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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



2784
Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 16.6-16.12
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

29 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.12, 19.15, 23.24, 31.9-31.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.12. שָׁמוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ 19.15. לֹא־יָקוּם עֵד אֶחָד בְּאִישׁ לְכָל־עָוֺן וּלְכָל־חַטָּאת בְּכָל־חֵטְא אֲשֶׁר יֶחֱטָא עַל־פִּי שְׁנֵי עֵדִים אוֹ עַל־פִּי שְׁלֹשָׁה־עֵדִים יָקוּם דָּבָר׃ 23.24. מוֹצָא שְׂפָתֶיךָ תִּשְׁמֹר וְעָשִׂיתָ כַּאֲשֶׁר נָדַרְתָּ לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נְדָבָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ בְּפִיךָ׃ 31.9. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וַיִּתְּנָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי לֵוִי הַנֹּשְׂאִים אֶת־אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהוָה וְאֶל־כָּל־זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 31.11. בְּבוֹא כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵרָאוֹת אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחָר תִּקְרָא אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת נֶגֶד כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאָזְנֵיהֶם׃ 31.12. הַקְהֵל אֶת־הָעָם הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַטַּף וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ לְמַעַן יִשְׁמְעוּ וּלְמַעַן יִלְמְדוּ וְיָרְאוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְשָׁמְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 31.13. וּבְנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדְעוּ יִשְׁמְעוּ וְלָמְדוּ לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כָּל־הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם חַיִּים עַל־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 5.12. Observe the sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the LORD thy God commanded thee." 19.15. One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth; at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall a matter be establishment" 23.24. That which is gone out of thy lips thou shalt observe and do; according as thou hast vowed freely unto the LORD thy God, even that which thou hast promised with thy mouth." 31.9. And Moses wrote this law, and delivered it unto the priests the sons of Levi, that bore the ark of the covet of the LORD, and unto all the elders of Israel." 31.10. And Moses commanded them, saying: ‘At the end of every seven years, in the set time of the year of release, in the feast of tabernacles," 31.11. when all Israel is come to appear before the LORD thy God in the place which He shall choose, thou shalt read this law before all Israel in their hearing." 31.12. Assemble the people, the men and the women and the little ones, and thy stranger that is within thy gates, that they may hear, and that they may learn, and fear the LORD your God, and observe to do all the words of this law;" 31.13. and that their children, who have not known, may hear, and learn to fear the LORD your God, as long as ye live in the land whither ye go over the Jordan to possess it.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 2.20, 9.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.32. וּמַאֲמַר אֶסְתֵּר קִיַּם דִּבְרֵי הַפֻּרִים הָאֵלֶּה וְנִכְתָּב בַּסֵּפֶר׃ 2.20. Esther had not yet made known her kindred nor her people; as Mordecai had charged her; for Esther did the commandment of Mordecai, like as when she was brought up with him—" 9.32. And the commandment of Esther confirmed these matters of Purim; and it was written in the book."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.9, 24.3-24.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.9. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ 24.3. וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה וַיְסַפֵּר לָעָם אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וְאֵת כָּל־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים וַיַּעַן כָּל־הָעָם קוֹל אֶחָד וַיֹּאמְרוּ כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה׃ 24.4. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וַיַּשְׁכֵּם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּבֶן מִזְבֵּחַ תַּחַת הָהָר וּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה מַצֵּבָה לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.5. וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת־נַעֲרֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיִּזְבְּחוּ זְבָחִים שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה פָּרִים׃ 24.6. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה חֲצִי הַדָּם וַיָּשֶׂם בָּאַגָּנֹת וַחֲצִי הַדָּם זָרַק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 24.7. וַיִּקַּח סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית וַיִּקְרָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע׃ 24.8. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַדָּם וַיִּזְרֹק עַל־הָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה דַם־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם עַל כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 20.9. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;" 24.3. And Moses came and told the people all the words of the LORD, and all the ordices; and all the people answered with one voice, and said: ‘All the words which the Lord hath spoken will we do.’" 24.4. And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the mount, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel." 24.5. And he sent the young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt-offerings, and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen unto the LORD." 24.6. And Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basins; and half of the blood he dashed against the altar." 24.7. And he took the book of the covet, and read in the hearing of the people; and they said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken will we do, and obey.’" 24.8. And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said: ‘Behold the blood of the covet, which the LORD hath made with you in agreement with all these words.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 21.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.25. וְהוֹכִחַ אַבְרָהָם אֶת־אֲבִימֶלֶךְ עַל־אֹדוֹת בְּאֵר הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר גָּזְלוּ עַבְדֵי אֲבִימֶלֶךְ׃ 21.25. And Abraham reproved Abimelech because of the well of water, which Abimelech’s servants had violently taken away."
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 40.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

40.14. וְגַם־אֲנִי אוֹדֶךָּ כִּי־תוֹשִׁעַ לְךָ יְמִינֶךָ׃ 40.14. Then will I also confess unto thee That thine own right hand can save thee."
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 14.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.7. וְהִזָּה עַל הַמִּטַּהֵר מִן־הַצָּרַעַת שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וְטִהֲרוֹ וְשִׁלַּח אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 14.7. And he shall sprinkle upon him that is to be cleansed from the leprosy seven times, and shall pronounce him clean, and shall let go the living bird into the open field."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 23.8, 30.9, 30.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.8. מָה אֶקֹּב לֹא קַבֹּה אֵל וּמָה אֶזְעֹם לֹא זָעַם יְהוָה׃ 30.9. וְאִם בְּיוֹם שְׁמֹעַ אִישָׁהּ יָנִיא אוֹתָהּ וְהֵפֵר אֶת־נִדְרָהּ אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ וְאֵת מִבְטָא שְׂפָתֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר אָסְרָה עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ וַיהוָה יִסְלַח־לָהּ׃ 30.15. וְאִם־הַחֲרֵשׁ יַחֲרִישׁ לָהּ אִישָׁהּ מִיּוֹם אֶל־יוֹם וְהֵקִים אֶת־כָּל־נְדָרֶיהָ אוֹ אֶת־כָּל־אֱסָרֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ הֵקִים אֹתָם כִּי־הֶחֱרִשׁ לָהּ בְּיוֹם שָׁמְעוֹ׃ 23.8. How shall I curse, whom God hath not cursed? And how shall I execrate, whom the LORD hath not execrated?" 30.9. But if her husband disallow her in the day that he heareth it, then he shall make void her vow which is upon her, and the clear utterance of her lips, wherewith she hath bound her soul; and the LORD will forgive her." 30.15. But if her husband altogether hold his peace at her from day to day, then he causeth all her vows to stand, or all her bonds, which are upon her; he hath let them stand, because he held his peace at her in the day that he heard them."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 25.26, 25.31, 25.33 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

25.26. וְעַתָּה אֲדֹנִי חַי־יְהוָה וְחֵי־נַפְשְׁךָ אֲשֶׁר מְנָעֲךָ יְהוָה מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים וְהוֹשֵׁעַ יָדְךָ לָךְ וְעַתָּה יִהְיוּ כְנָבָל אֹיְבֶיךָ וְהַמְבַקְשִׁים אֶל־אֲדֹנִי רָעָה׃ 25.31. וְלֹא תִהְיֶה זֹאת לְךָ לְפוּקָה וּלְמִכְשׁוֹל לֵב לַאדֹנִי וְלִשְׁפָּךְ־דָּם חִנָּם וּלְהוֹשִׁיעַ אֲדֹנִי לוֹ וְהֵיטִב יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי וְזָכַרְתָּ אֶת־אֲמָתֶךָ׃ 25.33. וּבָרוּךְ טַעְמֵךְ וּבְרוּכָה אָתְּ אֲשֶׁר כְּלִתִנִי הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים וְהֹשֵׁעַ יָדִי לִי׃ 25.26. Now therefore, my lord, as the Lord lives, and as thy soul lives, seeing the Lord has prevented thee from coming to shed blood, and from avenging thyself with thy own hand, now let thy enemies, and they that seek evil to my lord, be as Naval." 25.31. that this shall not be a cause of stumbling to thee, nor offence of heart to my lord, that thou hast shed blood causelessly, or that my lord has avenged himself: and the Lord shall deal well with my lord, and thou shalt remember thy handmaid." 25.33. and blessed be thy discretion, and blessed be thou who hast kept me this day from coming to shed blood, and from avenging myself with my own hand."
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 23.2-23.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23.2. וַיִּזְבַּח אֶת־כָּל־כֹּהֲנֵי הַבָּמוֹת אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם עַל־הַמִּזְבְּחוֹת וַיִּשְׂרֹף אֶת־עַצְמוֹת אָדָם עֲלֵיהֶם וַיָּשָׁב יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 23.2. וַיַּעַל הַמֶּלֶךְ בֵּית־יְהוָה וְכָל־אִישׁ יְהוּדָה וְכָל־יֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם אִתּוֹ וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַנְּבִיאִים וְכָל־הָעָם לְמִקָּטֹן וְעַד־גָּדוֹל וַיִּקְרָא בְאָזְנֵיהֶם אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית הַנִּמְצָא בְּבֵית יְהוָה׃ 23.3. וַיַּרְכִּבֻהוּ עֲבָדָיו מֵת מִמְּגִדּוֹ וַיְבִאֻהוּ יְרוּשָׁלִַם וַיִּקְבְּרֻהוּ בִּקְבֻרָתוֹ וַיִּקַּח עַם־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־יְהוֹאָחָז בֶּן־יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ וַיִּמְשְׁחוּ אֹתוֹ וַיַּמְלִיכוּ אֹתוֹ תַּחַת אָבִיו׃ 23.3. וַיַּעֲמֹד הַמֶּלֶךְ עַל־הָעַמּוּד וַיִּכְרֹת אֶת־הַבְּרִית לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לָלֶכֶת אַחַר יְהוָה וְלִשְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתָיו וְאֶת־עֵדְוֺתָיו וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתָיו בְּכָל־לֵב וּבְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ לְהָקִים אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַבְּרִית הַזֹּאת הַכְּתֻבִים עַל־הַסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה וַיַּעֲמֹד כָּל־הָעָם בַּבְּרִית׃ 23.2. And the king went up to the house of the LORD, and all the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with him, and the priests, and the prophets, and all the people, both small and great; and he read in their ears all the words of the book of the covet which was found in the house of the LORD." 23.3. And the king stood on the platform, and made a covet before the LORD, to walk after the LORD, and to keep His commandments, and His testimonies, and His statutes, with all his heart, and all his soul, to confirm the words of this covet that were written in this book; and all the people stood to the covet."
10. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 5.10 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

5.10. They hate him that reproveth in the gate, And they abhor him that speaketh uprightly."
11. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 29.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

29.21. מַחֲטִיאֵי אָדָם בְּדָבָר וְלַמּוֹכִיחַ בַּשַּׁעַר יְקֹשׁוּן וַיַּטּוּ בַתֹּהוּ צַדִּיק׃ 29.21. That make a man an offender by words, and lay a snare for him that reproveth in the gate, And turn aside the just with a thing of nought."
12. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 8.30-8.35 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.31. כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־יְהוָה אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּכָּתוּב בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה מִזְבַּח אֲבָנִים שְׁלֵמוֹת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־הֵנִיף עֲלֵיהֶן בַּרְזֶל וַיַּעֲלוּ עָלָיו עֹלוֹת לַיהוָה וַיִּזְבְּחוּ שְׁלָמִים׃ 8.32. וַיִּכְתָּב־שָׁם עַל־הָאֲבָנִים אֵת מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר כָּתַב לִפְנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 8.33. וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וּזְקֵנָיו וְשֹׁטְרִים וְשֹׁפְטָיו עֹמְדִים מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה לָאָרוֹן נֶגֶד הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם נֹשְׂאֵי אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה כַּגֵּר כָּאֶזְרָח חֶצְיוֹ אֶל־מוּל הַר־גְּרִזִים וְהַחֶצְיוֹ אֶל־מוּל הַר־עֵיבָל כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־יְהוָה לְבָרֵךְ אֶת־הָעָם יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּרִאשֹׁנָה׃ 8.34. וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן קָרָא אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַבְּרָכָה וְהַקְּלָלָה כְּכָל־הַכָּתוּב בְּסֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה׃ 8.35. לֹא־הָיָה דָבָר מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־קָרָא יְהוֹשֻׁעַ נֶגֶד כָּל־קְהַל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַטַּף וְהַגֵּר הַהֹלֵךְ בְּקִרְבָּם׃ 8.30. Then Joshua built an altar unto the LORD, the God of Israel, in mount Ebal," 8.31. as Moses the servant of the LORD commanded the children of Israel, as it is written in the book of the law of Moses, an altar of unhewn stones, upon which no man had lifted up any iron; and they offered thereon burnt-offerings unto the LORD, and sacrificed peace-offerings." 8.32. And he wrote there upon the stones a copy of the law of Moses, which he wrote before the children of Israel." 8.33. And all Israel, and their elders and officers, and their judges, stood on this side the ark and on that side before the priests the Levites, that bore the ark of the covet of the LORD, as well the stranger as the home-born; half of them in front of mount Gerizim and half of them in front of mount Ebal; as Moses the servant of the LORD had commanded at the first, that they should bless the people of Israel." 8.34. And afterward he read all the words of the law, the blessing and the curse, according to all that is written in the book of the law." 8.35. There was not a word of all that Moses commanded, which Joshua read not before all the assembly of Israel, and the women, and the little ones, and the strangers that walked among them."
13. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 17.7-17.9 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.7. וּבִשְׁנַת שָׁלוֹשׁ לְמָלְכוֹ שָׁלַח לְשָׂרָיו לְבֶן־חַיִל וּלְעֹבַדְיָה וְלִזְכַרְיָה וְלִנְתַנְאֵל וּלְמִיכָיָהוּ לְלַמֵּד בְּעָרֵי יְהוּדָה׃ 17.8. וְעִמָּהֶם הַלְוִיִּם שְׁמַעְיָהוּ וּנְתַנְיָהוּ וּזְבַדְיָהוּ וַעֲשָׂהאֵל ושמרימות [וּשְׁמִירָמוֹת] וִיהוֹנָתָן וַאֲדֹנִיָּהוּ וְטוֹבִיָּהוּ וְטוֹב אֲדוֹנִיָּה הַלְוִיִּם וְעִמָּהֶם אֱלִישָׁמָע וִיהוֹרָם הַכֹּהֲנִים׃ 17.9. וַיְלַמְּדוּ בִּיהוּדָה וְעִמָּהֶם סֵפֶר תּוֹרַת יְהוָה וַיָּסֹבּוּ בְּכָל־עָרֵי יְהוּדָה וַיְלַמְּדוּ בָּעָם׃ 17.7. Also in the third year of his reign he sent his princes, even Ben-hail, and Obadiah, and Zechariah, and Nethanel, and Micaiah, to teach in the cities of Judah;" 17.8. and with them the Levites, even Shemaiah, and Nethaniah, and Zebadiah, and Asahel, and Shemiramoth, and Jehonathan, and Adonijah, and Tobijah, and Tob-adonijah, the Levites; and with them Elishama and Jehoram, the priests." 17.9. And they taught in Judah, having the book of the Law of the LORD with them; and they went about throughout all the cities of Judah, and taught among the people."
14. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 6.9 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

6.9. וּמָה חַשְׁחָן וּבְנֵי תוֹרִין וְדִכְרִין וְאִמְּרִין לַעֲלָוָן לֶאֱלָהּ שְׁמַיָּא חִנְטִין מְלַח חֲמַר וּמְשַׁח כְּמֵאמַר כָּהֲנַיָּא דִי־בִירוּשְׁלֶם לֶהֱוֵא מִתְיְהֵב לְהֹם יוֹם בְּיוֹם דִּי־לָא שָׁלוּ׃ 6.9. And that which they have need of, both young bullocks, and rams, and lambs, for burnt-offerings to the God of heaven, wheat, salt, wine, and oil, according to the word of the priests that are at Jerusalem, let it be given them day by day without fail;"
15. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

16. Anon., Jubilees, 50.6-50.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

50.6. and there are yet forty years to come (lit. "distant for learning the commandments of the Lord, until they pass over into the land of Canaan, crossing the Jordan to the west. 50.7. And the jubilees will pass by, until Israel is cleansed from all guilt of fornication, and uncleanness, and pollution, and sin, and error, and dwelleth with confidence in all the land, and there will be no more a Satan or any evil one, and the land will be clean from that time for evermore. 50.8. And behold the commandment regarding the Sabbaths--I have written (them) down for thee and all the judgments of its laws. brSix days wilt thou labour, but on the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God. 50.9. In it ye shall do no manner of work, ye and your sons, and your men-servants and your maid-servants, and all your cattle and the sojourner also who is with you. brAnd the man that doeth any work on it shall die: 50.10. whoever desecrateth that day, whoever lieth with (his) wife or whoever saith he will do something on it, that he will set out on a journey thereon in regard to any buying or selling: and whoever draweth water thereon which he had not prepared for himself on the sixth day, and whoever taketh up any burden to carry it out of his tent or out of his house shall die. 50.11. Ye shall do no work whatever on the Sabbath day save that ye have prepared for yourselves on the sixth day, so as to eat, and drink, and rest, and keep Sabbath from all work on that day, and to bless the Lord your God, who has given you a day of festival 50.12. and a holy day: and a day of the holy kingdom for all Israel is this day among their days for ever. 50.13. For great is the honour which the Lord hath given to Israel that they should eat and drink and be satisfied on this festival day, and rest thereon from all labour which belongeth to the labour of the children of men, save burning frankincense and bringing oblations and sacrifices before the Lord for days and for Sabbaths.
17. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 5.8-5.11, 7.6-7.7, 9.1-9.10, 9.16-9.23, 10.10, 10.14-10.17, 11.17-11.18, 14.10, 16.6-16.9, 16.11-16.12, 16.14-16.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 5.8-5.11, 7.6-7.7, 9.1-9.10, 9.16-9.23, 10.10, 10.14-10.17, 11.17-11.18, 14.10, 16.6-16.12, 16.14-16.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 9.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.2. בִּשְׁנַת אַחַת לְמָלְכוֹ אֲנִי דָּנִיֵּאל בִּינֹתִי בַּסְּפָרִים מִסְפַּר הַשָּׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־יִרְמִיָה הַנָּבִיא לְמַלֹּאות לְחָרְבוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה׃ 9.2. וְעוֹד אֲנִי מְדַבֵּר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל וּמִתְוַדֶּה חַטָּאתִי וְחַטַּאת עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמַפִּיל תְּחִנָּתִי לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי עַל הַר־קֹדֶשׁ אֱלֹהָי׃ 9.2. in the first year of his reign I Daniel meditated in the books, over the number of the years, whereof the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah the prophet, that He would accomplish for the desolations of Jerusalem seventy years."
20. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.120-2.121 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.121. They do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued; but they guard against the lascivious behavior of women, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man.
21. Mishnah, Shevuot, 8.2-8.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.2. If he [the owner] said to the unpaid guardian, “Where is my ox?” and he replied to him, “It died,” whereas in reality it was injured or captured or stolen or lost; [Or he replied], “It was injured,” whereas in reality it died or was captured or stolen or lost; [Or he replied,] “It was captured,” whereas in reality it died or was injured or stolen or lost; [Or he replied,] “It was stolen,” whereas in reality it died or was injured or captured or lost; [Or he replied,] “It was lost,” whereas in reality it died or was injured or captured or stolen; [And the owner said,] “I adjure you,” and he said, “amen”, he is exempt [from having to bring a sacrifice for a false oath]." 8.3. [If the owner said,] “Where is my ox?” and he replied to him, “I do not know what you are talking about,” whereas in reality it died or was injured or captured or stolen or lost, [and the owner said,] “I adjure you,” and he said, “Amen”, he is exempt. [If the owner said,] “Where is my ox?” and he replied to him, “It was lost”; [and the owner said,] “I adjure you”, and he said, “Amen”, and witnesses testify against him that he had consumed it, he pays the principal; if he confessed himself, he pays the principal, a fifth, and brings a guilt-offering. [If the owner said,] “Where is my ox?” and he replied to him, “It was stolen;” [and the owner said,] “I adjure you, and he said, “Amen”, and witnesses testify against him that he himself stole it, he pays double; if he confessed himself, he pays the principal, fifth, and brings a guilt-offering." 8.4. If a man said to one in the market, “Where is my ox which you have stolen?” and he replied, “I did not steal it,” and witnesses testified against him that he did steal it, he pays double. If he killed it or sold it, he pays four or five times its value. If he saw witnesses coming nearer and nearer, and he said, “I did steal it, but I did not kill or sell it,” he pays only the principal."
22. Mishnah, Sotah, 7.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.8. How was the procedure in connection with the portion read by the king?At the conclusion of the first day of the festival (Sukkot) in the eighth [year], at the end of the seventh year, they erect a wooden platform in the Temple court, and he sits upon it, as it is said, “At the end of seven years, in the set time” etc (Deuteronomy 31:10). The synagogue attendant takes a Torah scroll and hands it to the head of the synagogue, the head of the synagogue hands it to the deputy and he hands it to the high priest, and the high priest hands it to the king and the king stands and receives it, but reads it while sitting. King Agrippa stood and received it and read standing, and the sages praised him. When he reached, “You shall not place a foreigner over you” (ibid 17:15) his eyes ran with tears. They said to him, “Fear not, Agrippas, you are our brother, you are our brother!” [The king] reads from the beginning of “These are the words” (ibid 1:1) until the Shema ((ibid 6:4-9), and the Shema, and “It will come to pass if you hear” (ibid 11:13-21 the second part of the Shema), and “You shall surely tithe” (ibid 14:22-29), and “When you have finished tithing” (ibid 26:12-15) and the portion of the king (ibid 17:14-20) and the blessings and curses (ibid, until he finishes all the section. The blessings that the high priest recites, the king recites, except that he substitutes one for the festivals instead of one for the pardon of sin."
23. Mishnah, Yoma, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.2. He then came to the scapegoat and laid his two hands upon it and he made confession. And thus he would say: “Please, ‘Hashem’! They have done wrong, they have transgressed, they have sinned before You, Your people the House of Israel. Please, in the name of Hashem (Bashem)! Forgive the wrongdoings, the transgressions, the sins which your people, the House of Israel, have committed and transgressed and sinned before You, as it is written in the torah of Moses Your servant: “For on this day shall atonement be made for you [to cleanse you of all your sins; you shall be clean before the Lord”] (Leviticus 16:30). And the priests and the people standing in the courtyard, when they would hear God’s name explicated coming out of the high priest’s mouth, would bend their knees, bow down and fall on their faces and say “Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever!”"
24. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 150 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

25. Palestinian Talmud, Demai, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

26. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

30b. לא יהיה בך אביון שלך קודם לשל כל אדם,אלא לזקן ואינו לפי כבודו,אמר רבה הכישה חייב בה אביי הוה יתיב קמיה דרבה חזא להנך עיזי דקיימו שקל קלא ושדא בהו א"ל איחייבת בהו קום אהדרינהו,איבעיא להו דרכו להחזיר בשדה ואין דרכו להחזיר בעיר מהו מי אמרינן השבה מעליא בעינן וכיון דלאו דרכיה להחזיר בעיר לא לחייב או דלמא בשדה מיהת הוא דאיחייב ליה וכיון דאיחייב ליה בשדה איחייב ליה בעיר תיקו,אמר רבא כל שבשלו מחזיר בשל חבירו נמי מחזיר וכל שבשלו פורק וטוען בשל חבירו נמי פורק וטוען,רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי הוה קאזיל באורחא פגע ביה ההוא גברא הוה דרי פתכא דאופי אותבינהו וקא מיתפח א"ל דלי לי אמר ליה כמה שוין א"ל פלגא דזוזא יהיב ליה פלגא דזוזא ואפקרה,הדר זכה בהו הדר יהיב ליה פלגא דזוזא ואפקרה חזייה דהוה קא בעי למיהדר למזכיה בהו א"ל לכולי עלמא אפקרנהו ולך לא אפקרנהו,ומי הוי הפקר כי האי גוונא והתנן בש"א הפקר לעניים הפקר וב"ה אומרים אינו הפקר עד שיהא הפקר לעניים ולעשירים כשמיטה,אלא רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי לכולי עלמא אפקרינהו ובמלתא בעלמא הוא דאוקמיה,והא רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי זקן ואינו לפי כבודו הוה ר' ישמעאל ברבי יוסי לפנים משורת הדין הוא דעבד,דתני רב יוסף (שמות יח, כ) והודעת להם זה בית חייהם את הדרך זו גמילות חסדים [(אשר) ילכו זה ביקור חולים בה זו קבורה ואת המעשה זה הדין אשר יעשון זו לפנים משורת הדין:,אמר מר (אשר) ילכו זה ביקור חולים היינו גמילות חסדים לא נצרכה אלא לבן גילו דאמר מר בן גילו נוטל אחד מששים בחליו ואפי' הכי מבעי ליה למיזל לגביה,בה זו קבורה היינו גמילות חסדים לא נצרכה אלא לזקן ואינו לפי כבודו,אשר יעשון זו לפנים משורת הדין דאמר ר' יוחנן לא חרבה ירושלים אלא על שדנו בה דין תורה אלא דיני דמגיזתא לדיינו אלא אימא שהעמידו דיניהם על דין תורה ולא עבדו לפנים משורת הדין:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אי זו היא אבידה מצא חמור או פרה רועין בדרך אין זו אבידה חמור וכליו הפוכין פרה רצה בין הכרמים הרי זו אבידה החזירה וברחה החזירה וברחה אפי' ארבעה וחמשה פעמים חייב להחזירה שנאמר (דברים כב, א) השב תשיבם,היה בטל מסלע לא יאמר לו תן לי סלע אלא נותן לו שכרו כפועל אם יש שם בית דין מתנה בפני ב"ד אם אין שם ב"ד בפני מי יתנה שלו קודם:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אטו כל הני דאמרינן לאו אבידה הוו אמר רב יהודה הכי קאמר אי זו היא כלל אבידה שהוא חייב בה מצא חמור ופרה רועין בדרך אין זו אבידה ולא מיחייב בה חמור וכליו הפוכים פרה ורצה בין הכרמים הרי זו אבידה ומיחייב בה,ולעולם אמר רב יהודה אמר רב עד שלשה ימים היכי דמי אי בלילותא אפי' חדא שעתא נמי אי ביממא אפי' טובא נמי לא,לא צריכא דהוה חזי לה בקדמתא ובחשכתא תלתא יומי אמרינן איתרמויי אתרמי לה ונפקא טפי ודאי אבידה היא,תניא נמי הכי מצא טלית וקרדום 30b. bthere shall be no needy among you”(Deuteronomy 15:4). This verse can be understood as a command, indicating that it is incumbent upon each individual to ensure that he will not become needy. Therefore, byourassets btake precedence overthe assets bof anyother bperson. /b,The Gemara concludes: bRather,the verse is necessary btoderive the exemption from returning the lost item in the case where he was ban elderly person and it is not in keeping with his dignityto tend to the item., bRabba says:If there was a lost animal and the elderly person began the process of returning it, e.g., if he bstruck iteven once to guide it in a certain direction, he is bobligatedto tend bto itand return it. The Gemara relates: bAbaye was sitting before Rabbaand bsaw these goats standingnearby. bHe picked up a clod of dirt and threw it at them,causing them to move. Rabba bsaid to him: You havethereby bobligated yourself toreturn bthem. Arise and return themto their owner., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: In a case of a person for whom it bis histypical bmanner to returnan item of that type bin the field,where there are fewer onlookers, bbut it is not histypical bmanner to returnan item of that type bin the city, what isthe ihalakha /i? Do bwe saythat for one to be obligated to return a lost item bwe need an unequivocalobligation to breturnit that applies in all cases, band since it is not histypical bmanner to returnan item of that sort bin the city, let him not be obligatedto return such an item at all? bOr perhaps, he is obligated in any eventto return the item bin the field, and once he is obligatedto return bit in the field, he isalso bobligated in the city.The Gemara concludes: The dilemma bshall standunresolved., bRava says:In banycase bwhere he would recover his ownitem and would consider it to be in keeping with his dignity, he is balsoobligated to breturn another’sitem. bAnd anycase where bhe unloads and loads his ownanimal’s burden, he is balsoobligated to bunload and loadthe burden of banother’sanimal.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, was walking on the road. A certain man encountered him,and that man bwas carrying a burdenthat consisted of sticks bof wood. He set downthe wood band was resting.The man bsaid to him: Liftthem bfor meand place them upon me. Since it was not in keeping with the dignity of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, to lift the wood, Rabbi Yishmael bsaid to him: How much are they worth?The man bsaid to him: A half-dinar.Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, bgave him a half-dinar,took possession of the wood, band declaredthe wood bownerless. /b,The man bthen reacquiredthe wood bandagain requested that Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, lift the wood for him. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, bagain gave him a half-dinar,again took possession of the wood, bandagain bdeclaredthe wood bownerless. Hethen bsaw thatthe man bdesired to reacquirethe sticks of wood. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, bsaid to him: I declaredthe sticks of wood bownerless with regard to everyoneelse, bbut I did not declare them ownerless with regard to you. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut isproperty brendered ownerless in a case like this? But didn’t we learnin a mishna ( iPe’a6:1) that bBeit Shammai say:Property bdeclared ownerless for the poor isthereby rendered bownerless. And Beit Hillel say: It is not ownerless, untilthe property bwill be ownerless for the poor and for the rich, likeproduce during bthe Sabbatical Year,which is available for all. As the ihalakhais in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel, how could Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, declare the wood ownerless selectively, excluding the prior owner of the wood?, bRather, Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei,actually bdeclaredthe wood bownerless to everyonewithout exception, bandit bwas with a mere statement that he prevented himfrom reacquiring the wood, i.e., he told the man not to reacquire the wood even though there was no legal impediment to that reacquisition.,The Gemara asks: bBut wasn’t Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, an elderly person and it was not in keeping with his dignityto tend to the item? Why did he purchase the wood and render it ownerless in order to absolve himself of the obligation to lift the burden if he had no obligation to do so in the first place? The Gemara answers: In the case of bRabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, he conductedhimself bbeyond the letter of the law,and he could have simply refused the request for help.,The Gemara cites a source for going beyond the letter of the law in the performance of mitzvot. bAs Rav Yosef taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: “And you shall teach them the statutes and the laws, and shall show them the path wherein they shall walk and the action that they must perform” (Exodus 18:20). The ibaraitaparses the various directives in the verse. b“And you shall teach them,” thatis referring to bthe structure of their livelihood,i.e., teach the Jewish people trades so that they may earn a living; b“the path,” thatis referring to bacts of kindness; “they shall walk,” thatis referring to bvisiting the ill; “wherein,” thatis referring to bburial; “and the action,” thatis referring to acting in accordance with the letter of the blaw; “that they must perform,” thatis referring to acting bbeyond the letter of the law. /b,The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i. bThe Master said:With regard to the phrase b“they shall walk,” thatis referring to bvisiting the ill.The Gemara asks: bThat isa detail of bacts of kindness;why does the ibaraitalist it separately? The Gemara answers: The reference to visiting the ill is bnecessary only for the contemporary ofthe ill person, bas the Master said:When bone who is a contemporaryof an ill person visits him, he btakes one-sixtieth of his illness.Since visiting an ill contemporary involves contracting a bit of his illness, a special derivation is necessary to teach that beven so, he is required to goand visit bhim. /b,It was taught in the ibaraita /i: With regard to the phrase b“wherein,” thatis referring to bburial.The Gemara asks: bThat isa detail of bacts of kindness;why does the ibaraitalist it separately? The Gemara answers: The reference to burial is bnecessary only toteach the ihalakhaof ban elderly person, andit is in a circumstance where bit is not in keeping with his dignityto bury the dead. Therefore, a special derivation is necessary to teach that even so, he is required to participate in the burial.,It was taught in the ibaraita /i: b“That they must perform”; thatis referring to acting bbeyond the letter of the law, as Rabbi Yoḥa says: Jerusalem was destroyed only forthe fact bthat they adjudicatedcases on the basis of bTorah law inthe city. The Gemara asks: bRather,what else should they have done? bShould they rather have adjudicatedcases on the basis of barbitrary decisions [ idemagizeta /i]? Rather, say: That they established their rulings onthe basis of bTorah law and did not go beyond the letter of the law. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bWhich isthe item that is considered blost property?If bone found a donkey or a cow grazing on the path, that is not lost property,as presumably the owners are nearby and are aware of the animals’ whereabouts. If one found ba donkey with its accoutrements overturned, or a cowthat bran through the vineyards, that is lost property.In a case where bone returnedthe lost animal band it fled,and he again breturned it and it fled, evenif this scenario repeats itself bfour or five times,he is bobligated to return iteach time, as it bis stated:“You shall not see your brother’s ox or his sheep wandering and disregard them; byou shall return themto your brother” (Deuteronomy 22:1).,If in the course of tending to and returning the lost item, the finder bwas idle fromlabor that would have earned him ba isela /i, he shall not say tothe owner of the item: bGive me a isela /ito compensate me for my lost income. bRather,the owner bgives him his wage asif he were ba laborer,a payment that is considerably smaller. bIf there arethree men btherewho can convene as ba court,he bmay stipulate before the courtthat he will undertake to return the item provided that he receives full compensation for lost income. bIf there is no court there before whom can he stipulatehis condition, bhisficial interests btake precedenceand he need not return the lost item., strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to the question in the mishna: Which is the item that is considered lost property, the Gemara asks: bIs that to say that all those othercases bthat we statedin this chapter bare not lost property? Rav Yehuda saidthat bthisis what the itanna bis saying: What is the principleemployed in defining ba lost item that one is obligated toreturn? The mishna cites examples to illustrate the principle: If one bfound a donkey or a cow grazing on the path, that is not lost property, and he is not obligated toreturn bit.But if one found ba donkey with its accoutrements overturned, or a cow that was running through the vineyards, that is lost property, and he is obligated toreturn bit. /b,With regard to the ruling in the mishna that a donkey and cow grazing on the path are not considered lost property, the Gemara asks: bAndis that the case even if they graze there untended bforever? Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Until three dayspass they are not lost. Thereafter, they are considered lost. The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstances? Ifthe animal is found grazing bat night, evenif it is untended for beven one hourit can be presumed to be lost, as an owner never grazes his animals untended at night. bIfthe animal is found grazing bduring the day, evenif it is untended for bmorethan three days, it is balso notpresumed to be lost.,The Gemara answers: bNo,the measure of three days bis necessaryonly in a case bwhere one sawthe animal grazing bin the earlyhours in the morning band in the darkof nightfall. For the first bthree days, we say: It happenedthat the animal bwent outa bit earlier or a bit later than usual, but nevertheless, it was with the owner’s knowledge. Once this is observed for bmorethan three days, it is bcertainly a lost item. /b, bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: If bone found a cloak or an ax /b
27. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

2b. וטמא מת תולדותיהן לאו כיוצא בהן דאילו אב מטמא אדם וכלים ואילו תולדות אוכלין ומשקין מטמא אדם וכלים לא מטמא,הכא מאי אמר רב פפא יש מהן כיוצא בהן ויש מהן לאו כיוצא בהן,ת"ר ג' אבות נאמרו בשור הקרן והשן והרגל,קרן מנלן דת"ר (שמות כא, כח) כי יגח אין נגיחה אלא בקרן שנאמר (מלכים א כב, יא) ויעש לו צדקיה בן כנענה קרני ברזל ויאמר כה אמר ה' באלה תנגח את ארם וגו' ואומר (דברים לג, יז) בכור שורו הדר לו וקרני ראם קרניו בהם עמים ינגח,מאי ואומר וכי תימא דברי תורה מדברי קבלה לא ילפינן ת"ש בכור שורו הדר לו,והאי מילף הוא גילוי מילתא בעלמא הוא דנגיחה בקרן הוא,אלא מהו דתימא כי פליג רחמנא בין תם למועד ה"מ בתלושה אבל במחוברת אימא כולה מועדת היא,ת"ש בכור שורו הדר לו וגו',תולדה דקרן מאי היא נגיפה נשיכה רביצה ובעיטה,מאי שנא נגיחה דקרי לה אב דכתיב כי יגח נגיפה נמי כתיב (שמות כא, לה) כי יגוף האי נגיפה נגיחה היא דתניא פתח בנגיפה וסיים בנגיחה לומר לך זו היא נגיפה זו היא נגיחה,מאי שנא גבי אדם דכתיב כי יגח ומאי שנא גבי בהמה דכתיב כי יגוף,אדם דאית ליה מזלא כתיב כי יגח בהמה דלית לה מזלא כתיב כי יגוף,ומלתא אגב אורחיה קמ"ל דמועד לאדם הוי מועד לבהמה ומועד לבהמה לא הוי מועד לאדם,נשיכה תולדה דשן היא לא שן יש הנאה להזיקה הא אין הנאה להזיקה,רביצה ובעיטה תולדה דרגל היא לא רגל הזיקה מצוי הני אין הזיקן מצוי,אלא תולדותיהן לאו כיוצא בהן דאמר רב פפא אהייא,אילימא אהני מאי שנא קרן דכוונתו להזיק וממונך ושמירתו עליך הני נמי כוונתן להזיק וממונך ושמירתן עליך,אלא תולדה דקרן כקרן וכי קאמר רב פפא אשן ורגל,שן ורגל היכא כתיבי דתניא (שמות כב, ד) ושלח זה הרגל וכן הוא אומר (ישעיהו לב, כ) משלחי רגל השור והחמור,ובער זו השן וכן הוא אומר (מלכים א יד, י) כאשר יבער 2b. band one who is impurewith impurity imparted by a human bcorpse.A person, a vessel, or food that is rendered impure through contact with an item classified as a primary category of ritual impurity is characterized as a subcategory. In that domain, btheir subcategories are dissimilar to them, asany person or item classified as ba primary categoryof ritual impurity bimpurifies a person andimpurifies any bvesselswith which it comes into contact, bwhilea person or item classified as ba subcategory of ritual impurity impurifies food or drink, but does not impurify a person or vessels. /b,After determining that there are instances where the legal status of subcategories is like that of primary categories, e.g., Shabbat, and there are instances where the legal status of subcategories is dissimilar to that of primary categories, e.g., ritual impurity, the Gemara asks: bHere,with regard to the laws of damages, bwhatis the relationship between the primary categories and their subcategories? bRav Pappa said: There are, amongthe primary categories of damage, some whose subcategories bare similar to them, and there are, among them,some whose subcategories bare dissimilar to them. /b,§ Seeking to clarify Rav Pappa’s statement, the Gemara cites a ibaraitathat delineates the primary categories of damage. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThree primary categoriesof damage bwere statedin the Torah bwith regard to an ox.An ox causes damage in three ways, and each is classified as a distinct primary category of damage represented by a part of the body of the ox: There is bthecategory of bGoring [ ikeren /i],literally, horn. This is referring to an ox goring a person or an animal and causing damage. bAndthere is bthecategory of bEating [ ishen /i],literally, tooth. This is referring to one’s ox causing damage by consuming another person’s produce. bAndthere is bthecategory of bTrampling [ iregel /i],literally, foot. This is referring to an ox trampling another person’s belongings and causing damage. These are classified as primary categories because they are mentioned explicitly in the Torah.,The Gemara elaborates: bFrom where do wederive the primary category of bGoring?The source is bas the Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: “And bifan ox bgoresa man or a woman” (Exodus 21:28); and bgoring isperformed bonlywith ba horn, as it is stated: “And Zedekiah, son of Chenaanah, made himself horns of iron, and said: So says the Lord: With these shall you gore the Arameans,until they are consumed” (I Kings 22:11). bAndthe verse also bstates: “His firstborn bull, majesty is his, and his horns are the horns of the wild ox; with them he shall gore the nations”(Deuteronomy 33:17).,The Gemara interrupts its citation of the ibaraitaand asks: bWhatis the purpose of citing the additional verse introduced with the term: bAndthe verse also bstates?The Gemara answers: bAnd if you would saythat the first verse cited is not a legitimate source as it is a verse from the Prophets, and bwe do not derive Torah matters from the texts of the tradition,i.e., Prophets and Writings, bcomeand bhearproof from the Torah: b“His firstborn bull, majesty is his.” /b,The Gemara rejects the possibility that the reason a second verse was cited is that the primary category of Goring cannot be derived from a verse in the Prophets: bBut is thisa halakhic bderivation? It is a mere disclosure of the matter, that goring isperformed bwith a horn.A verse in the Prophets can certainly serve as a source for that disclosure., bRather,the reason the ibaraitacites a second verse is blest you say,based on the first verse, that bwhen the Merciful One distinguishes betweenliability for damage caused by ban innocuousox, for which the owner is liable to pay half of the damages for the first three times that it gores, bandliability for damage caused by ba forewarnedox, which already gored three times and whose owner was cautioned to prevent the ox from goring, for which he is liable to pay the full damages, bthat statementapplies only to damage caused bwith a detachedhorn, like the horn of Zedekiah described in the verse, e.g., if an animal held a detached horn in its mouth and caused damage with it; bbutfor damage that an ox caused bwitha horn battachedto its head, bsaythat in ballcases the legal status of the ox bisthat of ba forewarnedox and its owner is liable to pay for all of the damage.,Therefore, the ibaraitasays: bComeand bheara proof from another verse: b“His firstborn bull, majesty is his,and his horns are the horns of the wild ox; with them he shall gore the nations,” where the reference is to a horn attached to the ox’s head. Evidently, when an ox gores with its own horns there is a distinction between an innocuous ox and a forewarned ox.,The Gemara resumes its citation of the ibaraita /i: bWhat is a subcategory of Goring?It includes any action that an ox performs with its body with the objective of inflicting damage: bPushing [ inegifa /i], biting, crouchingupon items with the objective of inflicting damage, band kicking. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout bgoring that it is characterizedas ba primary categoryof damage, bas it is writtenexplicitly in the verse: “And bifan ox bgoresa man or a woman” (Exodus 21:28); accordingly, inegifa /ishould balsobe characterized as a primary category, bas it is written: “Ifone man’s ox bhurts [ iyiggof]the ox of another” (Exodus 21:35)? The Gemara answers: bThis inegifa /imentioned in the verse, bisactually a reference to bgoring, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat the verses states: “And if one man’s ox hurts [ iyiggof] the ox of another…or if it is known that the ox was a goring ox in time past” (Exodus 21:35–36). The verse bbeganits description of the case bwiththe term inegifaandit bconcluded withthe term bgoring to say to youthat in this context the two terms describe the same action: bThisaction bis inegifa /iand bthissame action bis goring. /b,The Gemara asks: If the two terms are interchangeable, bwhat is different with regard toan ox goring ba person that it is written:“And bifan ox bgoresa man or a woman” (Exodus 21:28), band what is different with regard toan ox goring ban animal that it is written: “Ifone man’s ox bhurts [ iyiggof]the ox of another” (Exodus 21:35)?,The Gemara explains: With regard to ba person, who hasthe bingenuityto defend himself and is not easily injured, bit is written: “Ifan ox bgores,”a term indicating an attack of greater force. With regard to ban animal, which does not havethe bingenuityto defend itself and is more easily injured, bit is written: “Ifan ox bhurts [ iyiggof],”a term indicating an attack of lesser force. The term iyiggofis related to the term imagefa /i, meaning plague. The Torah employs that term with regard to the goring of an animal to indicate that when an animal is gored, regardless of the force of the blow, it will likely result in its death., bAndthe Torah’s use of these terms bteaches us a matter in passing:Because the effort required for the ox to gore a person to death is greater than the effort required for the ox to gore an animal to death, the ihalakhais bthatan ox that is bforewarned with regard togoring ba person isalso bforewarned with regard to an animal. Butan ox that is bforewarned with regard to an animal is not forewarned with regard to a person. /b,The Gemara questions the classification in the ibaraitaof biting, crouching, and kicking as subcategories of Goring: Isn’t bbiting a subcategory of Eating,as the animal both eats and bites with its teeth? The Gemara answers: bNo,in cases included in the primary category of bEating, there is pleasurefor the animal binthe course of bitscausing bdamage.In bthiscase of damage caused by biting, bthere is nointrinsic bpleasurefor the animal binthe course of the bdamagethat bitcauses, as when the ox bites forcefully, the exclusive objective of the action is to cause damage.,The Gemara asks: Aren’t bcrouchingupon items band kickingitems in order to damage them each ba subcategory of Trampling,as the animal crouches by bending its legs and kicks with its feet? The Gemara answers: bNo,in cases included in the primary category of Trampling, the bdamage is commonplace,as it is caused in the course of the animal’s walking; in bthesecases of crouching and kicking, the bdamage is not commonplace,as animals do not typically kick or crouch upon utensils.,After citing the subcategories listed in the ibaraita /i, the Gemara resumes its analysis of the statement of Rav Pappa: bButwith regard to the statement bthat Rav Pappa said: There are among themsome whose subcategories bare dissimilar to them, to whichprimary category was Rav Pappa referring?, bIf we saythat his reference was bto thesesubcategories of Goring, bwhat is differentabout bGoringthat defines it as a unique primary category? What is different is bthatthe bobjectiveof the ox’s action bis to cause damage, andthe ox is byour property, andresponsibility for bits safeguarding,to prevent it from causing damage, is incumbent bupon you,its owner. In bthesesubcategories of Goring, i.e., pushing [ inegifa /i], biting, crouching, and kicking, bas well,the bobjectiveof the oxen’s actions bis to cause damage, andthe oxen are byour property, andresponsibility for btheir safeguarding,to prevent your oxen from causing damage, is incumbent bupon you. /b, bRather,it is apparent that the status of ba subcategory of Goring is likethat of the primary category of bGoring, and when Rav Pappa says:There are among them some whose subcategories are dissimilar to them, he was referring bto Eating and Trampling. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhere are Eating and Trampling writtenin the Torah that led them to be classified as primary categories? The Gemara answers: The source is bas the Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: “If a man causes a field or vineyard to be eaten, and he sends forth his animal, and it consumed in the field of another” (Exodus 22:4). The two parts of the verse are referring to different categories: b“And he sends forth,” this isa reference to btheprimary category of bTrampling,as sending forth results in the animal trampling another’s produce and damaging it, band likewise it states:“Happy are you that sow beside all waters bthat send forth the feet of the ox and the donkey”(Isaiah 32:20). Clearly the term “send forth” is a reference to trampling by the feet of the animal., b“And it consumed,” this isa reference to btheprimary category of bEating, and likewise it states:“And I will utterly sweep away the house of Jeroboam, bas one consumes with /b
28. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר אע"פ שאמרו המשמש מטתו לאור הנר הרי זה מגונה בש"א צריכה שני עדים על כל תשמיש או תשמש לאור הנר ובה"א דיה בשני עדים כל הלילה,תניא אמרו להם ב"ש לב"ה לדבריכם ליחוש שמא תראה טיפת דם כחרדל בביאה ראשונה ותחפנה שכבת זרע בביאה שניה,א"ל ב"ה אף לדבריכם ליחוש עד שהרוק בתוך הפה שמא נימוק והולך לו,אמרו להם לפי שאינו דומה נימוק פעם אחת לנימוק שתי פעמים,תניא א"ר יהושע רואה אני את דברי ב"ש אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי כמה הארכת עלינו אמר להם מוטב שאאריך עליכם בעוה"ז כדי שיאריכו ימיכם לעוה"ב,אמר ר' זירא מדברי כולם נלמד בעל נפש לא יבעול וישנה,רבא אמר בועל ושונה כי תניא ההיא לטהרות,תניא נמי הכי בד"א לטהרות אבל לבעלה מותרת ובד"א שהניחה בחזקת טהרה אבל הניחה בחזקת טמאה לעולם היא בחזקתה עד שתאמר לו טהורה אני,א"ר אבא א"ר חייא בר אשי אמר רב בדקה בעד ואבד אסורה לשמש עד שתבדוק מתקיף לה ר' אילא אילו איתא מי לא משמשה ואע"ג דלא ידעה השתא נמי תשמש,א"ל רבא זו מוכיחה קיים וזו אין מוכיחה קיים,א"ר יוחנן אסור לאדם שישמש מטתו ביום אמר רב המנונא מאי קרא שנאמר (איוב ג, ג) יאבד יום אולד בו והלילה אמר הורה גבר לילה ניתן להריון ויום לא ניתן להריון ריש לקיש אמר מהכא (משלי יט, טז) בוזה דרכיו ימות,ור"ל האי קרא דר' יוחנן מאי דריש ביה מבעי ליה לכדדריש רבי חנינא בר פפא דדריש ר' חנינא בר פפא אותו מלאך הממונה על ההריון לילה שמו ונוטל טפה ומעמידה לפני הקב"ה ואומר לפניו רבש"ע טפה זו מה תהא עליה גבור או חלש חכם או טיפש עשיר או עני,ואילו רשע או צדיק לא קאמר כדר' חנינא דא"ר חנינא הכל בידי שמים חוץ מיראת שמים שנאמר (דברים י, יב) ועתה ישראל מה ה' אלהיך שואל מעמך כי אם ליראה וגו',ור' יוחנן א"כ נכתוב קרא גבר הורה מאי הורה גבר לילה ניתן להריון ויום לא ניתן להריון,ור' יוחנן האי קרא דר"ל מאי דריש ביה מבעי לי' לכדכתיב בספר בן סירא שלשה שנאתי וארבעה לא אהבתי שר הנרגל בבית המשתאות ואמרי לה שר הנרגן ואמרי לה שר הנרגז,והמושיב שבת במרומי קרת והאוחז באמה ומשתין מים והנכנס לבית חבירו פתאום אמר רבי יוחנן ואפילו לביתו,אמר רבי שמעון בן יוחאי ארבעה דברים הקב"ה שונאן ואני איני אוהבן הנכנס לביתו פתאום ואצ"ל לבית חבירו והאוחז באמה ומשתין מים 16b. strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that according to Beit Shammai it is permitted to engage in intercourse by the light of a lamp. In this regard, bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bEven thoughthe Sages bsaidwith regard to bone who engages in intercourse by the light of a lamp,that bthis is disgraceful, Beit Shammai say: A woman is requiredto examine herself with btwo cloths,once before and once after beachact of bintercourse, orshe must bengage in intercourse by the light of a lamp. And Beit Hillel say:It is bsufficientfor her to examine herself bwith two cloths throughout the night,once before the first act of intercourse and once after the final act of intercourse.,It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bBeit Shammai said to Beit Hillel: According to your statementthat a woman may engage in intercourse several times in one night without an examination between each act of intercourse, blet us be concerned lest she will see,i.e., emit, ba drop of blood the size of a mustardseed bduring the firstact of bintercourse,and will thereby become impure, band semen from the secondact of bintercourse will cover it.Since the examination after the last act of intercourse will not reveal the drop of blood, the woman will erroneously think she is pure., bBeit Hillel said to themin response: bEven according to your statement, let us be concernedthat bwhile the salivawas still bin the mouth,i.e., while the blood was in her vagina, bperhaps it was squashed and disappeared.Even if she examines herself after each act of intercourse, as mandated by Beit Shammai, it is possible that the semen of that act covered the blood, and it will not be revealed by the examination.,Beit Shammai bsaid toBeit Hillel: One cannot compare the two situations, bas a squasheddrop of blood after the woman has engaged in intercourse bonce is not similar to a squasheddrop of blood after the woman has engaged in intercourse btwice,and therefore our concern is more reasonable.,It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehoshua said: I seeas correct bthe statement of Beit Shammaiin this case. bHis students said to him:Our bteacher, how you have weighed [ ihe’erakhta /i] us downwith this stringent ruling. Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to them: It is preferable that I weigh you down in this world, so thatyou do not sin by engaging in prohibited intercourse, i.e., so that byour days in the World-to-Come will be lengthened [ isheya’arikhu /i]. /b,§ bRabbi Zeira says: From the statements of all of them,i.e., both Beit Shammai, who permit engaging in intercourse a second time only after an examination, and Beit Hillel, who rule that the second examination must be performed only after the final act of intercourse of the night, bwe can learnthat their dispute relates only to that which is permitted after the fact. But ba pious person [ iba’al nefesh /i] should not engage in intercourse and repeathis act without an examination between each act., bRava says:Even a pious person bmay engage in intercourse and repeatthe act without an examination in between, as bwhen that ibaraita bis taught,it is referring btoa woman who handles bpure items.But with regard to intercourse with her husband, there is no cause for concern., bThisopinion bis also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bIn whatcase bis this statement said,i.e., that a woman must examine herself before and after every act of intercourse according to Beit Shammai, or before the first act and after the last act, according to Beit Hillel? It was said bwith regard toa woman who handles bpure items; buta woman bis permitted to her husbandeven without any examination, and he is not required to ask her if she is pure. bBut in whatcase bis thislenient bstatement said? Whenher husband traveled and bleft her with the presumptive status of ritual purity. Butif he bleft her with the presumptive status of ritual impurity,she remains bforever in her presumptive statusof impurity buntil she says to him: I am pure. /b,§ bRabbi Abba saysthat bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Ashi saysthat bRav says:If a woman bexaminedherself at night bwith a cloth, andthe cloth bwasthen immediately blost, it is prohibited for her to engage in intercourseagain buntil she examinesherself with another cloth, as perhaps there was blood on the cloth that was lost. bRabbi Ila objects to this: Ifthis cloth bwere intact,i.e., if it were not lost, bcouldn’tthis woman bengage in intercoursewith her husband that night, on the basis that she will examine the cloth only the following day, bandisn’t this the ihalakha beven though she does not knowat the time of intercourse whether there is blood on the cloth? bNow too,although the cloth is lost, blet her engage in intercoursewith her husband., bRava said to him:There is a difference between the two cases, as when the cloth is intact, bthiswoman’s bproof exists,and if she discovers on the following day that she was impure they will be obligated to bring sin offerings for engaging in intercourse in a state of ritual impurity. bButwith regard to bthatwoman who lost her cloth, bher proof does not exist,and therefore they will never know if they require atonement.,§ bRabbi Yoḥa says: It is prohibited for a person to engage in intercourse by day. Rav Hamnuna says: What is the versefrom which this is derived? bAs it is stated: “Let the day perish on which I was born, and the night on which it was said: Conceived is a man-child”(Job 3:3). It is derived from here that bnighttime is meant for conception, but daytime is not meant for conception. Reish Lakish saysthat the proof is bfrom here: “But he who despises his ways shall die”(Proverbs 19:16). One might see something unpleasing in his wife in the daylight and come to despise her.,The Gemara asks: bAnd how does Reish Lakish interpret this versecited bby Rabbi Yoḥa?The Gemara answers that bhe requiresthat verse bfor that which Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa taught. As Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa interpretedthat verse in the following manner: bThat angel that is appointed over conception is called: Night. Andthat angel btakesthe bdropof semen from which a person will be formed band presents it before the Holy One, Blessed be He, and says before Him: Master of the Universe, what will be of this drop?Will the person fashioned from it be bmighty or weak?Will he be bclever or stupid?Will he be bwealthy or poor? /b,The Gemara notes: bButthis angel bdoes not say:Will he be bwicked or righteous?This is bin accordance witha statement bof Rabbi Ḥanina, as Rabbi Ḥanina said: Everything is in the hand of Heaven, except for fear of Heaven.People have free will to serve God or not, bas it is stated: “And now, Israel, what does the Lord your God ask of you other than to fearthe Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 10:12). The fact that God asks of the Jewish people to fear Him indicates that it is a person’s choice to do so.,The Gemara explains: bAnd Rabbi Yoḥaderives two ihalakhotfrom the verse “and the night on which it was said: Conceived is a man-child,” as he holds as follows: bIf so,i.e., if it is referring only to the statement of the angel, blet the verse write:And the night that said: bA man-child is conceived. Whatis the meaning of: b“Conceived is a man-child”?It is derived from the juxtaposition of the word “night” and the word “conceived” that bnighttime is meant for conception but daytime is not meant for conception. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa, how does he interpret that versecited bby Reish Lakish?The Gemara answers that Rabbi Yoḥa brequiresthat verse: “But he who despises his ways shall die,” btoteach bthat which is written in the book of ben Sira: Threepeople bI have hated, and a fourth I have not loved: A minister who frequents [ ihanirgal /i] drinking houses,as he disgraces himself and leads himself to ruin and death; band some saya different version of the text: bA minister who chats [ ihanirgan /i]in drinking houses; band some saya third version: bA minister who is short-tempered [ ihanirgaz /i]when in drinking houses.,That is the first that he hated. bAndthe others are bone who dwells at the highest point of the city,where everyone sees him; band one who holdshis bpenis and urinates. Andthe fourth, whom he has not loved, is bone who enters the house of another suddenly,without warning. bRabbi Yoḥa says: Andthis includes bevenone who comes binto hisown bhousewithout prior warning, as the members of his household might be engaged in private activities.,The Gemara cites a similar saying. bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: Four matters the Holy One, Blessed be He, hates, and I do not love them,and they are: bOne who enters his house suddenly, and needless to sayone who suddenly enters bthe house of another; and one who holdshis bpenis and urinates; /b
29. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

113a. גזייתא נינהו דשמטי סוסיא ואתו דברי להו,(וא"ל) רב לרב אסי לא תדור במתא דלא צניף בה סוסיא ולא נבח בה כלבא ואל תדור בעיר דריש מתא אסיא ולא תנסיב תרתי אי נסבת תרתי נסיב תלת,א"ל רב לרב כהנא הפוך בנבילתא ולא תיפוך במילי פשוט נבילתא בשוקא ושקיל אגרא ולא תימא כהנא אנא וגברא רבא אנא וסניא בי מלתא סלקת לאיגרא שירותך בהדך מאה קרי במתא בזוזא תותי כנפיך ניהוו,א"ל רב לחייא בריה לא תשתי סמא ולא תשוור ניגרא ולא תעקר ככא ולא תקנא בחיויא ולא תקנא בארמאה,תנו רבנן ג' אין מתקנאין בהן ואלו הן נכרי קטן ונחש קטן ותלמיד קטן מ"ט דמלכותייהו אחורי אודנייהו קאי,א"ל רב לאיבו בריה טרחי בך בשמעתא ולא מסתייע מילתא תא אגמרך מילי דעלמא אדחלא אכרעיך זבינך זבין כל מילי זבין ותחרט בר מחמרא דזבין ולא תחרט,שרי כיסיך פתח שקיך קבא מארעא ולא כורא מאיגרא,תמרא בחלוזך לבית סודנא רהיט ועד כמה אמר רבא עד תלתא סאה אמר רב פפא אי לא דרמאי שכרא לא איעתרי א"ד אמר רב חסדא אי לא דרמאי שכרא לא איעתרי מאי סודנא אמר רב חסדא סוד נאה וגמילות חסדים,אמר רב פפא כל אגב גביא בעי כל אשראי ספק אתי ספק לא אתי ודאתי מעות רעות נינהו,ג' דברים א"ר יוחנן משום אנשי ירושלים כשאתה יוצא למלחמה אל תצא בראשונה אלא תצא באחרונה כדי שתכנס בראשונה ועשה שבתך חול ואל תצטרך לבריות והוי משתדל עם מי שהשעה משחקת לו,(א"ר) שלשה דברים א"ר יהושע בן לוי משום אנשי ירושלים אל תרבה בגנות משום מעשה שהיה בתך בגרה שחרר עבדך ותן לה והוי זהיר באשתך מחתנה הראשון מ"ט רב חסדא אמר משום ערוה רב כהנא אמר משום ממון הא והא איתנהו,אמר רבי יוחנן שלשה מנוחלי העוה"ב אלו הן הדר בא"י והמגדל בניו לתלמוד תורה והמבדיל על היין במוצאי שבתות מאי היא דמשייר מקידושא לאבדלתא,א"ר יוחנן שלשה מכריז עליהן הקב"ה בכל יום על רווק הדר בכרך ואינו חוטא ועל עני המחזיר אבידה לבעליה ועל עשיר המעשר פירותיו בצינעה רב ספרא רווק הדר בכרך הוה 113a. barefound bon the paths [ igazyata /i]near the city, bas horsesbelonging to the demons bfleealong those paths, bandthe demons bcome to lead themaway. Generally, however, demons do not enter inhabited places., bAndRav bsaid to Rav Asi: Do not live in a city where horses do not neigh and where dogs do not bark,as these animals provide security and protection. bAnd do not live in a city where the mayor is a doctor,as he will be too busy working to govern properly. bAnd do not marry twowomen, as they will likely join forces against you. And bif youdo bmarry two, marry a thirdas well. If two of your wives plot against you, the third will inform you of their plans., bRav said to Rav Kahana:It is better for one bto turn over a carcass than to turn over his word,i.e., to break his promise. Rav further said: bSkin a carcass in the market and take payment, but do not say: I am a priest, or: I am a great man, and this matter disgusts me.It is preferable for one to work, even in menial labor, than to be dependent on others. Rav also advised Rav Kahana: If byou ascend to the roof,carry byour food with you.One should always carry his sustece with him, even if he goes only on a short trip. If bone hundred pumpkins in the citycost ba izuz /i, placethem carefully under bthe cornersof your clothes. Treat food respectfully even if it is inexpensive., bRav said to Ḥiyya, his son: Do notget into the habit of bdrinking medications,lest you develop an addiction. bAnd do not leap over a ditch,as you might hurt yourself in the process. bAnd do not pull out a tooth,but try to heal it if possible. bAnd do not provoke a snakein your house to try to kill it or chase it away. bAnd do not provoke a gentile,as this too is dangerous.,Similarly, bthe Sages taught:There are bthreebeings boneshould bnot provoke: A small gentile, and a small snake, and a smallTorah bscholar. What is the reason? Because their authority stands behind their ears.They will eventually grow up, assume power, each in his own way, and avenge those who have harassed them., bRav said to Ayvu, his son: I struggledto teach byou ihalakhabutmy efforts bdid not succeed,as you did not become a great scholar. bComeand bI will teach youabout bmundane matters: Sell your merchandise while the dustfrom the road is still bon your feet.As soon you return from your travels, sell your wares, lest the prices fall in the meantime. Furthermore, it is possible that banything you sellmight later cause you to bregretthe sale, bexcept for wine, which youcan bsell without regret.Since wine might go bad and be entirely lost, its sale is always advisable.,Rav further advised his son: bOpen your purseto accept payment, and only then bopen your sackto deliver the goods, to ensure you will receive payment for your merchandise. It is better to earn ba ikavfrom the ground than a ikorfrom the roof.A ikoris one hundred and eighty times larger than a ikav /i. This proverb means that it is preferable to earn a small amount from a local, safe transaction than to attempt to earn more through a distant, risky venture.,Rav continued: If there are bdates in your storeroom, run to the breweryto sell them. If you wait, there is a good chance the dates will go bad. The Gemara asks: bAnd how manydates should one keep for himself? bRava said: Up to three ise’a /i. Rav Pappa said: If I were not a beer manufacturer I would not have become wealthy. Some saythat it was bRav Ḥisda who said: If I were not a beer manufacturer I would not have become wealthy.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the word isudana /i,the Aramaic term for a brewer? bRav Ḥisda said: A pleasant secret [ isod na’e /i] and acts of loving kindness,as brewing is a good way to make money and also enables one to perform good deeds.,The Gemara continues to offer advice about mundane matters. bRav Pappa said: Anythingyou acquire with a document bby meansof which ownership is transferred, i.e., a bill of acquisition or obligation, brequires collection,despite the fact that you are the legal owner. bAny sale on credit is uncertain whether or notit bwill cometo fruition. bAndeven bif itdoes bcometo fruition, bthe money is bad.These funds are difficult to collect, and they are generally not paid on time., bRabbi Yoḥa said three matters, citing the people of Jerusalem: When you go to war do not go out first, but go out last.The reason is bso thatif your side is defeated and you need to flee for your life, byou will enterthe refuge of the city bfirst. Andit is better to bmake your Shabbatlike an ordinary bweekday and do not be beholden toother bbeings. And exert yourselfto join together bwith one upon whom the hour smiles. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said three matters, citing the people of Jerusalem: Do not indulge in a shameful actin public, bbecause of the incident that occurredinvolving David and Bathsheba (see II Samuel 11–12). If byour daughter has grown up,it is better to bfree yourCanaanite bslave and givehim bto herthan to leave her to find a husband on her own. bAnd be careful with your wife with regard to her first son-in-law,as she is especially fond of him. bWhat is the reasonfor this warning? bRav Ḥisda said: Due tothe possibility of blicentiousness. Rav Kahana said: Due tothe fact that she might give him all your bmoneyand leave you impoverished. The Gemara comments: Since beither of thesecould bhappen,it is best to be prudent., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Threepeople are bamong those who inherit the World-to-Come: One who lives in Eretz Yisrael; one who raises his sons toengage bin Torah study; and one who recites ihavdalaover wine at the conclusion of Shabbat.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe special importance of bthatmitzva, to recite ihavdalaover wine? The Gemara answers: This is referring to an individual with only a small amount of wine, bwhonevertheless bleaves some ofhis kiddush wine bfor ihavdala /i. /b, bRabbi Yoḥafurther bsaid: The Holy One, Blessed be He, proclaims aboutthe goodness of bthreekinds bof people every day,as exceptional and noteworthy individuals: bAbout a bachelor who lives in a city and does not sinwith women; babout a poor person who returns a lost object to its ownersdespite his poverty; band about a wealthy person who tithes his produce in private,without publicizing his behavior. The Gemara reports: bRav Safra was a bachelor living in a city. /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adjuration Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 50
amoraim, amoraic period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 50, 103, 146
aramaic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103, 146
authority of women, in damascus document Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 56
benediction Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 146
bread, wine, food Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 146
celibacy and marriage, in ancient judaism Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 56
christianity Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
consecration, in rabbinic writings Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 150
consecration, in the damascus document Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 150
consecration, to block access to a property by a claimant Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 150
conviction Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
essenes, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 243
exegesis, midrash Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
ezra Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
flagellation, flogging (malqut) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
gender, in ancient judaism, considerations of dead sea scrolls Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 56
god Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103, 146
halakhah/halakhot, and aggadah; law and narrative Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 243, 246
hebrew, biblical Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
hebrew, mishnaic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 50, 146
hebrew, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 50, 146
hebrew, rabbinic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 50
hebrew Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also, interpretation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
jerusalem Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 243
josephus Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 146
judges Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 50
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 243, 246
liturgy Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 146
marriage, levirate Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 50
marriage and celibacy, in ancient judaism Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 56
masada Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 146
masoretic text Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
nehemiah Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
oath Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 50
offenses, recording of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
offenses, repetition of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
orthography, masoretic, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 146
patriarchs, texts Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 243, 246
pharisees, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
philo Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 146
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 243, 246
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 243
purity/ritual purity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 243
qumran/qumran community Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 243
rabbi joshua ben levi Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
rabbi levi Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 146
rabbi yohanan Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
rabbis, and the consecration of land Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 150
rabbis, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
rav papa Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
records, written Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
reproof Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
sabbath Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 243
sacred land, in judea, in rabbinic writings Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 150
sacrifices/sacrificial offerings Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 243
second commonwealth period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
sectarian/sectarianism Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 243, 246
tannaim, tannaitic law, judaism, period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
temple, in jerusalem, economy of Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 150
testimony, combination of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
testimony Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
tetragrammaton Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 146
torah' Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 243, 246
vows, annulment of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
witnesses, single (one) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
women, as reliable witnesses, in damascus document and rule of the congregation Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 56
women, as trustworthy and knowledgeable, in dead sea scrolls Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 56
women, authority of, constraints on, in dead sea scrolls Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 56