Gilead, said unto Ahab: ‘As the LORD, the God of Israel, liveth, before whom I stand, there shall not be dew nor rain these years, but according to my word.’" 20.33. Now the men took it for a sign, and hastened to catch it from him; and they said: ‘Thy brother Ben-hadad.’ Then he said: ‘Go ye, bring him.’ Then Ben-hadad came forth to him; and he caused him to come up into his chariot."
13. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 25.26, 25.31, 25.33 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

25.26. וְעַתָּה אֲדֹנִי חַי־יְהוָה וְחֵי־נַפְשְׁךָ אֲשֶׁר מְנָעֲךָ יְהוָה מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים וְהוֹשֵׁעַ יָדְךָ לָךְ וְעַתָּה יִהְיוּ כְנָבָל אֹיְבֶיךָ וְהַמְבַקְשִׁים אֶל־אֲדֹנִי רָעָה׃ 25.31. וְלֹא תִהְיֶה זֹאת לְךָ לְפוּקָה וּלְמִכְשׁוֹל לֵב לַאדֹנִי וְלִשְׁפָּךְ־דָּם חִנָּם וּלְהוֹשִׁיעַ אֲדֹנִי לוֹ וְהֵיטִב יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי וְזָכַרְתָּ אֶת־אֲמָתֶךָ׃ 25.33. וּבָרוּךְ טַעְמֵךְ וּבְרוּכָה אָתְּ אֲשֶׁר כְּלִתִנִי הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים וְהֹשֵׁעַ יָדִי לִי׃ 25.26. Now therefore, my lord, as the Lord lives, and as thy soul lives, seeing the Lord has prevented thee from coming to shed blood, and from avenging thyself with thy own hand, now let thy enemies, and they that seek evil to my lord, be as Naval." 25.31. that this shall not be a cause of stumbling to thee, nor offence of heart to my lord, that thou hast shed blood causelessly, or that my lord has avenged himself: and the Lord shall deal well with my lord, and thou shalt remember thy handmaid." 25.33. and blessed be thy discretion, and blessed be thou who hast kept me this day from coming to shed blood, and from avenging myself with my own hand."
14. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 14.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14.13. וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה וְלָמָּה חָשַׁבְתָּה כָּזֹאת עַל־עַם אֱלֹהִים וּמִדַּבֵּר הַמֶּלֶךְ הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה כְּאָשֵׁם לְבִלְתִּי הָשִׁיב הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־נִדְּחוֹ׃ 14.13. And the woman said, Why then hast thou continued such a thing against the people of God? the king speaks this thing as one that is guilty, in that the king does not fetch home again his banished one:"
15. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 5.26-5.27, 8.5 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

5.26. וּנְשָׂאתֶם אֵת סִכּוּת מַלְכְּכֶם וְאֵת כִּיּוּן צַלְמֵיכֶם כּוֹכַב אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר עֲשִׂיתֶם לָכֶם׃ 5.27. וְהִגְלֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵהָלְאָה לְדַמָּשֶׂק אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ 8.5. לֵאמֹר מָתַי יַעֲבֹר הַחֹדֶשׁ וְנַשְׁבִּירָה שֶּׁבֶר וְהַשַּׁבָּת וְנִפְתְּחָה־בָּר לְהַקְטִין אֵיפָה וּלְהַגְדִּיל שֶׁקֶל וּלְעַוֵּת מֹאזְנֵי מִרְמָה׃ 5.26. So shall ye take up Siccuth your king and Chiun your images, the star of your god, which ye made to yourselves." 5.27. Therefore will I cause you to go into captivity beyond Damascus, saith He, whose name is the LORD God of hosts." 8.5. Saying: ‘When will the new moon be gone, that we may sell grain? And the sabbath, that we may set forth corn? Making the ephah small, and the shekel great, And falsifying the balances of deceit;"
16. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 42.21, 55.7-55.8, 58.13-58.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

42.21. יְהוָה חָפֵץ לְמַעַן צִדְקוֹ יַגְדִּיל תּוֹרָה וְיַאְדִּיר׃ 55.7. יַעֲזֹב רָשָׁע דַּרְכּוֹ וְאִישׁ אָוֶן מַחְשְׁבֹתָיו וְיָשֹׁב אֶל־יְהוָה וִירַחֲמֵהוּ וְאֶל־אֱלֹהֵינוּ כִּי־יַרְבֶּה לִסְלוֹחַ׃ 55.8. כִּי לֹא מַחְשְׁבוֹתַי מַחְשְׁבוֹתֵיכֶם וְלֹא דַרְכֵיכֶם דְּרָכָי נְאֻם יְהוָה׃ 58.13. אִם־תָּשִׁיב מִשַּׁבָּת רַגְלֶךָ עֲשׂוֹת חֲפָצֶיךָ בְּיוֹם קָדְשִׁי וְקָרָאתָ לַשַּׁבָּת עֹנֶג לִקְדוֹשׁ יְהוָה מְכֻבָּד וְכִבַּדְתּוֹ מֵעֲשׂוֹת דְּרָכֶיךָ מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר׃ 58.14. אָז תִּתְעַנַּג עַל־יְהוָה וְהִרְכַּבְתִּיךָ עַל־בָּמֳותֵי אָרֶץ וְהַאֲכַלְתִּיךָ נַחֲלַת יַעֲקֹב אָבִיךָ כִּי פִּי יְהוָה דִּבֵּר׃ 42.21. The LORD was pleased, for His righteousness’sake, To make the teaching great and glorious." 55.7. Let the wicked forsake his way, And the man of iniquity his thoughts; And let him return unto the LORD, and He will have compassion upon him, And to our God, for He will abundantly pardon" 55.8. For My thoughts are not your thoughts, Neither are your ways My ways, saith the LORD." 58.13. If thou turn away thy foot because of the sabbath, From pursuing thy business on My holy day; And call the sabbath a delight, And the holy of the LORD honourable; And shalt honour it, not doing thy wonted ways, Nor pursuing thy business, nor speaking thereof;" 58.14. Then shalt thou delight thyself in the LORD, And I will make thee to ride upon the high places of the earth, And I will feed thee with the heritage of Jacob thy father; For the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it."
17. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, a b c d\n0 - None\n1 . . \n2 1 1 1 None\n3 17.21 17.21 17 21 \n4 17.22 17.22 17 22 \n5 17.24 17.24 17 24 \n6 2 2 2 None\n7 4 4 4 None\n8 49.22 49.22 49 22 \n9 7 7 7 None\n10 9 9 9 None (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

18. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 45.11 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

45.11. הָאֵיפָה וְהַבַּת תֹּכֶן אֶחָד יִהְיֶה לָשֵׂאת מַעְשַׂר הַחֹמֶר הַבָּת וַעֲשִׂירִת הַחֹמֶר הָאֵיפָה אֶל־הַחֹמֶר יִהְיֶה מַתְכֻּנְתּוֹ׃ 45.11. The ephah and the bath shall be of one measure, that the bath may contain the tenth part of a homer, and the ephah the tenth part of a homer; the measure thereof shall be after the homer."
19. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 6, 2 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 10.32, 13.15-13.22 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

10.32. וְעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ הַמְבִיאִים אֶת־הַמַּקָּחוֹת וְכָל־שֶׁבֶר בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לִמְכּוֹר לֹא־נִקַּח מֵהֶם בַּשַּׁבָּת וּבְיוֹם קֹדֶשׁ וְנִטֹּשׁ אֶת־הַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִית וּמַשָּׁא כָל־יָד׃ 13.15. בַּיָּמִים הָהֵמָּה רָאִיתִי בִיהוּדָה דֹּרְכִים־גִּתּוֹת בַּשַּׁבָּת וּמְבִיאִים הָעֲרֵמוֹת וְעֹמְסִים עַל־הַחֲמֹרִים וְאַף־יַיִן עֲנָבִים וּתְאֵנִים וְכָל־מַשָּׂא וּמְבִיאִים יְרוּשָׁלִַם בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וָאָעִיד בְּיוֹם מִכְרָם צָיִד׃ 13.16. וְהַצֹּרִים יָשְׁבוּ בָהּ מְבִיאִים דָּאג וְכָל־מֶכֶר וּמֹכְרִים בַּשַּׁבָּת לִבְנֵי יְהוּדָה וּבִירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 13.17. וָאָרִיבָה אֵת חֹרֵי יְהוּדָה וָאֹמְרָה לָהֶם מָה־הַדָּבָר הָרָע הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹשִׂים וּמְחַלְּלִים אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת׃ 13.18. הֲלוֹא כֹה עָשׂוּ אֲבֹתֵיכֶם וַיָּבֵא אֱלֹהֵינוּ עָלֵינוּ אֵת כָּל־הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת וְעַל הָעִיר הַזֹּאת וְאַתֶּם מוֹסִיפִים חָרוֹן עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְחַלֵּל אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּת׃ 13.19. וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר צָלֲלוּ שַׁעֲרֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם לִפְנֵי הַשַּׁבָּת וָאֹמְרָה וַיִּסָּגְרוּ הַדְּלָתוֹת וָאֹמְרָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִפְתָּחוּם עַד אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת וּמִנְּעָרַי הֶעֱמַדְתִּי עַל־הַשְּׁעָרִים לֹא־יָבוֹא מַשָּׂא בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת׃ 13.21. וָאָעִידָה בָהֶם וָאֹמְרָה אֲלֵיהֶם מַדּוּעַ אַתֶּם לֵנִים נֶגֶד הַחוֹמָה אִם־תִּשְׁנוּ יָד אֶשְׁלַח בָּכֶם מִן־הָעֵת הַהִיא לֹא־בָאוּ בַּשַּׁבָּת׃ 13.22. וָאֹמְרָה לַלְוִיִּם אֲשֶׁר יִהְיוּ מִטַּהֲרִים וּבָאִים שֹׁמְרִים הַשְּׁעָרִים לְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת גַּם־זֹאת זָכְרָה־לִּי אֱלֹהַי וְחוּסָה עָלַי כְּרֹב חַסְדֶּךָ׃ 10.32. and if the peoples of the land bring ware or any victuals on the sabbath day to sell, that we would not buy of them on the sabbath, or on a holy day; and that we would forego the seventh year, and the exaction of every debt." 13.15. In those days saw I in Judah some treading winepresses on the sabbath, and bringing in heaps of corn, and lading asses therewith; as also wine, grapes, and figs, and all manner of burdens, which they brought into Jerusalem on the sabbath day; and I forewarned them in the day wherein they sold victuals." 13.16. There dwelt men of Tyre also therein, who brought in fish, and all manner of ware, and sold on the sabbath unto the children of Judah, and in Jerusalem." 13.17. Then I contended with the nobles of Judah, and said unto them: ‘What evil thing is this that ye do, and profane the sabbath day?" 13.18. Did not your fathers thus, and did not our God bring all this evil upon us, and upon this city? yet ye bring more wrath upon Israel by profaning the sabbath.’" 13.19. And it came to pass that, when the gates of Jerusalem began to be dark before the sabbath, I commanded that the doors should be shut, and commanded that they should not be opened till after the sabbath; and some of my servants set I over the gates, that there should no burden be brought in on the sabbath day." 13.20. So the merchants and sellers of all kind of ware lodged without Jerusalem once or twice." 13.21. Then I forewarned them, and said unto them: ‘Why lodge ye about the wall? if ye do so again, I will lay hands on you.’ From that time forth came they no more on the sabbath." 13.22. And I commanded the Levites that they should purify themselves, and that they should come and keep the gates, to sanctify the sabbath day. Remember unto me, O my God, this also, and spare me according to the greatness of Thy mercy."
21. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 7-8, 1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

22. Anon., Jubilees, 2.29-2.30, 50.6-50.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.29. these two great classes--He hath hidden us to keep the Sabbath with Him in heaven and on earth. 2.30. And He said unto us: "Behold, I will separate unto Myself a people from among all the peoples, and these will keep the Sabbath day 50.6. and there are yet forty years to come (lit. "distant for learning the commandments of the Lord, until they pass over into the land of Canaan, crossing the Jordan to the west. 50.7. And the jubilees will pass by, until Israel is cleansed from all guilt of fornication, and uncleanness, and pollution, and sin, and error, and dwelleth with confidence in all the land, and there will be no more a Satan or any evil one, and the land will be clean from that time for evermore. 50.8. And behold the commandment regarding the Sabbaths--I have written (them) down for thee and all the judgments of its laws. brSix days wilt thou labour, but on the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God. 50.9. In it ye shall do no manner of work, ye and your sons, and your men-servants and your maid-servants, and all your cattle and the sojourner also who is with you. brAnd the man that doeth any work on it shall die: 50.10. whoever desecrateth that day, whoever lieth with (his) wife or whoever saith he will do something on it, that he will set out on a journey thereon in regard to any buying or selling: and whoever draweth water thereon which he had not prepared for himself on the sixth day, and whoever taketh up any burden to carry it out of his tent or out of his house shall die. 50.11. Ye shall do no work whatever on the Sabbath day save that ye have prepared for yourselves on the sixth day, so as to eat, and drink, and rest, and keep Sabbath from all work on that day, and to bless the Lord your God, who has given you a day of festival 50.12. and a holy day: and a day of the holy kingdom for all Israel is this day among their days for ever. 50.13. For great is the honour which the Lord hath given to Israel that they should eat and drink and be satisfied on this festival day, and rest thereon from all labour which belongeth to the labour of the children of men, save burning frankincense and bringing oblations and sacrifices before the Lord for days and for Sabbaths.
23. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 1.4, 3.10, 4.9, 6.2, 6.7-6.8, 7.14-7.20, 8.17, 9.1-9.10, 10.14-10.15, 10.17-10.22, 11.2, 11.5, 11.8-11.9, 11.11, 11.14-11.15, 11.17-11.21, 12.3-12.6, 14.18-14.22, 16.3-16.4, 16.13-16.15, 20.27-20.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 7.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 1.4, 3.10, 4.9, 6.2, 6.7-6.8, 8.17, 10.14, 20.27-20.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 5.14, 5.16-5.18, 5.25, 6.2, 6.27, 7.9, 9.4-9.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Dead Sea Scrolls, Miscellaneous Rules, 6.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

28. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 50.6, 64.7-64.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

29. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 91 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

91. For although the seventh day is a lesson to teach us the power which exists in the uncreated God, and also that the creature is entitled to rest from his labours, it does not follow that on that account we may abrogate the laws which are established respecting it, so as to light a fire, or till land, or carry burdens, or bring accusations, or conduct suits at law, or demand a restoration of a deposit, or exact the repayment of a debt, or do any other of the things which are usually permitted at times which are not days of festival.
30. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.211-2.220 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

2.211. For this reason the all-great Moses thought fit that all who were enrolled in his sacred polity should follow the laws of nature and meet in a solemn assembly, passing the time in cheerful joy and relaxation, abstaining from all work, and from all arts which have a tendency to the production of anything; and from all business which is connected with the seeking of the means of living, and that they should keep a complete truce, abstaining from all laborious and fatiguing thought and care, and devoting their leisure, not as some persons scoffingly assert, to sports, or exhibitions of actors and dancers, for the sake of which those who run madly after theatrical amusements suffer disasters and even encounter miserable deaths, and for the sake of these the most domit and influential of the outward senses, sight and hearing, make the soul, which should be the heavenly nature, the slave of these senses. 2.212. But, giving up their time wholly to the study of philosophy, not of that sort of philosophy which wordcatchers and sophists, seek to reduce to a system, selling doctrines and reasonings as they would any other vendible thing in the market. Men who (O you earth and sun! 2.213. Now some one disregarding this injunction, even while he yet had the sacred words of God respecting the holy seventh day still ringing in his ears, which God had uttered without the intervention of the prophet, and, what is the most wonderful thing of all, by a visible voice which affected the eyes of those who were present even more than their ears, went forth through the middle of the camp to pick up sticks, well knowing that all the people in the camp were perfectly quiet and doing nothing, and even while he was committing the iniquity was seen and detected, all disguise being impossible; 2.214. for some persons, having gone forth out of the gates to some quiet spot, that they might pray in some retired and peaceful place, seeing a most unholy spectacle, namely this man carrying a faggot of sticks, and being very indigt, were about to put him to death; but reasoning with themselves they restrained the violence of their wrath, that they might not appear, as they were only private persons, to chastise any one rather than the magistrates, and that too uncondemned; though indeed in other respects the transgression was manifest and undeniable, wishing also that no pollution arising from an execution, even though most righteously inflicted, should defile the sacred day. But they apprehended him, and led him away to the magistrate, with whom the priests were sitting as assessors; and the whole multitude collected together to hear the trial; 2.215. for it was invariably the custom, as it was desirable on other days also, but especially on the seventh day, as I have already explained, to discuss matters of philosophy; the ruler of the people beginning the explanation, and teaching the multitude what they ought to do and to say, and the populace listening so as to improve in virtue, and being made better both in their moral character and in their conduct through life; 2.216. in accordance with which custom, even to this day, the Jews hold philosophical discussions on the seventh day, disputing about their national philosophy, and devoting that day to the knowledge and consideration of the subjects of natural philosophy; for as for their houses of prayer in the different cities, what are they, but schools of wisdom, and courage, and temperance, and justice, and piety, and holiness, and every virtue, by which human and divine things are appreciated, and placed upon a proper footing? 2.217. On this day, then, the man who had done this deed of impiety was led away to prison; and Moses being at a loss what ought to be done to the man (for he knew that he had committed a crime worthy of death, but did not know what was the most suitable manner for the punishment to be inflicted upon him 2.218. And that Judge delivered his sentence that the man ought to die, and in no other way than being stoned, since in his case, as in that of the criminal mentioned above, his mind had been changed to a dumb stone, and he had committed the most complete of offences, in which nearly every other sin is comprised which can be committed against the laws enacted respecting the reverence due to the seventh day. 2.219. Why so? Because, not only mere handicraft trades, but also nearly all other acts and businesses, and especially all such as have reference to any providing of or seeking for the means of life, are either carried on by means of fire themselves, or, at all events, not without those instruments which are made by fire. On which account Moses, in many places, forbids any one to handle a fire on the sabbath day, inasmuch as that is the most primary and efficient source of things and the most ancient and important work; and if that is reduced to a state of tranquillity, he thought that it would be probable that all particular works would be at a stand-still likewise. 2.220. And wood is the material of fire, so that a man who is picking up wood is committing a crime which is akin to and nearly connected with that of burning fire, doubling his transgression, in fact, partly in that he was collecting what it was commanded should remain unmoved, and partly that what he was collecting was that which is the material of fire, the beginning of all arts.
31. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.229, 18.18-18.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.229. nor are you to permit beasts of different kinds to gender together, for there is reason to fear that this unnatural abuse may extend from beasts of different kinds to men, though it takes its first rise from evil practices about such smaller things. 18.18. 5. The doctrine of the Essenes is this: That all things are best ascribed to God. They teach the immortality of souls, and esteem that the rewards of righteousness are to be earnestly striven for; 18.18. Now Antonia was greatly esteemed by Tiberius on all accounts, from the dignity of her relation to him, who had been his brother Drusus’s wife, and from her eminent chastity; for though she was still a young woman, she continued in her widowhood, and refused all other matches, although Augustus had enjoined her to be married to somebody else; yet did she all along preserve her reputation free from reproach. 18.19. and when they send what they have dedicated to God into the temple, they do not offer sacrifices because they have more pure lustrations of their own; on which account they are excluded from the common court of the temple, but offer their sacrifices themselves; yet is their course of life better than that of other men; and they entirely addict themselves to husbandry. 18.19. But when Caesar had gone round the hippodrome, he found Agrippa standing: “For certain,” said he, “Macro, this is the man I meant to have bound;” and when he still asked, “Which of these is to be bound?” he said “Agrippa.”
32. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.147 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.147. They also avoid spitting in the midst of them, or on the right side. Moreover, they are stricter than any other of the Jews in resting from their labors on the seventh day; for they not only get their food ready the day before, that they may not be obliged to kindle a fire on that day, but they will not remove any vessel out of its place, nor go to stool thereon.
33. Mishnah, Bava Metzia, 7.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.6. One may exact terms for himself and for his son or daughter that are of age, and for his slave or female slave that are of age, and for his wife, since these have understanding. But he may not exact terms for his son and daughter that are not of age, or for his slave or female slave that are not of age, or for his cattle, since these have no understanding."
34. Mishnah, Shabbat, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.1. The carryings out of Shabbat are two which are four from the inside, and two which are four from the outside. How is this so? The poor man stands outside and the householder stands inside:If the poor man reaches his hand inside and places [something] into the hand of the householder, or if he takes [something] from it and carries it out, the poor man is liable, and the householder is exempt. If the householder reaches his hand outside and places [an object] in the poor man's hand, or takes [something] and carries it in, the master is liable, while the poor man is exempt. If the poor man reaches his hand inside and the master takes [an object] from it, or places [an object] in it and he carries it out, both are exempt; If the householder stretches his hand outside and the poor man takes [an object] from it, or places [an article] in it and he carries it inside, both are exempt."
35. New Testament, Romans, 12.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.19. Don't seek revenge yourselves, beloved, but give place to God's wrath. For it is written, "Vengeance belongs to me; I will repay, says the Lord.
36. New Testament, John, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.1. After these things, there was a feast of the Jews, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.
37. Tosefta, Shabbat, 16.22 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

38. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 34.16 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

34.16. וּבָנוּ מִמְּךָ חָרְבוֹת עוֹלָם מוֹסְדֵי דוֹר וָדוֹר תְּקוֹמֵם (ישעיה נח, יב), רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן יְהַב לְרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא שִׁית מְאָה קַנְטָרִין דִּכְסַף, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֲזֵיל זְבֵין לָן חָדָא אוּסְיָא דְּנֶהֱווֹן לָעְיָין בְּאוֹרַיְיתָא וּמִתְפַּרְנְסִין מִנָּהּ. נָסַב יַתְהוֹן וּפַלֵּיג יַתְהוֹן לְסַפְרַיָיא וּלְמַתְנַיָיא וּלְאִלֵּין דְּלָעְיָין בְּאוֹרַיְיתָא, לְבָתַר יוֹמִין קָם עִמֵּיהּ אֲמַר לֵיהּ זְבַנְתְּ לָן לְהַהִיא אוּסְיָא דַּאֲמָרֵית לָךְ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִין, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִית בָּךְ מֶחֱמֵי לָהּ לִי, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִין, נָסָאתֵיהּ וְחָמָאֵי לֵיהּ סַפְרַיָּא וּמַתְנַיָּא וּלְאִלֵּין דְּלָעְיָין בְּאוֹרַיְתָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִית בַּר נָשׁ יָהֵב מַגָּן, אַפּוֹכֵי דִידֵיהּ הָן הִיא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ גַּבֵּי דָּוִד מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל, דִּכְתִיב בֵּיהּ (תהלים קיב, ט): פִּזַּר נָתַן לָאֶבְיוֹנִים צִדְקָתוֹ עֹמֶדֶת לָעַד. (ישעיה נח, יב): וְקֹרָא לְךָ גֹּדֵר פֶּרֶץ, רַבִּי אָבִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הַפִּרְצָה הַזּוֹ עָלַי הָיָה לְגָדְרָהּ וְעָמַדְתָּ אַתָּה וְגָדַרְתָּ אוֹתָהּ, חַיֶּיךָ שֶׁאֲנִי מַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ כְּאוֹתוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (תהלים קו, כג): לוּלֵי משֶׁה בְחִירוֹ עָמַד בַּפֶּרֶץ לְפָנָיו. (ישעיה נח, יב): מְשֹׁבֵב נְתִיבוֹת לָשָׁבֶת, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן הֶעָנִי הַזֶּה יוֹשֵׁב וּמִתְרָעֵם מָה אֲנִי מִפְּלוֹנִי, הוּא יָשֵׁן עַל מִטָּתוֹ וַאֲנִי יָשֵׁן כָּאן, פְּלוֹנִי יָשֵׁן בְּבֵיתוֹ, וַאֲנִי כָּאן. וְעָמַדְתָּ אַתָּה וְנָתַתָּ לוֹ, חַיֶּיךָ שֶׁאֲנִי מַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ כְּאִלּוּ עָשִׂיתָ שָׁלוֹם בֵּינוֹ לְבֵינִי, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ישעיה כז, ה): אוֹ יַחֲזֵק בְּמָעֻזִּי יַעֲשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם לִי שָׁלוֹם יַעֲשֶׂה לִי. (ישעיה נח, יג): אִם תָּשִׁיב מִשַּׁבָּת רַגְלְךָ, תָּנוּ רַבָּנָן לֹא יְטַיֵּל אָדָם בְּתוֹךְ כְּרָךְ בְּשַׁבָּת עַל מְנָת שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ וְיִרְחַץ בְּבֵית הַמֶּרְחָץ מִיָּד. (ישעיה נח, יג): עֲשׂוֹת חֲפָצֶךָ בְּיוֹם קָדְשִׁי, מִכָּאן שֶׁאָסוּר לְאָדָם לָצֵאת בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ לֵידַע מַה הִיא צְרִיכָה בְּשַׁבָּת. מַעֲשֶׂה בְּחָסִיד אֶחָד שֶׁיָּצָא לְתוֹךְ כַּרְמוֹ לֵידַע מָה הִיא צְרִיכָה וּמָצָא שָׁם פִּרְצָה אַחַת וְחִשֵּׁב עָלֶיהָ לְגָדְרָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת, אָמַר אֵינִי גוֹדְרָהּ עַל שֶׁחָשַׁבְתִּי עָלֶיהָ בְּשַׁבָּת, מֶה עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא זִמֵּן אִילָן שֶׁל נִצְפָּה וְעָמַד וּגְדָרָהּ, וְהָיָה מִתְפַּרְנֵס מִמֶּנּוּ כָּל יָמָיו. (ישעיה נח, יג): וְקָרָאתָ לַשַׁבָּת עֹנֶג, זוֹ שַׁבָּת בְּרֵאשִׁית. (ישעיה נח, יג): לִקְדּוֹשׁ ה' מְכֻבָּד, זֶה יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. (ישעיה נח, יג): וְכִבַּדְתּוֹ, זֶה יוֹם טוֹב. (ישעיה נח, יג): מֵעֲשׂוֹת דְּרָכֶיךָ, זֶה חֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד. (ישעיה נח, יג): מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצֶךָ, מִכָּאן אָסוּר לְאָדָם לִתְבֹּעַ צְרָכָיו בְּשַׁבָּת. רַבִּי זְעִירָא בָּעֵי קוֹמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִלֵּין דְּאָמְרִין רוֹעֵנוּ זוּנֵנוּ פַּרְנְסֵנוּ בְּשַׁבָּת, מַהוּ, אָמַר לוֹ טוֹפֶס בְּרָכוֹת כָּךְ הִיא. (ישעיה נח, יג): וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר, אִמֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי, כַּד הֲוַת מִשְׁתָּעֲיָא מוֹתָר מִלִּין בְּשַׁבַּתָּא הֲוָה אָמַר לָהּ שַׁבַּתָּא הִיא וַהֲוַת שָׁתְקָא. (ישעיה נח, יד): אָז תִּתְעַנַּג עַל ה' וְהִרְכַּבְתִּיךָ עַל בָּמֳתֵי אָרֶץ, הֲרֵי אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר, וְעַשְׂרָה אָחְרָנָיְתָא דִּכְתִיב גַּבֵּי יַעֲקֹב, דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה נח, יד): וְהַאֲכַלְתִּיךָ נַחֲלַת יַעֲקֹב אָבִיךָ, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן (בראשית כז, כח): וְיִתֶּן לְךָ הָאֱלֹהִים מִטַּל הַשָּׁמַיִם וּמִשְּׁמַנֵּי הָאָרֶץ וגו'.
39. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

40. Anon., Sifra, 1 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

41. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

51a. אמר רבא והוא דכי רהיט לעיקרו מטי א"ל אביי והא חשכה לו קתני,חשכה לביתו אבל לעיקרו של אילן מצי אזיל איכא דאמרי אמר רבא חשכה לו כי מסגי קלי קלי אבל רהיט מטי,רבה ורב יוסף הוו קא אזלי באורחא א"ל רבה לרב יוסף תהא שביתתנו תותי דיקלא דסביל אחוה ואמרי לה תותי דיקלא דפריק מריה מכרגא,(ידע ליה מר) א"ל לא ידענא ליה אמר ליה סמוך עלי דתניא ר' יוסי אומר אם היו שנים אחד מכיר ואחד שאינו מכיר זה שאינו מכיר מוסר שביתתו למכיר זה שמכיר אומר תהא שביתתנו במקום פלוני,ולא היא לא תנא ליה כר' יוסי אלא כי היכי דליקבל לה מיניה משום דר' יוסי נימוקו עמו:,אם אינו מכיר או שאינו בקי וכו':,הני אלפים אמה היכן כתיבן דתניא (שמות טז, כט) שבו איש תחתיו אלו ארבע אמות אל יצא איש ממקומו אלו אלפים אמה,מנא לן אמר רב חסדא למדנו מקום ממקום ומקום מניסה וניסה מניסה וניסה מגבול וגבול מגבול וגבול מחוץ וחוץ מחוץ דכתיב (במדבר לה, ה) ומדותם מחוץ לעיר את פאת קדמה אלפים באמה וגו',ונילף (במדבר לה, ד) מקיר העיר וחוצה אלף אמה דנין חוץ מחוץ ואין דנין חוץ מחוצה,ומאי נפקא מינה הא תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל (ויקרא יד, לט) ושב הכהן (ויקרא יד, מד) ובא הכהן זו היא שיבה זו היא ביאה,הני מילי היכא דליכא מידי דדמי ליה אבל היכא דאיכא מידי דדמי ליה מדמי ליה ילפינן:,אלפים אמה עגולות: ורבי חנינא בן אנטיגנוס מה נפשך אי אית ליה ג"ש פיאות כתיבן אי לית ליה גזירה שוה אלפים אמה מנא ליה,לעולם אית ליה גזירה שוה ושאני הכא דאמר קרא (במדבר לה, ה) זה יהיה להם מגרשי הערים לזה אתה נותן פיאות ואי אתה נותן פיאות לשובתי שבת,ורבנן תני רב חנניה אומר כזה יהו כל שובתי שבת,א"ר אחא בר יעקב המעביר ד"א ברה"ר אינו חייב עד שמעביר הן ואלכסונן,א"ר פפא בדיק לן רבא עמוד ברשות הרבים גבוה י' ורוחב ד' צריך הן ואלכסונן או לא ואמרינן ליה לאו היינו דרב חנניה דתניא רב חנניה אומר כזה יהו כל שובתי שבת:,וזה הוא שאמרו העני מערב ברגליו אמר ר' מאיר אנו אין לנו אלא עני וכו':,אמר רב נחמן מחלוקת במקומי דר"מ סבר עיקר עירוב בפת 51a. bRava said:This ihalakhaapplies bonlyin a case bwhere, were he to run to the trunkof the tree bhe could reach itbefore the onset of Shabbat. bAbaye said to him: But doesn’tthe mishna bstate: And it grew darkwhile bhewas traveling, indicating that he is farther away than that?,The Gemara answers: The mishna means that bit grew darkwhile he was traveling so that he can no longer return bto his housebefore nightfall; bhowever, he is ableto bgo to the trunkof the tree before Shabbat. bSome statea different version of the previous statement. bRava said:The mishna means that bit grew darkwhile bhewas traveling, so that bwere he to walk very slowlyhe could not reach his house; bhowever, if he runs, he canstill barrivebefore Shabbat., bRabba and Rav Yosef were goingtogether balong the way. Rabba said to Rav Yosef: Our residence will be beneath the palm that carries its brother,the one with another palm tree leaning on it. bAnd some sayhe said to him: Our residence will be bbeneath the palm that spared its owner from the land tax [ ikarga /i],the palm which yielded enough dates for its owner to pay his entire land tax.,Rabba asked: bDoes the Master knowof that tree? Rav Yosef bsaid to him:No, bI do not knowof it. bHe said to him:Then brely on me, as it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei says: If twopeople bwerewalking together, boneof whom is bfamiliarwith a particular location in the distance, band oneis bnot familiarwith it, bthe one whois bnot familiarwith it bentrustshis right to designate bhisresidence bto the one whois bfamiliarwith it, band the one whois bfamiliarwith it bsays: My residence is in such-and-such place. /b,The Gemara comments: bBut it is notso; that is not the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. Rabba bonly taught itas if it is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei so thatRav Yosef bwould accept it from him, due tothe fact that bRabbi Yosei’s reasoningaccompanies bhisrulings, Since the ihalakhais usually in accordance with Rav Yosei’s opinion, Rav Yosef would be less likely to raise doubts with regard to the ruling.,We learned in the mishna: bIf one is not familiarwith a tree or any other noticeable landmark, bor if he is not an expertin the ihalakha /i, unaware that residence can be established from a distance, and he said: My residence is at my current location, his presence at his current location acquires for him the right to walk two thousand cubits in each direction.,The Gemara raises a fundamental question: bThese two thousand cubits, where arethey bwrittenin the Torah? The Gemara answers that it is bas it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“Remain every man in his place”(Exodus 16:29); bthese arethe bfour cubits,which constitute the minimum Shabbat limit, e.g., for one who ventured beyond his prescribed limit. b“Let no man go out of his place”(Exodus 16:29); bthese arethe btwo thousand cubitsof the Shabbat limit for one who remains in his place. Unless otherwise specified, the measure of one’s place is two thousand cubits.,The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive that this is the measure of one’s place? bRav Ḥisda said: We derivethis by means of a verbal analogy between the term bplacewritten here: “Let no man go out of his place,” and bfromthe term bplacewritten with regard to an unwitting murderer: “Then I will appoint you a place to where he shall flee” (Exodus 21:13). This last verse mentions both place and fleeing, bandthe term bplaceis derived bfromthe term bfleeing. Andthe term bfleeingis derived bfromthe term bfleeing,written in a different verse with regard to the unwitting murderer: “But if the slayer shall at any time come outside the border of the city of his refuge, whither he has fled” (Numbers 35:26). bAndthe term bfleeingis derived bfromthe term bborder,which appears in the same verse. bAndthe term bborderis derived bfromthe term bborder,as it states there: “And the avenger of blood find him outside [ imiḥutz /i] the borders of the city of his refuge” (Numbers 35:27). Since this verse mentions both the term border and the term outside, the term bborderis derived bfromthe term boutside. Andthe term boutsideis derived bfromthe term boutside, as it is writtenwith regard to the Levite cities, which also served as cities of refuge: b“And you shall measure from outside [ imiḥutz /i] the city on the east side two thousand cubits,and on the south side two thousand cubits, and on the west side two thousand cubits, and on the north side two thousand cubits” (Numbers 35:5). From this chain of identical terms, the meaning of the term place stated in connection with Shabbat is derived from the two thousand cubits mentioned with regard to the Levite cities.,The Gemara asks: bBut let us deriveinstead by means of a verbal analogy between the term outside in the verse: “Outside the borders of the city of refuge,” and the term outside in the verse: b“From the wall of the city outward [ ivaḥutza /i] a thousand cubits”(Numbers 35:4), that the Shabbat limit measures only a thousand cubits. The Gemara answers: bOne derivesthe meaning of the term boutside [ iḥutz /i]by means of a verbal analogy bfromanother instance of the term boutside [ iḥutz /i], but one does not derivethe meaning of the term boutside fromthe term boutward [ iḥutza /i]. /b,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bWhat issignificant about bthe differencebetween the two terms? bDidn’t the school of Rabbi Yishmael teacha verbal analogy with regard to leprosy of houses between the verse: b“And the priest shall return [ iveshav /i]”(Leviticus 14:39) and the verse: b“And the priest shall come [ iuva /i]”(Leviticus 14:44), from which it is derived that bthis isthe ihalakhawith regard to breturning,i.e., it is after seven days; bthis isthe same ihalakhawith regard to bcoming;it is after seven days. Obviously, the less pronounced difference of one letter between iḥutzand iḥutza /i, should not prevent the teaching of a verbal analogy.,Gemara rejects this argument: bThis appliesonly bwhen there are no termsthat are bidentical to it however, where there are termsthat are bidentical to it, we derivethe verbal analogy bfromterms bidentical to it,rather than from the terms that are not precisely identical.,The itanna’imof the mishna disagree whether the btwo-thousand-cubitlimit granted to a person in every direction is measured as a bcircleor as a square tablet. The Gemara poses a question: With regard to the opinion of bRabbi Ḥanina ben Antigenosthat the limit is measured as a circle, bno matter whatyou say, it is difficult. bIf he is of theopinion that there is a bverbal analogyfrom the verse written with regard to the Levite cities it is difficult, because bsidesis the term bwritten,indicating squared boundaries. And bif he is not of theopinion that there is a bverbal analogy, from where does hederive that the Shabbat limit is btwo thousand cubits? /b,The Gemara answers: bActually, he is ofthe opinion that there is ba verbal analogy, but here,with regard to the Levite cities, it bis different, as the verse says: “This shall be to them the open space of the cities”(Numbers 35:5), from which it is inferred: bTo this,the open space of the city, byoushould bprovide sidesand square it, bbut you do not provide sides to those resting on Shabbat.Instead, those who establish Shabbat residence are provided with a circular, two-thousand-cubit limit.,The Gemara asks: bAndhow do bthe Rabbisunderstand the emphasis placed on the word this in the verse? The Gemara answers: As bit was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRav Ḥaya says: Like thismeasure bshall bethe calculations of measures for ball those who rest on Shabbat,i.e., square., bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: One who carriesan object bfour cubits in the public domain is only liable if he carriesit bfourcubits bwith their diagonal.The four cubits mentioned in many places is only the basic measure by which the distance beyond which it is prohibited to carry is calculated. However, in practice, a person is liable only if he carries the object the length of the diagonal of a square with four-cubit sides., bRav Pappa saidthat bRavaonce btested usby asking: With regard to ba pillar in the public domain, tenhandbreadths bhigh and fourhandbreadths bwide, mustthe width bbefour handbreadths bwith their diagonalin order to be regarded a private domain, bor not? And we said to him: Is this notthat which was taught by bRav Ḥaya? As it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRav Ḥaya says: Like thismeasure bshall bethat of ball those who rest on Shabbat,indicating that the diagonal is the determining measure for the ihalakhotof rest on Shabbat.,We learned in the mishna: bAnd this isthe meaning of that bwhichthe Sages bsaid: A pauper can establish an ieiruvwith his feet,i.e., one who does not have the bread required to establish an ieiruvmay walk anywhere within his Shabbat limit and acquire residence. bWe havethis leniency in effect bonlyfor ba pauper,who does not have food for two meals. However, one who has bread may only establish residence with bread. Rabbi Yehuda says: This leniency is in effect for both a pauper and a wealthy person., bRav Naḥman said:This bdisputebetween Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yehuda is bwith regard toa case where the person said: My residence is in bmycurrent blocation. As Rabbi Meir maintains: The primaryordice and establishment bof ieiruv /iis bwith bread. /b
42. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

113b. שלא יהא דבורך של שבת כדבורך של חול דבור אסור הרהור מותר בשלמא כולהו לחיי אלא שלא יהא הילוכך של שבת כהילוכך של חול מאי היא כי הא דאמר רב הונא אמר רב ואמרי ליה אמר ר' אבא אמר רב הונא היה מהלך בשבת ופגע באמת המים אם יכול להניח את רגלו ראשונה קודם שתעקר שניה מותר ואם לאו אסור,מתקיף לה רבא היכי ליעביד ליקף קמפיש בהילוכא ליעבר זימנין דמיתווסן מאני מיא ואתי לידי סחיטה אלא בהא כיון דלא אפשר שפיר דמי אלא כדבעא מיניה ר' מר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי מהו לפסוע פסיעה גסה בשבת א"ל וכי בחול מי הותרה שאני אומר פסיעה גסה נוטלת אחד מחמש מאות ממאור עיניו של אדם ומהדר ליה בקידושא דבי שמשי,בעא מיניה ר' מר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי מהו לאכול אדמה בשבת א"ל וכי בחול מי הותרה שאני אומר אף בחול אסור מפני שהוא מלקה אמר ר' אמי כל האוכל מעפרה של בבל כאילו אוכל מבשר אבותיו וי"א כאילו אוכל שקצים ורמשים דכתיב (בראשית ז, כג) וימח את כל היקום וגו',אמר ריש לקיש למה נקרא שמה שנער שכל מתי מבול ננערו לשם א"ר יוחנן למה נקרא שמה מצולה שכל מתי מבול נצטללו לשם [וי"א כאילו אוכל] שקצים ורמשים והא ודאי איתמחויי איתמחו אמרי כיון דמלקי גזרו ביה רבנן דהא ההוא גברא דאכל גרגישתא ואכל תחלי וקדחו ליה תחליה בלביה ומית,(רות ג, ג) ורחצת וסכת ושמת שמלותיך א"ר אלעזר אלו בגדים של שבת (משלי ט, ט) תן לחכם ויחכם עוד אמר רבי אלעזר זו רות המואביה ושמואל הרמתי,רות דאילו נעמי קאמרה לה ורחצת וסכת ושמת שמלותיך עליך וירדת הגורן ואילו בדידה כתיב ותרד הגורן והדר ותעש ככל אשר צותה חמותה שמואל דאילו עלי קאמר ליה (שמואל א ג, ט) שכב והיה אם יקרא אליך ואמרת דבר ה' כי שומע עבדך ואילו בדידי' כתיב ביה ויבא ה' ויתיצב ויקרא כפעם בפעם שמואל שמואל ויאמר שמואל דבר כי שומע עבדך ולא אמר דבר ה',(רות ב, ג) ותלך ותבא ותלקט בשדה אמר רבי אלעזר שהלכה ובאת הלכה ובאת עד שמצאה בני אדם המהוגנין לילך עמהם (רות ב, ה) ויאמר בועז לנערו הנצב על הקוצרים למי הנערה הזאת וכי דרכו של בועז לשאול בנערה אמר ר' אלעזר דבר חכמה ראה בה שני שבלין לקטה שלשה שבלין אינה לקטה,במתניתא תנא דבר צניעות ראה בה עומדות מעומד נופלות מיושב (רות ב, ח) וכה תדבקין עם נערותי וכי דרכו של בועז לדבק עם הנשים א"ר אלעזר כיון דחזא (רות א, יד) ותשק ערפה לחמותה ורות דבקה בה אמר שרי לאידבוקי בה,(רות ב, יד) ויאמר לה בועז לעת האוכל גשי הלום א"ר אלעזר רמז רמז לה עתידה מלכות בית דוד לצאת ממך דכתיב ביה הלום שנאמר (שמואל ב ז, יח) ויבא המלך דוד וישב לפני ה' ויאמר מי אנכי אדני ה' ומי ביתי כי הביאתני עד הלום (רות ב, יד) וטבלת פתך בחומץ א"ר אלעזר מכאן שהחומץ יפה לשרב,ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר רמז רמז לה עתיד בן לצאת ממך שמעשיו קשין כחומץ ומנו מנשה (רות ב, יד) ותשב מצד הקוצרים א"ר אלעזר מצד הקוצרים ולא בתוך הקוצרים רמז רמז לה שעתידה מלכות בית דוד שתתחלק,(רות ב, יד) ויצבט לה קלי ותאכל אמר רבי אלעזר ותאכל בימי דוד ותשבע בימי שלמה ותותר בימי חזקיה ואיכא דאמרי ותאכל בימי דוד ובימי שלמה ותשבע בימי חזקיה ותותר בימי רבי דאמר מר אהוריריה דרבי הוה עתיר משבור מלכא במתניתא תנא ותאכל בעולם הזה ותשבע לימות המשיח ותותר לעתיד לבא:,(ישעיהו י, טז) ותחת כבודו יקד יקוד כיקוד אש א"ר יוחנן ותחת כבודו ולא כבודו ממש ר' יוחנן לטעמיה דר' יוחנן קרי למאניה מכבדותי,ר"א אומר ותחת כבודו תחת כבודו ממש ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר תחת כבודו כשריפת בני אהרן מה להלן שריפת נשמה וגוף קיים אף כאן שריפת נשמה וגוף קיים,א"ר אחא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן 113b. means bthat your speech on Shabbat should not be like your speech during the week,i.e., one should not discuss his weekday affairs on Shabbat. However, it is only bspeechthat they said is bprohibited,whereas merely bcontemplatingweekday affairs bis permitted.The Gemara asks: bGranted, all of thesedirectives, bfine,they are understood. bHowever, what isthe meaning of the following phrase: bThat your walking on Shabbat should not be like your walking during the week?The Gemara answers: bIt is in accordance with thatwhich bRav Huna saidthat bRav said, and some say that Rabbi Abba saidthat bRav Huna said:If bone were walking on Shabbat and came upon a stream of waterand had to cross it, bifthe stream is narrow and bone could place his first footdown on the other side bbefore raisingthe bsecond one, it is permittedto cross it; band ifit is bnotpossible and one must jump to cross it, bit is prohibited.That is the type of walking that is not permitted on Shabbat., bRava strongly objects to this:Since we have said that one’s walking on Shabbat should not be like his walking during the week, and jumping constitutes prohibited walking, if one encounters a stream on Shabbat, bwhat should he doto cross to the other side? If bhe circumventsthe stream, bhe is increasingthe distance that he is bwalkingand exerting extra effort on Shabbat. If bhe walks throughthe water, bsometimes his clothes will absorb water and he will come to wring them out.What then should he do? bRather, in thiscase, bsince it is not possibleto cross any other way, he may bwellcross it, i.e., it is permitted for him to jump over the stream. Therefore, brathersay that walking that is defined as characteristic of weekday walking involves taking large steps. bAs RabbiYehuda HaNasi braised a dilemma before Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei: What isthe ruling with regard to btaking large steps on Shabbat?That is what the Gemara meant when it used the phrase: Your walking during the week. Rabbi Yishmael bsaid to him: And during the week arelarge steps bpermitted? As I say: A large step takesaway bone five-hundredth of a person’s eyesight.The Gemara comments: bAndhis eyesight bis restored to him during ikiddushonShabbat bevening. /b,And bRabbiYehuda HaNasi braised a dilemma before Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei: What isthe ruling with regard to beating earthfor medicinal purposes bon Shabbat?Rabbi Yishmael bsaid to him: And during the week is it permittedto eat soil? bAs I say: Even during the week it is prohibited because it is harmful. Rabbi Ami said: Anyone who eats the dust of Babylonia, it is as if he is eating the flesh of his ancestorsburied there. bAnd some say: It is as if he eats abominations and creeping creatures, as it is written: “And He wiped out all that existedon the face of the earth, from humans to animals, to creeping creatures to the birds in the sky, and they were wiped off the land” (Genesis 7:23).,Apropos dead residue in the ground, bReish Lakish said: Why isBabylonia bcalled Shinar?It is bbecause all those who died inthe bFlood were deposited there [ ininaru lesham /i]. Rabbi Yoḥa said: Why isBabylonia bcalled Metzula?It is bbecause all those who died inthe bFlood sank there [ initztalelu lesham /i].The Gemara asks: We said that bsome saythat if one eats dirt from Babylonia, it is bas if he eats abominations and creeping creatures. However, certainly theirbodies bhaveputrefied and bdecomposed,and therefore they are no longer prohibited. Rather, bsincesoil bis harmful, the Sages issued a decreenot to eat it. The decree was not issued due to the prohibition of eating creeping creatures; rather, it was issued bbecause a certain person ate soilfor medicinal purposes bandalso bate cress.The cress took root in the soil that was inside him and began to grow. bAnd the cress punctured his heart and he died. /b,The Gemara continues to discuss Shabbat. Naomi advised Ruth: b“And you shall bathe, and anoint yourself, and put on your robes,and go down to the threshing floor. Do not make yourself known to the man until he has finished eating and drinking” (Ruth 3:3). bRabbi Elazar said: Theserobes bare Shabbat garmentsthat Naomi told her to wear in honor of the occasion. Apropos the book of Ruth, the Gemara cites additional statements of Rabbi Elazar with regard to Ruth: b“Give to the wise one and he will become wiser;let the righteous one know and he will learn more” (Proverbs 9:9). bRabbi Elazar said: Thisrefers to bRuth the Moabite and Samuel of Rama,who received advice and added to it with their wisdom.,The Gemara elaborates. bWhereas Naomi said to Ruth: “And you shall bathe, and anoint yourself, and put on your robes, and go down to the threshing floor,” but with regard toRuth bherself it is written, “And she went down to the threshing floor”(Ruth 3:6), bandonly bafterward does it say, “And she did according to all that her mother-in-law commanded her.”Ruth decided to anoint herself at the threshing floor and not on the road so that people would not meet her on the way there and suspect her of immorality. bWhereas Eli said to Samuel:“Go and blie down and if He calls you, you say: Speak, Lord, for Your servant is listening”(I Samuel 3:9), bbut with regard toSamuel bhimself it is written: “And the Lord came and stood, and He called like He did the other times: Samuel, Samuel. And Samuel said: Speak, for Your servant is listening”(I Samuel 3:10), band he did not say: Speak, Lord,since he would not assume it was God speaking to him until he was sure of it.,And the verse in Ruth states: b“And she went, and she came, and she collected in the fieldafter the harvesters” (Ruth 2:3). bRabbi Elazar said:This verse teaches bthat she went and came, went and came, until she found suitable people with whom to walk.It also says: b“And Boaz said to his youth who was standing over the harvesters: To whom does this young woman belong?”(Ruth 2:5). This is surprising: bAnd was it Boaz’s habit to inquire about a young woman? Rabbi Elazar said: He saw in her a matter of wisdomand Torah, and that is why he asked about her. What he saw was that bshe collected two stalks,but bshe did not collect three stalks.She thereby acted in accordance with the ihalakhathat three stalks lying together are not considered to be gleanings left for the poor; rather, they remain in the possession of the owner of the field., bIt was taught in a ibaraita /i: He saw a matter of modesty in herwhen she was collecting stalks. She picked stalks that were buprightwhile she was bstanding,and stalks that had bfallenshe picked while bsitting;due to her modesty she did not bend over to take them. It also says: “And Boaz said to Ruth: Do you hear, my daughter? Do not go to glean in another field and do not leave from here, bbut cling to my maidens”(Ruth 2:8). This is also surprising. bAnd was it Boaz’s habit to cling to women? Rabbi Elazar said: Since he saw “And Orpah kissed her mother-in-law and Ruth clung to her”(Ruth 1:14), bhe said: It is permitted to cling toa woman like this.,It also says: b“And Boaz said to her at mealtime: Come here [ ihalom /i]and eat from the bread and dip your bread in vinegar. And she sat beside the harvesters and he gave her roasted grain and she ate, and she was satiated, and she left some over” (Ruth 2:14). bRabbi Elazarinterpreted this and bsaidthat bhe hinted to herprophetically: bIn the future the kingdom of David will come from you, as it is written with regard to it,i.e., the kingdom of David: b“Here,” as it is stated: “And King David came and sat before God and said: Who am I, Lord, God, and who is my family that You have brought me to here [ ihalom /i]?”(II Samuel 7:18). With regard to his saying: b“And dip your bread in vinegar”(Ruth 2:14), bRabbi Elazar said: From herewe see bthat vinegaris bgoodto have bin hot weather. /b, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bhe hinted to her: A son will come from you in the future whose actions will beas bsharp as vinegar, and who is he?King bManasseh. “And she sat beside the harvesters.” Rabbi Elazar said with regard to this: Beside the harvesters, and not among the harvesters. He hinted to her that the kingdom of David will be divided in the futureand her children will not always be in the center of Israel.,It also says in the verse: “And he gave her roasted grain and she ate, and she was satiated, and she left some over.” The Gemara explains: b“And he gave her roasted grain and she ate”;this is also interpreted as a prophetic message. bRabbi Elazar said: “And she ate”was fulfilled by her children’s children bin the days of David; “And she was satiated”was fulfilled bin the days of Solomon; “And she left some over”was fulfilled bin the days of Hezekiah. And some saythat there is a different interpretation: b“And she ate,”was fulfilled bin the days of David and Solomon; “And she was satiated,”was fulfilled bin the days of Hezekiah; “And she left some over”was fulfilled bin the days of RabbiYehuda HaNasi. bAs the Master said: RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bhorsekeeper [ iahuriyarei /i] was richer than the kingof Persia. bIt was taught in a ibaraita /i: “And she ate,” in this world; “and she was satiated,” in the days of the Messiah; “and she left some over,” in the future,at the end of days.,It was mentioned earlier that Rabbi Yoḥa called his clothing his honor. The Gemara cites the interpretation of the verse that speaks about the downfall of the king of Assyria: “Therefore, the Lord, the Lord of hosts, will send leanness to his fat ones band under his honor He will burn a burning like a burning fire”(Isaiah 10:16). br bRabbi Yoḥa said: “And under his honor,” but not his actual honor.The Gemara explains: bRabbi Yoḥafollows bhis own reasoning,for he bcalled his clothing my honor,which means that the bodies of the king of Assyria’s soldiers were burned. However, their garments were miraculously not burned., bRabbi Elazar said: “And under his honor”means bin place of his actual honor.That is to say, their bodies were burned. Since, in Rabbi Elazar’s opinion, the word under means in the place of, the verse accordingly means that in the place of his honor, i.e., the body, there remain ashes. br bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: Under his honormeans beneath his flesh, bsimilar to the burning of the sons of Aaron. Just as there,i.e., the burning of Aaron’s sons, bthe soul burned whilethe bbodyremained bintact, so too here,i.e., the burning of Assyrian soldiers, bthe soul burned whilethe bbodyremained bintact. /b, bRabbi Aḥa bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: /b
43. Anon., Apostolic Constitutions, 7.36 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

44. Anon., Soferim, 1



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
admonition Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 9
aggadah/aggadot Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 26
apodictic law Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 36, 37, 38, 75, 81, 88, 161, 187, 188, 229
banishment Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 244
bans (on food) Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 219, 220
bible,study of Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 9
bible Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 9
biblical referents,in dead dea scrolls Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 73, 79, 80, 83, 84, 85, 88, 89, 91, 92, 93, 94, 96, 97, 99, 100, 101, 103, 109, 110, 145, 147, 148, 168, 170
biblical referents,in philo Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 154, 168, 170
biblical referents,in rabbinic literature Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 110, 114, 125, 126, 129
biblical referents Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 69, 72
cairo genizah Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 9
carrying,prohibited on sabbath,biblical referents,in dead dea scrolls Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 196, 197, 199, 204, 205, 206
carrying,prohibited on sabbath,biblical referents,in rabbinic literature Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 206, 213, 214
carrying,prohibited on sabbath,biblical referents Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 177, 178, 180, 190
courts,sectarian Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 9
covenant renewal ceremony Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 9
diversity,canonical and textual,eating and drinking on sabbath Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 77, 97, 148, 229
eschatology/eschatological Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 26
exegesis,sectarian Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 9
formal structure of law in dead sea scrolls Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 91, 92, 101, 102, 103, 106, 129, 187
gezera shawah Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 76
guilt Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 239, 242, 243, 244, 245
halakhah/halakhot,and aggadah; law and narrative Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 26, 229
halakhah Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 36, 38
hermeneutical method,dead sea scrolls Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 14
hermeneutical method,hillel,school of Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 114
hermeneutical method,in dead dea scrolls Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 78, 79, 99, 125, 126, 129
hermeneutical method,in rabbinic literature Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 110, 119, 125, 126, 129
hermeneutical method,intention in law Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 106
hermeneutical method,inversion (literary) Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 84, 96, 101, 102, 103, 109, 110, 183, 184, 185
hermeneutical method,rabbinic developments in Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 38
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 26
jerusalem Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 26
judges Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 26
law,ancient israel Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 213
law,biblical/rabbinic—see also,halakhah Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 26, 229
law,comparative history of Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 36, 37, 38
law,dead sea scrolls Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 14, 27
law,derivation of Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 9
law,jewish Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 9
law,second temple judaism Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 27
law,sectarian Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 9
legal-exegetical method Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 14, 17, 27, 103
liturgy Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 9
mandel,paul Flatto (2021), The Crown and the Courts, 70
marriage Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 236
measurements Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 232
mebaqqer Flatto (2021), The Crown and the Courts, 70
midrash (as a method) Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 36
midrash halakhah Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 36, 37, 38, 239, 248
moses,as legal authority Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 65, 155, 243
moses Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 177
muqṣe Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 176
nominalism vs. realism,in jewish law Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 170, 171
nomos Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 26
non-pentateuchal scripture,appeal to,rabbinic rejection of Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 125, 129, 130, 213, 248
non-pentateuchal scripture,appeal to Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 17, 129, 130, 213, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 232, 236, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 248
oaths Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224
paraphrase Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 37, 79, 84, 125, 176, 177, 221, 244, 248
penal code of the zadokite fragments,literary organization Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 9
pentateuchal Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 17, 129, 241, 243, 245, 248
pesharim Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 36, 76, 77, 240
pharisaic literature Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 37
pharisees' "58.0_65.0@prophets (nebi'im,canonical division)" Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 218
pharisees Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 37
physical labor,prohibited on sabbath Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 74, 83, 84, 95, 154, 161
prayer Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 229; Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 90, 97, 114, 119, 148, 225, 227, 228, 229
priests Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 155, 236, 243
prince of the congregation Flatto (2021), The Crown and the Courts, 70
prooftexts,non-pentateuchal Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 17, 130, 160, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 232, 236, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 248
prooftexts Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 14, 37, 38
prophets,prophecy Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 65, 100, 155, 248
purity/impurity Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 225, 226, 227, 236
qumran/qumran community Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 26, 229
qumran literature,interpreter of the torah Flatto (2021), The Crown and the Courts, 70
qumran literature,leadership figures Flatto (2021), The Crown and the Courts, 70
qumran literature,legal authority in Flatto (2021), The Crown and the Courts, 70
qumran literature,teacher of righteousness Flatto (2021), The Crown and the Courts, 70
revenge Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 223, 239, 240, 241, 242
rewritten scripture,as a genre Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 27
rewritten scripture,as a marker of authority Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 27
rewritten scripture,as an exegetical technique Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 27
rewritten scripture,of legal material Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 27, 38
rewritten scripture Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 84
sabbath Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 26
sabbath boundary Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 188
sabbath code Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 83, 144, 147, 188, 225, 229
sacrifice,sectarian substitutes for Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 228
sacrifice Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 243, 244, 245
sadducees Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 37
samaritan pentateuch Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 27, 241
sect,history of Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 9
sectarian/sectarianism Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 26
sectarian settlements,texts,composition and redaction Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 9
sectarian settlements Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 9
semantic reformulation Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 92, 101, 146, 155, 156
septuagint,shammai,school of Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 114
septuagint Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 72, 75, 77, 81, 84, 100, 155, 156, 160, 225, 241
study sessions Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 9
targum Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 72, 75, 76, 77, 81, 84, 100, 119, 156, 160, 220, 225, 241
teacher of righteousness Flatto (2021), The Crown and the Courts, 70
temple (jerusalem) Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 226
testimony Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 9
textual authority,in dead sea scrolls Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 27, 97
textual authority,in rabbinic texts Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 37, 38
textual authority Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 27, 248
theft Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 9
thoughts,prohibition of,in dead dea scrolls Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 91, 92, 101, 102, 126, 136, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 168, 169, 170, 171
thoughts,prohibition of,in philo Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 150, 154, 155, 156, 168, 169, 170, 171
thoughts,prohibition of,in rabbinic literature Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 156, 160, 161, 162, 163, 168, 169, 170, 171
torah Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 26, 229
travel on sabbath' Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 88
travel on sabbath Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 83, 91, 93, 136, 147, 187, 188
zadokite fragments Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 9
zadokites Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 37