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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



2784
Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 6.11-6.14
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

25 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 5.5-5.13, 15.24, 18.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.5. וְהָיָה כִי־יֶאְשַׁם לְאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה וְהִתְוַדָּה אֲשֶׁר חָטָא עָלֶיהָ׃ 5.6. וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ לַיהוָה עַל חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא נְקֵבָה מִן־הַצֹּאן כִּשְׂבָּה אוֹ־שְׂעִירַת עִזִּים לְחַטָּאת וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ׃ 5.7. וְאִם־לֹא תַגִּיע יָדוֹ דֵּי שֶׂה וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ־שְׁנֵי בְנֵי־יוֹנָה לַיהוָה אֶחָד לְחַטָּאת וְאֶחָד לְעֹלָה׃ 5.8. וְהֵבִיא אֹתָם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְהִקְרִיב אֶת־אֲשֶׁר לַחַטָּאת רִאשׁוֹנָה וּמָלַק אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ מִמּוּל עָרְפּוֹ וְלֹא יַבְדִּיל׃ 5.9. וְהִזָּה מִדַּם הַחַטָּאת עַל־קִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהַנִּשְׁאָר בַּדָּם יִמָּצֵה אֶל־יְסוֹד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ חַטָּאת הוּא׃ 5.11. וְאִם־לֹא תַשִּׂיג יָדוֹ לִשְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אוֹ לִשְׁנֵי בְנֵי־יוֹנָה וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָטָא עֲשִׂירִת הָאֵפָה סֹלֶת לְחַטָּאת לֹא־יָשִׂים עָלֶיהָ שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא־יִתֵּן עָלֶיהָ לְבֹנָה כִּי חַטָּאת הִיא׃ 5.12. וֶהֱבִיאָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְקָמַץ הַכֹּהֵן מִמֶּנָּה מְלוֹא קֻמְצוֹ אֶת־אַזְכָּרָתָה וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה חַטָּאת הִוא׃ 5.13. וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן עַל־חַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא מֵאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה וְנִסְלַח לוֹ וְהָיְתָה לַכֹּהֵן כַּמִּנְחָה׃ 15.24. וְאִם שָׁכֹב יִשְׁכַּב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ וּתְהִי נִדָּתָהּ עָלָיו וְטָמֵא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְכָל־הַמִּשְׁכָּב אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁכַּב עָלָיו יִטְמָא׃ 18.19. וְאֶל־אִשָּׁה בְּנִדַּת טֻמְאָתָהּ לֹא תִקְרַב לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ׃ 5.5. and it shall be, when he shall be guilty in one of these things, that he shall confess that wherein he hath sinned;" 5.6. and he shall bring his forfeit unto the LORD for his sin which he hath sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a goat, for a sin-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin." 5.7. And if his means suffice not for a lamb, then he shall bring his forfeit for that wherein he hath sinned, two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, unto the LORD: one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering." 5.8. And he shall bring them unto the priest, who shall offer that which is for the sin-offering first, and pinch off its head close by its neck, but shall not divide it asunder." 5.9. And he shall sprinkle of the blood of the sin-offering upon the side of the altar; and the rest of the blood shall be drained out at the base of the altar; it is a sin-offering." 5.10. And he shall prepare the second for a burnt-offering, according to the ordice; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin which he hath sinned, and he shall be forgiven." 5.11. But if his means suffice not for two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, then he shall bring his offering for that wherein he hath sinned, the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a sin-offering; he shall put no oil upon it, neither shall he put any frankincense thereon; for it is a sin-offering." 5.12. And he shall bring it to the priest, and the priest shall take his handful of it as the memorial-part thereof, and make it smoke on the altar, upon the offerings of the LORD made by fire; it is a sin-offering." 5.13. And the priest shall make atonement for him as touching his sin that he hath sinned in any of these things, and he shall be forgiven; and the remt shall be the priest’s, as the meal-offering." 15.24. And if any man lie with her, and her impurity be upon him, he shall be unclean seven days; and every bed whereon he lieth shall be unclean. ." 18.19. And thou shalt not approach unto a woman to uncover her nakedness, as long as she is impure by her uncleanness."
2. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 1.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. מִי גַם־בָּכֶם וְיִסְגֹּר דְּלָתַיִם וְלֹא־תָאִירוּ מִזְבְּחִי חִנָּם אֵין־לִי חֵפֶץ בָּכֶם אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וּמִנְחָה לֹא־אֶרְצֶה מִיֶּדְכֶם׃ 1.1. מַשָּׂא דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּיַד מַלְאָכִי׃ 1.1. The burden of the word of the LORD to Israel by Malachi."
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 21.17-21.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.17. אָז יָשִׁיר יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת עֲלִי בְאֵר עֱנוּ־לָהּ׃ 21.18. בְּאֵר חֲפָרוּהָ שָׂרִים כָּרוּהָ נְדִיבֵי הָעָם בִּמְחֹקֵק בְּמִשְׁעֲנֹתָם וּמִמִּדְבָּר מַתָּנָה׃ 21.19. וּמִמַּתָּנָה נַחֲלִיאֵל וּמִנַּחֲלִיאֵל בָּמוֹת׃ 21.17. Then sang Israel this song: Spring up, O well—sing ye unto it—" 21.18. The well, which the princes digged, Which the nobles of the people delved, With the sceptre, and with their staves. And from the wilderness to Mattanah;" 21.19. and from Mattanah to Nahaliel; and from Nahaliel to Bamoth;" 21.20. and from Bamoth to the valley that is in the field of Moab, by the top of Pisgah, which looketh down upon the desert."
4. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 15.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.8. זֶבַח רְשָׁעִים תּוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה וּתְפִלַּת יְשָׁרִים רְצוֹנוֹ׃ 15.8. The sacrifice of the wicked is an abomination to the LORD; But the prayer of the upright is His delight."
5. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 2.6 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

2.6. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה עַל־שְׁלֹשָׁה פִּשְׁעֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַל־אַרְבָּעָה לֹא אֲשִׁיבֶנּוּ עַל־מִכְרָם בַּכֶּסֶף צַדִּיק וְאֶבְיוֹן בַּעֲבוּר נַעֲלָיִם׃ 2.6. Thus saith the LORD: For three transgressions of Israel, Yea, for four, I will not reverse it: Because they sell the righteous for silver, And the needy for a pair of shoes;"
6. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 10.2, 54.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.2. לְהַטּוֹת מִדִּין דַּלִּים וְלִגְזֹל מִשְׁפַּט עֲנִיֵּי עַמִּי לִהְיוֹת אַלְמָנוֹת שְׁלָלָם וְאֶת־יְתוֹמִים יָבֹזּוּ׃ 10.2. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֹא־יוֹסִיף עוֹד שְׁאָר יִשְׂרָאֵל וּפְלֵיטַת בֵּית־יַעֲקֹב לְהִשָּׁעֵן עַל־מַכֵּהוּ וְנִשְׁעַן עַל־יְהוָה קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל בֶּאֱמֶת׃ 54.16. הן [הִנֵּה] אָנֹכִי בָּרָאתִי חָרָשׁ נֹפֵחַ בְּאֵשׁ פֶּחָם וּמוֹצִיא כְלִי לְמַעֲשֵׂהוּ וְאָנֹכִי בָּרָאתִי מַשְׁחִית לְחַבֵּל׃ 10.2. To turn aside the needy from judgment, And to take away the right of the poor of My people, That widows may be their spoil, And that they may make the fatherless their prey!" 54.16. Behold, I have created the smith That bloweth the fire of coals, And bringeth forth a weapon for his work; And I have created the waster to destroy."
7. Anon., 1 Enoch, 97.8-97.10 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

97.8. Woe to you who acquire silver and gold in unrighteousness and say: ' We have become rich with riches and have possessions; And have acquired everything we have desired. 97.9. And now let us do what we purposed: For we have gathered silver
8. Anon., Jubilees, 23.21-23.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

23.21. For calamity followeth on calamity, and wound on wound, and tribulation on tribulation, and evil tidings on evil tidings, and illness on illness, and all evil judgments such as these, one with another 23.22. illness and overthrow, and snow and frost and ice, and fever, and chills, and torpor, and famine, and death, and sword, and captivity, and all kinds of calamities and pains.
9. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.20-4.4, 4.8, 4.14, 4.15, 4.20-5.1, 5.6, 5.7, 5.15, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 6.21, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.16, 8.17, 8.19, 10.6, 10.18, 10.19, 11.15, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 13.6, 14.18, 16.13, 16.14, 19.7, 19.8, 19.9, 19.10, 19.11, 19.12, 19.13, 19.14, 20.6, 20.31, 20.32, 20.33 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Habakkuk, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.20-4.4, 4.8, 4.14, 4.15, 4.20-5.1, 5.6, 5.7, 5.15, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 6.21, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.16, 8.17, 8.19, 10.6, 13.6, 14.18, 16.13, 16.14, 19.7, 19.8, 19.9, 19.10, 19.11, 19.12, 19.13, 19.14, 20.6, 20.31, 20.32, 20.33 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q174 (The Florilegium) 195, 199, 339, 1.11, 1.14, 1.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1.11, 5.7-5.12, 5.20, 6.6, 7.1, 8.11-8.12, 8.15, 9.10-9.13, 10.10, 10.18-10.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 18.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 18.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 4.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.8. Incline your ear to the poor,and answer him peaceably and gently.
17. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.188-3.190 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.188. And then did God award the Titans evil. 3.189. And all of Titans and of Cronos born 3.190. 190 Died. But then as time rolled around there rose
18. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 18.18-18.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.18. 5. The doctrine of the Essenes is this: That all things are best ascribed to God. They teach the immortality of souls, and esteem that the rewards of righteousness are to be earnestly striven for; 18.18. Now Antonia was greatly esteemed by Tiberius on all accounts, from the dignity of her relation to him, who had been his brother Drusus’s wife, and from her eminent chastity; for though she was still a young woman, she continued in her widowhood, and refused all other matches, although Augustus had enjoined her to be married to somebody else; yet did she all along preserve her reputation free from reproach. 18.19. and when they send what they have dedicated to God into the temple, they do not offer sacrifices because they have more pure lustrations of their own; on which account they are excluded from the common court of the temple, but offer their sacrifices themselves; yet is their course of life better than that of other men; and they entirely addict themselves to husbandry. 18.19. But when Caesar had gone round the hippodrome, he found Agrippa standing: “For certain,” said he, “Macro, this is the man I meant to have bound;” and when he still asked, “Which of these is to be bound?” he said “Agrippa.”
19. Mishnah, Keritot, 2.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.4. A woman who has had several births. If she miscarried a female within eighty days of the birth of a girl, and then she again miscarried a female within eighty days of the previous [miscarriage]; or if she miscarried twins. Rabbi Judah says: she brings an offering for the first and not for the second, for the third again but not for the fourth. The following persons bring an offering of higher or lesser value: One who hears the voice (see Leviticus 5:1); One who has broken the word of his lips (Leviticus 5:4); One who while unclean has entered the sanctuary or [has partaken] of holy things, A woman after childbirth And a metzora. What is the difference between [intercourse] with a female slave and the other forbidden sexual relations? For they are not equivalent in regard to the punishment nor the sacrifice. In the case of all other forbidden sexual relations a hatat is brought, in that of a female slave an asham; In the case of the other forbidden sexual relations a female animal is brought, in that of the female slave a male; In the case of the other forbidden sexual relations man and woman are alike with respect to lashes and the sacrifice; in that of the female slave the man is unlike the woman regarding the lashes, and the woman is unlike the man regarding the sacrifice. In the case of all other forbidden sexual relations sexual contact is punishable as well as consummation, and one is liable for each act of intercourse separately. For in this the case of the female slave is more stringent in that intentional transgression is of the same status as unwitting transgression."
20. Mishnah, Shevuot, 4.2-4.3, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.2. And they are liable for intentional transgression of the oath, and for its unintentional transgression coupled with intentional [denial of knowledge of] testimony, but they are not liable for unintentional transgression. And what are they liable for the intentional transgression of the oath? A sliding scale sacrifice." 4.3. The oath of testimony: How is it done? If he said to two [persons]: “Come and bear testimony for me”; [and they replied:] “We swear we know no testimony for you”; Or they said to him: “We know no testimony for you”, [and he said:] “I adjure you” and they said, “Amen! “, they are liable. If he adjured them five times outside the court, and the they came to the court and admitted [knowledge of testimony], they are exempt. If they denied, they are liable for each [oath]. If he adjured them five times before the court, and they denied [knowledge of testimony], they are liable only once. Said Rabbi Shimon: “What is the reason? Because they cannot afterwards admit [knowledge]." 4.11. If he said to two [persons]: “I adjure you, so-and-so and so-and-so, that if you know any testimony for me you should come and bear testimony for me”: [And they replied,] “We swear we know no testimony for you”, and they did know testimony for him, [but it was evidence of] one witness from the mouth of another witness; or if one of them was a relative or [otherwise] ineligible [as a witness], they are exempt."
21. Mishnah, Sotah, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.4. She had barely finished drinking when her face turns yellow, her eyes protrude and her veins swell. And [those who see her] exclaim, “Remove her! Remove her, so that the temple-court should not be defiled”. If she had merit, it [causes the water] to suspend its effect upon her. Some merit suspends the effect for one year, some merit suspends the effects for two years, and some merit suspends the effect for three years. Hence Ben Azzai said: a person must teach his daughter Torah, so that if she has to drink [the water of bitterness], she should know that the merit suspends its effect. Rabbi Eliezer says: whoever teaches his daughter Torah teaches her lasciviousness. Rabbi Joshua says: a woman prefers one kav (of food) and sexual indulgence to nine kav and sexual separation. He used to say, a foolish pietist, a cunning wicked person, a female separatist, and the blows of separatists bring destruction upon the world."
22. New Testament, Apocalypse, 3.12, 3.21, 4.11, 5.9, 21.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.12. He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God, and he will go out from there no more. I will write on him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from my God, and my own new name. 3.21. He who overcomes, I will give to him to sit down with me on my throne, as I also overcame, and sat down with my Father on his throne. 4.11. Worthy are you, our Lord and our God, the Holy One, to receive the glory, the honor, and the power, for you created all things, and because of your desire they existed, and were created! 5.9. They sang a new song, saying, "You are worthy to take the book, And to open its seals: For you were killed, And bought us for God with your blood, Out of every tribe, language, people, and nation 21.7. He who overcomes, I will give him these things. I will be his God, and he will be my son.
23. New Testament, Matthew, 12.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.6. But I tell you that one greater than the temple is here.
24. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

3a. קשיא דרבי מאיר אדרבי מאיר תרי תנאי אליבא דרבי מאיר,קשיא דרבי אליעזר אדרבי אליעזר,תרי תנאי אליבא דרבי אליעזר ואיבעית אימא רישא לאו רבי אליעזר היא:,עד סוף האשמורה:,מאי קסבר רבי אליעזר אי קסבר שלש משמרות הוי הלילה לימא עד ארבע שעות ואי קסבר ארבע משמרות הוי הלילה לימא עד שלש שעות,לעולם קסבר שלש משמרות הוי הלילה והא קא משמע לן דאיכא משמרות ברקיע ואיכא משמרות בארעא דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר שלש משמרות הוי הלילה ועל כל משמר ומשמר יושב הקדוש ברוך הוא ושואג כארי שנאמר ה' ממרום ישאג וממעון קדשו יתן קולו שאוג ישאג על נוהו,וסימן לדבר משמרה ראשונה חמור נוער שניה כלבים צועקים שלישית תינוק יונק משדי אמו ואשה מספרת עם בעלה.,מאי קא חשיב רבי אליעזר אי תחלת משמרות קא חשיב תחלת משמרה ראשונה סימנא למה לי אורתא הוא אי סוף משמרות קא חשיב סוף משמרה אחרונה למה לי סימנא יממא הוא,אלא חשיב סוף משמרה ראשונה ותחלת משמרה אחרונה ואמצעית דאמצעיתא ואיבעית אימא כולהו סוף משמרות קא חשיב וכי תימא אחרונה לא צריך,למאי נפקא מינה למיקרי קריאת שמע למאן דגני בבית אפל ולא ידע זמן קריאת שמע אימת כיון דאשה מספרת עם בעלה ותינוק יונק משדי אמו ליקום וליקרי.,אמר רב יצחק בר שמואל משמיה דרב ג' משמרות הוי הלילה ועל כל משמר ומשמר יושב הקדוש ברוך הוא ושואג כארי ואומר אוי לבנים שבעונותיהם החרבתי את ביתי ושרפתי את היכלי והגליתים לבין אומות העולם:,תניא אמר רבי יוסי פעם אחת הייתי מהלך בדרך ונכנסתי לחורבה אחת מחורבות ירושלים להתפלל בא אליהו זכור לטוב ושמר לי על הפתח (והמתין לי) עד שסיימתי תפלתי לאחר שסיימתי תפלתי אמר לי שלום עליך רבי ואמרתי לו שלום עליך רבי ומורי ואמר לי בני מפני מה נכנסת לחורבה זו אמרתי לו להתפלל ואמר לי היה לך להתפלל בדרך ואמרתי לו מתיירא הייתי שמא יפסיקו בי עוברי דרכים ואמר לי היה לך להתפלל תפלה קצרה,באותה שעה למדתי ממנו שלשה דברים למדתי שאין נכנסין לחורבה ולמדתי שמתפללין בדרך ולמדתי שהמתפלל בדרך מתפלל תפלה קצרה,ואמר לי בני מה קול שמעת בחורבה זו ואמרתי לו שמעתי בת קול שמנהמת כיונה ואומרת אוי לבנים שבעונותיהם החרבתי את ביתי ושרפתי את היכלי והגליתים לבין האומות ואמר לי חייך וחיי ראשך לא שעה זו בלבד אומרת כך אלא בכל יום ויום שלש פעמים אומרת כך ולא זו בלבד אלא בשעה שישראל נכנסין לבתי כנסיות ולבתי מדרשות ועונין יהא שמיה הגדול מבורך הקדוש ברוך הוא מנענע ראשו ואומר אשרי המלך שמקלסין אותו בביתו כך מה לו לאב שהגלה את בניו ואוי להם לבנים שגלו מעל שולחן אביהם:,תנו רבנן מפני שלשה דברים אין נכנסין לחורבה מפני חשד מפני המפולת ומפני המזיקין. מפני חשד ותיפוק ליה משום מפולת 3a. The previous baraita cited Rabbi Meir’s opinion that the time for the recitation of iShemabegins when the priests immerse before partaking of their iteruma /i. In the iTosefta /i, it was taught that Rabbi Meir holds that one begins to recite iShemafrom when people enter to eat their meal on Shabbat eve. One opinion of bRabbi Meirseems to bcontradictanother opinion of bRabbi Meir /b. The Gemara responds: bTwo itanna’im /i,students of Rabbi Meir, expressed different opinions bin accordance with Rabbi Meir’sopinion.,So too, the opinion bof Rabbi Eliezercited in the mishna bcontradictsthe opinion bof Rabbi Eliezercited in the ibaraita /i. In the mishna, Rabbi Eliezer holds that the time for the recitation of iShemabegins with the emergence of the stars: From the time when the priests enter to partake of their iteruma /i, while in the ibaraita /i, he states that the time for the recitation of iShemabegins when the day becomes sanctified on the eve of Shabbat.,The Gemara responds: There are two possible resolutions to the apparent contradiction in Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion. Either btwo itanna’imexpressed different opinions bin accordance with Rabbi Eliezer’sopinion, bor if you wish, sayinstead that bthe first clauseof the mishna, according to which we begin to recite iShemawhen the priests enter to partake of their iteruma /i, bis notactually bRabbi Eliezer’sopinion. Only the second half of the statement: Until the end of the first watch, was stated by Rabbi Eliezer.,In the mishna, we learned that Rabbi Eliezer establishes that one may recite the evening iShema buntil the end of the first watch.These watches are mentioned in the Bible as segments of the night, but it must be established: Into precisely how many segments is the night divided, three or four? Moreover, why does Rabbi Eliezer employ such inexact parameters rather than a more precise definition of time ( iTosefot HaRosh /i)?, bWhat does Rabbi Eliezeractually bhold? If he holds that the night consists of three watches, let him sayexplicitly that one recites the evening iShema buntil the fourth hour. If he holds that the night consists of four watches, let him sayexplicitly buntil the third hour. /b,The Gemara responds: bActually,Rabbi Eliezer bholds that the night consists of three watches,and he employs this particular language of watches bin order to teach us: There are watches in heaven and there are watches on earth;just as our night is divided into watches, so too is the night in the upper worlds. bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer says: The night consists of three watches, and over each and every watch, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and roars like a lionin pain over the destruction of the Temple. This imagery is derived from a reference in the Bible, bas it is stated: “The Lord roars [ iyishag /i] from on high, from His holy dwelling He makes His voice heard. He roars mightily[ishaog yishag/b] bover His dwelling place,He cries out like those who tread grapes, against all the inhabitants of the earth” (Jeremiah 25:30). The three instances of the root ishin-alef-gimmelin this verse correspond to the three watches of the night., bAnd signs ofthe transition between each of bthesewatches in the upper world can be sensed in this world: In bthe first watch, the donkey brays;in bthe second, dogs bark;and in bthe thirdpeople begin to rise, ba baby nurses from its mother’s breast and a wife converses with her husband. /b,With regard to these earthly manifestations of the three heavenly watches as established in the ibaraita /i, the Gemara asks: bWhat did Rabbi Eliezer enumerate? Ifhe benumerated the beginning of the watch, why do I need a sign for the beginning of the first watch? It iswhen beveningbegins; an additional sign is superfluous. bIf he enumerated the end of the watches, why do I need a sign for the end of the last watch? It iswhen bdaybegins; an additional sign is similarly superfluous.,The Gemara answers: bRather, he enumeratedthe signs for bthe end of the first watch and the beginning of the last watch,both of which require a sign, as well as bthe middle of the middlewatch. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead: bHe enumerated the ends of allof the watches. bAnd if you saythat a sign indicating the end of the bfinalwatch bis unnecessarybecause it is day, nevertheless, that sign is useful., bWhat is the practical ramificationof this sign? It is relevant bto one who recites iShema bwhile lying in a dark house,who cannot see the dawn and bwho does not know when the time for reciting iShema /iarrives. That person is provided with a sign that bwhen a woman speaks with her husband and a baby nurses from its mother’s breast,the final watch of the night has ended and bhe must rise and recite iShema /i., bRav Yitzḥak bar Shmuel said in the name of Rav: The night consists of three watches, and over each and every watch the Holy One, Blessed be He sits and roars like a lion,because the Temple service was connected to the changing of these watches ( iTosefot HaRosh /i), band says: “Woe to Me, that due to their sins I destroyed My house, burned My Temple and exiled them among the nations of the world.” /b,Incidental to the mention of the elevated significance of the night watches, the Gemara cites a related story: bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei said: I was once walking along the road when I enteredthe bruinsof an old, abandoned building bamong the ruins of Jerusalemin order bto pray.I noticed that bElijah, of blessed memory, came and guarded the entrance for me and waited at the entrance until I finished my prayer. When I finished prayingand exited the ruin, Elijah bsaid to me,deferentially as one would address a Rabbi: bGreetings to you, my Rabbi. I answered him: Greetings to you, my Rabbi, my teacher. AndElijah bsaid to me: My son, why did you enter this ruin? I said to him:In order bto pray. AndElijah bsaid to me: You should have prayed on the road. And I said to him:I was unable to pray along the road, because bI was afraid that I might be interrupted by travelersand would be unable to focus. Elijah bsaid to me: You should have recited the abbreviated prayerinstituted for just such circumstances.,Rabbi Yosei concluded: bAt that time,from that brief exchange, bI learned from him, three things: I learned that one may not enter a ruin; and I learnedthat one need not enter a building to pray, but bhe may pray along the road; and I learned that one who prays along the road recites an abbreviated prayerso that he may maintain his focus., bAndafter this introduction, Elijah bsaid to me: What voice did you hear in that ruin? br bI responded: I heard a Heavenly voice,like an echo of that roar of the Holy One, Blessed be He (Maharsha), bcooing like a dove and saying: Woe to the children, due to whose sins I destroyed My house, burned My Temple, and exiled them among the nations.br bAndElijah bsaid to me:By byour life and by your head, not onlydid that voice bcry out in that moment, but it cries out three times each and every day. Moreover,any time that God’s greatness is evoked, such as bwhen Israel enters synagogues and study halls and answersin the ikaddishprayer, bMay His great name be blessed, the Holy One, Blessed be He, shakes His head and says: Happy is the king who is thus praised in his house.When the Temple stood, this praise was recited there, but now: bHowgreat is the pain of bthe father who exiled his children, and woe to the children who were exiled from their father’s table,as their pain only adds to that of their father (Rabbi Shem Tov ibn Shaprut)., bThe Sages taught, for three reasons one may not enter a ruin: Because of suspicionof prostitution, bbecausethe ruin is liable to bcollapse,and bbecause of demons.Three separate reasons seem extraneous, so the Gemara asks: Why was the reason bbecause of suspicionnecessary? bLet this ihalakha bbe derived because of collapse. /b
25. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

110a. band swear to the Lord of hosts;one shall be called the city of destruction” (Isaiah 19:18). bThey went to Alexandria in Egypt and built an altar and sacrificedofferings bupon it for the sake of Heaven, as it is statedin the following verse: b“In that day shall there be an altar to the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt,and a pillar at its border, to the Lord” (Isaiah 19:19).,The verse states: b“One shall be called the city of destruction”(Isaiah 19:18). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the verse: b“One shall be called the city of destruction”?The Gemara answers: bAs Rav Yosef translatesinto Aramaic: Concerning bthe City of the Sun, which will be destroyed in the future, it will be said that it is one of them. And from whereis it derived bthatin the phrase: b“The city of destruction [ iheres /i],” the term iheres bisreferring bto the sun? As it is written: “Who commands the sun [ iḥeres /i], and it does not rise;and seals up the stars” (Job 9:7).,§ After mentioning the Jewish community in Egypt, the Gemara discusses Jewish communities in other locations. The verse states: “Fear not, for I am with you; I will bring your seed from the east and gather you from the west; I will say to the north: Give up, and to the south: Keep not back, bbring My sons from far, and My daughters from the end of the earth”(Isaiah 43:5–6). What is the meaning of b“bring My sons from far”? Rav Huna says: These are the exiles of Babylonia, whose minds are calm, like sons,and who can therefore focus properly on Torah study and mitzvot. What is the meaning of b“and My daughters from the end of the earth”? These are the exiles of other countries, whose minds are unsettled, like daughters. /b,§ bRabbi Abba bar Rav Yitzḥak saysthat bRav Ḥisda says, and some saythat bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:The gentiles living bfrom Tyre to Carthage recognize the Jewish people,their religion, band their Father in Heaven. Butthose living bto the west of Tyre and to the east of Carthage recognize neither the Jewish people nor their Father in Heaven. /b, bRav Shimi bar Ḥiyya raised an objection tothe statement of bRavfrom the verse: b“From the rising of the sun until it sets, My name is great among the nations; and in every place offerings are presented to My name, and a pure meal offering;for My name is great among the nations, says the Lord of hosts” (Malachi 1:11). This indicates that God’s name is known across the entire world, even to the west of Tyre and the east of Carthage. Rav bsaid to him: Shimi,is it byouwho is raising such an objection? The verse does not mean that they recognize God and worship him. Rather, it means bthatalthough they worship idols, bthey call Him the God of gods. /b,§ The verse states: “And bin every place offerings are presented to My name,and a pure meal offering; for My name is great among the nations, says the Lord of hosts.” Does it benter your mindto say that it is permitted to sacrifice offerings bin every place?Rather, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: These are Torah scholars, who engage in Torahstudy bin every place.God says: bI ascribe themcredit bas though they burn and presentofferings bto My name. /b,Furthermore, when the verse states: b“And a pure meal offering,” thisis referring to bone who studies Torah in purity,i.e., one who first bmarries a woman and afterward studies Torah.Since he is married, he is not disturbed by sinful thoughts.,The Gemara cites another verse that praises Torah scholars. b“A Song of Ascents, Behold, bless the Lord, all you servants of the Lord, who stand in the House of the Lord at night”(Psalms 134:1). bWhatis the meaning of b“at night,”given that the Temple service is not performed at night and all the offerings must be sacrificed during the daytime? bRabbi Yoḥa says: These are Torah scholars, who engage in Torahstudy bat night. The verse ascribes themcredit bas though they engage in theTemple bservice. /b,§ The Gemara cites another verse that is interpreted in a similar vein. King Solomon said to Hiram of Tyre: “Behold, I am about to build a house for the name of the Lord my God, to dedicate it to Him, and to burn before Him incense of sweet spices, and for the continual shewbread, and for the burnt offerings morning and evening, on the iShabbatot /i, and on the New Moons, and on the Festivals of the Lord our God. bThis is an ordice forever for Israel”(II Chronicles 2:3). Since the Temple was eventually destroyed, what did Solomon mean when he said that it is “an ordice forever”? bRav Giddel saysthat bRav says: Thisis referring to the baltarthat remains bbuiltin Heaven even after the earthly Temple was destroyed, bandthe angel bMichael, the great minister, stands and sacrifices an offering upon it. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa saysthat there is an alternative explanation of the verse: bThese are Torah scholars, who engage instudying bthe ihalakhotofthe Temple bservice. The verse ascribes themcredit bas though the Temple was built in their daysand they are serving in it.,§ The Gemara cites similar interpretations of verses: bReish Lakish said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “This is the law [ itorah /i] of the burnt offering, of the meal offering, and of the sin offering, and of the guilt offering,and of the consecration offering, and of the sacrifice of peace offerings” (Leviticus 7:37)? This teaches that banyone who engages in Torahstudy is considered bas though he sacrificed a burnt offering, a meal offering, a sin offering, and a guilt offering. /b, bRava saidan objection to this interpretation: bThisverse states: b“of the burnt offering, of the meal offering.”If the interpretation of Reish Lakish is correct, the verse bshould havewritten: b“Burnt offering and meal offering.” Rather, Rava saysthat the correct interpretation of this verse is: bAnyone who engages in Torahstudy bneed notbring ba burnt offering, nor a sin offering, nor a meal offering, nor a guilt offering. /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “This is the law of the sin offering”(Leviticus 6:18), band: “This is the law of the guilt offering”(Leviticus 7:1)? These verses teach that banyone who engages instudying bthe law of the sin offeringis ascribed credit bas though he sacrificed a sin offering, and anyone who engages instudying bthe law of a guilt offeringis ascribed credit bas though he sacrificed a guilt offering. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bIt is stated with regard to an animal burnt offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:9), band with regard to a bird burnt offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:17), band with regard to a meal offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 2:2). The repetitive language employed concerning all of these different offerings is bto say to youthat bone who brings a substantialoffering band one who brings a meageroffering have equal merit, bprovided that he directs his heart toward Heaven. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bRabbi Zeira said: What is the versefrom which this principle is derived? b“Sweet is the sleep of a laboring man, whether he consumes little or much” /b(Ecclesiastes 5:11).The verse is interpreted as referring to one who brings an offering, and teaches that one who brings a substantial offering and one who brings a meager offering can be equally assured that their offering will be accepted., bRav Adda bar Ahava saidthat the source is bfrom here: “When goods increase, those who consume them increase; and what advantage is there to the owner,except seeing them with his eyes?” (Ecclesiastes 5:10). One who brings a substantial offering, who thereby increases the number of priests who partake of it, does not have more merit than one who brings a meager offering. Rather, the offering that God desires is one where He recognizes, i.e., “seeing them with His eyes,” that its owner has the proper intent.,The Gemara addresses the expression “an aroma pleasing to the Lord” stated in the verses mentioned in the mishna. bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Azzai says: Come and see what is written in the portion of offerings: Asin these verses, the divine names iEland iElohimare not stated, butonly b“the Lord.”This is bsoas bnot to give a claim to a litigant to argue.Only one name of God is used in conjunction with all the various offerings, to prevent heretics from claiming that different offerings are brought to different gods., bAnd it is stated with regard to a large bulloffering: b“A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:9), band with regard to a small birdoffering: b“A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:17), band with regard to a meal offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:9). The repetitive language employed concerning all of these different offerings is bto say to youthat bone who brings a substantialoffering band one who brings a meageroffering have equal merit, bprovided that he directs his heart toward Heaven. /b, bAnd lest you saythat God bneedsthese offerings bfor consumption,in which case a larger offering would be preferable to a smaller one, bthe verse states: “If I were hungry, I would not tell you; for the world is Mine, and everything within it”(Psalms 50:12). bAnd it is stated: “For every beast of the forest is Mine, and the cattle upon a thousand hills. I know all the fowls of the mountains; and the wild beasts of the field are Mine”(Psalms 50:10–11). Similarly, it is stated in the following verse: b“Do I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats?”(Psalms 50:13)., bI did not say to you: Sacrificeofferings to me, bso that you will say: I will do His will,i.e., fulfill His needs, band He will do my will. You are not sacrificing tofulfill bMy will,i.e., My needs, bbut you are sacrificing tofulfill byour will,i.e., your needs, in order to achieve atonement for your sins by observing My mitzvot, bas it is stated:“And when you sacrifice an offering of peace offerings to the Lord, byou shall sacrifice it so that you may be accepted”(Leviticus 19:5)., bAlternatively,the verse: “And when you sacrifice an offering of peace offerings to the Lord, byou shall sacrifice it so that you may be accepted [ ilirtzonkhem /i]”(Leviticus 19:5), can be interpreted differently: bSacrifice willingly [ ilirtzonkhem /i]; sacrifice intentionally. /b,This is bas Shmuel asked Rav Huna: From whereis it derived with regard bto one who acts unawaresin the case bof consecrateditems, i.e., if one slaughtered an offering without intending to perform the act of slaughter at all, but rather appeared like one occupied with other matters, bthatthe offering bis disqualified?Rav Huna said to Shmuel: It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “And he shall slaughter the young bullbefore the Lord” (Leviticus 1:5), teaching that the mitzva is not performed properly bunless the slaughter is for the sake of a young bull,i.e., with the knowledge that he is performing an act of slaughter.,Shmuel bsaid toRav Huna: bWe have thisas an established ihalakhaalready, that it is a mitzva to slaughter the offering for the sake of a bull, but bfrom whereis it derived that this requirement is bindispensable?Rav Huna bsaid to himthat the verse states: b“With your will you shall slaughter it”(Leviticus 19:5), i.e., bsacrifice intentionally,in the form of a purposeful action.,...Y


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, sons of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119, 120
abraham, two wives of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119, 120
abraham Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119, 120
actualization Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119
admonition Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
age, present/eschatological Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 171
allegory/allegorical, allegorical text or interpretation Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 120
allegory/allegorical, and pesher Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119, 120
allegory/allegorical, in the dead sea scrolls Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119, 120
allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119, 120
allegory/allegorical, of law Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 120
amoraim, amoraic period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 129
apocalyptic Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 171
audience Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 163
belial Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 521
blessing, future Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 171
boethusians Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 189
cairo genizah Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
commandment/commandments Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 151
conquering Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 171
contemporization Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 40, 119
cult, of jerusalem temple Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 29
dead sea scrolls, divine inspiration as source of halakhah Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 42
death Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 171
derveni papyrus Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 120
divine name Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 148
divine origins of halakhic law Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 42
divine presence Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 148, 152
divine revelation, as source of authority Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 42
door, open Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 171
endtime Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119
eschatology, in dead sea scrolls Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 29
eschatology/eschatological Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 176
eschatology Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 120
essenes Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8; Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 189
exegesis, pesher Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
faithful, the Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 171
figure Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119
fornication Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 521
fragmentation Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 41
geonic period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 129
gershom ben judah Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 129
greed, alleged of priests Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 148, 151, 152
hagar Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119, 120
halakhah, divine versus human authority in Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 42
halakhah/halakhot, and aggadah; law and narrative Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 149, 151, 163, 164
heaven, punishment at the hands of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 129
hebrew, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 129
hermeneutics, and making communities Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 40
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also, interpretation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 149, 163, 164
hidden commandments, revelation of Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 42
high priest Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 521
hyponoia Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 120
implicit/explicit interpretation Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 41, 120
inheritance Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 171
initiation ceremony, process Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52, 149, 151, 163, 164, 176
intertextuality and intertext, literal Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119, 120
intertextuality and intertext Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 120
jerusalem Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52
judges Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52
laity, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52
lamb, slaughtered Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 171
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52, 149, 151, 163, 164
law, geonic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 129
law, jewish Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
law, mishnaic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 129
law, sectarian Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 129
lemma Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 41
literal sense Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119, 120
maimonides, moses Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 129
mandel, paul Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 276
manual of discipline Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
menstruation, menstruant Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 521
metaphor Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119, 120
midrash-pesher Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 39, 40, 41, 119
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 149, 151, 163, 164, 176
moral impurity Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 521
moses Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119
naeh, shlomo Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 276
narrative Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 40
new jerusalem Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 171
novitiate, novice Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
oath, of initiation Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 129
oath, violation of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 129
orphic poem Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 120
patriarchs, texts Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52
pesher Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 39, 40, 41, 119, 120
pesher literature Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 29
poor, attitudes toward, at qumran Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 148, 151, 152
poor, the, as faithful Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 171
poverty Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 171
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52, 149, 151, 163, 164, 176
priests, aaronide Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 129
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52, 151
pronominal pesharim Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 39, 40, 41
property, restitution of lost or stolen Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 129
prophets Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 151, 163, 176
punishment, penalty Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 129
qumran, headquarters of sect Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
qumran/qumran community Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52, 149, 151, 163, 164, 176
qumran Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 39, 40, 41, 119, 120
rabbi judah ben bathyra Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 129
rabbinic literature, human exegetical activity in Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 42
rabbis, rabbinic literature Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 129
revelation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 164
rhetoric Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 39, 40, 41
rich, the Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 171
righteousness by pistis/deeds Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 39
ritual-physical impurity Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 521
sacrifice Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 129
sacrifices/sacrificial offerings Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52
sect, admittance to Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
sect, history of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
sect, replacement temple Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
sectarian/sectarianism Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52, 149, 163, 164, 176
sectarian settlements, texts, composition and redaction Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
sectarian settlements Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
sectarianism Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 29
seven messages Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 171
shemesh, aharon Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 276
shemitah Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119
song of the well Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 40, 41, 119, 120
space (sacred)' Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 29
suffering Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 171
tannaim, tannaitic law, judaism, period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 129
teacher of righteousness Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 164
temple, cult, jerusalem Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 129
temple Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 521
temple jerusalem (second) Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 29
throne-room Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 171
torah, as a well Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 40, 41, 119, 120
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52, 149, 151, 163, 164, 176
transmission of impurity Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 521
violence sacred space and Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 29
wealth, imagery Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 171
wealth, material Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 171
wealth Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 521
wilderness Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 151
witnesses, two Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 129
zadokite fragments Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8