Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



2784
Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 15.15-15.17
NaN
NaN
NaN


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

36 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 23.2-23.9, 27.15-27.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.2. לֹא־תַשִּׁיךְ לְאָחִיךָ נֶשֶׁךְ כֶּסֶף נֶשֶׁךְ אֹכֶל נֶשֶׁךְ כָּל־דָּבָר אֲשֶׁר יִשָּׁךְ׃ 23.2. לֹא־יָבֹא פְצוּעַ־דַּכָּא וּכְרוּת שָׁפְכָה בִּקְהַל יְהוָה׃ 23.3. לֹא־יָבֹא מַמְזֵר בִּקְהַל יְהוָה גַּם דּוֹר עֲשִׂירִי לֹא־יָבֹא לוֹ בִּקְהַל יְהוָה׃ 23.4. לֹא־יָבֹא עַמּוֹנִי וּמוֹאָבִי בִּקְהַל יְהוָה גַּם דּוֹר עֲשִׂירִי לֹא־יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָה עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 23.5. עַל־דְּבַר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־קִדְּמוּ אֶתְכֶם בַּלֶּחֶם וּבַמַּיִם בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶם מִמִּצְרָיִם וַאֲשֶׁר שָׂכַר עָלֶיךָ אֶת־בִּלְעָם בֶּן־בְּעוֹר מִפְּתוֹר אֲרַם נַהֲרַיִם לְקַלְלֶךָּ׃ 23.6. וְלֹא־אָבָה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶל־בִּלְעָם וַיַּהֲפֹךְ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְּךָ אֶת־הַקְּלָלָה לִבְרָכָה כִּי אֲהֵבְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 23.7. לֹא־תִדְרֹשׁ שְׁלֹמָם וְטֹבָתָם כָּל־יָמֶיךָ לְעוֹלָם׃ 23.8. לֹא־תְתַעֵב אֲדֹמִי כִּי אָחִיךָ הוּא לֹא־תְתַעֵב מִצְרִי כִּי־גֵר הָיִיתָ בְאַרְצוֹ׃ 23.9. בָּנִים אֲשֶׁר־יִוָּלְדוּ לָהֶם דּוֹר שְׁלִישִׁי יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָה׃ 27.15. אָרוּר הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה פֶסֶל וּמַסֵּכָה תּוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי חָרָשׁ וְשָׂם בַּסָּתֶר וְעָנוּ כָל־הָעָם וְאָמְרוּ אָמֵן׃ 27.16. אָרוּר מַקְלֶה אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.17. אָרוּר מַסִּיג גְּבוּל רֵעֵהוּ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.18. אָרוּר מַשְׁגֶּה עִוֵּר בַּדָּרֶךְ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.19. אָרוּר מַטֶּה מִשְׁפַּט גֵּר־יָתוֹם וְאַלְמָנָה וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.21. אָרוּר שֹׁכֵב עִם־כָּל־בְּהֵמָה וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.22. אָרוּר שֹׁכֵב עִם־אֲחֹתוֹ בַּת־אָבִיו אוֹ בַת־אִמּוֹ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.23. אָרוּר שֹׁכֵב עִם־חֹתַנְתּוֹ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.24. אָרוּר מַכֵּה רֵעֵהוּ בַּסָּתֶר וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.25. אָרוּר לֹקֵחַ שֹׁחַד לְהַכּוֹת נֶפֶשׁ דָּם נָקִי וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.26. אָרוּר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָקִים אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה־הַזֹּאת לַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹתָם וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 23.2. He that is crushed or maimed in his privy parts shall not enter into the assembly of the LORD." 23.3. A bastard shall not enter into the assembly of the LORD; even to the tenth generation shall none of his enter into the assembly of the LORD." 23.4. An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the LORD; even to the tenth generation shall none of them enter into the assembly of the LORD for ever;" 23.5. because they met you not with bread and with water in the way, when ye came forth out of Egypt; and because they hired against thee Balaam the son of Beor from Pethor of Aram-naharaim, to curse thee." 23.6. Nevertheless the LORD thy God would not hearken unto Balaam; but the LORD thy God turned the curse into a blessing unto thee, because the LORD thy God loved thee." 23.7. Thou shalt not seek their peace nor their prosperity all thy days for ever." 23.8. Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite, for he is thy brother; thou shalt not abhor an Egyptian, because thou wast a stranger in his land." 23.9. The children of the third generation that are born unto them may enter into the assembly of the LORD." 27.15. Cursed be the man that maketh a graven or molten image, an abomination unto the LORD, the work of the hands of the craftsman, and setteth it up in secret. And all the people shall answer and say: Amen." 27.16. Cursed be he that dishonoureth his father or his mother. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.17. Cursed be he that removeth his neighbour’s landmark. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.18. Cursed be he that maketh the blind to go astray in the way. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.19. Cursed be he that perverteth the justice due to the stranger, fatherless, and widow. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.20. Cursed be he that lieth with his father’s wife; because he hath uncovered his father’s skirt. And all the people shall say: Amen. ." 27.21. Cursed be he that lieth with any manner of beast. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.22. Cursed be he that lieth with his sister, the daughter of his father, or the daughter of his mother. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.23. Cursed be he that lieth with his mother-in-law. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.24. Cursed be he that smiteth his neighbour in secret. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.25. Cursed be he that taketh a bribe to slay an innocent person. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.26. Cursed be he that confirmeth not the words of this law to do them. And all the people shall say: Amen.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 6.1-6.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 6.5. וַיַּרְא יְהוָה כִּי רַבָּה רָעַת הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וְכָל־יֵצֶר מַחְשְׁבֹת לִבּוֹ רַק רַע כָּל־הַיּוֹם׃ 6.6. וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה כִּי־עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל־לִבּוֹ׃ 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose." 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’" 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown." 6.5. And the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually." 6.6. And it repented the LORD that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at His heart."
3. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 1.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.7. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אִישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵהוּ לְכוּ וְנַפִּילָה גוֹרָלוֹת וְנֵדְעָה בְּשֶׁלְּמִי הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת לָנוּ וַיַּפִּלוּ גּוֹרָלוֹת וַיִּפֹּל הַגּוֹרָל עַל־יוֹנָה׃ 1.7. And they said every one to his fellow: ‘Come, and let us cast lots, that we may know for whose cause this evil is upon us.’ So they cast lots, and the lot fell upon Jonah."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 13.4-13.5, 13.11, 13.21, 13.26, 13.31, 13.33, 13.50, 13.54, 14.38, 14.46, 21.16-21.24, 25.52, 27.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

13.4. וְאִישׁ כִּי יִמָּרֵט רֹאשׁוֹ קֵרֵחַ הוּא טָהוֹר הוּא׃ 13.4. וְאִם־בַּהֶרֶת לְבָנָה הִוא בְּעוֹר בְּשָׂרוֹ וְעָמֹק אֵין־מַרְאֶהָ מִן־הָעוֹר וּשְׂעָרָה לֹא־הָפַךְ לָבָן וְהִסְגִּיר הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַנֶּגַע שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 13.5. וְרָאָהוּ הַכֹּהֵן בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וְהִנֵּה הַנֶּגַע עָמַד בְּעֵינָיו לֹא־פָשָׂה הַנֶּגַע בָּעוֹר וְהִסְגִּירוֹ הַכֹּהֵן שִׁבְעַת יָמִים שֵׁנִית׃ 13.5. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַנָּגַע וְהִסְגִּיר אֶת־הַנֶּגַע שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 13.11. צָרַעַת נוֹשֶׁנֶת הִוא בְּעוֹר בְּשָׂרוֹ וְטִמְּאוֹ הַכֹּהֵן לֹא יַסְגִּרֶנּוּ כִּי טָמֵא הוּא׃ 13.21. וְאִם יִרְאֶנָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה אֵין־בָּהּ שֵׂעָר לָבָן וּשְׁפָלָה אֵינֶנָּה מִן־הָעוֹר וְהִיא כֵהָה וְהִסְגִּירוֹ הַכֹּהֵן שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 13.26. וְאִם יִרְאֶנָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה אֵין־בַּבֶּהֶרֶת שֵׂעָר לָבָן וּשְׁפָלָה אֵינֶנָּה מִן־הָעוֹר וְהִוא כֵהָה וְהִסְגִּירוֹ הַכֹּהֵן שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 13.31. וְכִי־יִרְאֶה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־נֶגַע הַנֶּתֶק וְהִנֵּה אֵין־מַרְאֵהוּ עָמֹק מִן־הָעוֹר וְשֵׂעָר שָׁחֹר אֵין בּוֹ וְהִסְגִּיר הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־נֶגַע הַנֶּתֶק שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 13.33. וְהִתְגַּלָּח וְאֶת־הַנֶּתֶק לֹא יְגַלֵּחַ וְהִסְגִּיר הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַנֶּתֶק שִׁבְעַת יָמִים שֵׁנִית׃ 13.54. וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְכִבְּסוּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ הַנָּגַע וְהִסְגִּירוֹ שִׁבְעַת־יָמִים שֵׁנִית׃ 14.38. וְיָצָא הַכֹּהֵן מִן־הַבַּיִת אֶל־פֶּתַח הַבָּיִת וְהִסְגִּיר אֶת־הַבַּיִת שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 14.46. וְהַבָּא אֶל־הַבַּיִת כָּל־יְמֵי הִסְגִּיר אֹתוֹ יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 21.16. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 21.17. דַּבֵּר אֶל־אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר אִישׁ מִזַּרְעֲךָ לְדֹרֹתָם אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בוֹ מוּם לֹא יִקְרַב לְהַקְרִיב לֶחֶם אֱלֹהָיו׃ 21.18. כִּי כָל־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ מוּם לֹא יִקְרָב אִישׁ עִוֵּר אוֹ פִסֵּחַ אוֹ חָרֻם אוֹ שָׂרוּעַ׃ 21.19. אוֹ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִהְיֶה בוֹ שֶׁבֶר רָגֶל אוֹ שֶׁבֶר יָד׃ 21.21. כָּל־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ מוּם מִזֶּרַע אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן לֹא יִגַּשׁ לְהַקְרִיב אֶת־אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה מוּם בּוֹ אֵת לֶחֶם אֱלֹהָיו לֹא יִגַּשׁ לְהַקְרִיב׃ 21.22. לֶחֶם אֱלֹהָיו מִקָּדְשֵׁי הַקֳּדָשִׁים וּמִן־הַקֳּדָשִׁים יֹאכֵל׃ 21.23. אַךְ אֶל־הַפָּרֹכֶת לֹא יָבֹא וְאֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֹא יִגַּשׁ כִּי־מוּם בּוֹ וְלֹא יְחַלֵּל אֶת־מִקְדָּשַׁי כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדְּשָׁם׃ 21.24. וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל־בָּנָיו וְאֶל־כָּל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.52. וְאִם־מְעַט נִשְׁאַר בַּשָּׁנִים עַד־שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל וְחִשַּׁב־לוֹ כְּפִי שָׁנָיו יָשִׁיב אֶת־גְּאֻלָּתוֹ׃ 27.3. וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ הַזָּכָר מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וְעַד בֶּן־שִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ חֲמִשִּׁים שֶׁקֶל כֶּסֶף בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ׃ 27.3. וְכָל־מַעְשַׂר הָאָרֶץ מִזֶּרַע הָאָרֶץ מִפְּרִי הָעֵץ לַיהוָה הוּא קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה׃ 13.4. And if the bright spot be white in the skin of his flesh, and the appearance thereof be not deeper than the skin, and the hair thereof be not turned white, then the priest shall shut up him that hath the plague seven days." 13.5. And the priest shall look on him the seventh day; and, behold, if the plague stay in its appearance, and the plague be not spread in the skin, then the priest shall shut him up seven days more." 13.11. it is an old leprosy in the skin of his flesh, and the priest shall pronounce him unclean; he shall not shut him up; for he is unclean." 13.21. But if the priest look on it, and, behold, there be no white hairs therein, and it be not lower than the skin, but be dim, then the priest shall shut him up seven days." 13.26. But if the priest look on it, and, behold, there be no white hair in the bright spot, and it be no lower than the skin, but be dim; then the priest shall shut him up seven days." 13.31. And if the priest look on the plague of the scall, and, behold, the appearance thereof be not deeper than the skin, and there be no black hair in it, then the priest shall shut up him that hath the plague of the scall seven days." 13.33. then he shall be shaven, but the scall shall he not shave; and the priest shall shut up him that hath the scall seven days more." 13.50. And the priest shall look upon the plague, and shut up that which hath the plague seven days." 13.54. then the priest shall command that they wash the thing wherein the plague is, and he shall shut it up seven days more." 14.38. then the priest shall go out of the house to the door of the house, and shut up the house seven days." 14.46. Moreover he that goeth into the house all the while that it is shut up shall be unclean until the even." 21.16. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 21.17. Speak unto Aaron, saying: Whosoever he be of thy seed throughout their generations that hath a blemish, let him not approach to offer the bread of his God." 21.18. For whatsoever man he be that hath a blemish, he shall not approach: a blind man, or a lame, or he that hath any thing maimed, or anything too long," 21.19. or a man that is broken-footed, or broken-handed," 21.20. or crook-backed, or a dwarf, or that hath his eye overspread, or is scabbed, or scurvy, or hath his stones crushed;" 21.21. no man of the seed of Aaron the priest, that hath a blemish, shall come nigh to offer the offerings of the LORD made by fire; he hath a blemish; he shall not come nigh to offer the bread of his God." 21.22. He may eat the bread of his God, both of the most holy, and of the holy." 21.23. Only he shall not go in unto the veil, nor come nigh unto the altar, because he hath a blemish; that he profane not My holy places; for I am the LORD who sanctify them." 21.24. So Moses spoke unto Aaron, and to his sons, and unto all the children of Israel." 25.52. And if there remain but few years unto the year of jubilee, then he shall reckon with him; according unto his years shall he give back the price of his redemption." 27.3. then thy valuation shall be for the male from twenty years old even unto sixty years old, even thy valuation shall be fifty shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 4.3, 4.23, 4.30, 4.35, 4.39, 4.47, 8.25, 12.14-12.15, 18.2-18.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.3. מִבֶּן שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה וְעַד בֶּן־חֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה תִּפְקְדֵם כָּל־הַבָּא לַצָּבָא לַעֲבֹד אֶת־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.3. מִבֶּן שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה וְעַד בֶּן־חֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה כָּל־בָּא לַצָּבָא לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.23. מִבֶּן שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה עַד בֶּן־חֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה תִּפְקֹד אוֹתָם כָּל־הַבָּא לִצְבֹא צָבָא לַעֲבֹד עֲבֹדָה בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.35. מִבֶּן שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה וְעַד בֶּן־חֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה כָּל־הַבָּא לַצָּבָא לַעֲבֹדָה בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.39. מִבֶּן שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה וְעַד בֶּן־חֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה כָּל־הַבָּא לַצָּבָא לַעֲבֹדָה בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.47. מִבֶּן שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה וְעַד בֶּן־חֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה כָּל־הַבָּא לַעֲבֹד עֲבֹדַת עֲבֹדָה וַעֲבֹדַת מַשָּׂא בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 8.25. וּמִבֶּן חֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה יָשׁוּב מִצְּבָא הָעֲבֹדָה וְלֹא יַעֲבֹד עוֹד׃ 12.14. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאָבִיהָ יָרֹק יָרַק בְּפָנֶיהָ הֲלֹא תִכָּלֵם שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תִּסָּגֵר שִׁבְעַת יָמִים מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְאַחַר תֵּאָסֵף׃ 12.15. וַתִּסָּגֵר מִרְיָם מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְהָעָם לֹא נָסַע עַד־הֵאָסֵף מִרְיָם׃ 18.2. וְגַם אֶת־אַחֶיךָ מַטֵּה לֵוִי שֵׁבֶט אָבִיךָ הַקְרֵב אִתָּךְ וְיִלָּווּ עָלֶיךָ וִישָׁרְתוּךָ וְאַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ אִתָּךְ לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל הָעֵדֻת׃ 18.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן בְּאַרְצָם לֹא תִנְחָל וְחֵלֶק לֹא־יִהְיֶה לְךָ בְּתוֹכָם אֲנִי חֶלְקְךָ וְנַחֲלָתְךָ בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 18.3. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם בַּהֲרִימְכֶם אֶת־חֶלְבּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ וְנֶחְשַׁב לַלְוִיִּם כִּתְבוּאַת גֹּרֶן וְכִתְבוּאַת יָקֶב׃ 18.3. וְשָׁמְרוּ מִשְׁמַרְתְּךָ וּמִשְׁמֶרֶת כָּל־הָאֹהֶל אַךְ אֶל־כְּלֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֹא יִקְרָבוּ וְלֹא־יָמֻתוּ גַם־הֵם גַּם־אַתֶּם׃ 18.4. וְנִלְווּ עָלֶיךָ וְשָׁמְרוּ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לְכֹל עֲבֹדַת הָאֹהֶל וְזָר לֹא־יִקְרַב אֲלֵיכֶם׃ 18.5. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֵת מִשְׁמֶרֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאֵת מִשְׁמֶרֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה עוֹד קֶצֶף עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 18.6. וַאֲנִי הִנֵּה לָקַחְתִּי אֶת־אֲחֵיכֶם הַלְוִיִּם מִתּוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לָכֶם מַתָּנָה נְתֻנִים לַיהוָה לַעֲבֹד אֶת־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.3. from thirty years old and upward even until fifty years old, all that enter upon the service, to do work in the tent of meeting." 4.23. from thirty years old and upward until fifty years old shalt thou number them: all that enter in to wait upon the service, to do service in the tent of meeting." 4.30. from thirty years old and upward even unto fifty years old shalt thou number them, every one that entereth upon the service, to do the work of the tent of meeting." 4.35. from thirty years old and upward even unto fifty years old, every one that entered upon the service, for service in the tent of meeting." 4.39. from thirty years old and upward even unto fifty years old, every one that entered upon the service, for service in the tent of meeting," 4.47. from thirty years old and upward even unto fifty years old, every one that entered in to do the work of service, and the work of bearing burdens in the tent of meeting," 8.25. and from the age of fifty years they shall return from the service of the work, and shall serve no more;" 12.14. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘If her father had but spit in her face, should she not hide in shame seven days? let her be shut up without the camp seven days, and after that she shall be brought in again.’" 12.15. And Miriam was shut up without the camp seven days; and the people journeyed not till Miriam was brought in again." 18.2. And thy brethren also, the tribe of Levi, the tribe of thy father, bring thou near with thee, that they may be joined unto thee, and minister unto thee, thou and thy sons with thee being before the tent of the testimony." 18.3. And they shall keep thy charge, and the charge of all the Tent; only they shall not come nigh unto the holy furniture and unto the altar, that they die not, neither they, nor ye." 18.4. And they shall be joined unto thee, and keep the charge of the tent of meeting, whatsoever the service of the Tent may be; but a common man shall not draw nigh unto you." 18.5. And ye shall keep the charge of the holy things, and the charge of the altar, that there be wrath no more upon the children of Israel." 18.6. And I, behold, I have taken your brethren the Levites from among the children of Israel; for you they are given as a gift unto the LORD, to do the service of the tent of meeting."
6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.14. גּוֹרָלְךָ תַּפִּיל בְּתוֹכֵנוּ כִּיס אֶחָד יִהְיֶה לְכֻלָּנוּ׃ 1.14. Cast in thy lot among us; Let us all have one purse’—"
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 2.27 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.27. וַיְגָרֶשׁ שְׁלֹמֹה אֶת־אֶבְיָתָר מִהְיוֹת כֹּהֵן לַיהוָה לְמַלֵּא אֶת־דְּבַר יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר עַל־בֵּית עֵלִי בְּשִׁלֹה׃ 2.27. So Solomon thrust out Abiathar from being priest unto the LORD; that the word of the LORD might be fulfilled, which He spoke concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh."
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 5.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.8. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כָּל־מַכֵּה יְבֻסִי וְיִגַּע בַּצִּנּוֹר וְאֶת־הַפִּסְחִים וְאֶת־הַעִוְרִים שנאו [שְׂנֻאֵי] נֶפֶשׁ דָּוִד עַל־כֵּן יֹאמְרוּ עִוֵּר וּפִסֵּחַ לֹא יָבוֹא אֶל־הַבָּיִת׃ 5.8. And David said on that day, Whoever smites the Yevusi, and gets up to the aqueduct, and smites the lame and the blind (that are hated of David’s soul) – therefore the saying, The blind and the lame shall not come into the house."
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 30.20, 54.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

54.13. וְכָל־בָּנַיִךְ לִמּוּדֵי יְהוָה וְרַב שְׁלוֹם בָּנָיִךְ׃ 30.20. And though the Lord give you sparing bread and scant water, Yet shall not thy Teacher hide Himself any more, But thine eyes shall see thy Teacher;" 54.13. And all thy children shall be taught of the LORD; and great shall be the peace of thy children."
10. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 24.6, 44.10-44.14 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

24.6. לָכֵן כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה אוֹי עִיר הַדָּמִים סִיר אֲשֶׁר חֶלְאָתָה בָהּ וְחֶלְאָתָהּ לֹא יָצְאָה מִמֶּנָּה לִנְתָחֶיהָ לִנְתָחֶיהָ הוֹצִיאָהּ לֹא־נָפַל עָלֶיהָ גּוֹרָל׃ 44.11. וְהָיוּ בְמִקְדָּשִׁי מְשָׁרְתִים פְּקֻדּוֹת אֶל־שַׁעֲרֵי הַבַּיִת וּמְשָׁרְתִים אֶת־הַבָּיִת הֵמָּה יִשְׁחֲטוּ אֶת־הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־הַזֶּבַח לָעָם וְהֵמָּה יַעַמְדוּ לִפְנֵיהֶם לְשָׁרְתָם׃ 44.12. יַעַן אֲשֶׁר יְשָׁרְתוּ אוֹתָם לִפְנֵי גִלּוּלֵיהֶם וְהָיוּ לְבֵית־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמִכְשׁוֹל עָוֺן עַל־כֵּן נָשָׂאתִי יָדִי עֲלֵיהֶם נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה וְנָשְׂאוּ עֲוֺנָם׃ 44.13. וְלֹא־יִגְּשׁוּ אֵלַי לְכַהֵן לִי וְלָגֶשֶׁת עַל־כָּל־קָדָשַׁי אֶל־קָדְשֵׁי הַקְּדָשִׁים וְנָשְׂאוּ כְּלִמָּתָם וְתוֹעֲבוֹתָם אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ׃ 44.14. וְנָתַתִּי אוֹתָם שֹׁמְרֵי מִשְׁמֶרֶת הַבָּיִת לְכֹל עֲבֹדָתוֹ וּלְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יֵעָשֶׂה בּוֹ׃ 24.6. Wherefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Woe to the bloody city, to the pot whose filth is therein, and whose filth is not gone out of it! bring it out piece by piece; no lot is fallen upon it." 44.10. But the Levites, that went far from Me, when Israel went astray, that went astray from Me after their idols, they shall bear their iniquity;" 44.11. and they shall be ministers in My sanctuary, having charge at the gates of the house, and ministering in the house: they shall slay the burnt-offering and the sacrifice for the people, and they shall stand before them to minister unto them." 44.12. Because they ministered unto them before their idols, and became a stumblingblock of iniquity unto the house of Israel; therefore have I lifted up My hand against them, saith the Lord GOD, and they shall bear their iniquity." 44.13. And they shall not come near unto Me, to minister unto Me in the priest’s office, nor to come near to any of My holy things, unto the things that are most holy; but they shall bear their shame, and their abominations which they have committed." 44.14. And I will make them keepers of the charge of the house, for all the service thereof, and for all that shall be done therein."
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 26.29 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.29. לַיִּצְהָרִי כְּנַנְיָהוּ וּבָנָיו לַמְּלָאכָה הַחִיצוֹנָה עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְשֹׁטְרִים וּלְשֹׁפְטִים׃ 26.29. of the Izharites, Cheiah and his sorts were for the outward business over Israel, for officers and judges.
12. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 30.22 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.22. וַיְדַבֵּר יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ עַל־לֵב כָּל־הַלְוִיִּם הַמַּשְׂכִּילִים שֵׂכֶל־טוֹב לַיהוָה וַיֹּאכְלוּ אֶת־הַמּוֹעֵד שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים מְזַבְּחִים זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים וּמִתְוַדִּים לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם׃ 30.22. And Hezekiah spoke encouragingly unto all the Levites that were well skilled in the service of the LORD. So they did eat throughout the feast for the seven days, offering sacrifices of peace-offerings, and giving thanks to the LORD, the God of their fathers.
13. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.7-8.8, 13.12-13.13 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.7. וְיֵשׁוּעַ וּבָנִי וְשֵׁרֵבְיָה יָמִין עַקּוּב שַׁבְּתַי הוֹדִיָּה מַעֲשֵׂיָה קְלִיטָא עֲזַרְיָה יוֹזָבָד חָנָן פְּלָאיָה וְהַלְוִיִּם מְבִינִים אֶת־הָעָם לַתּוֹרָה וְהָעָם עַל־עָמְדָם׃ 8.8. וַיִּקְרְאוּ בַסֵּפֶר בְּתוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים מְפֹרָשׁ וְשׂוֹם שֶׂכֶל וַיָּבִינוּ בַּמִּקְרָא׃ 13.12. וְכָל־יְהוּדָה הֵבִיאוּ מַעְשַׂר הַדָּגָן וְהַתִּירוֹשׁ וְהַיִּצְהָר לָאוֹצָרוֹת׃ 13.13. וָאוֹצְרָה עַל־אוֹצָרוֹת שֶׁלֶמְיָה הַכֹּהֵן וְצָדוֹק הַסּוֹפֵר וּפְדָיָה מִן־הַלְוִיִּם וְעַל־יָדָם חָנָן בֶּן־זַכּוּר בֶּן־מַתַּנְיָה כִּי נֶאֱמָנִים נֶחְשָׁבוּ וַעֲלֵיהֶם לַחֲלֹק לַאֲחֵיהֶם׃ 8.7. Also Jeshua, and Bani, and Sherebiah, Jamin, Akkub, Shabbethai, Hodiah, Maaseiah, Kelita, Azariah, Jozabad, Ha, Pelaiah, even the Levites, caused the people to understand the Law; and the people stood in their place." 8.8. And they read in the book, in the Law of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading." 13.12. Then brought all Judah the tithe of the corn and the wine and the oil unto the treasuries." 13.13. And I made treasurers over the treasuries, Shelemiah the priest, and Zadok the scribe, and of the Levites, Pedaiah; and next to them was Ha the son of Zaccur, the son of Mattaniah; for they were counted faithful, and their office was to distribute unto their brethren."
14. Anon., Jubilees, 45.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

45.16. And Joseph took of the corn of the harvest the fifth part for the king and left four parts for them for food and for seed, and Joseph made it an ordice for the land of Egypt until this day.
15. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 1.7-1.10, 2.12, 3.17-3.21, 6.10, 9.16-9.23, 10.7-10.10, 13.5-13.13, 13.15-13.17, 14.3-14.16, 14.18, 15.6-15.14, 15.16-15.19, 20.2, 20.10, 20.13, 20.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 1.7-1.10, 2.12, 3.17-3.21, 6.10, 9.16-9.23, 10.7-10.10, 13.5-13.13, 13.15-13.17, 14.3-14.10, 14.12-14.16, 14.18, 15.6-15.19, 20.2, 20.10, 20.13, 20.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q186, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q511, 35 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q521, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1.18-2.18, 2.3, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.25, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 5.20, 6.8, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 8.8, 8.21, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 3.21-3.23, 4.23, 5.32, 6.12-6.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 3.21-3.23, 4.23, 5.32, 6.12-6.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Dead Sea Scrolls, Messianic Rule, 1.9, 1.13, 1.19-1.22, 1.25, 2.3-2.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Dead Sea Scrolls, Scroll of Blessings, 4.25-4.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 45.12-45.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 7.178 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.178. 3. Now within this place there grew a sort of rue that deserves our wonder on account of its largeness, for it was no way inferior to any fig tree whatsoever, either in height or in thickness;
28. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.5. He who was flogged and then flogged again [for two transgressions, and then sinned again,] is placed by the court in a cell and fed with barley bread, until his stomach bursts. One who commits murder without witnesses is placed in a cell and [forcibly] fed with bread of adversity and water of affliction."
29. New Testament, Acts, 19.32, 19.35, 19.39 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19.32. Some therefore cried one thing, and some another, for the assembly was in confusion. Most of them didn't know why they had come together. 19.35. When the town clerk had quieted the multitude, he said, "You men of Ephesus, what man is there who doesn't know that the city of the Ephesians is temple-keeper of the great goddess Artemis, and of the image which fell down from Zeus? 19.39. But if you seek anything about other matters, it will be settled in the regular assembly.
30. New Testament, John, 6.45 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.45. It is written in the prophets, 'They will all be taught by God.' Therefore everyone who hears from the Father, and has learned, comes to me.
31. New Testament, Mark, 8.22-8.28, 10.46-10.52 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.22. He came to Bethsaida. They brought a blind man to him, and begged him to touch him. 8.23. He took hold of the blind man by the hand, and brought him out of the village. When he had spit on his eyes, and laid his hands on him, he asked him if he saw anything. 8.24. He looked up, and said, "I see men; for I see them like trees walking. 8.25. Then again he laid his hands on his eyes. He looked intently, and was restored, and saw everyone clearly. 8.26. He sent him away to his house, saying, "Don't enter into the village, nor tell anyone in the village. 8.27. Jesus went out, with his disciples, into the villages of Caesarea Philippi. On the way he asked his disciples, "Who do men say that I am? 8.28. They told him, "John the Baptizer, and others say Elijah, but others: one of the prophets. 10.46. They came to Jericho. As he went out from Jericho, with his disciples and a great multitude, the son of Timaeus, Bartimaeus, a blind beggar, was sitting by the road. 10.47. When he heard that it was Jesus the Nazarene, he began to cry out, and say, "Jesus, you son of David, have mercy on me! 10.48. Many rebuked him, that he should be quiet, but he cried out much more, "You son of David, have mercy on me! 10.49. Jesus stood still, and said, "Call him."They called the blind man, saying to him, "Cheer up! Get up. He is calling you! 10.50. He, casting away his cloak, sprang up, and came to Jesus. 10.51. Jesus asked him, "What do you want me to do for you?"The blind man said to him, "Rhabboni, that I may see again. 10.52. Jesus said to him, "Go your way. Your faith has made you well." Immediately he received his sight, and followed Jesus in the way.
32. New Testament, Matthew, 9.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.27. As Jesus passed by from there, two blind men followed him, calling out and saying, "Have mercy on us, son of David!
33. Tosefta, Megillah, 3.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

34. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

35. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 41 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

36. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

30b. ודכולי עלמא כרבנן דפליגי עליה דרבי יהושע בן קרחה והכא באקושי הגדה לראיה קא מיפלגי מר סבר מקשינן הגדה לראיה ומר סבר לא מקשינן,רבי שמעון בן אליקים הוה משתקיד עליה דר' יוסי ברבי חנינא למסמכיה ולא קא מיסתייע מילתא יומא חד הוה יתיב קמיה דר' יוחנן,אמר להו מי איכא דידע הלכה כרבי יהושע בן קרחה או לא א"ל רבי שמעון בן אליקים דין ידע אמר ליה לימא איזו אמר ליה ליסמכיה מר ברישא סמכיה,אמר ליה בני אמור לי כיצד שמעת א"ל כך שמעתי שמודה ר' יהושע בן קרחה לרבי נתן,אמר לזה הוצרכתי השתא ומה עיקר ראיה בהדי הדדי אמר ר' יהושע בן קרחה לא בעינן הגדה מיבעיא,א"ל הואיל ועלית לא תרד אמר ר' זירא שמע מינה גברא רבה כיון דסמיך סמיך,א"ר חייא בר אבין אמר רב הלכה כר' יהושע בן קרחה בין בקרקעות בין במטלטלין,עולא אמר הלכה כרבי יהושע בן קרחה בקרקעות אבל לא במטלטלין,א"ל אביי הלכה מכלל דפליגי והאמר ר' אבא א"ר הונא אמר רב מודים חכמים לרבי יהושע בן קרחה בעדות קרקע,ותני רב אידי בר אבין בנזיקין דבי קרנא מודין חכמים לרבי יהושע בן קרחה בעדות בכור ובעדות קרקע ובעדות חזקה וכן שבבן ושבבת,גברא אגברא קא רמית מר סבר פליגי ומר סבר לא פליגי,מאי וכן שבבן ושבבת אילימא אחד אומר אחת בגבה ואחד אומר אחת בכריסה האי חצי דבר וחצי עדות הוא,אלא אחד אומר שתים בגבה ואחד אומר שתים בכריסה,אמר רב יוסף אנא אמינא משמיה דעולא הלכה כרבי יהושע בן קרחה בין בקרקעות בין במטלטלין ורבנן דאתו ממחוזא אמרי אמר ר' זירא משמיה דרב בקרקעות אין אבל לא במטלטלין,רב לטעמיה דאמר רב הודאה אחר הודאה הודאה אחר הלואה מצטרפי,הלואה אחר הלואה הלואה אחר הודאה לא מצטרפי,אשכחיה רב נחמן בר יצחק לרב הונא בריה דרב יהושע א"ל מאי שנא הלואה אחר הלואה דלא דמנה דקא חזי האי לא קא חזי האי הודאה אחר הודאה נמי אמנה דקא מודה קמי האי לא מודי קמי האי,דא"ל להאי בתרא בהאי מנה דאודיי ליה קמך אודיי ליה נמי קמי פלוני,אכתי בתרא ידע קמא לא ידע,דהדר אזיל א"ל לקמא האי מנה דאודיי ליה קמך אודיי ליה נמי קמי פלוני א"ל תנוח דעתך שהתנחת את דעתי,א"ל מאי ניחותא דרבא ואיתימא רב ששת שדא בה נרגא לאו היינו הודאה אחר הלואה,אמר ליה היינו דשמיע לי עלייכו דרמיתו דיקלי וזקפיתו להו,נהרדעי אמרי בין הודאה אחר הודאה בין הודאה אחר הלואה בין הלואה אחר הלואה בין הלואה אחר הודאה מצטרפות כמאן כר' יהושע בן קרחה,אמר רב יהודה עדות המכחשת זו את זו בבדיקות כשרה בדיני ממונות,אמר רבא מסתברא מילתיה דרב יהודה באחד אומר בארנקי שחורה ואחד אומר בארנקי לבנה אבל אחד אומר מנה שחור ואחד אומר מנה לבן אין מצטרפין,וארנקי שחורה בדיני נפשות לא והאמר רב חסדא אחד אומר בסייף הרגו ואחד אומר בארירן הרגו אין זה נכון אחד אומר כליו שחורים ואחד אומר כליו לבנים הרי זה נכון 30b. band everyone,both the first itannaand Rabbi Natan, holds bin accordance withthe opinion of bthe Rabbis who disagree with Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa,and derive from this verse that it is necessary that the witnesses see the incident together, i.e., they were both present and observed the incident at the same time. bAnd here,with regard to whether or not the witnesses must testify in court together, bthey disagree with regard towhether or not the bstatementof the witnesses, i.e., their testimony in court, bis compared totheir bobservationof the incident. One bSage,the first itanna /i, bholdsthat bwe comparetheir bstatement totheir bobservation.Therefore, just as they must see the incident together, so too, they must testify together in court. bAndone bSage,Rabbi Natan, bholdsthat bwe do not comparetheir statement to their observation.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Shimon ben Elyakim was striving to ordain Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, and was not successfulin his attempts. bOne day,Rabbi Shimon ben Elyakim bwas sitting before Rabbi Yoḥaamong Rabbi Yoḥa’s other students.,Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid tohis students: bIs thereanyone bwho knowswhether the ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa, or not? Rabbi Shimon ben Elyakim said to him: Thisone, Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, bknows.Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: If so, let him say.Rabbi Shimon ben Elyakim bsaid to him: Let the Master ordain him first;since we are all in need of his wisdom, he is fit for ordination. Rabbi Yoḥa then bordainedRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina.,Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: My son, tell me what you heard.Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, bsaid to him: This is what I heard: That Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa concedes tothe opinion of bRabbi Natanthat it is unnecessary for the witnesses to testify together.,Rabbi Yoḥa was disappointed, and bsaid: For this I neededto ordain him? bNowthat with regard to the bmainelement of testimony, i.e., bobservingthe incident, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says we do not needboth witnesses to see it btogether,with regard to their bstatementin court, bisit bnecessaryto explicate that there is no requirement that they testify together?,Although the statement of Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, was unnecessary, Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: Since you ascended,i.e., you were ordained, byou will not descend,even though it was in error. bRabbi Zeira said: Conclude from itthat with regard to ba great man, once he is ordained,even if it was due to mistaken judgment, bhe is ordained.The ordination is not canceled.,As for the ihalakhain this matter, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin saysthat bRav says:The ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥathat it is unnecessary for the two witnesses to observe the incident together, bboth with regard tocases of blandand bwith regard tocases of bmovable property. /b, bUlla says:The ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa with regard to land,which is unmovable, and therefore both testimonies are certainly about the same piece of land; bbut not with regard to movable property,as there is a concern that they are not testifying about the same item., bAbaye said toUlla: If you say that the ihalakha /iis in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa with regard to land, bby inferenceyou hold bthat they disagreewith regard to this matter. bBut doesn’t Rabbi Abba saythat bRav Huna saysthat bRav says: The Rabbis concede tothe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa with regard to testimonyconcerning bland? /b, bAnd Rav Idi bar Avin teaches inthe ihalakhotof bdamagesthat were taught bat the school ofthe Sage bKarna: The Rabbis concede tothe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥathat the witnesses do not need to see the incident together bwith regard to testimonyconcerning a blemish in a male bfirstbornkosher animal, which renders it permitted to derive benefit from it, band with regard to testimonyconcerning ownership of bland, and with regard to testimonyconcerning bpresumptive ownershipof land. Since it is clear that they are testifying about the same land, it is unnecessary for them to see it together. bAnd sothey concede with regard to testimony over the two pubic hairs bof a boy or of a girl,which are a sign of adulthood.,The Gemara rejects Abaye’s question: bAre you settingthe statement of one bman againstthe statement of another bman?One bSage,Ulla, bholdsthat the Rabbis bdisagreewith Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa even with regard to land, bandone bSage,i.e., Rav and Rav Idi, bholdsthat bthey do not disagree. /b,The Gemara asks tangentially about the statement: bAnd sothey concede with regard to testimony over the two pubic hairs bof a boy or of a girl: Whatis this referring to? bIf we sayit is referring to testimony that a girl has reached majority, in which bonewitness bsaysthat he saw bonehair bonthe bherlower bback and onewitness bsaysthat he saw bonehair bon herlower babdomen,that is difficult. A girl is considered to have reached maturity when she has two pubic hairs. In this case, two witnesses separately testify that they have each seen one hair. In bthiscase each testimony is obviously invalid, as it bis half a matter andalso bhalf a testimony.Not only does each testimony refer to one hair, which is half a matter, it is submitted by one witness, which is half a testimony. Consequently, it is obvious that the girl is not considered to have reached majority in this case., bRather,it must be referring to a case where bone saysthat he saw btwohairs bon herlower bback, andthe other bone sayshe saw btwohairs bon herlower babdomen.Since they each testify that she has reached adulthood, it is unnecessary for them to see the same hairs., bRav Yosef said: I say in the name of Ullathat the ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa both with regard to land and with regard to movable property. But the Sages who came from Meḥoza saythat bRabbi Zeira says in the name of Rav: With regard to landthe ihalakha bisin accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa, bbut not with regard to movable property. /b,The Gemara comments: bRavconforms bto hisstandard line of breasoning, as Rav says:Testimonies of ban admission following an admissionare combined into one; if one witness testifies that the respondent admitted in his presence that he owes the claimant, and the other witness testifies that the respondent admitted in his presence that he owes the claimant in a separate incident, their testimonies are combined. Likewise, testimonies of ban admission following a loan are combinedinto one; where one witness testifies that the respondent admitted in his presence that he owes the claimant, and the other one testifies that on a previous date the respondent borrowed money from the claimant in his presence, their testimonies are combined.,Rav continues: But testimonies of ba loan following a loanare not combined. If one testifies that the claimant lent the respondent one hundred dinars in his presence, and the other testifies that he lent him one hundred dinars in a separate incident in his presence, their testimonies are not combined, as they are clearly testifying about two separate loans. Similarly, testimonies of ba loan following an admission are not combined.If one testifies that the claimant lent money to the respondent, and the other one testifies that on an earlier date the respondent admitted to owing the claimant, their testimonies are not combined., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak encountered Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua. He said to him: What is differentabout ba loan following a loan,in bwhichcase the testimonies are bnotcombined, bas the one hundred dinars that thiswitness bsaw, thatwitness bdid not see?In the case of ban admission following an admission as well,perhaps bthe one hundred dinars about whichthe respondent badmitted in the presence of thiswitness, bhe did not admit in the presence of thatwitness. Perhaps his admissions were in reference to two separate loans, and therefore the testimonies should not be combined.,Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, answered him: The reference is to a case bwherethe respondent bsaid to this lastwitness: bWith regard to the one hundred dinars that I admittedto owing bin your presence, I admittedto owing bthem in the presence of so-and-so,the first witness, bas well. /b,Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak asked: bStill, the lastwitness bknowsthat he is testifying about the same loan as the first witness, but bthe firstwitness bdoes not knowthis. Since only one witness testifies that it is the same loan, the testimonies still cannot be combined.,Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, answered: It is a case bwhere,after his admission to the second witness, the respondent bwent backand bsaid to the firstwitness: With regard to bthose one hundred dinars that I admittedto owing bin your presence, I admittedowing bthem in the presence of so-and-so as well.Therefore, both witnesses know that they are testifying about the same loan. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak bsaid to him: May your mind be settled, as you have settled my mindand put it at ease by answering this question that was troubling me.,Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, bsaid to him: What is settlingabout this explanation? bAs Rava, and some say Rav Sheshet, threw an ax atmy answer, i.e., he rejected my explanation, as follows: According to this interpretation of the case of an admission following an admission, bisn’t thisthe same as ban admission following a loan?The case of an admission following an admission is now rendered superfluous, as it adds no new insight on the matter.,Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak bsaid to him: This is what I heard about youSages of Meḥoza, bthat you knock down palm trees and erect them,i.e., you build and then destroy what you built. After you came up with such an excellent explanation, you ruined it yourselves.,The Sages bof Neharde’a say: Whetherit is a case of ban admission following an admission, or an admission following a loan, or a loan following a loan, or a loan following an admission,in all these cases the testimonies bare combined. In accordance with whoseopinion is this? It is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa,who teaches that since both witnesses testify about a debt of one hundred dinars, it is considered like one testimony.,§ bRav Yehuda says: Testimonyof two witnesses bwho contradictthe testimony of beach other inresponse to the judges’ bexaminationof the details of the story bis valid incases of bmonetary law,although a contradiction of this type disqualifies testimony in cases of capital law., bRava says: The statement of Rav Yehuda is reasonable ina case where bonewitness bsays:The money was bin a black purse [ ibe’arnaki /i], andthe other bone says:It was bin a white purse.Since this is a secondary detail, they may not remember it accurately. bButif bone says:He lent him ba black coin,i.e., the coin was dark, bandthe other bone says:He lent him ba white coin,the testimonies bare not combined.Since they contradict each other with regard to a characteristic of the money itself, one is probably lying.,The Gemara challenges Rabbi Yehuda’s ruling: bAndif witnesses contradict each other with regard to secondary details such as ba black purse incases of bcapital law,is it the case that their testimony is bnotaccepted? bBut doesn’t Rav Ḥisda say:In a case where boneof the witnesses bsays:The murderer bkilledthe victim bwith a sword, and oneof the witnesses bsays:The murderer bkilledthe victim bwith an iariran /i,another type of weapon, bthis is not congruenttestimony, as this is a clear contradiction. But if boneof the witnesses bsays:The murderer’s bgarmentswere bblack, and oneof the witnesses bsays:The murderer’s bgarmentswere bwhite, this is congruenttestimony, as this is not a meaningful discrepancy.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 86
admission process Eckhardt, Benedict, Private Associations and Jewish Communities in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities (2019) 68
allegro, j., healers of the dead sea Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 305
allegro, j. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 305, 316
amanita muscaria Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 305
amoraim, amoraic period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 87
angels/angelic Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 60
angels Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 36
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 448
art, priests Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 36
art, qumran Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 36
atonement Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 86
cairo genizah, medical texts of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
cairo genizah Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
capital matters Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 87
community, qumran Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 36
cult, of jerusalem temple Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 36
dead sea and area, dead sea and healing Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
dead sea and area, medicinal products of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
dead sea scrolls, temple scroll Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
dead sea scrolls Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 36
death penalty Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 87
ekklêsia Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 448
eschatology, in dead sea scrolls Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 36
essenes, as healers, arguments for Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 305
essenes, name sources and variants Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 305
essenes, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 60
exclusion (of members) Eckhardt, Benedict, Private Associations and Jewish Communities in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities (2019) 68
execution Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 87
ezekiel Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 305
flagellation, flogging (malqut) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 87
genesis Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 305
god, body Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 36
god, visible Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 36
graeco-roman (world/period) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 448
greek, language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 448
healing, medicines and the essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 305
healing and medicines, and jesus Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
healing and medicines, blindness and restoration of sight Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
hebrew, biblical Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 87, 186
hebrew, rabbinic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 186
holiness Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 60
holy land Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 86
honor Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 198
imprisonment, life Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 87
impurity/impurities Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 198
incarceration Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 87
interpretation, biblical Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 36
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 60
jerusalem Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 60
john, gospel of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
josephus dead sea area, healing resources/medicinal plants Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
judaea, region of, and blindness restrictions Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
judges Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 197, 198
karet Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 87
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 197
liturgy Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 36
machaerus, rue in gardens at Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
mandel, paul Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 276
mareotis, lake, mark, gospel of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
matthew, gospel of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
medicinal plants, in josephus writings Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
medicinal plants, in pliny Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
medicinal plants, peganum harmala (rue) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
medicinal plants Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 197, 198
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 36
moses Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 198; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 448
naeh, shlomo Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 276
new testament Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
offenses, repetition of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 87
overseer, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 197, 198
patriarchs, texts Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 60
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 448
paul pharisee Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 448
penal code of the manual of discipline Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 186
pharisaic-rabbinic tradition, law Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 87
pliny (gaius plinius secundus), medicinal plants, description of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 60, 197, 198
priest or priesthood Marcar, Divine Regeneration and Ethnic Identity in 1 Peter: Mapping Metaphors of Family, Race, and Nation (2022) 203
priesthood, priests, angelic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 36
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 197, 198
proselyte, proselytism Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 448
puberty Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 87
punishment, penalty Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 87
purity/impurity Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 86
purity/ritual purity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 60, 197
qumran, angels Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 36
qumran, body Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 36
qumran, liturgy Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 36
qumran, priesthood Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 36
qumran, songs Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 36
qumran/qumran community Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 60
qumran Eckhardt, Benedict, Private Associations and Jewish Communities in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities (2019) 68
qumran and pharmacological production Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 305
qumran and the essenes, production and mixing of medicines Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 305
qumran community Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 448
rabbi nahman Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 87
rabbi simeon ben lakish (resh lakish) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 87
repentance Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 186
revelation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 36
rue, eyesight restoration, significance of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
rue, herods giant rue Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
rue, in pliny Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
rue, medicinal use of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
rue Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 316
sabbath Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 448
sacrifices/sacrificial offerings Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 198
sect, expelled member of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 186
sectarianism Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 36; Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 36
shekhina, ritual Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 36
shemesh, aharon Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 276
sinai, qumran literature Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 36
sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 36
space (sacred) Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 36
spirit Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 36
tannaim, tannaitic law, judaism, period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 87
temple, community as Marcar, Divine Regeneration and Ethnic Identity in 1 Peter: Mapping Metaphors of Family, Race, and Nation (2022) 203
temple (in jerusalem) Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 86
temple eschatological Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 36
temple spiritualized Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 36
testimony, law of, (zadokite fragments) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 87
tetragrammaton Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 186
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 60, 197, 198
violence sacred space and Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 36
war, x, eschatological' Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 36
witnesses, two Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 87