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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



2784
Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 16.12
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

20 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.12, 19.15, 23.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.12. שָׁמוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ 19.15. לֹא־יָקוּם עֵד אֶחָד בְּאִישׁ לְכָל־עָוֺן וּלְכָל־חַטָּאת בְּכָל־חֵטְא אֲשֶׁר יֶחֱטָא עַל־פִּי שְׁנֵי עֵדִים אוֹ עַל־פִּי שְׁלֹשָׁה־עֵדִים יָקוּם דָּבָר׃ 23.24. מוֹצָא שְׂפָתֶיךָ תִּשְׁמֹר וְעָשִׂיתָ כַּאֲשֶׁר נָדַרְתָּ לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נְדָבָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ בְּפִיךָ׃ 5.12. Observe the sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the LORD thy God commanded thee." 19.15. One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth; at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall a matter be establishment" 23.24. That which is gone out of thy lips thou shalt observe and do; according as thou hast vowed freely unto the LORD thy God, even that which thou hast promised with thy mouth."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.9. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ 20.9. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 21.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.25. וְהוֹכִחַ אַבְרָהָם אֶת־אֲבִימֶלֶךְ עַל־אֹדוֹת בְּאֵר הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר גָּזְלוּ עַבְדֵי אֲבִימֶלֶךְ׃ 21.25. And Abraham reproved Abimelech because of the well of water, which Abimelech’s servants had violently taken away."
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 30.9, 30.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.9. וְאִם בְּיוֹם שְׁמֹעַ אִישָׁהּ יָנִיא אוֹתָהּ וְהֵפֵר אֶת־נִדְרָהּ אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ וְאֵת מִבְטָא שְׂפָתֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר אָסְרָה עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ וַיהוָה יִסְלַח־לָהּ׃ 30.15. וְאִם־הַחֲרֵשׁ יַחֲרִישׁ לָהּ אִישָׁהּ מִיּוֹם אֶל־יוֹם וְהֵקִים אֶת־כָּל־נְדָרֶיהָ אוֹ אֶת־כָּל־אֱסָרֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ הֵקִים אֹתָם כִּי־הֶחֱרִשׁ לָהּ בְּיוֹם שָׁמְעוֹ׃ 30.9. But if her husband disallow her in the day that he heareth it, then he shall make void her vow which is upon her, and the clear utterance of her lips, wherewith she hath bound her soul; and the LORD will forgive her." 30.15. But if her husband altogether hold his peace at her from day to day, then he causeth all her vows to stand, or all her bonds, which are upon her; he hath let them stand, because he held his peace at her in the day that he heard them."
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 19.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.8. תּוֹרַת יְהוָה תְּמִימָה מְשִׁיבַת נָפֶשׁ עֵדוּת יְהוָה נֶאֱמָנָה מַחְכִּימַת פֶּתִי׃ 19.8. The law of the LORD is perfect, restoring the soul; the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. ."
6. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 5.10 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

5.10. They hate him that reproveth in the gate, And they abhor him that speaketh uprightly."
7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 29.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

29.21. מַחֲטִיאֵי אָדָם בְּדָבָר וְלַמּוֹכִיחַ בַּשַּׁעַר יְקֹשׁוּן וַיַּטּוּ בַתֹּהוּ צַדִּיק׃ 29.21. That make a man an offender by words, and lay a snare for him that reproveth in the gate, And turn aside the just with a thing of nought."
8. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 22.19-22.21 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

22.19. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה יַעַן הֱיוֹת כֻּלְּכֶם לְסִגִים לָכֵן הִנְנִי קֹבֵץ אֶתְכֶם אֶל־תּוֹךְ יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 22.21. וְכִנַּסְתִּי אֶתְכֶם וְנָפַחְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם בְּאֵשׁ עֶבְרָתִי וְנִתַּכְתֶּם בְּתוֹכָהּ׃ 22.19. Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Because ye are all become dross, therefore, behold, I will gather you into the midst of Jerusalem." 22.20. As they gather silver and brass and iron and lead and tin into the midst of the furnace, to blow the fire upon it, to melt it; so will I gather you in Mine anger and in My fury, and I will cast you in, and melt you." 22.21. Yea, I will gather you, and blow upon you with the fire of My wrath, and ye shall be melted in the midst thereof."
9. Anon., Jubilees, 50.6-50.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

50.6. and there are yet forty years to come (lit. "distant for learning the commandments of the Lord, until they pass over into the land of Canaan, crossing the Jordan to the west. 50.7. And the jubilees will pass by, until Israel is cleansed from all guilt of fornication, and uncleanness, and pollution, and sin, and error, and dwelleth with confidence in all the land, and there will be no more a Satan or any evil one, and the land will be clean from that time for evermore. 50.8. And behold the commandment regarding the Sabbaths--I have written (them) down for thee and all the judgments of its laws. brSix days wilt thou labour, but on the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God. 50.9. In it ye shall do no manner of work, ye and your sons, and your men-servants and your maid-servants, and all your cattle and the sojourner also who is with you. brAnd the man that doeth any work on it shall die: 50.10. whoever desecrateth that day, whoever lieth with (his) wife or whoever saith he will do something on it, that he will set out on a journey thereon in regard to any buying or selling: and whoever draweth water thereon which he had not prepared for himself on the sixth day, and whoever taketh up any burden to carry it out of his tent or out of his house shall die. 50.11. Ye shall do no work whatever on the Sabbath day save that ye have prepared for yourselves on the sixth day, so as to eat, and drink, and rest, and keep Sabbath from all work on that day, and to bless the Lord your God, who has given you a day of festival 50.12. and a holy day: and a day of the holy kingdom for all Israel is this day among their days for ever. 50.13. For great is the honour which the Lord hath given to Israel that they should eat and drink and be satisfied on this festival day, and rest thereon from all labour which belongeth to the labour of the children of men, save burning frankincense and bringing oblations and sacrifices before the Lord for days and for Sabbaths.
10. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 5.7-5.11, 7.5-7.7, 8.16, 9.1-9.10, 9.16-9.23, 10.10, 10.14-10.17, 11.17-11.18, 15.7, 16.6-16.11, 16.14-16.17, 20.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 5.7-5.11, 7.5-7.7, 8.16, 9.1-9.10, 9.16-9.23, 10.10, 10.14-10.17, 11.17-11.18, 15.7, 16.6-16.12, 16.14-16.17, 20.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.120-2.121 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.121. They do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued; but they guard against the lascivious behavior of women, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man.
13. Mishnah, Makkot, 3.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.15. All who have incurred [the penalty of] kareth, on being flogged are exempt from their punishment of kareth, for it says, “[He may be given up to forty lashes, but not more] ... lest your brother shall be dishonored before your eyes” (Deut. 25;3) once he has been lashed he is [considered] “your brother”, the words of Rabbi Haiah ben Gamaliel. Rabbi Haiah ben Gamaliel said: “Just as one who transgresses one transgression forfeits his life, how much more does one who performs one commandment have his life granted him.” Rabbi Shimon says: “You can learn this from its own passage; as it says: “[All who do any of those abhorrent things] such persons shall be cut off from their people” (Lev. 18:29), and it says: “You shall keep my statutes and my ordices which if a man do, he shall live by them” (Lev. 18:5), which means that one who desists from transgressing is granted reward like one who performs a precept. Rabbi Shimon bar Rabbi says: Behold [the Torah] says, “But makes sure that you do not partake of the blood; for the blood is the life, and you must not consume the life with the flesh…[that it may go well with you and with your descendents to come..” (Deut. 12:23-25”-- now, if in the case of blood which a person’s soul loathes, anyone who refrains from it receives reward, how much more so in regard to robbery and sexual sin for which a person’s soul craves and longs shall one who refrains from them acquire merit for himself and for generations and generations to come, to the end of all generations!
14. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 150 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

15. Palestinian Talmud, Demai, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

16. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

2b. וטמא מת תולדותיהן לאו כיוצא בהן דאילו אב מטמא אדם וכלים ואילו תולדות אוכלין ומשקין מטמא אדם וכלים לא מטמא,הכא מאי אמר רב פפא יש מהן כיוצא בהן ויש מהן לאו כיוצא בהן,ת"ר ג' אבות נאמרו בשור הקרן והשן והרגל,קרן מנלן דת"ר (שמות כא, כח) כי יגח אין נגיחה אלא בקרן שנאמר (מלכים א כב, יא) ויעש לו צדקיה בן כנענה קרני ברזל ויאמר כה אמר ה' באלה תנגח את ארם וגו' ואומר (דברים לג, יז) בכור שורו הדר לו וקרני ראם קרניו בהם עמים ינגח,מאי ואומר וכי תימא דברי תורה מדברי קבלה לא ילפינן ת"ש בכור שורו הדר לו,והאי מילף הוא גילוי מילתא בעלמא הוא דנגיחה בקרן הוא,אלא מהו דתימא כי פליג רחמנא בין תם למועד ה"מ בתלושה אבל במחוברת אימא כולה מועדת היא,ת"ש בכור שורו הדר לו וגו',תולדה דקרן מאי היא נגיפה נשיכה רביצה ובעיטה,מאי שנא נגיחה דקרי לה אב דכתיב כי יגח נגיפה נמי כתיב (שמות כא, לה) כי יגוף האי נגיפה נגיחה היא דתניא פתח בנגיפה וסיים בנגיחה לומר לך זו היא נגיפה זו היא נגיחה,מאי שנא גבי אדם דכתיב כי יגח ומאי שנא גבי בהמה דכתיב כי יגוף,אדם דאית ליה מזלא כתיב כי יגח בהמה דלית לה מזלא כתיב כי יגוף,ומלתא אגב אורחיה קמ"ל דמועד לאדם הוי מועד לבהמה ומועד לבהמה לא הוי מועד לאדם,נשיכה תולדה דשן היא לא שן יש הנאה להזיקה הא אין הנאה להזיקה,רביצה ובעיטה תולדה דרגל היא לא רגל הזיקה מצוי הני אין הזיקן מצוי,אלא תולדותיהן לאו כיוצא בהן דאמר רב פפא אהייא,אילימא אהני מאי שנא קרן דכוונתו להזיק וממונך ושמירתו עליך הני נמי כוונתן להזיק וממונך ושמירתן עליך,אלא תולדה דקרן כקרן וכי קאמר רב פפא אשן ורגל,שן ורגל היכא כתיבי דתניא (שמות כב, ד) ושלח זה הרגל וכן הוא אומר (ישעיהו לב, כ) משלחי רגל השור והחמור,ובער זו השן וכן הוא אומר (מלכים א יד, י) כאשר יבער 2b. band one who is impurewith impurity imparted by a human bcorpse.A person, a vessel, or food that is rendered impure through contact with an item classified as a primary category of ritual impurity is characterized as a subcategory. In that domain, btheir subcategories are dissimilar to them, asany person or item classified as ba primary categoryof ritual impurity bimpurifies a person andimpurifies any bvesselswith which it comes into contact, bwhilea person or item classified as ba subcategory of ritual impurity impurifies food or drink, but does not impurify a person or vessels. /b,After determining that there are instances where the legal status of subcategories is like that of primary categories, e.g., Shabbat, and there are instances where the legal status of subcategories is dissimilar to that of primary categories, e.g., ritual impurity, the Gemara asks: bHere,with regard to the laws of damages, bwhatis the relationship between the primary categories and their subcategories? bRav Pappa said: There are, amongthe primary categories of damage, some whose subcategories bare similar to them, and there are, among them,some whose subcategories bare dissimilar to them. /b,§ Seeking to clarify Rav Pappa’s statement, the Gemara cites a ibaraitathat delineates the primary categories of damage. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThree primary categoriesof damage bwere statedin the Torah bwith regard to an ox.An ox causes damage in three ways, and each is classified as a distinct primary category of damage represented by a part of the body of the ox: There is bthecategory of bGoring [ ikeren /i],literally, horn. This is referring to an ox goring a person or an animal and causing damage. bAndthere is bthecategory of bEating [ ishen /i],literally, tooth. This is referring to one’s ox causing damage by consuming another person’s produce. bAndthere is bthecategory of bTrampling [ iregel /i],literally, foot. This is referring to an ox trampling another person’s belongings and causing damage. These are classified as primary categories because they are mentioned explicitly in the Torah.,The Gemara elaborates: bFrom where do wederive the primary category of bGoring?The source is bas the Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: “And bifan ox bgoresa man or a woman” (Exodus 21:28); and bgoring isperformed bonlywith ba horn, as it is stated: “And Zedekiah, son of Chenaanah, made himself horns of iron, and said: So says the Lord: With these shall you gore the Arameans,until they are consumed” (I Kings 22:11). bAndthe verse also bstates: “His firstborn bull, majesty is his, and his horns are the horns of the wild ox; with them he shall gore the nations”(Deuteronomy 33:17).,The Gemara interrupts its citation of the ibaraitaand asks: bWhatis the purpose of citing the additional verse introduced with the term: bAndthe verse also bstates?The Gemara answers: bAnd if you would saythat the first verse cited is not a legitimate source as it is a verse from the Prophets, and bwe do not derive Torah matters from the texts of the tradition,i.e., Prophets and Writings, bcomeand bhearproof from the Torah: b“His firstborn bull, majesty is his.” /b,The Gemara rejects the possibility that the reason a second verse was cited is that the primary category of Goring cannot be derived from a verse in the Prophets: bBut is thisa halakhic bderivation? It is a mere disclosure of the matter, that goring isperformed bwith a horn.A verse in the Prophets can certainly serve as a source for that disclosure., bRather,the reason the ibaraitacites a second verse is blest you say,based on the first verse, that bwhen the Merciful One distinguishes betweenliability for damage caused by ban innocuousox, for which the owner is liable to pay half of the damages for the first three times that it gores, bandliability for damage caused by ba forewarnedox, which already gored three times and whose owner was cautioned to prevent the ox from goring, for which he is liable to pay the full damages, bthat statementapplies only to damage caused bwith a detachedhorn, like the horn of Zedekiah described in the verse, e.g., if an animal held a detached horn in its mouth and caused damage with it; bbutfor damage that an ox caused bwitha horn battachedto its head, bsaythat in ballcases the legal status of the ox bisthat of ba forewarnedox and its owner is liable to pay for all of the damage.,Therefore, the ibaraitasays: bComeand bheara proof from another verse: b“His firstborn bull, majesty is his,and his horns are the horns of the wild ox; with them he shall gore the nations,” where the reference is to a horn attached to the ox’s head. Evidently, when an ox gores with its own horns there is a distinction between an innocuous ox and a forewarned ox.,The Gemara resumes its citation of the ibaraita /i: bWhat is a subcategory of Goring?It includes any action that an ox performs with its body with the objective of inflicting damage: bPushing [ inegifa /i], biting, crouchingupon items with the objective of inflicting damage, band kicking. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout bgoring that it is characterizedas ba primary categoryof damage, bas it is writtenexplicitly in the verse: “And bifan ox bgoresa man or a woman” (Exodus 21:28); accordingly, inegifa /ishould balsobe characterized as a primary category, bas it is written: “Ifone man’s ox bhurts [ iyiggof]the ox of another” (Exodus 21:35)? The Gemara answers: bThis inegifa /imentioned in the verse, bisactually a reference to bgoring, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat the verses states: “And if one man’s ox hurts [ iyiggof] the ox of another…or if it is known that the ox was a goring ox in time past” (Exodus 21:35–36). The verse bbeganits description of the case bwiththe term inegifaandit bconcluded withthe term bgoring to say to youthat in this context the two terms describe the same action: bThisaction bis inegifa /iand bthissame action bis goring. /b,The Gemara asks: If the two terms are interchangeable, bwhat is different with regard toan ox goring ba person that it is written:“And bifan ox bgoresa man or a woman” (Exodus 21:28), band what is different with regard toan ox goring ban animal that it is written: “Ifone man’s ox bhurts [ iyiggof]the ox of another” (Exodus 21:35)?,The Gemara explains: With regard to ba person, who hasthe bingenuityto defend himself and is not easily injured, bit is written: “Ifan ox bgores,”a term indicating an attack of greater force. With regard to ban animal, which does not havethe bingenuityto defend itself and is more easily injured, bit is written: “Ifan ox bhurts [ iyiggof],”a term indicating an attack of lesser force. The term iyiggofis related to the term imagefa /i, meaning plague. The Torah employs that term with regard to the goring of an animal to indicate that when an animal is gored, regardless of the force of the blow, it will likely result in its death., bAndthe Torah’s use of these terms bteaches us a matter in passing:Because the effort required for the ox to gore a person to death is greater than the effort required for the ox to gore an animal to death, the ihalakhais bthatan ox that is bforewarned with regard togoring ba person isalso bforewarned with regard to an animal. Butan ox that is bforewarned with regard to an animal is not forewarned with regard to a person. /b,The Gemara questions the classification in the ibaraitaof biting, crouching, and kicking as subcategories of Goring: Isn’t bbiting a subcategory of Eating,as the animal both eats and bites with its teeth? The Gemara answers: bNo,in cases included in the primary category of bEating, there is pleasurefor the animal binthe course of bitscausing bdamage.In bthiscase of damage caused by biting, bthere is nointrinsic bpleasurefor the animal binthe course of the bdamagethat bitcauses, as when the ox bites forcefully, the exclusive objective of the action is to cause damage.,The Gemara asks: Aren’t bcrouchingupon items band kickingitems in order to damage them each ba subcategory of Trampling,as the animal crouches by bending its legs and kicks with its feet? The Gemara answers: bNo,in cases included in the primary category of Trampling, the bdamage is commonplace,as it is caused in the course of the animal’s walking; in bthesecases of crouching and kicking, the bdamage is not commonplace,as animals do not typically kick or crouch upon utensils.,After citing the subcategories listed in the ibaraita /i, the Gemara resumes its analysis of the statement of Rav Pappa: bButwith regard to the statement bthat Rav Pappa said: There are among themsome whose subcategories bare dissimilar to them, to whichprimary category was Rav Pappa referring?, bIf we saythat his reference was bto thesesubcategories of Goring, bwhat is differentabout bGoringthat defines it as a unique primary category? What is different is bthatthe bobjectiveof the ox’s action bis to cause damage, andthe ox is byour property, andresponsibility for bits safeguarding,to prevent it from causing damage, is incumbent bupon you,its owner. In bthesesubcategories of Goring, i.e., pushing [ inegifa /i], biting, crouching, and kicking, bas well,the bobjectiveof the oxen’s actions bis to cause damage, andthe oxen are byour property, andresponsibility for btheir safeguarding,to prevent your oxen from causing damage, is incumbent bupon you. /b, bRather,it is apparent that the status of ba subcategory of Goring is likethat of the primary category of bGoring, and when Rav Pappa says:There are among them some whose subcategories are dissimilar to them, he was referring bto Eating and Trampling. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhere are Eating and Trampling writtenin the Torah that led them to be classified as primary categories? The Gemara answers: The source is bas the Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states: “If a man causes a field or vineyard to be eaten, and he sends forth his animal, and it consumed in the field of another” (Exodus 22:4). The two parts of the verse are referring to different categories: b“And he sends forth,” this isa reference to btheprimary category of bTrampling,as sending forth results in the animal trampling another’s produce and damaging it, band likewise it states:“Happy are you that sow beside all waters bthat send forth the feet of the ox and the donkey”(Isaiah 32:20). Clearly the term “send forth” is a reference to trampling by the feet of the animal., b“And it consumed,” this isa reference to btheprimary category of bEating, and likewise it states:“And I will utterly sweep away the house of Jeroboam, bas one consumes with /b
17. Babylonian Talmud, Makkot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

23b. (ויקרא יח, ה) אשר יעשה אותם האדם וחי בהם הא כל היושב ולא עבר עבירה נותנין לו שכר כעושה מצוה,ר"ש בר רבי אומר הרי הוא אומר (דברים יב, כג) רק חזק לבלתי אכול (את) הדם כי הדם הוא הנפש וגו' ומה אם הדם שנפשו של אדם קצה ממנו הפורש ממנו מקבל שכר גזל ועריות שנפשו של אדם מתאוה להן ומחמדתן הפורש מהן על אחת כמה וכמה שיזכה לו ולדורותיו ולדורות דורותיו עד סוף כל הדורות,ר' חנניא בן עקשיא אומר רצה הקב"ה לזכות את ישראל לפיכך הרבה להם תורה ומצות שנאמר (ישעיהו מב, כא) ה' חפץ למען צדקו יגדיל תורה ויאדיר:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big א"ר יוחנן חלוקין עליו חבריו על רבי חנניה בן גמליאל אמר רב אדא בר אהבה אמרי בי רב תנינן אין בין שבת ליום הכפורים אלא שזה זדונו בידי אדם וזה זדונו בהכרת ואם איתא אידי ואידי בידי אדם הוא,רב נחמן (בר יצחק) אומר הא מני רבי יצחק היא דאמר מלקות בחייבי כריתות ליכא דתניא רבי יצחק אומר חייבי כריתות בכלל היו ולמה יצאת כרת באחותו לדונו בכרת ולא במלקות,רב אשי אמר אפילו תימא רבנן זה עיקר זדונו בידי אדם וזה עיקר זדונו בידי שמים,אמר רב אדא בר אהבה אמר רב הלכה כר' חנניה בן גמליאל אמר רב יוסף מאן סליק לעילא ואתא ואמר אמר ליה אביי אלא הא דאמר רבי יהושע בן לוי שלשה דברים עשו ב"ד של מטה והסכימו ב"ד של מעלה על ידם מאן סליק לעילא ואתא ואמר אלא קראי קא דרשינן ה"נ קראי קא דרשינן,גופא א"ר יהושע בן לוי שלשה דברים עשו ב"ד של מטה והסכימו ב"ד של מעלה על ידם [אלו הן] מקרא מגילה ושאילת שלום [בשם] והבאת מעשר,מקרא מגילה דכתיב (אסתר ט, כז) קימו וקבלו היהודים קיימו למעלה מה שקבלו למטה,ושאילת שלום דכתיב (רות ב, ד) והנה בועז בא מבית לחם ויאמר לקוצרים ה' עמכם ואומר (שופטים ו, יב) ה' עמך גבור החיל מאי ואומר וכי תימא בועז הוא דעביד מדעתיה ומשמיא לא אסכימו על ידו ת"ש ואומר ה' עמך גבור החיל,הבאת מעשר דכתיב (מלאכי ג, י) הביאו את כל המעשר אל בית האוצר ויהי טרף בביתי ובחנוני נא בזאת אמר ה' צבאות אם לא אפתח לכם את ארובות השמים והריקותי לכם ברכה עד בלי די מאי עד בלי די אמר רמי בר רב עד שיבלו שפתותיכם מלומר די,א"ר אלעזר בג' מקומות הופיע רוח הקודש בבית דינו של שם ובבית דינו של שמואל הרמתי ובבית דינו של שלמה בבית דינו של שם דכתיב (בראשית לח, כו) ויכר יהודה ויאמר צדקה ממני מנא ידע דלמא כי היכי דאזל איהו לגבה אזל נמי אינש אחרינא [לגבה] יצאת בת קול ואמרה ממני יצאו כבושים:,בבית דינו של שמואל דכתיב (שמואל א יב, ג) הנני ענו בי נגד ה' ונגד משיחו את שור מי לקחתי ויאמרו לא עשקתנו ולא רצותנו ויאמר עד ה' ועד משיחו כי לא מצאתם בידי מאומה ויאמר עד ויאמר ויאמרו מיבעי ליה יצאת בת קול ואמרה אני עד בדבר זה,בבית דינו של שלמה דכתיב (מלכים א ג, כז) ויען המלך ויאמר תנו לה את הילד החי והמת לא תמיתוהו (כי) היא אמו מנא ידע דלמא איערומא מיערמא יצאת בת קול ואמרה היא אמו,אמר רבא ממאי דלמא יהודה כיון דחשיב ירחי ויומי ואיתרמי דחזינן מחזקינן דלא חזינן לא מחזקינן,שמואל נמי כולהו ישראל קרי להו בלשון יחידי דכתיב (ישעיהו מה, יז) ישראל נושע בה',שלמה נמי מדהא קא מרחמתא והא לא קא מרחמתא אלא גמרא:,דרש רבי שמלאי שש מאות ושלש עשרה מצות נאמרו לו למשה שלש מאות וששים וחמש לאוין כמנין ימות החמה ומאתים וארבעים ושמונה עשה כנגד איבריו של אדם אמר רב המנונא מאי קרא (דברים לג, ד) תורה צוה לנו משה מורשה תורה בגימטריא 23b. b“That a person shall perform and live by them”(Leviticus 18:5). It is inferred bthatwith regard to bone who sits and did not perform a transgression,God bgives him a reward likethat received by one who bperforms a mitzva. /b, bRabbi Shimon bar RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaysthat as the verse bstates: “Only be steadfast to not eat the blood, as the blood is the soul”(Deuteronomy 12:23), it can be derived ia fortiori /i: bAnd ifwith regard to bthe blood, which a person’s soul loathes, one who abstains from itsconsumption breceives a rewardfor that action, as it is written in a subsequent verse: “You shall not eat it, so that it shall be good for you and for your children after you” (Deuteronomy 12:25); then concerning brobbery andintercourse with bforbidden relatives, which a person’s soul desires and covets, one who abstains from theirperformance and overcomes his inclination, ball the more so that he and his descendants and the descendants of his descendants until the end of all generations will merita reward., bRabbi Ḥaya ben Akashya says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to confer merit upon the Jewish people; therefore, He increased for them Torah and mitzvot,as each mitzva increases merit, bas it is stated: “It pleased the Lord for the sake of His righteousness to make the Torah great and glorious”(Isaiah 42:21). God sought to make the Torah great and glorious by means of the proliferation of mitzvot., strongGEMARA: /strong bRabbi Yoḥa says: Rabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel’s colleagues are in disagreement with himand hold that lashes do not exempt the sinner from ikaret /i. bRav Adda bar Ahava saidthat this is so, as bthey sayin bthe school of Ravthat bwe learnedin a mishna ( iMegilla7b): bThe difference between Shabbat and Yom Kippurwith regard to the labor prohibited on those days bis only thatin bthiscase, Shabbat, bits intentionaldesecration is punishable bby human hands,as he is stoned by a court based on the testimony of witnesses who forewarned the transgressor, bandin bthatcase, Yom Kippur, bits intentionaldesecration is punishable at the hand of God, bwith ikaret /i. And ifthe statement of Rabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel bis so,in both bthiscase, Shabbat, band thatcase, Yom Kippur, the punishment would be bby human hands.Apparently, the itannaof the mishna, the Rabbis, disagrees with Rabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says:There is no proof from here that Rabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel’s colleagues disagree with him, as in accordance with bwhoseopinion bis thismishna taught? bIt isin accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yitzḥak, who says: There are no lashes incases of bthose liableto receive ikaret /i. As it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yitzḥak says:All bthose liableto receive ikaret /iin cases of forbidden relations bwere included inthe principle: “For whoever shall commit any of these abominations, even the people who commit them shall be cut off from among their people” (Leviticus 18:29). bAnd why was ikaret /iin the case of relations with bone’s sister excludedfrom this verse and mentioned independently (Leviticus 20:17)? It is bto sentenceone who transgresses a prohibition punishable with ikaret btobe punished bwith ikaret /ialone, band not with lashes.Other Sages disagree with Rabbi Yitzḥak (see 13b)., bRav Ashi said: Evenif byou saythat the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of bthe Rabbis,who disagree with Rabbi Yitzḥak and hold that there are lashes even in cases where there is liability for ikaret /i, there is no proof that Rabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel’s colleagues disagree with him. The mishna can be understood as follows: In bthiscase, Shabbat, the bprimarypunishment for bits intentionaldesecration is bby human hands, andin bthatcase, Yom Kippur, the bprimarypunishment for bits intentionaldesecration is ikaret /i, which is a punishment bat the hand of Heaven.If he was flogged, he is exempt from ikaret /i., bRav Adda bar Ahava saysthat bRav says: The ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel,who ruled that lashes exempt the sinner from ikaret /i. bRav Yosef said: Who ascended on high and came and saidto you that one who is flogged is exempted from ikaret /i? That is not dependent upon the decision of an earthly court. bAbaye said toRav Yosef: bButaccording to your reasoning, then with regard to bthat which Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says:There are bthree mattersthat the bearthly court implemented and the heavenly court agreed with them,the same question applies: bWho ascended on high and came and saidto him that this is so? bRather,in arriving at Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s conclusion bwehomiletically binterpret verses. Here too,with regard to lashes and ikaret /i, bwehomiletically binterpret verses. /b,§ With regard to bthematter bitself, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says:There are bthree mattersthat the bearthly court implemented and the heavenly court agreed with them, and these are they: Reading the Scrollof Esther on Purim, band greetinganother bwith the name of God, and bringingthe first btitheto the Temple treasury in Jerusalem. From where is it derived that the heavenly court agreed with them?, bReading the Scrollof Esther is derived from a verse, bas it is written: “The Jews confirmed, and they took upon themselves”(Esther 9:27). The verse could have simply said: They took upon themselves. From the formulation of the verse it is interpreted: bThey confirmed abovein Heaven that bwhich they took upon themselves belowon earth., bAnd greetinganother with the name of God is derived from a verse, bas it is written: “And presently Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the harvesters: The Lord is with you, and they said to him: May the Lord bless you”(Ruth 2:4). bAnd it states:“And the angel of the Lord appeared to him and said to him: bThe Lord is with you, mighty man of valor”(Judges 6:12). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the reason that the Gemara cites the additional source about Gideon, introduced with the phrase: bAnd it states?Why was the proof from Boaz’s statement to the harvesters insufficient? The Gemara explains: bAnd if you would say: It is Boaz who didso bon his own, and from Heaven they did not agree with him; comeand bhearproof, band it says: “The Lord is with you, mighty man of valor.”The angel greeted Gideon with the name of God, indicating that there is agreement in Heaven that this is an acceptable form of greeting.,From where is it derived that the heavenly court agreed to the bbringingof the first btitheto the Temple treasury in Jerusalem? It is derived from a verse, bas it is written: “Bring you the whole tithe into the storehouse, that there may be food in My house, and try Me now with this, says the Lord of hosts, if I will not open for you the windows of heaven and pour you out a blessing, that there shall be more than sufficiency [ iad beli dai /i]”(Malachi 3:10). This indicates that the heavenly court agreed that the first tithe should be brought to the Temple treasury. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of b“ iad beli dai /i”? Rami bar Rav says:It means that the abundance will be so great bthat your lips will be worn out [ iyivlu /i], from saying enough [ idai /i]. /b,The Gemara cites a somewhat similar statement. bRabbi Elazar says: In three places the Divine Spirit appearedbefore all to affirm that the action taken was appropriate: bIn the court of Shem, in the court of Samuel the Ramathite, and in the court of Solomon.The Gemara elaborates: This occurred bin the court of Shem, as it is writtenin the context of the episode of Judah and Tamar: b“And Judah acknowledged them and said: She is more righteous than I [ imimmenni /i]”(Genesis 38:26). bHow didJudah bknowthat Tamar’s assertion that she was bearing his child was correct? bPerhaps, just as he went to herand hired her as a prostitute, banother person went to herand hired her bas well,and he is not the father. Rather, ba Divine Voice emerged and said:It is bfrom Me [ imimmenni /i]that these bsecrets emerged.God affirmed that her assertion was correct and that it was His divine plan that Judah would father a child from Tamar.,Likewise, this occurred bin the court of Samuel, as it is written: “Here I am; testify against me before the Lord and before His anointed: Whose ox have I taken…And they said: You have neither defrauded us nor oppressed us…And he said to them: The Lord is witness against you, and His anointed is witness this day, that you have not found anything in my hand. And he said: He is witness”(I Samuel 12:3–5). Based on the context, instead of the singular: b“And he said,”the plural: bAnd they said, should havebeen written, as the verse appears to be the reply of the Jewish people to Samuel’s challenge, attesting to the truth of his statement. Rather, ba Divine Voice emerged and said: I,God, bam witness to this matter. /b,This occurred bin the court of Solomon,when the Divine Spirit appeared in the dispute between two prostitutes over who was the mother of the surviving child, bas it is written: “And the king answered and said: Give her the living child, and do not slay him; she is his mother”(I Kings 3:27). bHow didSolomon bknowthat she was the mother? bPerhaps she was deviousand was not the mother of the surviving child at all. Rather, ba Divine Voice emerged and said: She is his mother. /b, bRava said: From wheredo you draw these conclusions? None of these proofs is absolute. bPerhapsin the case of bJudah, once he calculatedthe passage of the bmonths and the daysfrom when he engaged in intercourse with Tamar band it happenedto correspond with the duration of her pregcy, he realized that her assertion is correct. There is no room to suspect that another man was the father, as the principle is: Based on that bwhich we see, we establish presumptive status;based on that bwhich we do not see, we do not establish presumptive status. /b,With regard to bSamuel too,no proof may be cited from the use of the singular, as on occasion the bentire Jewish people is referred to in the singular, as it is written,e.g.: b“The Jewish people is saved by the Lord”(Isaiah 45:17).,With regard to bSolomon too,perhaps he reasoned that bdue tothe fact bthat thiswoman bis mercifuland seeks to spare the baby band thiswoman bis not merciful,it is evident that the former is its mother. bRather,Rava concludes: There is no proof from the verses that a Divine Spirit appeared in those circumstances; rather, there is ba traditionthat this is the case.,§ bRabbi Simlai taught:There were b613 mitzvot stated to Mosesin the Torah, consisting of b365 prohibitions corresponding to the number of daysin bthe solar year, and 248 positivemitzvot bcorresponding tothe number of ba person’s limbs. Rav Hamnuna said: What is the versethat alludes to this? It is written: b“Moses commanded to us the Torah, an inheritanceof the congregation of Jacob” (Deuteronomy 33:4). The word bTorah, interms of bits numerical value [ igimatriyya /i], /b
18. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

28a. ולא ברכתי לפני כהן ולא אכלתי מבהמה שלא הורמו מתנותיה,דא"ר יצחק א"ר יוחנן אסור לאכול מבהמה שלא הורמו מתנותיה ואמר ר' יצחק כל האוכל מבהמה שלא הורמו מתנותיה כאילו אוכל טבלים ולית הלכתא כוותיה,ולא ברכתי לפני כהן,למימרא דמעליותא היא והא א"ר יוחנן כל תלמיד חכם שמברך לפניו אפילו כ"ג עם הארץ אותו ת"ח חייב מיתה שנאמר (משלי ח, לו) כל משנאי אהבו מות אל תקרי משנאי אלא משניאי,כי קאמר איהו בשוין,שאלו תלמידיו את רבי נחוניא בן הקנה במה הארכת ימים אמר להם מימי לא נתכבדתי בקלון חברי ולא עלתה על מטתי קללת חברי וותרן בממוני הייתי,לא נתכבדתי בקלון חברי כי הא דרב הונא דרי מרא אכתפיה אתא רב חנא בר חנילאי וקא דרי מיניה א"ל אי רגילת דדרית במאתיך דרי ואי לא אתייקורי אנא בזילותא דידך לא ניחא לי,ולא עלתה על מטתי קללת חברי כי הא דמר זוטרא כי הוה סליק לפורייה אמר שרי ליה לכל מאן דצערן,וותרן בממוני הייתי דאמר מר איוב וותרן בממוניה הוה שהיה מניח פרוטה לחנוני מממוניה,שאל ר"ע את רבי נחוניא הגדול (אמר לו) במה הארכת ימים אתו גווזי וקא מחו ליה סליק יתיב ארישא דדיקלא א"ל רבי אם נאמר (במדבר כח, ד) כבש למה נאמר אחד אמר להו צורבא מדרבנן הוא שבקוהו,א"ל אחד מיוחד שבעדרו,א"ל מימי לא קבלתי מתנות ולא עמדתי על מדותי וותרן בממוני הייתי,לא קבלתי מתנות כי הא דר' אלעזר כי הוו משדרי ליה מתנות מבי נשיאה לא הוה שקיל כי הוה מזמני ליה לא הוה אזיל אמר להו לא ניחא לכו דאחיה דכתיב (משלי טו, כז) שונא מתנות יחיה ר' זירא כי הוו משדרי ליה מבי נשיאה לא הוה שקיל כי הוה מזמני ליה אזיל אמר אתייקורי דמתייקרי בי,ולא עמדתי על מדותי דאמר רבא כל המעביר על מדותיו מעבירין ממנו כל פשעיו שנאמר (מיכה ז, יח) נושא עון ועובר על פשע למי נושא עון למי שעובר על פשע,שאל רבי את ר' יהושע בן קרחה במה הארכת ימים א"ל קצת בחיי אמר לו רבי תורה היא וללמוד אני צריך א"ל מימי לא נסתכלתי בדמות אדם רשע דאמר ר' יוחנן אסור לאדם להסתכל בצלם דמות אדם רשע שנאמר (מלכים ב ג, יד) לולא פני יהושפט מלך יהודה אני נושא אם אביט אליך ואם אראך,ר"א אמר עיניו כהות שנאמר (בראשית כז, א) ויהי כי זקן יצחק ותכהין עיניו מראות משום דאסתכל בעשו הרשע,והא גרמא ליה והאמר ר' יצחק לעולם אל תהי קללת הדיוט קלה בעיניך שהרי אבימלך קלל את שרה ונתקיים בזרעה שנאמר (בראשית כ, טז) הנה הוא לך כסות עינים אל תקרי כסות אלא כסיית עינים,הא והא גרמא ליה רבא אמר מהכא (משלי יח, ה) שאת פני רשע לא טוב,בשעת פטירתו א"ל [רבי] ברכני א"ל יהי רצון שתגיע לחצי ימי ולכולהו לא אמר לו הבאים אחריך בהמה ירעו,אבוה בר איהי ומנימן בר איהי חד אמר תיתי לי דלא אסתכלי בכותי וחד אמר תיתי לי דלא עבדי שותפות בהדי כותי,שאלו תלמידיו את ר' זירא במה הארכת ימים אמר להם מימי לא הקפדתי בתוך ביתי ולא צעדתי בפני מי שגדול ממני ולא הרהרתי במבואות המטונפות ולא הלכתי ד"א בלא תורה ובלא תפילין ולא ישנתי בבית המדרש לא שינת קבע ולא שינת עראי ולא ששתי בתקלת חבירי ולא קראתי לחבירי (בחניכתו) ואמרי לה (בחכינתו):, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ועוד א"ר יהודה בית הכנסת שחרב אין מספידין בתוכו ואין מפשילין בתוכו חבלים ואין פורשין לתוכו מצודות ואין שוטחין על גגו פירות ואין עושין אותו קפנדריא,שנאמר (ויקרא כו, לא) והשמותי את מקדשכם קדושתן אף כשהן שוממין,עלו בו עשבים לא יתלוש מפני עגמת נפש:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר בתי כנסיות אין נוהגין בהן קלות ראש אין אוכלין בהן ואין שותין בהן 28a. bAnd I never recitedGrace after Meals bin the presence of a priest,but rather I gave him the privilege to lead. bAnd I never ate from an animal whosepriestly bportions,i.e., the foreleg, the jaw, and the maw, bhad notalready bbeen set aside. /b,Another example of Rabbi Perida’s meticulous behavior is based on that bwhich Rabbi Yitzḥak saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: It is prohibited to eatmeat bfrom an animal whosepriestly bportions have not been set aside. And Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who eatsmeat bfrom an animal whosepriestly bportions have not been set aside isregarded bas if he were eating untithed produce.The Gemara comments: bAnd the ihalakhais not in accordance with hisopinion. Rather, it is permitted to eat meat from such an animal. Nevertheless, Rabbi Perida acted stringently and did not eat from it.,The Gemara considers another of Rabbi Perida’s actions: He said: bAnd I never blessedGrace after Meals bin the presence of a priest,but rather I gave him the privilege to lead., bIs this to say thatdoing so bisespecially bvirtuous? Buthasn’t bRabbi Yoḥa said: Any Torah scholar whoallows someone else bto blessGrace after Meals bin his presence,i.e., to lead for him, bevenif that person is ba High Priest who is an ignoramus,then bthat Torah scholar is liable toreceive the bdeath penaltyfor belittling his own honor? This is bas it is stated: “All those who hate me, love death”(Proverbs 8:36). bDo not readit as b“those who hate Me [ imesan’ai /i],” ratherread it as though it said: bThose who make Me hated [ imasni’ai /i].The honor due to a Torah scholar is representative of the honor of God in the world. Therefore, by belittling his own honor, he causes others to fail to respect God, which can ultimately develop into hate. If so, why did Rabbi Perida consider his behavior to be so deserving of praise?,The Gemara answers: bWhenRabbi Perida bsays this,he was speaking bofpeople of bequalstature. He was particular to honor the priesthood only when the priest was also a Torah scholar.,The Gemara discusses the fourth Sage who was blessed with longevity: bRabbi Neḥunya ben HaKana wasonce basked by his disciples: Inthe merit of bwhichvirtue bwere youblessed with blongevity? He said to them: Inall bmy days, I never attained veneration atthe expense of bmy fellow’s degradation. Nor did my fellow’s curseever bgo up with me upon my bed.If ever I offended someone, I made sure to appease him that day. Therefore, when I went to bed I knew that no one had any grievances against me. bAnd I wasalways bopenhanded with my money. /b,The Gemara clarifies the meaning of his statement: Rabbi Neḥunya said: bI never attained veneration atthe expense of bmy fellow’s denigration.This is referring to conduct bsuch as that of Rav Huna, who was carrying a hoe over his shoulderas he returned from his work. bRav Ḥana bar Ḥanilai came and,out of respect for his teacher, btook the hoe from himto carry it for him. Rav Huna bsaid to him: If you are accustomed to carrysuch objects bin your own city,you may bcarry it; but if not,then bfor me to be venerated through your denigration is not pleasing for me. /b,Rabbi Neḥunya also said: bNor didI ever allow the resentment caused by bmy fellow’s curseto bgo up with me upon my bed.This is referring to conduct bsuch as that of Mar Zutra. When he would go to bedat night, bhe wouldfirst bsay: I forgive anyone who has vexed me. /b,Lastly, Rabbi Neḥunya said: bAnd I wasalways bopenhanded with my money.This is referring to conduct such as bthat which the Master said: Job was openhanded with his money, as he wouldalways bleaveat least ba iperutaof his money with the shopkeeper.He never demanded the change from his transactions.,On a similar occasion, bRabbi Akiva asked Rabbi Neḥunya the Great; he said to him: Inthe merit of bwhichvirtue bwere youblessed with blongevity?Rabbi Neḥunya’s battendants [ igavzei /i] came andstarted bbeatingRabbi Akiva, for they felt that he was acting disrespectfully by highlighting Rabbi Neḥunya’s old age. Rabbi Akiva ran away from them, and bhe climbed up and sat upon the top of a date palm.From there, bhe said toRabbi Neḥunya: bMy teacher,I have a question about the verse concerning the daily offering that states “one lamb” (Numbers 28:4). bIf it is stated “lamb”in the singular, bwhy is italso bstated “one”;isn’t this superfluous? Upon hearing Rabbi Akiva’s scholarly question, Rabbi Neḥunya bsaid tohis attendants: bHe isclearly ba young Torah scholar, let him be. /b,Rabbi Neḥunya then addressed Rabbi Akiva’s questions. With regard to the second question, bhe said to him:The word b“one”teaches that the lamb should be bthe unique one of its flock,i.e., only the best quality lamb should be used.,With regard to the original question, Rabbi Neḥunya bsaid to him: Inall bmy days I never accepted gifts. Nor was Iever binflexibleby exacting ba measureof retribution against those who wronged me. bAnd I wasalways bopenhanded with my money. /b,The Gemara explains: bI never accepted gifts;this is referring to conduct bsuch as that of Rabbi Elazar. When they would send him gifts from the house of the iNasi /i, he would not takethem, band when they would invite him, he would not gothere, as he considered hospitality to be a type of gift. bHewould bsay to them: Is it not pleasing to you that I should live, as it is written: “He that hates gifts shall live”(Proverbs 15:27)? In contrast, it was reported about bRabbi Zeirathat bwhen they would send himgifts bfrom the house of the iNasi /i, he would not acceptthem, bbut when they would invite him, he would gothere. bHe said: They are honored by mypresence; therefore my visiting is not considered like I am taking a gift from them.,He also said: bNor was Iever binflexiblein exacting ba measureof retribution against those who wronged me. This is referring to conduct such as that bwhich Rava said: Anyone who overlooksexacting ba measureof retribution against those who wronged him, ball his transgressions are removed from him, as it is stated: “He pardons iniquity and overlooks transgression”(Micah 7:18), which is homiletically read as saying: bFor whom does He pardon iniquity? For he who overlooks transgressionsthat others have committed against him.,In a similar incident, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi once basked Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa: Inthe merit of bwhichvirtue bwere youblessed with blongevity? He said to him:Why do you ask me, bare you wearied of mylong blife?Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: My teacher, it is Torah andso bI must learnit. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa bsaid to him: Inall bmy days I never gazed at the likeness of a wicked man, as Rabbi Yoḥa said: It is prohibited for a person to gaze in the image of the likeness of a wicked man, as it is statedthat the prophet Elisha said to Jehoram king of Israel: b“Were it not that I regard the presence of Jehoshaphat, the king of Judea, I would not look toward you, nor see you”(II Kings 3:14)., bRabbi Elazar said:One who gazes at the likeness of an evil man, bhis eyes become dim, as it is stated: “And it came to pass, that when Isaac was old, and his eyes were dim so that he could not see”(Genesis 27:1). This happened bbecause he gazed at the wicked Esau. /b,The Gemara asks: bDid this causeIsaac’s blindness? bDidn’t Rabbi Yitzḥak say: A curse of an ordinary person should not be lightly regarded in your eyes, because Abimelech cursed Sarah, andalthough he was not a righteous man, his curse bwasnevertheless bfulfilled,albeit bin her descendant. As it is statedthat Abimelech said to Sarah with regard to the gift that he gave to Abraham: b“Behold, it is for you a covering of the eyes”(Genesis 20:16). bDo not readit as b“a covering [ ikesut /i]of the eyes,” but bratherread it as: bA blindness [ ikesiat /i] of the eyes.Abimelech’s words were a veiled curse for Sarah to suffer from blindness. While she herself did not suffer, the curse was apparently fulfilled in the blindness of her son, Isaac.,According to Rabbi Yitzḥak, Abimelech’s curse was the cause of Isaac’s blindness, and it was not, as Rabbi Elazar suggested, the fact he gazed at Esau. The Gemara explains: Both bthis and thatjointly bcaused it. Rava said:The prohibition against gazing at the likeness of a wicked person is derived bfrom here: “It is not good to raise the face of the wicked”(Proverbs 18:5)., bAt the time ofRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa’s bdeparturefrom this world, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: My teacher, bless me. He said to him: May it beGod’s bwill that youlive to breach to half of my days.When Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi heard this, he asked in astonishment: Are you saying that bto the entirety ofyour days I should bnotreach? Why? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa bsaid to him: Shall those who come after youjust btend cattle?If you live as long as me, your sons will never be able to succeed you in the position of Nasi. As such, they will never achieve greatness in Torah, and it will be as if they just tended cattle throughout their lives. It is therefore better that your life not be so prolonged, so that they have the opportunity to rise to eminence., bAvuh bar Ihi and Minyamin bar Ihiboth spoke on this topic: bOneof them bsaid: Maya blessing bcome to me for I never gazed ata wicked bgentile. Andthe other bone said: Maya blessing bcome to me for I never formed a partnership witha wicked bgentile,so as not to have any association with a wicked person.,The Gemara presents a similar incident: bRabbi Zeira wasonce basked by his disciples: Inthe merit of bwhichvirtue bwere youblessed with blongevity? He said to them: Inall bmy days, I was never angry inside my housewith members of my household who acted against my wishes. bNor did Iever bwalk ahead of someone who was a greaterTorah scholar bthan me. Nor did Iever bmeditateupon words of Torah bin filthy alleyways,as doing so is a disgrace to the Torah. bNor did Iever bwalk four cubits withoutmeditating on words of bTorah or withoutwearing bphylacteries. Nor did Iever bsleep in a study hall, neither a deep sleep or a brief nap. Nor did Iever brejoice when my fellow stumbled. Nor did Iever bcall my fellow by his derogatory nickname [ iḥanikhato /i]. And some saythat he said: I never called my fellow by bhis nickname [ iḥakhinato /i],i.e., even one that is not derogatory., strongMISHNA: /strong bAnd Rabbi Yehuda said further: A synagogue that fell into ruinstill may not be used for a mundane purpose. Therefore, bone may not eulogize in it. And nor may one stretch outand repair bropes in it.The wide expanse of the synagogue would have been particularly suitable for this. bAnd nor may one spreadanimal btraps within it. And nor may one spread out produce upon its roofto dry. bAnd nor may one make itinto ba shortcut. /b,The ihalakhathat a synagogue in disrepair still may not be used for mundane purposes is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “And I will bring desolation to your sanctuaries”(Leviticus 26:31). The fact that the word “sanctuaries” appears after the word “desolation” indicates that btheir sanctityremains upon them beven when they are desolate. /b,However, if bgrass sprang upof its own accord binthe ruined synagogue, although it is not befitting its sanctity, bone should not pickit, bdue tothe banguishthat it will bring to those who see it. It will remind them of the disrepair of the synagogue and the need to rebuild it., strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bsynagogues: One may not act inside them with frivolity.Therefore, bone may not eat in them; nor may one drink in them; /b
19. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר אע"פ שאמרו המשמש מטתו לאור הנר הרי זה מגונה בש"א צריכה שני עדים על כל תשמיש או תשמש לאור הנר ובה"א דיה בשני עדים כל הלילה,תניא אמרו להם ב"ש לב"ה לדבריכם ליחוש שמא תראה טיפת דם כחרדל בביאה ראשונה ותחפנה שכבת זרע בביאה שניה,א"ל ב"ה אף לדבריכם ליחוש עד שהרוק בתוך הפה שמא נימוק והולך לו,אמרו להם לפי שאינו דומה נימוק פעם אחת לנימוק שתי פעמים,תניא א"ר יהושע רואה אני את דברי ב"ש אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי כמה הארכת עלינו אמר להם מוטב שאאריך עליכם בעוה"ז כדי שיאריכו ימיכם לעוה"ב,אמר ר' זירא מדברי כולם נלמד בעל נפש לא יבעול וישנה,רבא אמר בועל ושונה כי תניא ההיא לטהרות,תניא נמי הכי בד"א לטהרות אבל לבעלה מותרת ובד"א שהניחה בחזקת טהרה אבל הניחה בחזקת טמאה לעולם היא בחזקתה עד שתאמר לו טהורה אני,א"ר אבא א"ר חייא בר אשי אמר רב בדקה בעד ואבד אסורה לשמש עד שתבדוק מתקיף לה ר' אילא אילו איתא מי לא משמשה ואע"ג דלא ידעה השתא נמי תשמש,א"ל רבא זו מוכיחה קיים וזו אין מוכיחה קיים,א"ר יוחנן אסור לאדם שישמש מטתו ביום אמר רב המנונא מאי קרא שנאמר (איוב ג, ג) יאבד יום אולד בו והלילה אמר הורה גבר לילה ניתן להריון ויום לא ניתן להריון ריש לקיש אמר מהכא (משלי יט, טז) בוזה דרכיו ימות,ור"ל האי קרא דר' יוחנן מאי דריש ביה מבעי ליה לכדדריש רבי חנינא בר פפא דדריש ר' חנינא בר פפא אותו מלאך הממונה על ההריון לילה שמו ונוטל טפה ומעמידה לפני הקב"ה ואומר לפניו רבש"ע טפה זו מה תהא עליה גבור או חלש חכם או טיפש עשיר או עני,ואילו רשע או צדיק לא קאמר כדר' חנינא דא"ר חנינא הכל בידי שמים חוץ מיראת שמים שנאמר (דברים י, יב) ועתה ישראל מה ה' אלהיך שואל מעמך כי אם ליראה וגו',ור' יוחנן א"כ נכתוב קרא גבר הורה מאי הורה גבר לילה ניתן להריון ויום לא ניתן להריון,ור' יוחנן האי קרא דר"ל מאי דריש ביה מבעי לי' לכדכתיב בספר בן סירא שלשה שנאתי וארבעה לא אהבתי שר הנרגל בבית המשתאות ואמרי לה שר הנרגן ואמרי לה שר הנרגז,והמושיב שבת במרומי קרת והאוחז באמה ומשתין מים והנכנס לבית חבירו פתאום אמר רבי יוחנן ואפילו לביתו,אמר רבי שמעון בן יוחאי ארבעה דברים הקב"ה שונאן ואני איני אוהבן הנכנס לביתו פתאום ואצ"ל לבית חבירו והאוחז באמה ומשתין מים 16b. strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that according to Beit Shammai it is permitted to engage in intercourse by the light of a lamp. In this regard, bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bEven thoughthe Sages bsaidwith regard to bone who engages in intercourse by the light of a lamp,that bthis is disgraceful, Beit Shammai say: A woman is requiredto examine herself with btwo cloths,once before and once after beachact of bintercourse, orshe must bengage in intercourse by the light of a lamp. And Beit Hillel say:It is bsufficientfor her to examine herself bwith two cloths throughout the night,once before the first act of intercourse and once after the final act of intercourse.,It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bBeit Shammai said to Beit Hillel: According to your statementthat a woman may engage in intercourse several times in one night without an examination between each act of intercourse, blet us be concerned lest she will see,i.e., emit, ba drop of blood the size of a mustardseed bduring the firstact of bintercourse,and will thereby become impure, band semen from the secondact of bintercourse will cover it.Since the examination after the last act of intercourse will not reveal the drop of blood, the woman will erroneously think she is pure., bBeit Hillel said to themin response: bEven according to your statement, let us be concernedthat bwhile the salivawas still bin the mouth,i.e., while the blood was in her vagina, bperhaps it was squashed and disappeared.Even if she examines herself after each act of intercourse, as mandated by Beit Shammai, it is possible that the semen of that act covered the blood, and it will not be revealed by the examination.,Beit Shammai bsaid toBeit Hillel: One cannot compare the two situations, bas a squasheddrop of blood after the woman has engaged in intercourse bonce is not similar to a squasheddrop of blood after the woman has engaged in intercourse btwice,and therefore our concern is more reasonable.,It bis taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehoshua said: I seeas correct bthe statement of Beit Shammaiin this case. bHis students said to him:Our bteacher, how you have weighed [ ihe’erakhta /i] us downwith this stringent ruling. Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to them: It is preferable that I weigh you down in this world, so thatyou do not sin by engaging in prohibited intercourse, i.e., so that byour days in the World-to-Come will be lengthened [ isheya’arikhu /i]. /b,§ bRabbi Zeira says: From the statements of all of them,i.e., both Beit Shammai, who permit engaging in intercourse a second time only after an examination, and Beit Hillel, who rule that the second examination must be performed only after the final act of intercourse of the night, bwe can learnthat their dispute relates only to that which is permitted after the fact. But ba pious person [ iba’al nefesh /i] should not engage in intercourse and repeathis act without an examination between each act., bRava says:Even a pious person bmay engage in intercourse and repeatthe act without an examination in between, as bwhen that ibaraita bis taught,it is referring btoa woman who handles bpure items.But with regard to intercourse with her husband, there is no cause for concern., bThisopinion bis also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bIn whatcase bis this statement said,i.e., that a woman must examine herself before and after every act of intercourse according to Beit Shammai, or before the first act and after the last act, according to Beit Hillel? It was said bwith regard toa woman who handles bpure items; buta woman bis permitted to her husbandeven without any examination, and he is not required to ask her if she is pure. bBut in whatcase bis thislenient bstatement said? Whenher husband traveled and bleft her with the presumptive status of ritual purity. Butif he bleft her with the presumptive status of ritual impurity,she remains bforever in her presumptive statusof impurity buntil she says to him: I am pure. /b,§ bRabbi Abba saysthat bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Ashi saysthat bRav says:If a woman bexaminedherself at night bwith a cloth, andthe cloth bwasthen immediately blost, it is prohibited for her to engage in intercourseagain buntil she examinesherself with another cloth, as perhaps there was blood on the cloth that was lost. bRabbi Ila objects to this: Ifthis cloth bwere intact,i.e., if it were not lost, bcouldn’tthis woman bengage in intercoursewith her husband that night, on the basis that she will examine the cloth only the following day, bandisn’t this the ihalakha beven though she does not knowat the time of intercourse whether there is blood on the cloth? bNow too,although the cloth is lost, blet her engage in intercoursewith her husband., bRava said to him:There is a difference between the two cases, as when the cloth is intact, bthiswoman’s bproof exists,and if she discovers on the following day that she was impure they will be obligated to bring sin offerings for engaging in intercourse in a state of ritual impurity. bButwith regard to bthatwoman who lost her cloth, bher proof does not exist,and therefore they will never know if they require atonement.,§ bRabbi Yoḥa says: It is prohibited for a person to engage in intercourse by day. Rav Hamnuna says: What is the versefrom which this is derived? bAs it is stated: “Let the day perish on which I was born, and the night on which it was said: Conceived is a man-child”(Job 3:3). It is derived from here that bnighttime is meant for conception, but daytime is not meant for conception. Reish Lakish saysthat the proof is bfrom here: “But he who despises his ways shall die”(Proverbs 19:16). One might see something unpleasing in his wife in the daylight and come to despise her.,The Gemara asks: bAnd how does Reish Lakish interpret this versecited bby Rabbi Yoḥa?The Gemara answers that bhe requiresthat verse bfor that which Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa taught. As Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa interpretedthat verse in the following manner: bThat angel that is appointed over conception is called: Night. Andthat angel btakesthe bdropof semen from which a person will be formed band presents it before the Holy One, Blessed be He, and says before Him: Master of the Universe, what will be of this drop?Will the person fashioned from it be bmighty or weak?Will he be bclever or stupid?Will he be bwealthy or poor? /b,The Gemara notes: bButthis angel bdoes not say:Will he be bwicked or righteous?This is bin accordance witha statement bof Rabbi Ḥanina, as Rabbi Ḥanina said: Everything is in the hand of Heaven, except for fear of Heaven.People have free will to serve God or not, bas it is stated: “And now, Israel, what does the Lord your God ask of you other than to fearthe Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 10:12). The fact that God asks of the Jewish people to fear Him indicates that it is a person’s choice to do so.,The Gemara explains: bAnd Rabbi Yoḥaderives two ihalakhotfrom the verse “and the night on which it was said: Conceived is a man-child,” as he holds as follows: bIf so,i.e., if it is referring only to the statement of the angel, blet the verse write:And the night that said: bA man-child is conceived. Whatis the meaning of: b“Conceived is a man-child”?It is derived from the juxtaposition of the word “night” and the word “conceived” that bnighttime is meant for conception but daytime is not meant for conception. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa, how does he interpret that versecited bby Reish Lakish?The Gemara answers that Rabbi Yoḥa brequiresthat verse: “But he who despises his ways shall die,” btoteach bthat which is written in the book of ben Sira: Threepeople bI have hated, and a fourth I have not loved: A minister who frequents [ ihanirgal /i] drinking houses,as he disgraces himself and leads himself to ruin and death; band some saya different version of the text: bA minister who chats [ ihanirgan /i]in drinking houses; band some saya third version: bA minister who is short-tempered [ ihanirgaz /i]when in drinking houses.,That is the first that he hated. bAndthe others are bone who dwells at the highest point of the city,where everyone sees him; band one who holdshis bpenis and urinates. Andthe fourth, whom he has not loved, is bone who enters the house of another suddenly,without warning. bRabbi Yoḥa says: Andthis includes bevenone who comes binto hisown bhousewithout prior warning, as the members of his household might be engaged in private activities.,The Gemara cites a similar saying. bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: Four matters the Holy One, Blessed be He, hates, and I do not love them,and they are: bOne who enters his house suddenly, and needless to sayone who suddenly enters bthe house of another; and one who holdshis bpenis and urinates; /b
20. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

113a. גזייתא נינהו דשמטי סוסיא ואתו דברי להו,(וא"ל) רב לרב אסי לא תדור במתא דלא צניף בה סוסיא ולא נבח בה כלבא ואל תדור בעיר דריש מתא אסיא ולא תנסיב תרתי אי נסבת תרתי נסיב תלת,א"ל רב לרב כהנא הפוך בנבילתא ולא תיפוך במילי פשוט נבילתא בשוקא ושקיל אגרא ולא תימא כהנא אנא וגברא רבא אנא וסניא בי מלתא סלקת לאיגרא שירותך בהדך מאה קרי במתא בזוזא תותי כנפיך ניהוו,א"ל רב לחייא בריה לא תשתי סמא ולא תשוור ניגרא ולא תעקר ככא ולא תקנא בחיויא ולא תקנא בארמאה,תנו רבנן ג' אין מתקנאין בהן ואלו הן נכרי קטן ונחש קטן ותלמיד קטן מ"ט דמלכותייהו אחורי אודנייהו קאי,א"ל רב לאיבו בריה טרחי בך בשמעתא ולא מסתייע מילתא תא אגמרך מילי דעלמא אדחלא אכרעיך זבינך זבין כל מילי זבין ותחרט בר מחמרא דזבין ולא תחרט,שרי כיסיך פתח שקיך קבא מארעא ולא כורא מאיגרא,תמרא בחלוזך לבית סודנא רהיט ועד כמה אמר רבא עד תלתא סאה אמר רב פפא אי לא דרמאי שכרא לא איעתרי א"ד אמר רב חסדא אי לא דרמאי שכרא לא איעתרי מאי סודנא אמר רב חסדא סוד נאה וגמילות חסדים,אמר רב פפא כל אגב גביא בעי כל אשראי ספק אתי ספק לא אתי ודאתי מעות רעות נינהו,ג' דברים א"ר יוחנן משום אנשי ירושלים כשאתה יוצא למלחמה אל תצא בראשונה אלא תצא באחרונה כדי שתכנס בראשונה ועשה שבתך חול ואל תצטרך לבריות והוי משתדל עם מי שהשעה משחקת לו,(א"ר) שלשה דברים א"ר יהושע בן לוי משום אנשי ירושלים אל תרבה בגנות משום מעשה שהיה בתך בגרה שחרר עבדך ותן לה והוי זהיר באשתך מחתנה הראשון מ"ט רב חסדא אמר משום ערוה רב כהנא אמר משום ממון הא והא איתנהו,אמר רבי יוחנן שלשה מנוחלי העוה"ב אלו הן הדר בא"י והמגדל בניו לתלמוד תורה והמבדיל על היין במוצאי שבתות מאי היא דמשייר מקידושא לאבדלתא,א"ר יוחנן שלשה מכריז עליהן הקב"ה בכל יום על רווק הדר בכרך ואינו חוטא ועל עני המחזיר אבידה לבעליה ועל עשיר המעשר פירותיו בצינעה רב ספרא רווק הדר בכרך הוה 113a. barefound bon the paths [ igazyata /i]near the city, bas horsesbelonging to the demons bfleealong those paths, bandthe demons bcome to lead themaway. Generally, however, demons do not enter inhabited places., bAndRav bsaid to Rav Asi: Do not live in a city where horses do not neigh and where dogs do not bark,as these animals provide security and protection. bAnd do not live in a city where the mayor is a doctor,as he will be too busy working to govern properly. bAnd do not marry twowomen, as they will likely join forces against you. And bif youdo bmarry two, marry a thirdas well. If two of your wives plot against you, the third will inform you of their plans., bRav said to Rav Kahana:It is better for one bto turn over a carcass than to turn over his word,i.e., to break his promise. Rav further said: bSkin a carcass in the market and take payment, but do not say: I am a priest, or: I am a great man, and this matter disgusts me.It is preferable for one to work, even in menial labor, than to be dependent on others. Rav also advised Rav Kahana: If byou ascend to the roof,carry byour food with you.One should always carry his sustece with him, even if he goes only on a short trip. If bone hundred pumpkins in the citycost ba izuz /i, placethem carefully under bthe cornersof your clothes. Treat food respectfully even if it is inexpensive., bRav said to Ḥiyya, his son: Do notget into the habit of bdrinking medications,lest you develop an addiction. bAnd do not leap over a ditch,as you might hurt yourself in the process. bAnd do not pull out a tooth,but try to heal it if possible. bAnd do not provoke a snakein your house to try to kill it or chase it away. bAnd do not provoke a gentile,as this too is dangerous.,Similarly, bthe Sages taught:There are bthreebeings boneshould bnot provoke: A small gentile, and a small snake, and a smallTorah bscholar. What is the reason? Because their authority stands behind their ears.They will eventually grow up, assume power, each in his own way, and avenge those who have harassed them., bRav said to Ayvu, his son: I struggledto teach byou ihalakhabutmy efforts bdid not succeed,as you did not become a great scholar. bComeand bI will teach youabout bmundane matters: Sell your merchandise while the dustfrom the road is still bon your feet.As soon you return from your travels, sell your wares, lest the prices fall in the meantime. Furthermore, it is possible that banything you sellmight later cause you to bregretthe sale, bexcept for wine, which youcan bsell without regret.Since wine might go bad and be entirely lost, its sale is always advisable.,Rav further advised his son: bOpen your purseto accept payment, and only then bopen your sackto deliver the goods, to ensure you will receive payment for your merchandise. It is better to earn ba ikavfrom the ground than a ikorfrom the roof.A ikoris one hundred and eighty times larger than a ikav /i. This proverb means that it is preferable to earn a small amount from a local, safe transaction than to attempt to earn more through a distant, risky venture.,Rav continued: If there are bdates in your storeroom, run to the breweryto sell them. If you wait, there is a good chance the dates will go bad. The Gemara asks: bAnd how manydates should one keep for himself? bRava said: Up to three ise’a /i. Rav Pappa said: If I were not a beer manufacturer I would not have become wealthy. Some saythat it was bRav Ḥisda who said: If I were not a beer manufacturer I would not have become wealthy.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the word isudana /i,the Aramaic term for a brewer? bRav Ḥisda said: A pleasant secret [ isod na’e /i] and acts of loving kindness,as brewing is a good way to make money and also enables one to perform good deeds.,The Gemara continues to offer advice about mundane matters. bRav Pappa said: Anythingyou acquire with a document bby meansof which ownership is transferred, i.e., a bill of acquisition or obligation, brequires collection,despite the fact that you are the legal owner. bAny sale on credit is uncertain whether or notit bwill cometo fruition. bAndeven bif itdoes bcometo fruition, bthe money is bad.These funds are difficult to collect, and they are generally not paid on time., bRabbi Yoḥa said three matters, citing the people of Jerusalem: When you go to war do not go out first, but go out last.The reason is bso thatif your side is defeated and you need to flee for your life, byou will enterthe refuge of the city bfirst. Andit is better to bmake your Shabbatlike an ordinary bweekday and do not be beholden toother bbeings. And exert yourselfto join together bwith one upon whom the hour smiles. /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said three matters, citing the people of Jerusalem: Do not indulge in a shameful actin public, bbecause of the incident that occurredinvolving David and Bathsheba (see II Samuel 11–12). If byour daughter has grown up,it is better to bfree yourCanaanite bslave and givehim bto herthan to leave her to find a husband on her own. bAnd be careful with your wife with regard to her first son-in-law,as she is especially fond of him. bWhat is the reasonfor this warning? bRav Ḥisda said: Due tothe possibility of blicentiousness. Rav Kahana said: Due tothe fact that she might give him all your bmoneyand leave you impoverished. The Gemara comments: Since beither of thesecould bhappen,it is best to be prudent., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Threepeople are bamong those who inherit the World-to-Come: One who lives in Eretz Yisrael; one who raises his sons toengage bin Torah study; and one who recites ihavdalaover wine at the conclusion of Shabbat.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe special importance of bthatmitzva, to recite ihavdalaover wine? The Gemara answers: This is referring to an individual with only a small amount of wine, bwhonevertheless bleaves some ofhis kiddush wine bfor ihavdala /i. /b, bRabbi Yoḥafurther bsaid: The Holy One, Blessed be He, proclaims aboutthe goodness of bthreekinds bof people every day,as exceptional and noteworthy individuals: bAbout a bachelor who lives in a city and does not sinwith women; babout a poor person who returns a lost object to its ownersdespite his poverty; band about a wealthy person who tithes his produce in private,without publicizing his behavior. The Gemara reports: bRav Safra was a bachelor living in a city. /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
amoraim, amoraic period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
aramaic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
authority of women, in damascus document Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 56
celibacy and marriage, in ancient judaism Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 56
christianity Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
consecration, in rabbinic writings Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 150
consecration, in the damascus document Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 150
consecration, to block access to a property by a claimant Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 150
conviction Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
essenes, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 243
exegesis, midrash Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
exegesis, pesher Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185
ezra Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
flagellation, flogging (malqut) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
gender, in ancient judaism, considerations of dead sea scrolls Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 56
god Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103, 185
halakhah/halakhot, and aggadah; law and narrative Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 243
hebrew, biblical Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103, 185
hebrew, medieval Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185
hebrew, mishnaic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185
hebrew, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185
hebrew Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also, interpretation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
jerusalem Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 243; Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 243
manual of discipline, literary structure of, history of text Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185
marriage and celibacy, in ancient judaism Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 56
masoretic text Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
nehemiah Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
offenses, recording of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
offenses, repetition of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
patriarchs, texts Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 243
penal code of the manual of discipline Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185
pharisees, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 243
priests, aaronide Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 243
purity/ritual purity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 243
qumran/qumran community Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 243
rabbi joshua ben levi Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
rabbi yohanan Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
rabbis, and the consecration of land Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 150
rabbis, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
rav papa Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
records, written Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
reproof Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
sabbath Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 243
sacred land, in judea, in rabbinic writings Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 150
sacrifices/sacrificial offerings Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 243
second commonwealth period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
sect, admittance to Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185
sect, enemies of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185
sectarian/sectarianism Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 243
tannaim, tannaitic law, judaism, period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
temple, in jerusalem, economy of Gordon, Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism (2020) 150
testimony, combination of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
testimony Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
tetragrammaton Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185
torah' Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 243
vows, annulment of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
witnesses, single (one) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 103
women, as reliable witnesses, in damascus document and rule of the congregation Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 56
women, as trustworthy and knowledgeable, in dead sea scrolls Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 56
women, authority of, constraints on, in dead sea scrolls Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 56
zadokite fragments Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 185