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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



2784
Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 14.10
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15 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 27.15-27.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

27.15. אָרוּר הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה פֶסֶל וּמַסֵּכָה תּוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי חָרָשׁ וְשָׂם בַּסָּתֶר וְעָנוּ כָל־הָעָם וְאָמְרוּ אָמֵן׃ 27.16. אָרוּר מַקְלֶה אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.17. אָרוּר מַסִּיג גְּבוּל רֵעֵהוּ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.18. אָרוּר מַשְׁגֶּה עִוֵּר בַּדָּרֶךְ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.19. אָרוּר מַטֶּה מִשְׁפַּט גֵּר־יָתוֹם וְאַלְמָנָה וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.21. אָרוּר שֹׁכֵב עִם־כָּל־בְּהֵמָה וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.22. אָרוּר שֹׁכֵב עִם־אֲחֹתוֹ בַּת־אָבִיו אוֹ בַת־אִמּוֹ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.23. אָרוּר שֹׁכֵב עִם־חֹתַנְתּוֹ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.24. אָרוּר מַכֵּה רֵעֵהוּ בַּסָּתֶר וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.25. אָרוּר לֹקֵחַ שֹׁחַד לְהַכּוֹת נֶפֶשׁ דָּם נָקִי וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.26. אָרוּר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָקִים אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה־הַזֹּאת לַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹתָם וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.15. Cursed be the man that maketh a graven or molten image, an abomination unto the LORD, the work of the hands of the craftsman, and setteth it up in secret. And all the people shall answer and say: Amen." 27.16. Cursed be he that dishonoureth his father or his mother. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.17. Cursed be he that removeth his neighbour’s landmark. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.18. Cursed be he that maketh the blind to go astray in the way. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.19. Cursed be he that perverteth the justice due to the stranger, fatherless, and widow. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.20. Cursed be he that lieth with his father’s wife; because he hath uncovered his father’s skirt. And all the people shall say: Amen. ." 27.21. Cursed be he that lieth with any manner of beast. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.22. Cursed be he that lieth with his sister, the daughter of his father, or the daughter of his mother. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.23. Cursed be he that lieth with his mother-in-law. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.24. Cursed be he that smiteth his neighbour in secret. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.25. Cursed be he that taketh a bribe to slay an innocent person. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.26. Cursed be he that confirmeth not the words of this law to do them. And all the people shall say: Amen.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 2.20, 9.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.32. וּמַאֲמַר אֶסְתֵּר קִיַּם דִּבְרֵי הַפֻּרִים הָאֵלֶּה וְנִכְתָּב בַּסֵּפֶר׃ 2.20. Esther had not yet made known her kindred nor her people; as Mordecai had charged her; for Esther did the commandment of Mordecai, like as when she was brought up with him—" 9.32. And the commandment of Esther confirmed these matters of Purim; and it was written in the book."
3. Hebrew Bible, Job, 40.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

40.14. וְגַם־אֲנִי אוֹדֶךָּ כִּי־תוֹשִׁעַ לְךָ יְמִינֶךָ׃ 40.14. Then will I also confess unto thee That thine own right hand can save thee."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 14.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.7. וְהִזָּה עַל הַמִּטַּהֵר מִן־הַצָּרַעַת שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וְטִהֲרוֹ וְשִׁלַּח אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 14.7. And he shall sprinkle upon him that is to be cleansed from the leprosy seven times, and shall pronounce him clean, and shall let go the living bird into the open field."
5. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 25.26, 25.31, 25.33 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

25.26. וְעַתָּה אֲדֹנִי חַי־יְהוָה וְחֵי־נַפְשְׁךָ אֲשֶׁר מְנָעֲךָ יְהוָה מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים וְהוֹשֵׁעַ יָדְךָ לָךְ וְעַתָּה יִהְיוּ כְנָבָל אֹיְבֶיךָ וְהַמְבַקְשִׁים אֶל־אֲדֹנִי רָעָה׃ 25.31. וְלֹא תִהְיֶה זֹאת לְךָ לְפוּקָה וּלְמִכְשׁוֹל לֵב לַאדֹנִי וְלִשְׁפָּךְ־דָּם חִנָּם וּלְהוֹשִׁיעַ אֲדֹנִי לוֹ וְהֵיטִב יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי וְזָכַרְתָּ אֶת־אֲמָתֶךָ׃ 25.33. וּבָרוּךְ טַעְמֵךְ וּבְרוּכָה אָתְּ אֲשֶׁר כְּלִתִנִי הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים וְהֹשֵׁעַ יָדִי לִי׃ 25.26. Now therefore, my lord, as the Lord lives, and as thy soul lives, seeing the Lord has prevented thee from coming to shed blood, and from avenging thyself with thy own hand, now let thy enemies, and they that seek evil to my lord, be as Naval." 25.31. that this shall not be a cause of stumbling to thee, nor offence of heart to my lord, that thou hast shed blood causelessly, or that my lord has avenged himself: and the Lord shall deal well with my lord, and thou shalt remember thy handmaid." 25.33. and blessed be thy discretion, and blessed be thou who hast kept me this day from coming to shed blood, and from avenging myself with my own hand."
6. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 30.22 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.22. וַיְדַבֵּר יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ עַל־לֵב כָּל־הַלְוִיִּם הַמַּשְׂכִּילִים שֵׂכֶל־טוֹב לַיהוָה וַיֹּאכְלוּ אֶת־הַמּוֹעֵד שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים מְזַבְּחִים זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים וּמִתְוַדִּים לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם׃ 30.22. And Hezekiah spoke encouragingly unto all the Levites that were well skilled in the service of the LORD. So they did eat throughout the feast for the seven days, offering sacrifices of peace-offerings, and giving thanks to the LORD, the God of their fathers.
7. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 6.9 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

6.9. וּמָה חַשְׁחָן וּבְנֵי תוֹרִין וְדִכְרִין וְאִמְּרִין לַעֲלָוָן לֶאֱלָהּ שְׁמַיָּא חִנְטִין מְלַח חֲמַר וּמְשַׁח כְּמֵאמַר כָּהֲנַיָּא דִי־בִירוּשְׁלֶם לֶהֱוֵא מִתְיְהֵב לְהֹם יוֹם בְּיוֹם דִּי־לָא שָׁלוּ׃ 6.9. And that which they have need of, both young bullocks, and rams, and lambs, for burnt-offerings to the God of heaven, wheat, salt, wine, and oil, according to the word of the priests that are at Jerusalem, let it be given them day by day without fail;"
8. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.7-8.8, 13.12-13.13 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.7. וְיֵשׁוּעַ וּבָנִי וְשֵׁרֵבְיָה יָמִין עַקּוּב שַׁבְּתַי הוֹדִיָּה מַעֲשֵׂיָה קְלִיטָא עֲזַרְיָה יוֹזָבָד חָנָן פְּלָאיָה וְהַלְוִיִּם מְבִינִים אֶת־הָעָם לַתּוֹרָה וְהָעָם עַל־עָמְדָם׃ 8.8. וַיִּקְרְאוּ בַסֵּפֶר בְּתוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים מְפֹרָשׁ וְשׂוֹם שֶׂכֶל וַיָּבִינוּ בַּמִּקְרָא׃ 13.12. וְכָל־יְהוּדָה הֵבִיאוּ מַעְשַׂר הַדָּגָן וְהַתִּירוֹשׁ וְהַיִּצְהָר לָאוֹצָרוֹת׃ 13.13. וָאוֹצְרָה עַל־אוֹצָרוֹת שֶׁלֶמְיָה הַכֹּהֵן וְצָדוֹק הַסּוֹפֵר וּפְדָיָה מִן־הַלְוִיִּם וְעַל־יָדָם חָנָן בֶּן־זַכּוּר בֶּן־מַתַּנְיָה כִּי נֶאֱמָנִים נֶחְשָׁבוּ וַעֲלֵיהֶם לַחֲלֹק לַאֲחֵיהֶם׃ 8.7. Also Jeshua, and Bani, and Sherebiah, Jamin, Akkub, Shabbethai, Hodiah, Maaseiah, Kelita, Azariah, Jozabad, Ha, Pelaiah, even the Levites, caused the people to understand the Law; and the people stood in their place." 8.8. And they read in the book, in the Law of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading." 13.12. Then brought all Judah the tithe of the corn and the wine and the oil unto the treasuries." 13.13. And I made treasurers over the treasuries, Shelemiah the priest, and Zadok the scribe, and of the Levites, Pedaiah; and next to them was Ha the son of Zaccur, the son of Mattaniah; for they were counted faithful, and their office was to distribute unto their brethren."
9. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 9.16-9.23, 10.14, 12.21-12.22, 13.5-13.13, 13.15-13.16, 14.3-14.9, 14.11-14.16, 14.18, 15.6-15.11, 15.14-15.15, 16.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 1.3-1.4, 1.13-1.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 9.16-9.23, 10.14, 12.21-12.22, 13.5-13.13, 13.15-13.16, 14.3-14.10, 14.12-14.16, 14.18, 15.6-15.11, 15.14-15.15, 16.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1.18-2.18, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.19, 6.20, 8, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Dead Sea Scrolls, Messianic Rule, 1.22, 1.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Mishnah, Shevuot, 8.2-8.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.2. If he [the owner] said to the unpaid guardian, “Where is my ox?” and he replied to him, “It died,” whereas in reality it was injured or captured or stolen or lost; [Or he replied], “It was injured,” whereas in reality it died or was captured or stolen or lost; [Or he replied,] “It was captured,” whereas in reality it died or was injured or stolen or lost; [Or he replied,] “It was stolen,” whereas in reality it died or was injured or captured or lost; [Or he replied,] “It was lost,” whereas in reality it died or was injured or captured or stolen; [And the owner said,] “I adjure you,” and he said, “amen”, he is exempt [from having to bring a sacrifice for a false oath]." 8.3. [If the owner said,] “Where is my ox?” and he replied to him, “I do not know what you are talking about,” whereas in reality it died or was injured or captured or stolen or lost, [and the owner said,] “I adjure you,” and he said, “Amen”, he is exempt. [If the owner said,] “Where is my ox?” and he replied to him, “It was lost”; [and the owner said,] “I adjure you”, and he said, “Amen”, and witnesses testify against him that he had consumed it, he pays the principal; if he confessed himself, he pays the principal, a fifth, and brings a guilt-offering. [If the owner said,] “Where is my ox?” and he replied to him, “It was stolen;” [and the owner said,] “I adjure you, and he said, “Amen”, and witnesses testify against him that he himself stole it, he pays double; if he confessed himself, he pays the principal, fifth, and brings a guilt-offering." 8.4. If a man said to one in the market, “Where is my ox which you have stolen?” and he replied, “I did not steal it,” and witnesses testified against him that he did steal it, he pays double. If he killed it or sold it, he pays four or five times its value. If he saw witnesses coming nearer and nearer, and he said, “I did steal it, but I did not kill or sell it,” he pays only the principal."
15. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

30b. לא יהיה בך אביון שלך קודם לשל כל אדם,אלא לזקן ואינו לפי כבודו,אמר רבה הכישה חייב בה אביי הוה יתיב קמיה דרבה חזא להנך עיזי דקיימו שקל קלא ושדא בהו א"ל איחייבת בהו קום אהדרינהו,איבעיא להו דרכו להחזיר בשדה ואין דרכו להחזיר בעיר מהו מי אמרינן השבה מעליא בעינן וכיון דלאו דרכיה להחזיר בעיר לא לחייב או דלמא בשדה מיהת הוא דאיחייב ליה וכיון דאיחייב ליה בשדה איחייב ליה בעיר תיקו,אמר רבא כל שבשלו מחזיר בשל חבירו נמי מחזיר וכל שבשלו פורק וטוען בשל חבירו נמי פורק וטוען,רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי הוה קאזיל באורחא פגע ביה ההוא גברא הוה דרי פתכא דאופי אותבינהו וקא מיתפח א"ל דלי לי אמר ליה כמה שוין א"ל פלגא דזוזא יהיב ליה פלגא דזוזא ואפקרה,הדר זכה בהו הדר יהיב ליה פלגא דזוזא ואפקרה חזייה דהוה קא בעי למיהדר למזכיה בהו א"ל לכולי עלמא אפקרנהו ולך לא אפקרנהו,ומי הוי הפקר כי האי גוונא והתנן בש"א הפקר לעניים הפקר וב"ה אומרים אינו הפקר עד שיהא הפקר לעניים ולעשירים כשמיטה,אלא רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי לכולי עלמא אפקרינהו ובמלתא בעלמא הוא דאוקמיה,והא רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי זקן ואינו לפי כבודו הוה ר' ישמעאל ברבי יוסי לפנים משורת הדין הוא דעבד,דתני רב יוסף (שמות יח, כ) והודעת להם זה בית חייהם את הדרך זו גמילות חסדים [(אשר) ילכו זה ביקור חולים בה זו קבורה ואת המעשה זה הדין אשר יעשון זו לפנים משורת הדין:,אמר מר (אשר) ילכו זה ביקור חולים היינו גמילות חסדים לא נצרכה אלא לבן גילו דאמר מר בן גילו נוטל אחד מששים בחליו ואפי' הכי מבעי ליה למיזל לגביה,בה זו קבורה היינו גמילות חסדים לא נצרכה אלא לזקן ואינו לפי כבודו,אשר יעשון זו לפנים משורת הדין דאמר ר' יוחנן לא חרבה ירושלים אלא על שדנו בה דין תורה אלא דיני דמגיזתא לדיינו אלא אימא שהעמידו דיניהם על דין תורה ולא עבדו לפנים משורת הדין:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אי זו היא אבידה מצא חמור או פרה רועין בדרך אין זו אבידה חמור וכליו הפוכין פרה רצה בין הכרמים הרי זו אבידה החזירה וברחה החזירה וברחה אפי' ארבעה וחמשה פעמים חייב להחזירה שנאמר (דברים כב, א) השב תשיבם,היה בטל מסלע לא יאמר לו תן לי סלע אלא נותן לו שכרו כפועל אם יש שם בית דין מתנה בפני ב"ד אם אין שם ב"ד בפני מי יתנה שלו קודם:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אטו כל הני דאמרינן לאו אבידה הוו אמר רב יהודה הכי קאמר אי זו היא כלל אבידה שהוא חייב בה מצא חמור ופרה רועין בדרך אין זו אבידה ולא מיחייב בה חמור וכליו הפוכים פרה ורצה בין הכרמים הרי זו אבידה ומיחייב בה,ולעולם אמר רב יהודה אמר רב עד שלשה ימים היכי דמי אי בלילותא אפי' חדא שעתא נמי אי ביממא אפי' טובא נמי לא,לא צריכא דהוה חזי לה בקדמתא ובחשכתא תלתא יומי אמרינן איתרמויי אתרמי לה ונפקא טפי ודאי אבידה היא,תניא נמי הכי מצא טלית וקרדום 30b. bthere shall be no needy among you”(Deuteronomy 15:4). This verse can be understood as a command, indicating that it is incumbent upon each individual to ensure that he will not become needy. Therefore, byourassets btake precedence overthe assets bof anyother bperson. /b,The Gemara concludes: bRather,the verse is necessary btoderive the exemption from returning the lost item in the case where he was ban elderly person and it is not in keeping with his dignityto tend to the item., bRabba says:If there was a lost animal and the elderly person began the process of returning it, e.g., if he bstruck iteven once to guide it in a certain direction, he is bobligatedto tend bto itand return it. The Gemara relates: bAbaye was sitting before Rabbaand bsaw these goats standingnearby. bHe picked up a clod of dirt and threw it at them,causing them to move. Rabba bsaid to him: You havethereby bobligated yourself toreturn bthem. Arise and return themto their owner., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: In a case of a person for whom it bis histypical bmanner to returnan item of that type bin the field,where there are fewer onlookers, bbut it is not histypical bmanner to returnan item of that type bin the city, what isthe ihalakha /i? Do bwe saythat for one to be obligated to return a lost item bwe need an unequivocalobligation to breturnit that applies in all cases, band since it is not histypical bmanner to returnan item of that sort bin the city, let him not be obligatedto return such an item at all? bOr perhaps, he is obligated in any eventto return the item bin the field, and once he is obligatedto return bit in the field, he isalso bobligated in the city.The Gemara concludes: The dilemma bshall standunresolved., bRava says:In banycase bwhere he would recover his ownitem and would consider it to be in keeping with his dignity, he is balsoobligated to breturn another’sitem. bAnd anycase where bhe unloads and loads his ownanimal’s burden, he is balsoobligated to bunload and loadthe burden of banother’sanimal.,The Gemara relates: bRabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, was walking on the road. A certain man encountered him,and that man bwas carrying a burdenthat consisted of sticks bof wood. He set downthe wood band was resting.The man bsaid to him: Liftthem bfor meand place them upon me. Since it was not in keeping with the dignity of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, to lift the wood, Rabbi Yishmael bsaid to him: How much are they worth?The man bsaid to him: A half-dinar.Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, bgave him a half-dinar,took possession of the wood, band declaredthe wood bownerless. /b,The man bthen reacquiredthe wood bandagain requested that Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, lift the wood for him. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, bagain gave him a half-dinar,again took possession of the wood, bandagain bdeclaredthe wood bownerless. Hethen bsaw thatthe man bdesired to reacquirethe sticks of wood. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, bsaid to him: I declaredthe sticks of wood bownerless with regard to everyoneelse, bbut I did not declare them ownerless with regard to you. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut isproperty brendered ownerless in a case like this? But didn’t we learnin a mishna ( iPe’a6:1) that bBeit Shammai say:Property bdeclared ownerless for the poor isthereby rendered bownerless. And Beit Hillel say: It is not ownerless, untilthe property bwill be ownerless for the poor and for the rich, likeproduce during bthe Sabbatical Year,which is available for all. As the ihalakhais in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel, how could Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, declare the wood ownerless selectively, excluding the prior owner of the wood?, bRather, Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei,actually bdeclaredthe wood bownerless to everyonewithout exception, bandit bwas with a mere statement that he prevented himfrom reacquiring the wood, i.e., he told the man not to reacquire the wood even though there was no legal impediment to that reacquisition.,The Gemara asks: bBut wasn’t Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, an elderly person and it was not in keeping with his dignityto tend to the item? Why did he purchase the wood and render it ownerless in order to absolve himself of the obligation to lift the burden if he had no obligation to do so in the first place? The Gemara answers: In the case of bRabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, he conductedhimself bbeyond the letter of the law,and he could have simply refused the request for help.,The Gemara cites a source for going beyond the letter of the law in the performance of mitzvot. bAs Rav Yosef taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: “And you shall teach them the statutes and the laws, and shall show them the path wherein they shall walk and the action that they must perform” (Exodus 18:20). The ibaraitaparses the various directives in the verse. b“And you shall teach them,” thatis referring to bthe structure of their livelihood,i.e., teach the Jewish people trades so that they may earn a living; b“the path,” thatis referring to bacts of kindness; “they shall walk,” thatis referring to bvisiting the ill; “wherein,” thatis referring to bburial; “and the action,” thatis referring to acting in accordance with the letter of the blaw; “that they must perform,” thatis referring to acting bbeyond the letter of the law. /b,The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i. bThe Master said:With regard to the phrase b“they shall walk,” thatis referring to bvisiting the ill.The Gemara asks: bThat isa detail of bacts of kindness;why does the ibaraitalist it separately? The Gemara answers: The reference to visiting the ill is bnecessary only for the contemporary ofthe ill person, bas the Master said:When bone who is a contemporaryof an ill person visits him, he btakes one-sixtieth of his illness.Since visiting an ill contemporary involves contracting a bit of his illness, a special derivation is necessary to teach that beven so, he is required to goand visit bhim. /b,It was taught in the ibaraita /i: With regard to the phrase b“wherein,” thatis referring to bburial.The Gemara asks: bThat isa detail of bacts of kindness;why does the ibaraitalist it separately? The Gemara answers: The reference to burial is bnecessary only toteach the ihalakhaof ban elderly person, andit is in a circumstance where bit is not in keeping with his dignityto bury the dead. Therefore, a special derivation is necessary to teach that even so, he is required to participate in the burial.,It was taught in the ibaraita /i: b“That they must perform”; thatis referring to acting bbeyond the letter of the law, as Rabbi Yoḥa says: Jerusalem was destroyed only forthe fact bthat they adjudicatedcases on the basis of bTorah law inthe city. The Gemara asks: bRather,what else should they have done? bShould they rather have adjudicatedcases on the basis of barbitrary decisions [ idemagizeta /i]? Rather, say: That they established their rulings onthe basis of bTorah law and did not go beyond the letter of the law. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bWhich isthe item that is considered blost property?If bone found a donkey or a cow grazing on the path, that is not lost property,as presumably the owners are nearby and are aware of the animals’ whereabouts. If one found ba donkey with its accoutrements overturned, or a cowthat bran through the vineyards, that is lost property.In a case where bone returnedthe lost animal band it fled,and he again breturned it and it fled, evenif this scenario repeats itself bfour or five times,he is bobligated to return iteach time, as it bis stated:“You shall not see your brother’s ox or his sheep wandering and disregard them; byou shall return themto your brother” (Deuteronomy 22:1).,If in the course of tending to and returning the lost item, the finder bwas idle fromlabor that would have earned him ba isela /i, he shall not say tothe owner of the item: bGive me a isela /ito compensate me for my lost income. bRather,the owner bgives him his wage asif he were ba laborer,a payment that is considerably smaller. bIf there arethree men btherewho can convene as ba court,he bmay stipulate before the courtthat he will undertake to return the item provided that he receives full compensation for lost income. bIf there is no court there before whom can he stipulatehis condition, bhisficial interests btake precedenceand he need not return the lost item., strongGEMARA: /strong With regard to the question in the mishna: Which is the item that is considered lost property, the Gemara asks: bIs that to say that all those othercases bthat we statedin this chapter bare not lost property? Rav Yehuda saidthat bthisis what the itanna bis saying: What is the principleemployed in defining ba lost item that one is obligated toreturn? The mishna cites examples to illustrate the principle: If one bfound a donkey or a cow grazing on the path, that is not lost property, and he is not obligated toreturn bit.But if one found ba donkey with its accoutrements overturned, or a cow that was running through the vineyards, that is lost property, and he is obligated toreturn bit. /b,With regard to the ruling in the mishna that a donkey and cow grazing on the path are not considered lost property, the Gemara asks: bAndis that the case even if they graze there untended bforever? Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Until three dayspass they are not lost. Thereafter, they are considered lost. The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstances? Ifthe animal is found grazing bat night, evenif it is untended for beven one hourit can be presumed to be lost, as an owner never grazes his animals untended at night. bIfthe animal is found grazing bduring the day, evenif it is untended for bmorethan three days, it is balso notpresumed to be lost.,The Gemara answers: bNo,the measure of three days bis necessaryonly in a case bwhere one sawthe animal grazing bin the earlyhours in the morning band in the darkof nightfall. For the first bthree days, we say: It happenedthat the animal bwent outa bit earlier or a bit later than usual, but nevertheless, it was with the owner’s knowledge. Once this is observed for bmorethan three days, it is bcertainly a lost item. /b, bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: If bone found a cloak or an ax /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 120
adjuration Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 50
amoraim, amoraic period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 50
angel Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 120
assembly Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 120
council Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 120
exercises, student Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 219
hebrew, mishnaic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 50
hebrew, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 50
hebrew, rabbinic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 50
holy, holiness Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 120
holy of holies (most holy dwelling) Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 120
house Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 120
israel Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 120
judges Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 197; Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 50
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 197
marriage, levirate Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 50
maskil Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 71
mebaqqer Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 71
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 197
oath Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 50
overseer, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 197
paqqid Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 71
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 197
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 197
priests and textuality Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 219
purity/ritual purity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 197
qumran literature, leadership figures Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 71
qumran literature, legal authority in Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 71
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 197
torah focus' Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 219
yahad Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 120
zion Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 120