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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



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Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 11.17-11.18
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

36 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 4.7-4.11, 12.9 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.7. Give alms from your possessions to all who live uprightly, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you make it. Do not turn your face away from any poor man, and the face of God will not be turned away from you. 4.8. If you have many possessions, make your gift from them in proportion; if few, do not be afraid to give according to the little you have. 4.9. So you will be laying up a good treasure for yourself against the day of necessity. 4.10. For charity delivers from death and keeps you from entering the darkness; 4.11. and for all who practice it charity is an excellent offering in the presence of the Most High. 12.9. For almsgiving delivers from death, and it will purge away every sin. Those who perform deeds of charity and of righteousness will have fulness of life;
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.12, 23.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.12. שָׁמוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ 23.24. מוֹצָא שְׂפָתֶיךָ תִּשְׁמֹר וְעָשִׂיתָ כַּאֲשֶׁר נָדַרְתָּ לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נְדָבָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ בְּפִיךָ׃ 5.12. Observe the sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the LORD thy God commanded thee." 23.24. That which is gone out of thy lips thou shalt observe and do; according as thou hast vowed freely unto the LORD thy God, even that which thou hast promised with thy mouth."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 16.29, 20.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.29. רְאוּ כִּי־יְהוָה נָתַן לָכֶם הַשַּׁבָּת עַל־כֵּן הוּא נֹתֵן לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי לֶחֶם יוֹמָיִם שְׁבוּ אִישׁ תַּחְתָּיו אַל־יֵצֵא אִישׁ מִמְּקֹמוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃ 20.9. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ 16.29. See that the LORD hath given you the sabbath; therefore He giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days; abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day.’" 20.9. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;"
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 15.18, 15.25, 23.38 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.18. וְאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכַּב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע וְרָחֲצוּ בַמַּיִם וְטָמְאוּ עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 15.25. וְאִשָּׁה כִּי־יָזוּב זוֹב דָּמָהּ יָמִים רַבִּים בְּלֹא עֶת־נִדָּתָהּ אוֹ כִי־תָזוּב עַל־נִדָּתָהּ כָּל־יְמֵי זוֹב טֻמְאָתָהּ כִּימֵי נִדָּתָהּ תִּהְיֶה טְמֵאָה הִוא׃ 23.38. מִלְּבַד שַׁבְּתֹת יְּהוָה וּמִלְּבַד מַתְּנוֹתֵיכֶם וּמִלְּבַד כָּל־נִדְרֵיכֶם וּמִלְּבַד כָּל־נִדְבוֹתֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר תִּתְּנוּ לַיהוָה׃ 15.18. The woman also with whom a man shall lie carnally, they shall both bathe themselves in water, and be unclean until the even." 15.25. And if a woman have an issue of her blood many days not in the time of her impurity, or if she have an issue beyond the time of her impurity; all the days of the issue of her uncleanness she shall be as in the days of her impurity: she is unclean." 23.38. beside the sabbaths of the LORD, and beside your gifts, and beside all your vows, and beside all your freewill-offerings, which ye give unto the LORD."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.2, 30.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.2. וְאַתְּ כִּי שָׂטִית תַּחַת אִישֵׁךְ וְכִי נִטְמֵאת וַיִּתֵּן אִישׁ בָּךְ אֶת־שְׁכָבְתּוֹ מִבַּלְעֲדֵי אִישֵׁךְ׃ 5.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וִישַׁלְּחוּ מִן־הַמַּחֲנֶה כָּל־צָרוּעַ וְכָל־זָב וְכֹל טָמֵא לָנָפֶשׁ׃ 30.9. וְאִם בְּיוֹם שְׁמֹעַ אִישָׁהּ יָנִיא אוֹתָהּ וְהֵפֵר אֶת־נִדְרָהּ אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ וְאֵת מִבְטָא שְׂפָתֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר אָסְרָה עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ וַיהוָה יִסְלַח־לָהּ׃ 5.2. ’Command the children of Israel, that they put out of the camp every leper, and every one that hath an issue, and whosoever is unclean by the dead;" 30.9. But if her husband disallow her in the day that he heareth it, then he shall make void her vow which is upon her, and the clear utterance of her lips, wherewith she hath bound her soul; and the LORD will forgive her."
6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 15.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.8. זֶבַח רְשָׁעִים תּוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה וּתְפִלַּת יְשָׁרִים רְצוֹנוֹ׃ 15.8. The sacrifice of the wicked is an abomination to the LORD; But the prayer of the upright is His delight."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 141.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

141.1. יִפְּלוּ בְמַכְמֹרָיו רְשָׁעִים יַחַד אָנֹכִי עַד־אֶעֱבוֹר׃ 141.1. מִזְמוֹר לְדָוִד יְהוָה קְרָאתִיךָ חוּשָׁה לִּי הַאֲזִינָה קוֹלִי בְּקָרְאִי־לָךְ׃ 141.1. A Psalm of David. LORD, I have called Thee; make haste unto me; Give ear unto my voice, when I call unto Thee."
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 3.29 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.29. יָחֻלוּ עַל־רֹאשׁ יוֹאָב וְאֶל כָּל־בֵּית אָבִיו וְאַל־יִכָּרֵת מִבֵּית יוֹאָב זָב וּמְצֹרָע וּמַחֲזִיק בַּפֶּלֶךְ וְנֹפֵל בַּחֶרֶב וַחֲסַר־לָחֶם׃ 3.29. let it rest on the head of Yo᾽av, and on all his father’s house; and let the house of Yo᾽av never lack such as are afflicted with an issue, or with żara῾at, or that go on crutches, or fall by the sword, or lack bread."
9. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 10.32 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

10.32. וְעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ הַמְבִיאִים אֶת־הַמַּקָּחוֹת וְכָל־שֶׁבֶר בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לִמְכּוֹר לֹא־נִקַּח מֵהֶם בַּשַּׁבָּת וּבְיוֹם קֹדֶשׁ וְנִטֹּשׁ אֶת־הַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִית וּמַשָּׁא כָל־יָד׃ 10.32. and if the peoples of the land bring ware or any victuals on the sabbath day to sell, that we would not buy of them on the sabbath, or on a holy day; and that we would forego the seventh year, and the exaction of every debt."
10. Septuagint, Tobit, 4.7-4.11, 12.9 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.7. Give alms from your possessions to all who live uprightly, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you make it. Do not turn your face away from any poor man, and the face of God will not be turned away from you. 4.8. If you have many possessions, make your gift from them in proportion; if few, do not be afraid to give according to the little you have. 4.9. So you will be laying up a good treasure for yourself against the day of necessity. 4.10. For charity delivers from death and keeps you from entering the darkness; 4.11. and for all who practice it charity is an excellent offering in the presence of the Most High. 12.9. For almsgiving delivers from death, and it will purge away every sin. Those who perform deeds of charity and of righteousness will have fulness of life;
11. Anon., 1 Enoch, 38-71, 37 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

37. The second vision which he saw, the vision of wisdom -which Enoch the son of Jared, the son,of Mahalalel, the son of Cai, the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, saw. And this is the beginning of the words of wisdom which I lifted up my voice to speak and say to those which dwell on earth: Hear, ye men of old time, and see, ye that come after, the words of the Holy,One which I will speak before the Lord of Spirits. It were better to declare (them only) to the men of old time, but even from those that come after we will not withhold the beginning of wisdom.,Till the present day such wisdom has never been given by the Lord of Spirits as I have received according to my insight, according to the good pleasure of the Lord of Spirits by whom the lot of,eternal life has been given to me. Now three Parables were imparted to me, and I lifted up my voice and recounted them to those that dwell on the earth.
12. Anon., Jubilees, 50.6-50.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

50.6. and there are yet forty years to come (lit. "distant for learning the commandments of the Lord, until they pass over into the land of Canaan, crossing the Jordan to the west. 50.7. And the jubilees will pass by, until Israel is cleansed from all guilt of fornication, and uncleanness, and pollution, and sin, and error, and dwelleth with confidence in all the land, and there will be no more a Satan or any evil one, and the land will be clean from that time for evermore. 50.8. And behold the commandment regarding the Sabbaths--I have written (them) down for thee and all the judgments of its laws. brSix days wilt thou labour, but on the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God. 50.9. In it ye shall do no manner of work, ye and your sons, and your men-servants and your maid-servants, and all your cattle and the sojourner also who is with you. brAnd the man that doeth any work on it shall die: 50.10. whoever desecrateth that day, whoever lieth with (his) wife or whoever saith he will do something on it, that he will set out on a journey thereon in regard to any buying or selling: and whoever draweth water thereon which he had not prepared for himself on the sixth day, and whoever taketh up any burden to carry it out of his tent or out of his house shall die. 50.11. Ye shall do no work whatever on the Sabbath day save that ye have prepared for yourselves on the sixth day, so as to eat, and drink, and rest, and keep Sabbath from all work on that day, and to bless the Lord your God, who has given you a day of festival 50.12. and a holy day: and a day of the holy kingdom for all Israel is this day among their days for ever. 50.13. For great is the honour which the Lord hath given to Israel that they should eat and drink and be satisfied on this festival day, and rest thereon from all labour which belongeth to the labour of the children of men, save burning frankincense and bringing oblations and sacrifices before the Lord for days and for Sabbaths.
13. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 5.7, 9.8-9.10, 10.14-10.17, 10.20-10.22, 11.2, 11.5, 11.9, 11.11, 11.14-11.16, 11.18-11.21, 16.3, 16.6-16.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 5.7, 9.8-9.10, 10.14-10.17, 11.17-11.21, 16.3, 16.6-16.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 9.3-9.6, 10.5-10.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Dead Sea Scrolls, Miscellaneous Rules, 6.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 3.30, 35.1-35.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

35.1. He who keeps the law makes many offerings;he who heeds the commandments sacrifices a peace offering. 35.1. Give to the Most High as he has given,and as generously as your hand has found. 35.2. He who returns a kindness offers fine flour,and he who gives alms sacrifices a thank offering. 35.2. Mercy is as welcome when he afflicts them as clouds of rain in the time of drought. 35.3. To keep from wickedness is pleasing to the Lord,and to forsake unrighteousness is atonement. 35.4. Do not appear before the Lord empty-handed 35.5. for all these things are to be done because of the commandment. 35.6. The offering of a righteous man anoints the altar,and its pleasing odor rises before the Most High. 35.7. The sacrifice of a righteous man is acceptable,and the memory of it will not be forgotten.
18. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.150, 5.201, 5.224 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.201. 3. Now nine of these gates were on every side covered over with gold and silver, as were the jambs of their doors and their lintels; but there was one gate that was without [the inward court of] the holy house, which was of Corinthian brass, and greatly excelled those that were only covered over with silver and gold. 5.224. On its top it had spikes with sharp points, to prevent any pollution of it by birds sitting upon it. of its stones, some of them were forty-five cubits in length, five in height, and six in breadth.
19. Mishnah, Menachot, 10.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.3. How would they do it [reap the omer]?The agents of the court used to go out on the day before the festival and tie the unreaped grain in bunches to make it the easier to reap. All the inhabitants of the towns near by assembled there, so that it might be reaped with a great demonstration. As soon as it became dark he says to them: “Has the sun set?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Has the sun set?” And they answer, “Yes.” “With this sickle?” And they answer, “Yes.” “With this sickle?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Into this basket?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Into this basket?” And they answer, “Yes.” On the Sabbath he says to them, “On this Sabbath?” And they answer, “Yes.” “On this Sabbath?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Shall I reap?” And they answer, “Reap.” “Shall I reap?” And they answer, “Reap.” He repeated every matter three times, and they answer, “yes, yes, yes.” And why all of this? Because of the Boethusians who held that the reaping of the omer was not to take place at the conclusion of the [first day of the] festival."
20. Mishnah, Middot, 1.4, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.4. There were seven gates in the courtyard: three in the north and three in the south and one in the east. In the south: the Gate of Kindling, and next to it the Gate of the First-borns, and then the Water Gate. In the east: the Gate of Nicanor. It had two chambers, one on its right and one on its left. One was the chamber of Pinchas the dresser and one the other the chamber of the griddle cake makers." 4.6. The Hekhal was a hundred cubits by a hundred with a height of a hundred. The foundation was six cubits, then it rose forty, then a cubit for the ornamentation, two cubits for the guttering, a cubit for the ceiling and a cubit for the plastering. The height of the upper chamber was forty cubits, there was a cubit for its ornamentation, two cubits for the guttering, a cubit for the ceiling, a cubit for the plastering, three cubits for the parapet and a cubit for the spikes. Rabbi Judah says the spikes were not included in the measurement, but the parapet was four cubits."
21. Mishnah, Miqvaot, 8.1, 8.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.1. The land of Israel is clean and its mikvaot are clean. The mikvaot of the nations outside the land are valid for those who had a seminal emission even though they have been filled by a pump-beam; Those in the land of Israel: when outside the entrance [to the city] are valid even for menstruants, and those within the entrance [to the city] are valid for those who had a seminal emission but invalid for all [others] who are unclean. Rabbi Eliezer says: those which are near to a city or to a road are unclean because of laundering; but those at a distance are clean." 8.5. If a menstruant placed coins in her mouth and went down and immersed herself, she becomes clean from her [former] uncleanness, but she becomes unclean on account of her spittle. If she put her hair in her mouth or closed her hand or pressed her lips tightly, it is as though she had not immersed herself. If a person held on to another man or to vessels and immersed them, they remain unclean; but if he had washed his hand before in the water, they become clean. Rabbi Shimon says: he should hold them loosely that water may enter into them. The hidden or wrinkled parts of the body do not need that water should enter into them."
22. Mishnah, Parah, 3.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.7. If the cow refused to go out, they may not take out with it a black one lest people say, \"They slaughtered a black cow\" nor another red [cow] lest people say, \"They slaughtered two.\" Rabbi Yose says: it was not for this reason but because it is said \"And he shall bring her out\" by herself. The elders of Israel used to go first by foot to the Mount of Olives, where there was a place of immersion. The priest that was to burn the cow was (deliberately) made unclean on account of the Sadducees so that they should not be able to say, \"It can be done only by those on whom the sun has set.\""
23. Mishnah, Shabbat, 7.2, 14.3-14.4, 22.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.2. The primary labors are forty less one:sowing, plowing, reaping, binding sheaves, threshing, winnowing, selecting, grinding, sifting, kneading, baking, shearing wool, bleaching, hackling, dyeing, spinning, weaving, the making of two loops, weaving two threads, dividing two threads, tying and untying, sewing two stitches, tearing in order to sew two stitches, capturing a deer, slaughtering, or flaying, or salting it, curing its hide, scraping it [of its hair], cutting it up, writing two letters, erasing in order to write two letters [over the erasure], building, tearing down, extinguishing, kindling, striking with a hammer, [and] carrying out from one domain to another, These are the forty primary labors less one." 14.3. They do not eat Greek hyssop on Shabbat, because it is not the food of healthy people. But he may eat yo’ezer and drink abuv ro’eh. A man may eat any kind of food as medicine, and drink any liquid, except water of palm trees and a potion of roots, because they are for jaundice. But he may drink water of palm trees for his thirst and rub himself with oil of roots for a non-medical purpose." 14.4. He who feels pain in his teeth may not sip vinegar through them, but he may dip [his bread in vinegar] in the usual manner, and if he is cured, he is cured. He who feels pain in his hips may not rub them with wine or vinegar, but he may anoint them with oil but not rose oil. The children of royalty may anoint their wounds with rose oil, since it is their practice to anoint themselves thus on weekdays. Rabbi Shimon said: all Israel are royal children." 22.6. One may oil and [lightly] massage [the body] but not step on [the body] or scrape [the skin]. One may not go down to a piloma, And one may not drink an epiktvizin [to induce vomiting]; And one may not straighten an infant[‘s limbs]. And one may not set a broken bone. If one's hand or foot is dislocated, he must not agitate it violently in cold water but he may bathe it in the usual way, and if it heals, it heals."
24. Mishnah, Sukkah, 4.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.9. How was the water libation [performed]? A golden flask holding three logs was filled from the Shiloah. When they arrived at the water gate, they sounded a teki'ah [long blast], a teru'ah [a staccato note] and again a teki'ah. [The priest then] went up the ascent [of the altar] and turned to his left where there were two silver bowls. Rabbi Judah says: they were of plaster [but they looked silver] because their surfaces were darkened from the wine. They had each a hole like a slender snout, one being wide and the other narrow so that both emptied at the same time. The one on the west was for water and the one on the east for wine. If he poured the flask of water into the bowl for wine, or that of wine into that for water, he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Judah says: with one log he performed the ceremony of the water-libation all eight days. To [the priest] who performed the libation they used to say, “Raise your hand”, for one time, a certain man poured out the water over his feet, and all the people pelted him with their etrogs."
25. Mishnah, Shekalim, 5.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.6. There were two chambers in the Temple, one the chamber of secret gifts and the other the chamber of the vessels. The chamber of secret gifts: sin-fearing persons used to put their gifts there in secret, and the poor who were descended of the virtuous were secretly supported from them. The chamber of the vessels: whoever offered a vessel as a gift would throw it in, and once in thirty days the treasurers opened it; and any vessel they found in it that was of use for the repair of the temple they left there, but the others were sold and their price went to the chamber of the repair of the temple."
26. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.7. The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you declare an uninterrupted flow of a liquid to be clean. The Pharisees say: we complain against you, Sadducees, that you declare a stream of water which flows from a burial-ground to be clean? The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you say, my ox or donkey which has done injury is liable, yet my male or female slave who has done injury is not liable. Now if in the case of my ox or my donkey for which I am not responsible if they do not fulfill religious duties, yet I am responsible for their damages, in the case of my male or female slave for whom I am responsible to see that they fulfill mitzvot, how much more so that I should be responsible for their damages? They said to them: No, if you argue about my ox or my donkey which have no understanding, can you deduce from there anything concerning a male or female slave who do have understanding? So that if I were to anger either of them and they would go and burn another person's stack, should I be liable to make restitution?"
27. New Testament, John, 7.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.22. Moses has given you circumcision (not that it is of Moses, but of the fathers), and on the Sabbath you circumcise a boy.
28. New Testament, Luke, 23.54 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

23.54. It was the day of the Preparation, and the Sabbath was drawing near.
29. New Testament, Mark, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.2. They watched him, whether he would heal him on the Sabbath day, that they might accuse him.
30. New Testament, Matthew, 6.1-6.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.1. Be careful that you don't do your charitable giving before men, to be seen by them, or else you have no reward from your Father who is in heaven. 6.2. Therefore when you do merciful deeds, don't sound a trumpet before yourself, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may get glory from men. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.3. But when you do merciful deeds, don't let your left hand know what your right hand does 6.4. so that your merciful deeds may be in secret, then your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.5. When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Most assuredly, I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.6. But you, when you pray, enter into your inner chamber, and having shut your door, pray to your Father who is in secret, and your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.7. In praying, don't use vain repetitions, as the Gentiles do; for they think that they will be heard for their much speaking. 6.8. Therefore don't be like them, for your Father knows what things you need, before you ask him. 6.9. Pray like this: 'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. 6.10. Let your kingdom come. Let your will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. 6.11. Give us today our daily bread. 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. 6.13. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen.' 6.14. For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 6.15. But if you don't forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses. 6.16. Moreover when you fast, don't be like the hypocrites, with sad faces. For they disfigure their faces, that they may be seen by men to be fasting. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.17. But you, when you fast, anoint your head, and wash your face; 6.18. so that you are not seen by men to be fasting, but by your Father who is in secret, and your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you.
31. Tosefta, Shabbat, 12.8, 12.12, 15.17 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

32. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 41 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

33. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32b. אמר ר' אלעזר גדולה תפלה יותר ממעשים טובים שאין לך גדול במעשים טובים יותר ממשה רבינו אעפ"כ לא נענה אלא בתפלה שנאמר (דברים ג, כו) אל תוסף דבר אלי וסמיך ליה עלה ראש הפסגה:,וא"ר אלעזר גדולה תענית יותר מן הצדקה מאי טעמא זה בגופו וזה בממונו:,וא"ר אלעזר גדולה תפלה יותר מן הקרבנות שנא' (ישעיהו א, יא) למה לי רוב זבחיכם וכתיב ובפרשכם כפיכם,א"ר יוחנן כל כהן שהרג את הנפש לא ישא את כפיו שנא' (ישעיהו א, טו) ידיכם דמים מלאו:,וא"ר אלעזר מיום שחרב בית המקדש ננעלו שערי תפלה שנאמר (איכה ג, ח) גם כי אזעק ואשוע שתם תפלתי ואע"פ ששערי תפלה ננעלו שערי דמעה לא ננעלו שנאמר (תהלים לט, יג) שמעה תפלתי ה' ושועתי האזינה אל דמעתי אל תחרש,רבא לא גזר תעניתא ביומא דעיבא משום שנא' (איכה ג, מד) סכותה בענן לך מעבור תפלה:,וא"ר אלעזר מיום שחרב בית המקדש נפסקה חומת ברזל בין ישראל לאביהם שבשמים שנא' (יחזקאל ד, ג) ואתה קח לך מחבת ברזל ונתתה אותה קיר ברזל בינך ובין העיר:,א"ר חנין א"ר חנינא כל המאריך בתפלתו אין תפלתו חוזרת ריקם מנא לן ממשה רבינו שנא' (דברים ט, כו) ואתפלל אל ה' וכתיב בתריה וישמע ה' אלי גם בפעם ההיא,איני והא א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן כל המאריך בתפלתו ומעיין בה סוף בא לידי כאב לב שנא' (משלי יג, יב) תוחלת ממושכה מחלה לב מאי תקנתיה יעסוק בתורה שנא' (משלי יג, יב) ועץ חיים תאוה באה ואין עץ חיים אלא תורה שנאמר (משלי ג, יח) עץ חיים היא למחזיקים בה לא קשיא הא דמאריך ומעיין בה הא דמאריך ולא מעיין בה,א"ר חמא בר' חנינא אם ראה אדם שהתפלל ולא נענה יחזור ויתפלל שנאמר (תהלים כז, יד) קוה אל ה' חזק ויאמץ לבך וקוה אל ה':,ת"ר ארבעה צריכין חזוק ואלו הן תורה ומעשים טובים תפלה ודרך ארץ,תורה ומעשים טובים מנין שנא' (יהושע א, ז) רק חזק ואמץ מאד לשמור ולעשות ככל התורה חזק בתורה ואמץ במעשים טובים,תפלה מנין שנא' קוה אל ה' חזק ויאמץ לבך וקוה אל ה',דרך ארץ מנין שנא' (שמואל ב י, יב) חזק ונתחזק בעד עמנו וגו':,(ישעיהו מט, יד) ותאמר ציון עזבני ה' וה' שכחני היינו עזובה היינו שכוחה אמר ר"ל אמרה כנסת ישראל לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע אדם נושא אשה על אשתו ראשונה זוכר מעשה הראשונה אתה עזבתני ושכחתני,אמר לה הקב"ה בתי י"ב מזלות בראתי ברקיע ועל כל מזל ומזל בראתי לו שלשים חיל ועל כל חיל וחיל בראתי לו שלשים לגיון ועל כל לגיון ולגיון בראתי לו שלשים רהטון ועל כל רהטון ורהטון בראתי לו שלשים קרטון ועל כל קרטון וקרטון בראתי לו שלשים גסטרא ועל כל גסטרא וגסטרא תליתי בו שלש מאות וששים וחמשה אלפי רבוא כוכבים כנגד ימות החמה וכולן לא בראתי אלא בשבילך ואת אמרת עזבתני ושכחתני,(ישעיהו מט, טו) התשכח אשה עולה אמר הקב"ה כלום אשכח עולות אילים ופטרי רחמים שהקרבת לפני במדבר אמרה לפניו רבש"ע הואיל ואין שכחה לפני כסא כבודך שמא לא תשכח לי מעשה העגל אמר לה (ישעיהו מט, טו) גם אלה תשכחנה,אמרה לפניו רבש"ע הואיל ויש שכחה לפני כסא כבודך שמא תשכח לי מעשה סיני אמר לה (ישעיהו מט, טו) ואנכי לא אשכחך,והיינו דא"ר אלעזר א"ר אושעיא מאי דכתיב גם אלה תשכחנה זה מעשה העגל ואנכי לא אשכחך זה מעשה סיני:,חסידים הראשונים היו שוהין שעה אחת:,מנא הני מילי א"ר יהושע ב"ל אמר קרא (תהלים פד, ה) אשרי יושבי ביתך,ואמר ר' יהושע ב"ל המתפלל צריך לשהות שעה אחת אחר תפלתו שנא' (תהלים קמ, יד) אך צדיקים יודו לשמך ישבו ישרים את פניך,תניא נמי הכי המתפלל צריך שישהא שעה אחת קודם תפלתו ושעה אחת אחר תפלתו קודם תפלתו מנין שנא' אשרי יושבי ביתך לאחר תפלתו מנין דכתיב אך צדיקים יודו לשמך ישבו ישרים את פניך,תנו רבנן חסידים הראשונים היו שוהין שעה אחת ומתפללין שעה אחת וחוזרין ושוהין שעה אחת וכי מאחר ששוהין תשע שעות ביום בתפלה תורתן היאך משתמרת ומלאכתן היאך נעשית,אלא מתוך שחסידים הם תורתם משתמרת ומלאכתן מתברכת:,אפילו המלך שואל בשלומו לא ישיבנו:,אמר רב יוסף לא שנו אלא למלכי ישראל אבל למלכי עכו"ם פוסק,מיתיבי המתפלל וראה אנס בא כנגדו ראה קרון בא כנגדו לא יהא מפסיק אלא מקצר ועולה,לא קשיא הא דאפשר לקצר (יקצר ואם לאו פוסק),ת"ר מעשה בחסיד אחד שהיה מתפלל בדרך בא שר אחד ונתן לו שלום ולא החזיר לו שלום המתין לו עד שסיים תפלתו לאחר שסיים תפלתו א"ל ריקא והלא כתוב בתורתכם (דברים ד, ט) רק השמר לך ושמור נפשך וכתיב (דברים ד, טו) ונשמרתם מאד לנפשותיכם כשנתתי לך שלום למה לא החזרת לי שלום אם הייתי חותך ראשך בסייף מי היה תובע את דמך מידי,א"ל המתן לי עד שאפייסך בדברים א"ל אילו היית עומד לפני מלך בשר ודם ובא חברך ונתן לך שלום היית 32b. bRabbi Elazar said:This story proves that bprayer is greater than good deedswithout prayer ( iTosafot /i), as bthere was none greater inthe performance of bgood deeds than Moses our teacher; nevertheless, his request was granted,albeit in a limited manner, in his request to enter Eretz Yisrael, bonly through prayer,when God permitted him to climb the mountain and look out over the land. bAs,initially bit is stated: “Speak no more to Me,” juxtaposed to which is: “Go up to the summit of the mountain.” /b,After comparing and contrasting prayer and good deeds, the Gemara explores another comparison. bRabbi Elazar said: A fast is greater than charity. What is the reasonthat fasting is greater? Because a fast bisa mitzva performed bwith one’s bodyas he afflicts himself, bwhilecharity bisperformed only bwith one’s money. /b,In another comparison, bRabbi Elazar said: Prayer is greater than sacrifices, as it is stated: “To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices to Me,says the Lord. I am full of the burnt-offerings of rams and the fat of fed beasts; I do not desire the blood of bulls and sheep and goats” (Isaiah 1:11). bAndseveral verses later bit is written: “And when you spread forth your handsI will hide My eyes from you, and even if you increase your prayer, I will not hear; your hands are full of blood” (Isaiah 1:15). Not only Israel’s sacrifices, but even their prayers, which are on a higher spiritual level, will not be accepted.,Speaking of that verse in Isaiah, the Gemara cites that bRabbi Yoḥa said: Any priest who killed a person may not lift his handsin the Priestly Blessing bas it is stated:“And when you spread forth your hands I will hide My eyes from you… byour hands are full of blood.”Here we see that the Priestly Blessing, performed with hands spread forth, is not accepted when performed by priests whose “hands are full of blood.”,On the subject of prayer, bRabbi Elazar also said: Since the day the Temple was destroyed the gates of prayer were lockedand prayer is not accepted as it once was, bas it is saidin lamentation of the Temple’s destruction: b“Though I plead and call out, He shuts out my prayer”(Lamentations 3:8). Yet, bdespitethe fact bthat the gates of prayer were lockedwith the destruction of the Temple, bthe gates of tears were not locked,and one who cries before God may rest assured that his prayers will be answered, bas it is stated: “Hear my prayer, Lord, and give ear to my pleading, keep not silence at my tears”(Psalms 39:13). Since this prayer is a request that God should pay heed to the tears of one who is praying, he is certain that at least the gates of tears are not locked.,With regard to the locking of the gates of prayer, the Gemara relates that bRava did not decree a fast on a cloudy day because it is stated: “You have covered Yourself in a cloud, through which prayer cannot pass”(Lamentations 3:44). The verse indicates that clouds are a bad omen, indicating that God has averted His face (Rav Hai Gaon)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: Since the day the Temple was destroyed an iron wall separates Israel from their Father in heaven, as it is statedto the prophet Ezekiel, instructing him to symbolize that separation: b“And take for yourself an iron griddle, and set it as an iron wall between yourself and the city… /bit will be a sign for the house of Israel” (Ezekiel 4:3).,The Gemara cites other statements in praise of prayer: bRabbi Ḥanin saidthat bRabbi Ḥanina said: Anyone who prolongs his prayer isassured that bhis prayer does not return uswered;it will surely be accepted. bFrom where do wederive this? bFrom Moses our teacher, as it is statedthat Moses said: “So I fell down before the Lord the forty days and forty nights that I fell down; band I prayed to the Lord”(Deuteronomy 9:26–27), band it is written thereafter: “And the Lord heard me that time as well,the Lord would not destroy you” (Deuteronomy 10:10).,The Gemara raises an objection: bIs that so? Didn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saythat bRabbi Yoḥa said: Anyone who prolongs his prayer and expects it to be answered, will ultimately come to heartache,as it will not be answered. bAs it is stated: “Hope deferred makes the heart sick”(Proverbs 13:12). bAnd what is the remedyfor one afflicted with that illness? He should bengage in Torahstudy, bas it is stated: “But desire fulfilled is the tree of life”(Proverbs 13:12), band tree of life is nothing other than Torah, as it is stated: “It is a tree of life to those who hold fast to it,and those who support it are joyous” (Proverbs 3:18). This is bnot difficult. This,Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba’s statement that one will suffer heartache refers to one bwho prolongshis prayer band expects it to be answered; that,Rabbi Ḥanin’s statement that one who prolongs his prayer is praiseworthy refers to bone who prolongs his prayer anddoes bnot expect it to be answered. /b,On a similar note, bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: A person who prayed and saw that he was not answered,should bpray again, as it is stated: “Hope in the Lord, strengthen yourself, let your heart take courage, and hope in the Lord”(Psalms 27:14). One should turn to God with hope, and if necessary turn to God again with hope.,Connected to the emphasis on the need to bolster one’s effort in prayer, the Gemara notes that bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFourthings brequire bolstering,constant effort to improve, band they are: Torah, good deeds, prayer, and occupation. /b,For each of these, a biblical proof is cited: bFrom whereis it derived that bTorah and good deedsrequire bolstering? bAs it is statedin the instruction to Joshua: b“Only be strong and be extremely courageous, observe and do all of the Torahthat Moses My servant commanded you; do not deviate to the right or to the left, that you may succeed wherever you go” (Joshua 1:7). In this verse, observe refers to Torah study and do refers to good deeds (Maharsha); the apparently repetitive language is not extraneous. The Gemara derives: bBe strong in Torah and be courageous in good deeds. /b, bFrom whereis it derived that bprayerrequires bolstering? bAs it is said: “Hope in the Lord, strengthen yourself, let your heart take courage, and hope in the Lord.” /b, bFrom whereis it derived that boccupationrequires bolstering? bAs it is stated: “Be strong and we will be strong for the sake of our nationand for the cities of our God” (II Samuel 10:12). All of one’s labor requires bolstering.,The Gemara cites a midrash on the following verse from Isaiah, relating to the sin of the Golden Calf and Moses’ supplication for forgiveness: b“But Zion said: The Lord has forsaken me and the Lord has forgotten me.Can a woman forget her suckling baby, that she would not have compassion for the child of her womb? These may forget, but you I will not forget” (Isaiah 49:14–15). The Gemara seeks to clarify: bForsaken is the same as forgotten.They are synonymous; why repeat the same idea twice? bReish Lakish said: The community of Israel said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe,even when ba man marriesa second bwife after his first wife, hecertainly brecalls the deeds of his firstwife. Yet bYou havenot only bforsaken me,but You have bforgotten meas well., bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said toIsrael: bMy daughter, I created twelve constellations in the firmament, and for each and every constellation I have created thirty armies, and for each and every army I have created thirty legions [ iligyon /i], and for each and every legion I have created thirty infantry division leaders [ irahaton /i], and for each and every infantry division leader I have created thirty military camp leaders [ ikarton /i], and for each and every military camp leader I have created thirty leaders of forts [ igastera /i], and on each and every leader of a fort I have hung three hundred and sixty-five thousand stars corresponding to the days of the solar year. And all of them I have created only for your sake; and you saidthe Lord bhas forsaken me andthe Lord bhas forgotten me? /b,The verse goes on to say: b“Can a woman forget her suckling baby,that she would not have compassion for the child of her womb? These may forget, but you I will not forget.” The meaning of this verse is that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, saidto the community of Israel: bHave I forgotten the ram offerings and firstborn animals that you offered before Me in the desert?The community of Israel breplied to Him: Master of the Universe, since there is no forgetfulness before the Throne of Your Glory, perhaps you will not forget my sin of the Golden Calf?God bresponded toIsrael: b“These [ ielu /i] too shall be forgotten.” “ /bThese” is a reference to the sin of the Golden Calf, regarding which Israel said: “These [ ielu /i] are your gods.”,The community of Israel bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, since there is forgetfulness before the Throne of Your Glory, perhaps You willalso bforget the eventsrevolving around the revelation at bSinai?God bsaid toIsrael: bI [ ianokhi /i] will not forget youthe revelation at Sinai, which began with: “I [ ianokhi /i] am the Lord your God.”,The Gemara notes: bThatis what bRabbi Elazar saidthat bRav Oshaya said: What isthe meaning of that which is bwritten: “These too will be forgotten”? That is the sin of the Golden Calf.And what is the meaning of bI will not forget you? Those are the eventsthat transpired at bSinai. /b,We learned in the mishna that bthe earlygenerations of bpiousmen bwould wait one hourin order to achieve the solemn frame of mind appropriate for prayer.,The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:This is alluded to when bthe verse states: “Happy are those who dwell in Your House”(Psalms 84:5), immediately after which it is said: “They will yet praise You, Selah.”, bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who prays mustalso bwait one hour after his prayer, as it is stated: “Surely the righteous will give thanks unto Your name, the upright will sit before You”(Psalms 140:14), meaning that after thanking God through prayer, one should stay and sit before Him., bThatopinion bwas also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who prays must wait one hour before his prayer and one hour after his prayer. From whereis it derived that one must wait one hour bbefore his prayer? As it is stated: “Happy are those who dwell in Your House.” And from whereis it derived that one must stay one hour bafter his prayer? As it is written: “Surely the righteous will give thanks unto Your name, the upright will sit before You.” /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to waiting before and after prayer: bThe earlygenerations of bpiousmen bwould wait one hour, pray one hour, then wait one hour again.This raises the question: bSincethe early pious men bwould spend nine hours per dayengaged either bin prayeror the requisite waiting periods before and after prayer, three hours each for the morning, afternoon, and evening prayers, bhow is their Torah preserved?There was little time remaining to review their studies. bAnd how was their work accomplished? /b,The Gemara answers: bRather, because they were piousthey merited that btheir Torah is preserved and their work is blessed. /b,Additionally, we learned in the mishna: bEvenif bthe king greets himwhile he is praying, bhe should not respond to himas one may not interrupt his prayer.,In limiting application of this principle, bRav Yosef said: They only taughtthis mishna bwith regard to kings of Israel,as a Jewish king would understand that the individual did not fail to respond to his greeting due to disrespect for the king. bHowever, with regard to kings of the nations of the world, he interruptshis prayer and responds to their greeting due to the potential danger.,The Gemara braised an objectionto Rav Yosef’s statement: bOne who is praying and saw a violent person,feared by all, bcoming toward him,or ba carriage coming toward himand he is in the way, bhe should not stophis prayer bbut rather abridge it and moveout of the way.,The Gemara responds: This is bnot difficult.Rather, bthisthat teaches to abridge one’s prayer rather than stopping, refers to a case bwhere it is possible to abridgehis prayer and complete it in time, in which case he bshould abridgeit. bAnd ifit is bnota situation where he can abridge his prayer, bhe interruptshis prayer., bThe Sages taught:There was barelated bincident, involving a particular pious man who was prayingwhile traveling balong his pathwhen ban officer [ ihegmon /i] came and greeted him.The pious man did not pause from his prayer band did not respond with a greeting.The officer bwaited for him until he finished his prayer.br bAfter he finished his prayer,the officer bsaid to him:You bgood for nothing.You endangered yourself; I could have killed you. br bIsn’t it written in your Torah: “Take utmost care and guard yourself diligently”(Deuteronomy 4:9)? br bAnd it isalso bwritten: “Take therefore good heed unto yourselves”(Deuteronomy 4:15)? Why did you ignore the danger to your life? br bWhen I greeted you, why did you not respond with a greeting? br bWere I to sever your head with a sword, who would hold me accountable for yourspilled bblood? /b,The pious man bsaid to him: Wait for me until I will appease you withmy bwords. br bHe said to him: Had you been standing before a flesh and blood king and your friend came and greeted you,would byoubr breturn hisgreeting?
34. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

106a. חזנהו דקא שדו מיא מפומא דחצבא אמר אי הוה ידענא דרגיליתו למיעבד הכי לא איעכבי,כי אתא רב דימי אמר מים הראשונים האכילו בשר חזיר,אחרונים הוציאו את האשה מבעלה,כי אתא רבין אמר ראשונים האכילו בשר נבלה אחרונים הרגו את הנפש אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק וסימניך אתא רב דימי אפקה אתא רבין קטלה,ר' אבא מתני חדא מהני וחדא מהני לחומרא,איתמר חמי האור חזקיה אמר אין נוטלים מהן לידים ורבי יוחנן אמר נוטלין מהם לידים אמר רבי יוחנן שאלתי את רבן גמליאל בנו של רבי ואוכל טהרות ואמר לי כל גדולי גליל עושין כן,חמי טבריא חזקיה אמר אין נוטלין מהם לידים אבל מטבילין בהן הידים ורבי יוחנן אמר כל גופו טובל בהן אבל לא פניו ידיו ורגליו,השתא כל גופו טובל בהם פניו ידיו ורגליו לא כ"ש אמר רב פפא במקומן דכולי עלמא לא פליגי דשרי משקל מינייהו במנא דכ"ע לא פליגי דאסיר כי פליגי דפסקינהו בבת בירתא מר סבר גזרינן בת בירתא אטו מנא ומר סבר לא גזרינן,כתנאי מים שנפסלו משתיית בהמה בכלים פסולים בקרקע כשרין רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר אף בקרקע טובל בהן כל גופו אבל לא פניו ידיו ורגליו,השתא כל גופו טובל בהן ידיו ורגליו לא כ"ש אלא לאו דפסקינהו בבת בירתא ובהא פליגי דמר סבר גזרינן בת בירתא אטו מנא ומר סבר לא גזרינן,אמר רב אידי בר אבין אמר רב יצחק בר אשיאן נטילת ידים לחולין מפני סרך תרומה,ועוד משום מצוה מאי מצוה אמר אביי מצוה לשמוע דברי חכמים רבא אמר מצוה לשמוע דברי ר"א בן ערך דכתיב (ויקרא טו, יא) וכל אשר יגע בו הזב וידיו לא שטף במים אמר ר"א בן ערך מכאן סמכו חכמים לנטילת ידים מן התורה,אמר ליה רבא לרב נחמן מאי משמע דכתיב וידיו לא שטף במים הא שטף טהור הא טבילה בעי אלא הכי קאמר ואחר שלא שטף טמא,אמר ר' אלעזר אמר רבי אושעיא לא אמרו נטילת ידים לפירות אלא משום נקיות סבור מינה חובה הוא דליכא הא מצוה איכא אמר להו רבא לא חובה ולא מצוה אלא רשות ופליגא דרב נחמן דאמר רב נחמן הנוטל ידיו לפירות אינו אלא מגסי הרוח,אמר רבה בר בר חנה הוה קאימנא קמיה דרבי אמי ורבי אסי אייתו לקמייהו כלכלה דפירי ואכלו ולא משו ידייהו ולא יהבו לי מידי ובריך חד חד לחודיה שמע מינה תלת שמע מינה אין נטילת ידים לפירות וש"מ אין מזמנין על הפירות ושמע מינה שנים שאכלו מצוה ליחלק,תניא נמי הכי שנים שאכלו מצוה ליחלק במה דברים אמורים שהיו שניהם סופרים אבל אחד סופר ואחד בור סופר מברך ובור יוצא,תנו רבנן נטילת ידים לחולין עד הפרק לתרומה 106a. the demon bsawthe members of Rav Pappa’s household bpouring water from the mouth of the pitcherbefore drinking from it. The demon bsaidto them: bIf I had known that you regularly do this, I would not have delayed.I would have brought the water straight from the river, knowing you would pour out the foul waters.,§ bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael bhe said:Due to the failure to wash with bthe first waters,they ultimately bfeda Jew bpig meat.This case involved a storekeeper who would sell different meat to his Jewish and gentile customers. When a Jew who came to eat with him neglected to wash before eating, the storekeeper assumed he was a gentile and fed him pig meat.,And due to the failure to wash with bfinalwaters ba womanwas ultimately bdivorced from her husband.In this incident, a host who had stolen his guests’ money had lentils on his mustache from a previous meal because he had not washed his hands and mouth after eating. Realizing he had eaten lentils that day, his victims approached the man’s wife and said that her husband had instructed them to tell her to return their money. They then claimed that the man told them to tell her that he had eaten lentils that day as proof that they were telling the truth. They thereby fooled his wife into thinking he wanted her to give their money back. Out of anger, the host divorced his wife., bWhen Ravin camefrom Eretz Yisrael bhe saidthe statement slightly differently: Due to the failure to wash with bfirstwaters, they bfeda Jew meat from ban animal carcass,and the failure to wash with bfinalwaters bkilled a person,as in the second incident the host was so angry with his wife that he killed her. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: And your mnemonicto remember which Sage said which version is: bRav Dimi cameand bdivorced herfrom her husband, i.e., according to his version she was divorced, and bRavin cameand bkilled her,since in his version the husband killed his wife., bRabbi Abba would teach one of theseversions involving first waters band one of themwith regard to final waters, and in both cases he taught bthe more severeversion, i.e., he specified the meat of a pig and that the husband killed his wife.,A disagreement bwas statedwith regard to bwater heated by fire: Ḥizkiyya saysthat bone may not washhis bhands withsuch water, band Rabbi Yoḥa saysthat bone may washhis bhands with it. Rabbi Yoḥa said: I asked Rabban Gamliel, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, about this ihalakha /i, bandhe was one who would beatonly in a state of britual purityand was therefore careful about washing his hands; band he said to methat ball the great men of the Galilee would do so,i.e., wash their hands in heated water.,Likewise, with regard to bthe hot springs of Tiberias, Ḥizkiyya saysthat bone may not washhis bhands withwater from them before eating, bbutif there are forty ise’a /i, the requisite size of a ritual bath, then bone may immerse the handsdirectly bin them,and this is effective for the ritual of washing the hands before a meal. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa saysthat an impure person bmay immerse his entire body insuch water to become pure, bbutone may still bnotuse it for the immersion of part of his body, such as bhis face, hands, and feet,as this immersion is not considered equivalent to washing the hands.,The Gemara asks: bNowthat it has been said that one bmay immerse his entire body inthe hot springs of Tiberias, is it bnot all the more sopermitted for bhis face, hands, and feet? Rav Pappa said:When the water in the hot springs stands bin place, everyone,both Ḥizkiyya and Rabbi Yoḥa, bagrees that it is permittedto immerse one’s hands in it. Likewise, beveryone agrees thatto btake fromthese waters bin a vesseland wash one’s hands from it bis prohibited. They disagree when one drawsthe waters bthrough a ditch.One bSage,Rabbi Yoḥa, bholdsthat bwe decreeagainst the use of bditchwater bdue tothe concern that one might come to use water in ba vessel, andone bSage,Ḥizkiyya, bholdsthat bwe do not decreeagainst it.,The Gemara comments: This dispute is blikea dispute between itanna’im /i,as it was taught: When bwater that has ceased to be fit for drinkingeven bby an animalis bin vessels,it is bunfitfor washing the hands, but when it is bin the groundit is bfitfor immersion, like a ritual bath. bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Evenwhen the water is bin the ground,one bmay immerse his entire body in it, buthe may bnotimmerse bhis face, hands, and feet. /b,As above, one might ask: bNowthat one bmay immerse his entire body inthe water, is it bnot all the more sothe case that one may immerse bhis hands and feetin it? bRather,must it bnotbe referring to a case bwhen one drawsthe waters bthrough a ditch? Andif so, bthey disagree about this:One bSage,Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar, bholdsthat bwe decreeagainst the use of bditchwater bdue toconcern that one may come to use ba vessel, andone bSage,the first itannaof that ibaraita /i, bholdsthat bwe do not decreeagainst it.,§ bRav Idi bar Avin saysthat bRav Yitzḥak bar Ashiyan says:The obligation of bwashing handsbefore eating bnon-sacredfood is bdue to an ancillarydecree on account of iteruma /i,the portion of produce designated for the priest, which must be consumed in a state of ritual purity. By rabbinic decree, one’s hands are considered impure with second-degree ritual impurity, as they may have touched impure items. Therefore, they render iterumaimpure. Consequently, priests who partake of iterumaare obligated to wash their hands first. The Sages therefore decreed that all must wash their hands even before eating non-sacred food, so that people not become accustomed to eating without washing their hands, which would in turn lead the priests to partake of iterumawithout washing their hands., bAndthe obligation is bfurther due toits being ba mitzva.The Gemara asks: bWhat mitzvadoes it involve? bAbaye says:It is ba mitzva to listen toand obey bthe statements of the Sages,who instituted this washing of the hands. bRava says:It is ba mitzva to listen to the statement of Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh, as it is writtenwith regard to a man who experiences a gonorrhea-like discharge [ izav /i]: b“And whomever he that has the issue touches, without having rinsed his hands in water,”he contracts ritual impurity (Leviticus 15:11), and bRabbi Elazar ben Arakh says: From here the Sages based washing of the handsupon a verse bfrom the Torah. /b, bRava said to Rav Naḥman: From whereis this binferred?How can this verse, which concerns a izav /i, be interpreted as referring to washing the hands before a meal? Rava explains: bAs it is written: “Without having rinsed his hands in water.” Consequently,one could infer that if he brinsedhis hands the izavbecomes britually pure. Butthis cannot be correct, as verses elsewhere prove that a izav brequiresthe bimmersionof his entire body. bRather, thisis what the verse bis saying: Andthere is banothertype of person bwho,if he bhas not rinsedhis hands in water, is considered like one who is bimpure.The verse thereby serves as the basis for washing the hands., bRabbi Elazar saysthat bRabbi Oshaya says:The Sages bsaidthat bwashing of the handsbefore eating bfruitis mandatory bonly due to cleanliness.The Gemara comments: bThey understood from thisstatement that bthere is notrue bobligationto wash the hands before eating fruit, bbut there is a mitzvato do so. bRava said to them:This practice is bnot an obligation nor a mitzva, butmerely boptional. Andthe Gemara notes that Rava bdisagrees with Rav Naḥmanin this regard, bas Rav Naḥman said: One who washes his handsbefore eating bfruit is nothing other thanone bof the arrogant,i.e., it is actually prohibited to do so., bRabba bar bar Ḥana said: I was standing before Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asiwhen attendants bbrought a basket of fruit before them, and they ate and did not wash their hands. And they did not give me anythingto eat, to enable me to join the izimmun /i, the quorum required for communal Grace after Meals, band they each recited a blessingafter eating, bseparately.One may blearn three ihalakhot bfromthis incident. bLearn from itthat bthere is no washing of the handsbefore bfruit. And learn from itthat bone does not issue a izimmunon fruit,i.e., the ihalakhathat when three people eat together, one leads the Grace after Meals does not apply when they ate fruit. bAndfinally, blearn from itthat if only btwopeople bate,it is ba mitzvafor them bto separate,i.e., each should recite the blessing after eating for himself.,The Gemara notes: bThis ihalakha bis also taughtin a ibaraita /i: If only btwoindividuals bate,it is ba mitzvafor them bto separate. In whatcase bis this statement said?It is said bwhen they were both scribes,i.e., Torah scholars, who know how to recite Grace after Meals properly. bButif boneof them was ba scribe and onewas ban ignoramus,the bscribe recites Graceafter Meals bandthe bignoramus fulfillshis obligation by listening to the scribe., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: In bwashing of the hands forconsumption of bnon-sacredfood, one must pour the water on the area that extends buntil the jointof the fingers. In washing hands bforconsumption of iteruma /i, /b
35. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

5a. משום חשבונות,אמר ליה אביי וחשבונות של מצוה מי אסירי והא רב חסדא ורב המנונא דאמרי תרוייהו חשבונות של מצוה מותר לחשבן בשבת וא"ר אלעזר פוסקין צדקה לעניים בשבת ואמר ר' יעקב אמר ר' יוחנן הולכין לבתי כנסיות ולבתי מדרשות לפקח על עסקי רבים בשבת ואמר רבי יעקב בר אידי אמר רבי יוחנן מפקחין פיקוח נפש בשבת,ואמר רב שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן הולכין לטרטייאות ולקרקייאות לפקח על עסקי רבים בשבת ותנא דבי מנשיא משדכין על התינוקת ליארס בשבת ועל התינוק ללמדו ספר וללמדו אומנות,אלא אמר רבי זירא גזירה שמא ישחוט בן עוף א"ל אביי אלא מעתה יום הכפורים שחל להיות בשני בשבת ידחה גזירה שמא ישחוט בן עוף התם דלנפשיה לא טריד הכא דלאחרים טריד אי נמי התם אית ליה רווחא הכא לית ליה רווחא,השתא דאתית להכי ערב שבת נמי גזירה שמא ישחוט בן עוף,איבעיא להו בתולה נשאת ברביעי ונבעלת ברביעי ולא חיישינן לאיקרורי דעתא או דלמא בתולה נשאת ברביעי ונבעלת בחמישי דחיישינן לאיקרורי דעתא,ת"ש דתני בר קפרא בתולה נשאת ברביעי ונבעלת בחמישי הואיל ונאמרה בו ברכה לדגים אלמנה נשאת בחמישי ונבעלת בששי הואיל ונאמרה בו ברכה לאדם טעמא משום ברכה אבל משום איקרורי דעתא לא חיישינן,אי הכי אלמנה נמי תיבעל בחמישי הואיל ונאמרה בו ברכה לדגים ברכה דאדם עדיפא ליה,ואי נמי משום שקדו דתניא מפני מה אמרו אלמנה נשאת בחמישי ונבעלת בששי שאם אתה אומר תיבעל בחמישי למחר משכים לאומנתו והולך לו שקדו חכמים על תקנת בנות ישראל שיהא שמח עמה שלשה ימים חמישי בשבת וערב שבת ושבת,מאי איכא בין ברכה לשקדו איכא בינייהו אדם בטל אי נמי יום טוב שחל להיות בערב שבת,דרש בר קפרא גדולים מעשה צדיקים יותר ממעשה שמים וארץ דאילו במעשה שמים וארץ כתיב (ישעיהו מח, יג) אף ידי יסדה ארץ וימיני טפחה שמים ואילו במעשה ידיהם של צדיקים כתיב (שמות טו, יז) מכון לשבתך פעלת ה' מקדש אדני כוננו ידיך,השיב בבלי אחד ור' חייא שמו (תהלים צה, ה) ויבשת ידיו יצרו ידו כתיב והכתיב יצרו א"ר נחמן בר יצחק יצרו אצבעותיו כדכתיב (תהלים ח, ד) כי אראה שמיך מעשה אצבעותיך ירח וכוכבים אשר כוננת,מיתיבי (תהלים יט, ב) השמים מספרים כבוד אל ומעשה ידיו מגיד הרקיע הכי קאמר מעשה ידיהם של צדיקים מי מגיד הרקיע ומאי ניהו מטר,דרש בר קפרא מאי דכתיב (דברים כג, יד) ויתד תהיה לך על אזנך אל תקרי אזנך אלא על אוזנך שאם ישמע אדם דבר שאינו הגון 5a. It is bdue to calculationsperformed on Shabbat to prepare for the wedding. He would thereby engage in weekday matters on Shabbat., bAbaye said to him: And are calculations for a mitzva prohibitedon Shabbat? bBut wasn’t it Rav Ḥisda and Rav Hamnuna who both said:With regard to bcalculations for a mitzva,it is bpermitted to reckon them on Shabbat? And Rabbi Elazar said: One may allocate charity to the poor on Shabbat. And Rabbi Ya’akov saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: One goes to synagogues and study halls to supervise mattersaffecting the bmultitudes on Shabbat. And Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: One supervises matters of saving a life on Shabbat. /b, bAnd Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: One goes to theaters [ itartiyyaot /i] and circuses [ ikarkiyyaot /i] to supervise mattersaffecting the bmultitudes on Shabbat,because the fate of the Jewish people or of individual Jews is often decided there and one’s presence could prevent calamity. bAndthe Sage bof the school of Menashya taught:One bmakes matches [ imeshadkhin /i]among the families concerned bfor a young girl to be betrothed on Shabbat, andsimilarly one may make arrangements bfor a young boy to teach him Torah and to teach him a craft.Apparently, calculations for a mitzva may be reckoned on Shabbat, including calculations for a wedding. Therefore, this cannot be the reason for the prohibition against marrying at the conclusion of Shabbat., bRather, Rabbi Zeira said: It is a decree lest one slaughter a young fowl onShabbat, due to his preoccupation with the preparations for that night’s wedding feast. bAbaye said to him: Ifthat is bso, Yom Kippur that occurs on Monday should be postponedwhen fixing the calendar, due to ba decree lest one slaughter a young fowlon Shabbat for the meal on Yom Kippur eve, which is a mitzva. The Gemara distinguishes between the cases. bThere,with regard to Yom Kippur eve, when one is preparing a meal bfor himself, he is not preoccupied,and he will not overlook the fact that it is Shabbat. bHere,in the case of a wedding, one is preparing a meal bfor othersand is bpreoccupied. Alternatively, there,on Yom Kippur eve, bhe has an intervalof time during which he can slaughter the bird, as the mitzva is to eat the meal on Yom Kippur eve the next day. bHere, he does not have an intervalof time, because the wedding and the feast take place at night at the conclusion of Shabbat.,The Gemara says: bNow that we have come to thisunderstanding of the prohibition against marrying at the conclusion of Shabbat, the prohibition not to engage in sexual intercourse on bShabbat evening, too,is not due to the intercourse. Rather, it is ba decree lest one slaughter a young fowlfor the wedding feast.,§ The Gemara braises a dilemma: Is a virgin married on Wednesday anddoes she bengage in intercourse onthat bWednesday, and we are not concernedlest bhis resolveto take his bride to court upon discovering that she was not a virgin bcoolovernight? Rather, he will certainly go to court the next morning. bOr perhaps, a virgin is married on Wednesday but engages in intercourse on Thursday, as we are concerned that his resolve will cool. /b, bCome and hearproof, bas bar Kappara taught: A virgin is married on Wednesday and engages in intercourse on Thursday, since the blessing to the fish:Be fruitful and multiply, bwas statedon the fifth day of Creation. bA widow is married on Thursday and engages in intercourse on Friday, since the blessingof procreation bwas stated to manon the sixth day of Creation. It may be inferred that bthe reason is due to the blessing, but with regard tothe possibility lest bhis resolve cool, we are not concerned. /b,The Gemara asks: bIf so, a widow should also engage in intercourse on Thursday, since the blessing to the fish was stated then.The Gemara answers: Since there is the option to postpone engaging in relations to the day on which bthe blessing of manwas stated, doing so bis preferable for him. /b, bAlternatively,that day was established as the day for a widow to engage in sexual relations bdue tothe fact that the Sages bwere assiduousin seeing to the well-being of Jewish women, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhy didthe Sages bsay that a widow is married on Thursday and engages in intercourse on Friday?It is bbecause if you say that she should engage in intercourse on Thursday, on the next daythe groom will bgo toply bhis craft earlyand leave his wife alone. When a man marries a widow, there is no observance of the seven days of rejoicing, whose legal status is like that of a Festival, during which he does not go to work. Therefore, bthe Sages were assiduous in seeing to the well-being of Jewish womenand ensured bthatthe groom brejoice with herfor bthree days: Thursday,the day of the wedding; band Shabbat eve,the day when they engage in sexual relations; band Shabbat. /b, bWhatpractical difference bis there betweenthe two reasons given to engage in relations on Friday, i.e., the bblessingof procreation for man bandthe fact that the Sages bwere assiduous?The Gemara answers: bThere isa practical difference bbetween themin the case of ban idle person,who has no job, in which case the reason of blessing applies and the reason that the Sages were assiduous does not, as no matter what he will not go to work early. bAlternatively,there is a practical difference in the case of ba Festival that occurs on Shabbat eve.There too, the reason of blessing applies but the Sages’ assiduousness does not apply, as one does not work on a Festival.,§ The Gemara cites additional aggadic statements of bar Kappara. bBar Kappara taught: The handiwork of the righteous is greater than the creation of heaven and earth, as with regard to the creation of heaven and earth it is written: “My hand also has laid the foundation of the earth, and My right hand has spanned the heavens”(Isaiah 48:13). There, hand is written in the singular. bWhereas with regard to the handiwork of the righteous it is written: “The place which You have made for Yourself to dwell in, Lord, the Sanctuary, Lord, which your hands have established” (Exodus 15:17).The reference is to the Temple, which is the handiwork of man, and hand is written in the plural., bA certain Babylonian, and his name is Rabbi Ḥiyya, respondedwith a challenge. It is written with regard to creation of the earth: b“And His hands formed the dry land”(Psalms 95:5). The Gemara answers: b“His hand”is the way it bis written.Although the word is vocalized in the plural, it is written in the singular, without the letter iyod /i. bBut isn’t it written: “Formed,”in the plural? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The plural is referring to bHis fingers, as it is written: “When I see Your heavens, the work of Your fingers, the moon and stars, which You have established”(Psalms 8:4)., bThe Gemara raises an objection: “The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament proclaims the work of His hands”(Psalms 19:2). The heavens were created by His hands. The Gemara answers that bthisis what the verse bis saying: Who attests to the handiwork of the righteous,that they are performing the will of God? It is bthe heavens. And what isthe avenue through which the heavens do so? It is by means of brainthat falls due to the prayers of the righteous., bBar Kappara taught: What isthe meaning of that which bis written: And you shall have a peg among your weapons [ iazenekha /i]”(Deuteronomy 23:14)? bDo not readit as: bYour weapons [ iazenekha /i]. Rather,read it: bOn your ear [ ioznekha /i],meaning bthat if a person hears an inappropriate matter, /b
36. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

109a. לגיגית תקצץ יד מסמא יד מחרשת יד מעלה פוליפוס תניא רבי נתן אומר בת חורין היא זו ומקפדת עד שירחוץ ידיו ג' פעמים א"ר יוחנן פוך מעביר בת מלך ופוסק את הדמעה ומרבה שיער בעפעפים תניא נמי הכי רבי יוסי אומר פוך מעביר בת מלך ופוסק את הדמעה ומרבה שיער בעפעפים,ואמר מר עוקבא אמר שמואל עלין אין בהם משום רפואה אמר רב יוסף כוסברתא אין בה משום רפואה אמר רב ששת כשות אין בהן משום רפואה אמר רב יוסף כוסברתא אפילו לדידי קשה לי אמר רב ששת גרגירא אפילו לדידי מעלי ואמר מר עוקבא אמר שמואל כל מיני כשות שרו לבר מטרוזא,אמר רב חסדא שריקא טויא שרי פיעפועי ביעי אסור דביתהו דזעירי עבדא ליה לחייא בר אשי ולא אכל אמרה ליה לרבך עבדי ליה ואכל ואת לא אכלת זעירי לטעמיה דאמר זעירי נותן אדם יין צלול ומים צלולין לתוך המשמרת בשבת ואינו חושש אלמא כיון דמשתתי הכי לאו מידי קעביד הכא נמי כיון דמיתכיל הכי לאו מידי קעביד,ואמר מר עוקבא מי שנגפה ידו או רגלו צומתה ביין ואינו חושש איבעיא להו חלא מאי אמר רב הלל לרב אשי כי הוינא בי רב כהנא אמרי חלא לא אמר רבא והני בני מחוזא כיון דמפנקי אפילו חמרא נמי מסי להו,רבינא איקלע לבי רב אשי חזייה דדריכא ליה חמרא אגבא דכרעיה ויתיב קא צמית ליה בחלא אמר ליה לא סבר לה מר להא דאמר רב הילל חלא לא א"ל גב היד וגב הרגל שאני,איכא דאמרי חזייה דקא צמית ליה בחמרא אמר ליה לא סבר לה מר להא דאמר רבא הני בני מחוזא כיון דמפנקי אפי' חמרא נמי מסי להו ומר נמי הא מפנק אמר ליה גב היד וגב הרגל שאני דאמר רב אדא בר מתנה אמר רב גב היד וגב הרגל הרי הן כמכה של חלל ומחללין עליהן את השבת,ת"ר רוחצים במי גרר במי חמתן במי עסיא ובמי טבריא אבל לא בים הגדול ולא במי משרה ולא בימה של סדום,ורמינהו רוחצים במי טבריא ובים הגדול אבל לא במי משרה ולא בימה של סדום קשיא ים הגדול אים הגדול,א"ר יוחנן לא קשיא הא ר"מ הא ר' יהודה דתנן כל הימים כמקוה שנאמר (בראשית א, י) ולמקוה המים קרא ימים דברי ר"מ ר' יהודה אומר ים הגדול כמקוה ולא נאמר ימים אלא שיש בו מיני ימים הרבה,רבי יוסי אומר כל הימים מטהרין בזוחלין ופסולים לזבים ולמצורעים ולקדש בהן מי חטאת מתקיף לה רב נחמן בר יצחק 109a. that is placed binto a barrelof beer bshould be severedbecause the beer will not ferment. bA handthat frequently touches the eye bcauses blindness. A handthat frequently touches the ear bcauses deafness. A handthat touches the nose or mouth bcauses polyps [ ipolypus /i]. It was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Natan says: She is a liberatedentity b, thisevil spirit that rests on one’s hands before they are washed in the morning, band she refusesto leave buntil one washes his hands three times. Rabbi Yoḥa said:When beye shadowis placed on the eyes it bcausesthe evil spirit called bthe Daughter of the King to pass, and it stops tears and causes eyelashes to grow. That was also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Yosei says: Eye shadow causes the Daughter of the King to pass, and stops tears and causes eyelashes to grow. /b, bAnd Mar Ukva saidthat bShmuel said: Leavesthat are placed on the eye (Rabbeinu Ḥael) bcontain no element of healing,and therefore one may place them on his eyes on Shabbat. br bRav Yosef said: Coriander contains no element of healing.br bRav Sheshet said: Hops contain no element of healing.br bRav Yosef said: Even for me,who is blind, bcoriander is harmful.He overstated coriander’s inefficacy, asserting that it is in fact harmful. br bRav Sheshet said: Arugula even for me,despite my blindness, bis beneficial.br bAnd Mar Ukvaalso bsaidthat bShmuel said: All types of hops maybe eaten on Shabbat bexcept for iteruza /i,which is used exclusively for medicinal purposes., bRav Ḥisda said: Melon juice,which is beneficial for the intestines, bmay bestrained and drunk on Shabbat ( ige’onim /i). bThe juice of ipipuim /i,which are a type of vegetable (Rashba), bmay not bedrunk on Shabbat. The Gemara relates: bZe’iri’s wife mademelon juice bfor Ḥiyya bar Ashi and he did not consumeit. bShe said to him: I made it for your Rabbi,Ze’iri, band he ateit, band you do not eatit? The Gemara explains: bZe’irifollowed bhis own reasoningin permitting this drink, bas Ze’iri said: One may place clear wine and clear water into a strainerused to strain dregs from wine bon Shabbat without concern. Apparently, sincethe wine and water bare drunkeven with what little dregs may remain, bone is doing nothingto improve them. bHere, too, sincemelon juice bis consumed this way /b, without being strained and for non-medical purposes, bone is doing nothingand it is permitted., bAnd Mar Ukvaalso bsaid: One whose hand or foot was wounded may immerse it in wineon Shabbat to stop the flow of blood, band he need not be concernedthat he is violating the prohibition against healing on Shabbat. bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: With regard to bvinegar, whatis the ruling? May one immerse a wound in it? bRav Hillel said to Rav Ashi: When we were in Rav Kahana’s house they saidthat bvinegar is notpermitted, as it is considered actual medicine. bRava said: And these people from Meḥoza, since they are delicate, even wine heals them.Therefore, they may not immerse their wounds in wine.,The Gemara relates: bRavina happenedto come bto the house of Rav Ashi. He saw that a donkey stepped on the back ofRav Ashi’s bfoot, andRav Ashi bsat and immersedhis foot bin vinegaron Shabbat. Ravina bsaid toRav Ashi: bDoesthe bMaster not holdaccording to bthatwhich bRav Hillel stated,that bvinegaris bnotpermitted? bHe said to him: The back of the hand and the back of the foot are differentbecause their wounds are dangerous., bSome saythat Ravina bsaw thatRav Ashi bimmersedhis foot bin wine.Ravina bsaid to him: Doesthe bMaster not holdaccording to bthatwhich bRava said: These people from Meḥoza, since they are delicate, even wine heals them? Andthe bMaster is also delicate.Rav Ashi bsaid to him: The back of the hand and the back of the foot are different, as Rav Adda bar Mattana saidthat bRav said:A wound on bthe back of the hand or the back of the foot is like a fatal wound, and one may desecrate Shabbat for it. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: On Shabbat, bone may bathe inthe therapeutic hot springs of the bwaters of Gerar, in the waters of Ḥamatan, in the waters of Asya, and in the waters of Tiberias; however,one may bnotbathe bin the Great Sea,namely, the Mediterranean sea, bnor in waterin which flax was bsoaked, nor in the Sea of Sodom,because people bathe in those bodies of water only for medicinal purposes., bAndthe Gemara braises a contradictionbased on that which was taught in another ibaraita /i: bOne may bathe in the waters of Tiberiason Shabbat band in the Great Sea; butone may bnotbathe bin waterin which flax bwas soaked, nor in the Sea of Sodom.This is bdifficultbecause in the first ibaraitathe Sages prohibit bathing in bthe Great Sea,and in this ibaraitathey permit bathing in bthe Great Sea. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa said:This is bnot difficult,because bthis ibaraita,which permits bathing in the Great Sea, is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Meir,who deems all seas equal. bThat ibaraita,which prohibits bathing there, is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,who holds that the Great Sea is unlike other seas. bAs we learnedin a mishna: bAll seaspurify blike a ritual bath [ imikve /i], as it is stated:“And God called the dry land earth, band the gathering together of the waters [ imikve /i] He called seas”(Genesis 1:10); this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says:Only bthe Great Seapurifies blike a ritual bath, andthe verse bstates seas onlybecause bthere are many seas inthe Great Sea, not because all seas purify., bRabbi Yosei says: All seas purifylike a ritual bath. They actually purify even more than a ritual bath, as they purify even bwhenthey are bflowing.Immersion in a sea is purifying not only when its waters are still, but even when they are flowing. That is not the case with a ritual bath, whose waters only purify when still. bAndsea water bis invalid forpurifying izavimand lepers and for sanctifying purification waterto mix the ashes of the red heifer bwith it.Those cases require spring water. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak strongly objects to thisexplanation:


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
almsgiving, charity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117
apocrypha Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 184
aramaic Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 167
atonement Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117
baumgarten j.m. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 30
blood Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 75
calendar, intercalation Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 46
calendar, of temple scroll Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 88
christianity Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 184
dead sea scrolls Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 189
essenes Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 75; Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 184
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 46
faith, faithfulness Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117
festivals—see also calendar Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 161
food laws Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 75
friday (fast/festival day) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 46
gentiles Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 75
halakhah/halakhot, and aggadah; law and narrative Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 161
hammat gader, sabbath restrictions Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 189
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also, interpretation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
hot springs, jewish elite rhetoric on Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 189
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 161
jerusalem Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117
jesus Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117
jewish elite rhetoric, healing sites Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 189
jewish elite rhetoric, sabbath restrictions Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 189
jewish elite rhetoric Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 189
jewish other, ritual Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117
jews, jewry, jewish, jewish matrix, jewish setting, anti-jewish, non-jewish Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117
jews, sacred sites Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 189
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 161
lords prayer Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117
masoretic text Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 161
oil Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 88
patriarch, patriarchate Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 46
pharisees, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
piety, deeds of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 161; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117
psalms Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117
punishment Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117
purity/impurity Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 75
qumran, qumranic, anti-qumranic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117
qumran/qumran community Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 161
qumran community Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 46
rabbinic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117
rabbis, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
repentance, return to god Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117
ritual Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 46
sabbath Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 161; Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 189; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 46
sabbath code Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 144
sabbath rest Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 88
sacrifice Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 75
sacrifices/sacrificial offerings Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 161
sectarian/sectarianism Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 161
shavuot (pentecost, festival of weeks) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 46
sins, transgressions, sinners, forgiveness of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117
sukkot (tabernacles) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 46
sunday (festival day) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 46
system, halakhic ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 46
tannaim (early rabbis), tannaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 46
tannaitic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117
temple, sacrificial cult (in jerusalem), destruction Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117
temple, sacrificial cult (in jerusalem) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 117
temple (in jerusalem) Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 75
temple scroll, its calendar Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 88
temple scroll Fonrobert and Jaffee, The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion (2007) 142
thoughts, prohibition of, in dead dea scrolls' Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 144
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158, 161
wednesday (fast/festival day) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 46
wood offering Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 88
yom kippur (day of atonement) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 46