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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



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Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 8.16-8.17
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

60 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 13.3 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13.3. Acknowledge him before the nations, O sons of Israel;for he has scattered us among them.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 1.13, 6.1, 13.14, 18.15-18.18, 24.1-24.2, 29.28, 30.4, 33.8-33.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.13. הָבוּ לָכֶם אֲנָשִׁים חֲכָמִים וּנְבֹנִים וִידֻעִים לְשִׁבְטֵיכֶם וַאֲשִׂימֵם בְּרָאשֵׁיכֶם׃ 6.1. וְזֹאת הַמִּצְוָה הַחֻקִּים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם לְלַמֵּד אֶתְכֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 6.1. וְהָיָה כִּי יְבִיאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב לָתֶת לָךְ עָרִים גְּדֹלֹת וְטֹבֹת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־בָנִיתָ׃ 13.14. יָצְאוּ אֲנָשִׁים בְּנֵי־בְלִיַּעַל מִקִּרְבֶּךָ וַיַּדִּיחוּ אֶת־יֹשְׁבֵי עִירָם לֵאמֹר נֵלְכָה וְנַעַבְדָה אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יְדַעְתֶּם׃ 18.15. נָבִיא מִקִּרְבְּךָ מֵאַחֶיךָ כָּמֹנִי יָקִים לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵלָיו תִּשְׁמָעוּן׃ 18.16. כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁאַלְתָּ מֵעִם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּחֹרֵב בְּיוֹם הַקָּהָל לֵאמֹר לֹא אֹסֵף לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶת־קוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי וְאֶת־הָאֵשׁ הַגְּדֹלָה הַזֹּאת לֹא־אֶרְאֶה עוֹד וְלֹא אָמוּת׃ 18.17. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלָי הֵיטִיבוּ אֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּרוּ׃ 18.18. נָבִיא אָקִים לָהֶם מִקֶּרֶב אֲחֵיהֶם כָּמוֹךָ וְנָתַתִּי דְבָרַי בְּפִיו וְדִבֶּר אֲלֵיהֶם אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר אֲצַוֶּנּוּ׃ 24.1. כִּי־תַשֶּׁה בְרֵעֲךָ מַשַּׁאת מְאוּמָה לֹא־תָבֹא אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ לַעֲבֹט עֲבֹטוֹ׃ 24.1. כִּי־יִקַּח אִישׁ אִשָּׁה וּבְעָלָהּ וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא תִמְצָא־חֵן בְּעֵינָיו כִּי־מָצָא בָהּ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְכָתַב לָהּ סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻת וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ וְשִׁלְּחָהּ מִבֵּיתוֹ׃ 24.2. וְיָצְאָה מִבֵּיתוֹ וְהָלְכָה וְהָיְתָה לְאִישׁ־אַחֵר׃ 24.2. כִּי תַחְבֹּט זֵיתְךָ לֹא תְפָאֵר אַחֲרֶיךָ לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה׃ 29.28. הַנִּסְתָּרֹת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ וְהַנִּגְלֹת לָנוּ וּלְבָנֵינוּ עַד־עוֹלָם לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 30.4. אִם־יִהְיֶה נִדַּחֲךָ בִּקְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם מִשָּׁם יְקַבֶּצְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וּמִשָּׁם יִקָּחֶךָ׃ 33.8. וּלְלֵוִי אָמַר תֻּמֶּיךָ וְאוּרֶיךָ לְאִישׁ חֲסִידֶךָ אֲשֶׁר נִסִּיתוֹ בְּמַסָּה תְּרִיבֵהוּ עַל־מֵי מְרִיבָה׃ 33.9. הָאֹמֵר לְאָבִיו וּלְאִמּוֹ לֹא רְאִיתִיו וְאֶת־אֶחָיו לֹא הִכִּיר וְאֶת־בנו [בָּנָיו] לֹא יָדָע כִּי שָׁמְרוּ אִמְרָתֶךָ וּבְרִיתְךָ יִנְצֹרוּ׃ 33.11. בָּרֵךְ יְהוָה חֵילוֹ וּפֹעַל יָדָיו תִּרְצֶה מְחַץ מָתְנַיִם קָמָיו וּמְשַׂנְאָיו מִן־יְקוּמוּן׃ 1.13. Get you, from each one of your tribes, wise men, and understanding, and full of knowledge, and I will make them heads over you.’" 6.1. Now this is the commandment, the statutes, and the ordices, which the LORD your God commanded to teach you, that ye might do them in the land whither ye go over to possess it—" 13.14. ’Certain base fellows are gone out from the midst of thee, and have drawn away the inhabitants of their city, saying: Let us go and serve other gods, which ye have not known’;" 18.15. A prophet will the LORD thy God raise up unto thee, from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken;" 18.16. according to all that thou didst desire of the LORD thy God in Horeb in the day of the assembly, saying: ‘Let me not hear again the voice of the LORD my God, neither let me see this great fire any more, that I die not.’" 18.17. And the LORD said unto me: ‘They have well said that which they have spoken." 18.18. I will raise them up a prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee; and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him." 24.1. When a man taketh a wife, and marrieth her, then it cometh to pass, if she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some unseemly thing in her, that he writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house," 24.2. and she departeth out of his house, and goeth and becometh another man’s wife," 29.28. The secret things belong unto the LORD our God; but the things that are revealed belong unto us and to our children for ever, that we may do all the words of this law." 30.4. If any of thine that are dispersed be in the uttermost parts of heaven, from thence will the LORD thy God gather thee, and from thence will He fetch thee." 33.8. And of Levi he said: Thy Thummim and Thy Urim be with Thy holy one, Whom Thou didst prove at Massah, With whom Thou didst strive at the waters of Meribah;" 33.9. Who said of his father, and of his mother: ‘I have not seen him’; Neither did he acknowledge his brethren, Nor knew he his own children; For they have observed Thy word, And keep Thy covet." 33.10. They shall teach Jacob Thine ordices, And Israel Thy law; They shall put incense before Thee, And whole burnt-offering upon Thine altar. ." 33.11. Bless, LORD, his substance, And accept the work of his hands; Smite through the loins of them that rise up against him, And of them that hate him, that they rise not again."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.21, 21.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.21. מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה תַּעֲשֶׂה־לִּי וְזָבַחְתָּ עָלָיו אֶת־עֹלֹתֶיךָ וְאֶת־שְׁלָמֶיךָ אֶת־צֹאנְךָ וְאֶת־בְּקָרֶךָ בְּכָל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַזְכִּיר אֶת־שְׁמִי אָבוֹא אֵלֶיךָ וּבֵרַכְתִּיךָ׃ 21.1. וְאֵלֶּה הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר תָּשִׂים לִפְנֵיהֶם׃ 21.1. אִם־אַחֶרֶת יִקַּח־לוֹ שְׁאֵרָהּ כְּסוּתָהּ וְעֹנָתָהּ לֹא יִגְרָע׃ 20.21. An altar of earth thou shalt make unto Me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt-offerings, and thy peace-offerings, thy sheep, and thine oxen; in every place where I cause My name to be mentioned I will come unto thee and bless thee." 21.1. Now these are the ordices which thou shalt set before them."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 6.3, 9.25, 22.15, 37.25, 37.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 9.25. וַיֹּאמֶר אָרוּר כְּנָעַן עֶבֶד עֲבָדִים יִהְיֶה לְאֶחָיו׃ 22.15. וַיִּקְרָא מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָהָם שֵׁנִית מִן־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 37.25. וַיֵּשְׁבוּ לֶאֱכָל־לֶחֶם וַיִּשְׂאוּ עֵינֵיהֶם וַיִּרְאוּ וְהִנֵּה אֹרְחַת יִשְׁמְעֵאלִים בָּאָה מִגִּלְעָד וּגְמַלֵּיהֶם נֹשְׂאִים נְכֹאת וּצְרִי וָלֹט הוֹלְכִים לְהוֹרִיד מִצְרָיְמָה׃ 37.29. וַיָּשָׁב רְאוּבֵן אֶל־הַבּוֹר וְהִנֵּה אֵין־יוֹסֵף בַּבּוֹר וַיִּקְרַע אֶת־בְּגָדָיו׃ 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’" 9.25. And he said: Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren." 22.15. And the angel of the LORD called unto Abraham a second time out of heaven," 37.25. And they sat down to eat bread; and they lifted up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a caravan of Ishmaelites came from Gilead, with their camels bearing spicery and balm and ladanum, going to carry it down to Egypt." 37.29. And Reuben returned unto the pit; and, behold, Joseph was not in the pit; and he rent his clothes."
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 9.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.7. בָּאוּ יְמֵי הַפְּקֻדָּה בָּאוּ יְמֵי הַשִׁלֻּם יֵדְעוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֱוִיל הַנָּבִיא מְשֻׁגָּע אִישׁ הָרוּחַ עַל רֹב עֲוֺנְךָ וְרַבָּה מַשְׂטֵמָה׃ 9.7. The days of visitation are come, The days of recompense are come, Israel shall know it. The prophet is a fool, the man of the spirit is mad! For the multitude of thine iniquity, the enmity is great."
6. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 3.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 5.20-5.26, 18.5, 18.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.21. נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וּמָעֲלָה מַעַל בַּיהוָה וְכִחֵשׁ בַּעֲמִיתוֹ בְּפִקָּדוֹן אוֹ־בִתְשׂוּמֶת יָד אוֹ בְגָזֵל אוֹ עָשַׁק אֶת־עֲמִיתוֹ׃ 5.22. אוֹ־מָצָא אֲבֵדָה וְכִחֶשׁ בָּהּ וְנִשְׁבַּע עַל־שָׁקֶר עַל־אַחַת מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה הָאָדָם לַחֲטֹא בָהֵנָּה׃ 5.23. וְהָיָה כִּי־יֶחֱטָא וְאָשֵׁם וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת־הַגְּזֵלָה אֲשֶׁר גָּזָל אוֹ אֶת־הָעֹשֶׁק אֲשֶׁר עָשָׁק אוֹ אֶת־הַפִּקָּדוֹן אֲשֶׁר הָפְקַד אִתּוֹ אוֹ אֶת־הָאֲבֵדָה אֲשֶׁר מָצָא׃ 5.24. אוֹ מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׁבַע עָלָיו לַשֶּׁקֶר וְשִׁלַּם אֹתוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַחֲמִשִׁתָיו יֹסֵף עָלָיו לַאֲשֶׁר הוּא לוֹ יִתְּנֶנּוּ בְּיוֹם אַשְׁמָתוֹ׃ 5.25. וְאֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ יָבִיא לַיהוָה אַיִל תָּמִים מִן־הַצֹּאן בְּעֶרְכְּךָ לְאָשָׁם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃ 5.26. וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְנִסְלַח לוֹ עַל־אַחַת מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה לְאַשְׁמָה בָהּ׃ 18.5. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 18.13. עֶרְוַת אֲחוֹת־אִמְּךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה כִּי־שְׁאֵר אִמְּךָ הִוא׃ 5.20. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.21. If any one sin, and commit a trespass against the LORD, and deal falsely with his neighbour in a matter of deposit, or of pledge, or of robbery, or have oppressed his neighbour;" 5.22. or have found that which was lost, and deal falsely therein, and swear to a lie; in any of all these that a man doeth, sinning therein;" 5.23. then it shall be, if he hath sinned, and is guilty, that he shall restore that which he took by robbery, or the thing which he hath gotten by oppression, or the deposit which was deposited with him, or the lost thing which he found," 5.24. or any thing about which he hath sworn falsely, he shall even restore it in full, and shall add the fifth part more thereto; unto him to whom it appertaineth shall he give it, in the day of his being guilty." 5.25. And he shall bring his forfeit unto the LORD, a ram without blemish out of the flock, according to thy valuation, for a guilt-offering, unto the priest." 5.26. And the priest shall make atonement for him before the LORD, and he shall be forgiven, concerning whatsoever he doeth so as to be guilty thereby." 18.5. Ye shall therefore keep My statutes, and Mine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them: I am the LORD." 18.13. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy mother’s sister; for she is thy mother’s near kinswoman."
8. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 1.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. מִי גַם־בָּכֶם וְיִסְגֹּר דְּלָתַיִם וְלֹא־תָאִירוּ מִזְבְּחִי חִנָּם אֵין־לִי חֵפֶץ בָּכֶם אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וּמִנְחָה לֹא־אֶרְצֶה מִיֶּדְכֶם׃ 1.1. מַשָּׂא דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּיַד מַלְאָכִי׃ 1.1. The burden of the word of the LORD to Israel by Malachi."
9. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 3.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.8. וְאוּלָם אָנֹכִי מָלֵאתִי כֹחַ אֶת־רוּחַ יְהוָה וּמִשְׁפָּט וּגְבוּרָה לְהַגִּיד לְיַעֲקֹב פִּשְׁעוֹ וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵל חַטָּאתוֹ׃ 3.8. But I truly am full of power by the spirit of the LORD, and of justice, and of might, to declare unto Jacob his transgression, and to Israel his sin."
10. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 21.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.18. בְּאֵר חֲפָרוּהָ שָׂרִים כָּרוּהָ נְדִיבֵי הָעָם בִּמְחֹקֵק בְּמִשְׁעֲנֹתָם וּמִמִּדְבָּר מַתָּנָה׃ 21.18. The well, which the princes digged, Which the nobles of the people delved, With the sceptre, and with their staves. And from the wilderness to Mattanah;"
11. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 45.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

45.2. רָחַשׁ לִבִּי דָּבָר טוֹב אֹמֵר אָנִי מַעֲשַׂי לְמֶלֶךְ לְשׁוֹנִי עֵט סוֹפֵר מָהִיר׃ 45.2. My heart overfloweth with a goodly matter; I say: 'My work is concerning a king'; My tongue is the pen of a ready writer."
12. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 5.26-5.27 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

5.26. וּנְשָׂאתֶם אֵת סִכּוּת מַלְכְּכֶם וְאֵת כִּיּוּן צַלְמֵיכֶם כּוֹכַב אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר עֲשִׂיתֶם לָכֶם׃ 5.27. וְהִגְלֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵהָלְאָה לְדַמָּשֶׂק אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ 5.26. So shall ye take up Siccuth your king and Chiun your images, the star of your god, which ye made to yourselves." 5.27. Therefore will I cause you to go into captivity beyond Damascus, saith He, whose name is the LORD God of hosts."
13. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.17, 11.1-11.2, 29.24, 30.1, 31.3, 34.16, 40.3-40.5, 42.1, 61.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.17. לִמְדוּ הֵיטֵב דִּרְשׁוּ מִשְׁפָּט אַשְּׁרוּ חָמוֹץ שִׁפְטוּ יָתוֹם רִיבוּ אַלְמָנָה׃ 11.1. וְיָצָא חֹטֶר מִגֵּזַע יִשָׁי וְנֵצֶר מִשָּׁרָשָׁיו יִפְרֶה׃ 11.1. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא שֹׁרֶשׁ יִשַׁי אֲשֶׁר עֹמֵד לְנֵס עַמִּים אֵלָיו גּוֹיִם יִדְרֹשׁוּ וְהָיְתָה מְנֻחָתוֹ כָּבוֹד׃ 11.2. וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ יְהוָה רוּחַ חָכְמָה וּבִינָה רוּחַ עֵצָה וּגְבוּרָה רוּחַ דַּעַת וְיִרְאַת יְהוָה׃ 29.24. וְיָדְעוּ תֹעֵי־רוּחַ בִּינָה וְרוֹגְנִים יִלְמְדוּ־לֶקַח׃ 30.1. הוֹי בָּנִים סוֹרְרִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה לַעֲשׂוֹת עֵצָה וְלֹא מִנִּי וְלִנְסֹךְ מַסֵּכָה וְלֹא רוּחִי לְמַעַן סְפוֹת חַטָּאת עַל־חַטָּאת׃ 30.1. אֲשֶׁר אָמְרוּ לָרֹאִים לֹא תִרְאוּ וְלַחֹזִים לֹא תֶחֱזוּ־לָנוּ נְכֹחוֹת דַּבְּרוּ־לָנוּ חֲלָקוֹת חֲזוּ מַהֲתַלּוֹת׃ 31.3. וּמִצְרַיִם אָדָם וְלֹא־אֵל וְסוּסֵיהֶם בָּשָׂר וְלֹא־רוּחַ וַיהוָה יַטֶּה יָדוֹ וְכָשַׁל עוֹזֵר וְנָפַל עָזֻר וְיַחְדָּו כֻּלָּם יִכְלָיוּן׃ 34.16. דִּרְשׁוּ מֵעַל־סֵפֶר יְהוָה וּקְרָאוּ אַחַת מֵהֵנָּה לֹא נֶעְדָּרָה אִשָּׁה רְעוּתָהּ לֹא פָקָדוּ כִּי־פִי הוּא צִוָּה וְרוּחוֹ הוּא קִבְּצָן׃ 40.3. קוֹל קוֹרֵא בַּמִּדְבָּר פַּנּוּ דֶּרֶךְ יְהוָה יַשְּׁרוּ בָּעֲרָבָה מְסִלָּה לֵאלֹהֵינוּ׃ 40.3. וְיִעֲפוּ נְעָרִים וְיִגָעוּ וּבַחוּרִים כָּשׁוֹל יִכָּשֵׁלוּ׃ 40.4. כָּל־גֶּיא יִנָּשֵׂא וְכָל־הַר וְגִבְעָה יִשְׁפָּלוּ וְהָיָה הֶעָקֹב לְמִישׁוֹר וְהָרְכָסִים לְבִקְעָה׃ 40.5. וְנִגְלָה כְּבוֹד יְהוָה וְרָאוּ כָל־בָּשָׂר יַחְדָּו כִּי פִּי יְהוָה דִּבֵּר׃ 42.1. הֵן עַבְדִּי אֶתְמָךְ־בּוֹ בְּחִירִי רָצְתָה נַפְשִׁי נָתַתִּי רוּחִי עָלָיו מִשְׁפָּט לַגּוֹיִם יוֹצִיא׃ 42.1. שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה שִׁיר חָדָשׁ תְּהִלָּתוֹ מִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ יוֹרְדֵי הַיָּם וּמְלֹאוֹ אִיִּים וְיֹשְׁבֵיהֶם׃ 61.1. שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ 61.1. רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃ 1.17. Learn to do well; Seek justice, relieve the oppressed, Judge the fatherless, plead for the widow." 11.1. And there shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, And a twig shall grow forth out of his roots." 11.2. And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and might, The spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD." 29.24. They also that err in spirit shall come to understanding, And they that murmur shall learn instruction." 30.1. Woe to the rebellious children, saith the LORD, That take counsel, but not of Me; and that form projects, but not of My spirit, that they may add sin to sin;" 31.3. Now the Egyptians are men, and not God, And their horses flesh, and not spirit; So when the LORD shall stretch out His hand, Both he that helpeth shall stumble, and he that is helped shall fall, And they all shall perish together." 34.16. Seek ye out of the book of the LORD, and read; No one of these shall be missing, None shall want her mate; For My mouth it hath commanded, And the breath thereof it hath gathered them." 40.3. Hark! one calleth: ‘Clear ye in the wilderness the way of the LORD, make plain in the desert a highway for our God." 40.4. Every valley shall be lifted up, and every mountain and hill shall be made low; and the rugged shall be made level, and the rough places a plain;" 40.5. And the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together; for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.’" 42.1. Behold My servant, whom I uphold; Mine elect, in whom My soul delighteth; I have put My spirit upon him, He shall make the right to go forth to the nations." 61.1. The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;"
14. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 1.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.8. לֹא־יָמוּשׁ סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה מִפִּיךָ וְהָגִיתָ בּוֹ יוֹמָם וָלַיְלָה לְמַעַן תִּשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכָל־הַכָּתוּב בּוֹ כִּי־אָז תַּצְלִיחַ אֶת־דְּרָכֶךָ וְאָז תַּשְׂכִּיל׃ 1.8. This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth, but thou shalt meditate therein day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written therein; for then thou shalt make thy ways prosperous, and then thou shalt have good success."
15. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 4.4-4.6, 40.46, 44.15 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.4. וְאַתָּה שְׁכַב עַל־צִדְּךָ הַשְּׂמָאלִי וְשַׂמְתָּ אֶת־עֲוֺן בֵּית־יִשְׂרָאֵל עָלָיו מִסְפַּר הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁכַּב עָלָיו תִּשָּׂא אֶת־עֲוֺנָם׃ 4.5. וַאֲנִי נָתַתִּי לְךָ אֶת־שְׁנֵי עֲוֺנָם לְמִסְפַּר יָמִים שְׁלֹשׁ־מֵאוֹת וְתִשְׁעִים יוֹם וְנָשָׂאתָ עֲוֺן בֵּית־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 4.6. וְכִלִּיתָ אֶת־אֵלֶּה וְשָׁכַבְתָּ עַל־צִדְּךָ הימוני [הַיְמָנִי] שֵׁנִית וְנָשָׂאתָ אֶת־עֲוֺן בֵּית־יְהוּדָה אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם יוֹם לַשָּׁנָה יוֹם לַשָּׁנָה נְתַתִּיו לָךְ׃ 40.46. וְהַלִּשְׁכָּה אֲשֶׁר פָּנֶיהָ דֶּרֶךְ הַצָּפוֹן לַכֹּהֲנִים שֹׁמְרֵי מִשְׁמֶרֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הֵמָּה בְנֵי־צָדוֹק הַקְּרֵבִים מִבְּנֵי־לֵוִי אֶל־יְהוָה לְשָׁרְתוֹ׃ 44.15. וְהַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם בְּנֵי צָדוֹק אֲשֶׁר שָׁמְרוּ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת מִקְדָּשִׁי בִּתְעוֹת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵעָלַי הֵמָּה יִקְרְבוּ אֵלַי לְשָׁרְתֵנִי וְעָמְדוּ לְפָנַי לְהַקְרִיב לִי חֵלֶב וָדָם נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 4.4. Moreover lie thou upon thy left side, and lay the iniquity of the house of Israel upon it; according to the number of the days that thou shalt lie upon it, thou shalt bear their iniquity." 4.5. For I have appointed the years of their iniquity to be unto thee a number of days, even three hundred and ninety days; so shalt thou bear the iniquity of the house of Israel." 4.6. And again, when thou hast accomplished these, thou shalt lie on thy right side, and shalt bear the iniquity of the house of Judah; forty days, each day for a year, have I appointed it unto thee." 40.46. And the chamber whose prospect is toward the north is for the priests, the keepers of the charge of the altar; these are the sons of Zadok, who from among the sons of Levi come near to the LORD to minister unto Him.’" 44.15. But the priests the Levites, the sons of Zadok, that kept the charge of My sanctuary when the children of Israel went astray from Me, they shall come near to Me to minister unto Me; and they shall stand before Me to offer unto Me the fat and the blood, saith the Lord GOD;"
17. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9.12, 9.19-9.20, 9.29-9.30 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.12. וּבְעַמּוּד עָנָן הִנְחִיתָם יוֹמָם וּבְעַמּוּד אֵשׁ לַיְלָה לְהָאִיר לָהֶם אֶת־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יֵלְכוּ־בָהּ׃ 9.19. וְאַתָּה בְּרַחֲמֶיךָ הָרַבִּים לֹא עֲזַבְתָּם בַּמִּדְבָּר אֶת־עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן לֹא־סָר מֵעֲלֵיהֶם בְּיוֹמָם לְהַנְחֹתָם בְּהַדֶּרֶךְ וְאֶת־עַמּוּד הָאֵשׁ בְּלַיְלָה לְהָאִיר לָהֶם וְאֶת־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יֵלְכוּ־בָהּ׃ 9.29. וַתָּעַד בָּהֶם לַהֲשִׁיבָם אֶל־תּוֹרָתֶךָ וְהֵמָּה הֵזִידוּ וְלֹא־שָׁמְעוּ לְמִצְוֺתֶיךָ וּבְמִשְׁפָּטֶיךָ חָטְאוּ־בָם אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם וְחָיָה בָהֶם וַיִּתְּנוּ כָתֵף סוֹרֶרֶת וְעָרְפָּם הִקְשׁוּ וְלֹא שָׁמֵעוּ׃ 9.12. Moreover in a pillar of cloud Thou didst lead them by day; and in a pillar of fire by night, to give them light in the way wherein they should go." 9.19. yet Thou in Thy manifold mercies forsookest them not in the wilderness; the pillar of cloud departed not from over them by day, to lead them in the way; neither the pillar of fire by night, to show them light, and the way wherein they should go." 9.20. Thou gavest also Thy good spirit to instruct them, and withheldest not Thy manna from their mouth, and gavest them water for their thirst." 9.29. and didst forewarn them, that Thou mightest bring them back unto Thy law; yet they dealt proudly, and hearkened not unto Thy commandments, but sinned against Thine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them, and presented a stubborn shoulder, and hardened their neck, and would not hear." 9.30. Yet many years didst Thou extend mercy unto them, and didst forewarn them by Thy spirit through Thy prophets; yet would they not give ear; therefore gavest Thou them into the hand of the peoples of the lands."
18. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 7.12, 14.8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7.12. וְלִבָּם שָׂמוּ שָׁמִיר מִשְּׁמוֹעַ אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה וְאֶת־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר שָׁלַח יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בְּרוּחוֹ בְּיַד הַנְּבִיאִים הָרִאשֹׁנִים וַיְהִי קֶצֶף גָּדוֹל מֵאֵת יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 14.8. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יֵצְאוּ מַיִם־חַיִּים מִירוּשָׁלִַם חֶצְיָם אֶל־הַיָּם הַקַּדְמוֹנִי וְחֶצְיָם אֶל־הַיָּם הָאַחֲרוֹן בַּקַּיִץ וּבָחֹרֶף יִהְיֶה׃ 7.12. Yea, they made their hearts as an adamant stone, lest they should hear the law, and the words which the LORD of hosts had sent by His spirit by the hand of the former prophets; therefore came there great wrath from the LORD of hosts." 14.8. And it shall come to pass in that day, That living waters shall go out from Jerusalem: Half of them toward the eastern sea, And half of them toward the western sea; In summer and in winter shall it be."
19. Septuagint, Tobit, 13.3 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13.3. Acknowledge him before the nations, O sons of Israel;for he has scattered us among them.
20. Anon., Jubilees, 1.1-1.29, 3.8-3.11, 5.13, 6.1-6.24, 6.27-6.38, 15.1, 15.3, 15.11-15.34, 21.3, 21.6, 21.10, 21.16-21.18, 21.21, 21.23, 32.1-32.15, 32.20-32.29, 34.18, 41.23-41.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. THIS is the history of the division of the days of the law and of the testimony, of the events of the years, of their (year) weeks, of their jubilees throughout all the years of the world, as the Lord spake to Moses on Mount Sinai when he went up to receive the tables of the law and of the commandment, according to the voice of God as He said unto him, "Go up to the top of the Mount." br) And it came to pass in the first year of the A.M. (A.M. = Anno Mundi) exodus of the children of Israel out of Egypt, in the third month, on the sixteenth day of the month, that God spake to Moses, saying: 1.2. Come up to Me on the Mount, and I will give thee two tables of stone of the law and of the commandment, which I have written, that thou mayst teach them. 1.3. And Moses went up into the mount of God, and the glory of the Lord abode on Mount Sinai, and a cloud overshadowed it six days. brAnd He called to Moses on the seventh day out of the midst of the cloud 1.4. and the appearance of the glory of the Lord was like a flaming fire on the top of the Mount. 1.5. And Moses was on the Mount forty days and forty nights, and God taught him the earlier and the later history 1.6. of the division of all the days of the law and of the testimony. 1.7. And He said: "Incline thine heart to every word which I shall speak to thee on this Mount, and write them in a book in order that their generations may see how I have not forsaken them for all the evil which they have wrought in transgressing the covet which I establish between Me and thee for their generations this day on Mount Sinai. 1.8. And thus it will come to pass when all these things come upon them, that they will recognize that I am more righteous than they in all their judgments and in all their actions, and they will recognize that I have been truly with them. 1.9. And do thou write for thyself all these words which I declare unto thee this day, for I know their rebellion and their stiff neck, before I bring them into the land of which I sware to their fathers, to Abraham and to Isaac and to Jacob, saying: "Unto your seed will I give a land flowing with milk and honey 1.10. And they will eat and be satisfied, and they will turn to strange gods, to (gods) which cannot deliver them from aught of their tribulation: 1.11. and this witness shall be heard for a witness against them. brFor they will forget all My commandments, (even) all that I command them, and they will walk after the Gentiles 1.12. and after their uncleanness, and after their shame, and will serve their gods, and these will prove unto them an offence and a tribulation and an affliction and a snare. 1.13. And many will perish and they will be taken captive, and will fall into the hands of the enemy, because they have forsaken My ordices and My commandments, and the festivals of My covet 1.14. and My sabbaths, and My holy place which I have hallowed for Myself in their midst, and My tabernacle, and My sanctuary, which I have hallowed for Myself in the midst of the land, that I should set My name upon it, and that it should dwell (there). 1.15. And they will make to themselves high places and groves and graven images, and they will worship, each his own (graven image), so as to go astray, and they will sacrifice their children to demons, and to all the works of the error of their hearts. 1.16. And I will send witnesses unto them, that I may witness against them, but they will not hear, and will slay the witnesses also 1.17. and they will persecute those who seek the law, and they will abrogate and change everything so as to work evil before My eyes. 1.18. And I shall hide My face from them, and I shall deliver them into the hand of the Gentiles for captivity, and for a prey, and for devouring, and I shall remove them from the midst of the land, and I shall scatter them amongst the Gentiles. 1.19. And they will forget all My law and all My commandments and all My judgments, and will go astray as to new moons, and sabbaths, and festivals, and jubilees, and ordices. 1.20. And after this they will turn to Me from amongst the Gentiles with all their heart and with all their soul and with all their strength 1.21. and I shall gather them from amongst all the Gentiles, and they will seek Me, so that I shall be found of them 1.22. when they seek Me with all their heart and with all their soul. brAnd I shall disclose to them abounding peace with righteousness, and I shall remove them the plant of uprightness, with all My heart and with all My soul 1.23. and they will be for a blessing and not for a curse, and they will be the head and not the tail. 1.24. And I shall build My sanctuary in their midst, and I shall dwell with them, and I shall be their God and they will be My people in truth and righteousness. 1.25. And I shall not forsake them nor fail them; for I am the Lord their God. 1.26. And Moses fell on his face and prayed and said 1.27. O Lord my God, do not forsake Thy people and Thy inheritance, so that they should wander in the error of their hearts, and do not deliver them into the hands of their enemies, the Gentiles, lest they should rule over them and cause them to sin against Thee. 1.28. Let Thy mercy, O Lord, be lifted up upon Thy people, and create in them an upright spirit 1.29. and let not the spirit of Beliar rule over them to accuse them before Thee, and to ensnare them from all the paths of righteousness, so that they may perish from before Thy face. 3.8. And He awaked Adam out of his sleep and on awaking he rose on the sixth day, and He brought her to him, and he knew her, and said unto her: 3.9. This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she will be called [my] wife; because she was taken from her husband. 3.10. Therefore shall man and wife be one, and therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh. 3.11. In the first week was Adam created, and the rib--his wife: in the second week He showed her unto him: 5.13. And He sent His sword into their midst that each should slay his neighbour, and they began to slay each other till they all fell by the sword and were destroyed from the earth. 6.1. And on the new moon of the third month he went forth from the ark, and built an altar on that mountain. 6.2. And he made atonement for the earth, and took a kid and made atonement by its blood for all the guilt of the earth; for everything that had been on it had been destroyed, save those that were in the ark with Noah. 6.3. And he placed the fat thereof on the altar, and he took an ox, and a goat, and a sheep and kids, and salt, and a turtle-dove, and the young of a dove 6.4. and placed a burnt sacrifice on the altar, and poured thereon an offering mingled with oil, and sprinkled wine and strewed frankincense over everything, and caused a goodly savour to arise, acceptable before the Lord. 6.5. And the Lord smelt the goodly savour, and He made a covet with him that there should not be any more a flood to destroy the earth; 6.6. that all the days of the earth seed-time and harvest should never cease; cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night should not change their order, nor cease for ever. 6.7. And you, increase ye and multiply upon the earth, and become many upon it, and be a blessing upon it. 6.8. The fear of you and the dread of you I shall inspire in everything that is on earth and in the sea. 6.9. And behold I have given unto you all beasts, and all winged things, and everything that moveth on the earth, and the fish in the waters, and all things for food; as the green herbs, I have given you all things to eat. 6.10. But flesh, with the life thereof, with the blood, ye shall not eat; for the life of all flesh is in the blood, lest your blood of your lives be required. 6.11. At the hand of every man, at the hand of every (beast), shall I require the blood of man. 6.12. Whoso sheddeth man's blood by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made He man. 6.13. And you, increase ye, and multiply on the earth. 6.14. And Noah and his sons swore that they would not eat any blood that was in any flesh 6.15. and he made a covet before the Lord God for ever throughout all the generations of the earth in this month. 6.16. On this account He spake to thee that thou shouldst make a covet with the children of Israel in this month upon the mountain with an oath, and that thou shouldst sprinkle blood upon them because of all the words of the covet, which the Lord made with them for ever. 6.17. And this testimony is written concerning you that you should observe it continually, so that you should not eat on any day any blood of beasts or birds or cattle during all the days of the earth 6.18. and the man who eateth the blood of beast or of cattle or of birds during all the days of the earth, he and his seed shall be rooted out of the land. 6.19. And do thou command the children of Israel to eat no blood, so that their names and their seed may be before the Lord our God continually. 6.20. And for this law there is no limit of days, for it is for ever. They shall observe it throughout their generations, so that they may continue supplicating on your behalf with blood before the altar; 6.21. every day and at the time of morning and evening they shall seek forgiveness on your behalf perpetually before the Lord that they may keep it and not be rooted out. 6.22. And He gave to Noah and his sons a sign that there should not again be a flood on the earth. 6.23. He set His bow in the cloud for a sign of the eternal covet that there should not again be a flood on the earth to destroy it all the days of the earth. 6.24. For this reason it is ordained and written on the heavenly tables, that they should celebrate the feast of weeks in this month once a year, to renew the covet every year. 6.27. But Abraham observed it, and Isaac and Jacob and his children observed it up to thy days 6.28. and in thy days the children of Israel forgot it until ye celebrated it anew on this mountain. 6.29. And do thou command the children of Israel to observe this festival in all their generations for a commandment unto them: 6.30. one day in the year in this month they shall celebrate the festival. 6.31. For it is the feast of weeks and the feast of first-fruits: 6.32. this feast is twofold and of a double nature: according to what is written and engraven concerning it celebrate it. 6.33. For I have written in the book of the first law, in that which I have written for thee, that thou shouldst celebrate it in its season, one day in the year 6.34. and I explained to thee its sacrifices that the children of Israel should remember and should celebrate it throughout their generations in this month, one day in every year. 6.35. And on the new moon of the first month, and on the new moon of the fourth month, and on the new moon of the seventh month, and on the new moon of the tenth month are the days of remembrance, and the days of the seasons in the four divisions of the year. 6.36. These are written and ordained as a testimony for ever. 6.37. And Noah ordained them for himself as feasts for the generations for ever, so that they have become thereby a memorial unto him. 6.38. And on the new moon of the first month he was bidden to make for himself an ark, and on that (day) the earth became dry and he opened (the ark) and saw the earth. 15.1. And in the fifth year of the fourth week of this jubilee, in the third month, in the middle of the month, Abram celebrated the feast of the first-fruits of the grain harvest. 15.3. And the Lord appeared to Abram, and said unto him: "I am God Almighty; approve thyself before Me and be thou perfect. And I will make My covet between 15.11. And the Lord said unto Abraham: "And as for thee, do thou keep My Covet, thou and thy seed after thee 15.12. and circumcise ye every male among you, and circumcise your foreskins, and it will be a token of an eternal covet between Me and you. 15.13. And the child on the eighth day ye will circumcise, every male throughout your generations, him that is born in the house, or whom ye have bought with money from any stranger, whom ye have acquired 15.14. who is not of thy seed. brHe that is born in thy house will surely be circumcised, and those whom thou hast bought with money will be circumcised, and My covet will be in your flesh for an eternal ordice. 15.15. And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin on the eighth day, that soul will be cut off from his people, for he hath broken My covet. 15.16. And God said unto Abraham: "As for Sarai thy wife, her name will no more be called Sarai, but Sarah will be her name. 15.17. And I shall bless her, and give thee a son by her, and I shall bless him, and he will become a nation, and kings of nations will proceed from him. 15.18. And Abraham fell on his face, and rejoiced, and said in his heart: "Shall a son be born to him that is a hundred years old, and shall Sarah, who is ninety years old, bring forth? 15.19. And Abraham said unto God: "O that Ishmael might live before thee! 15.20. And God said: "Yea, and Sarah also will bear thee a son, and thou wilt call his name Isaac, and I shall establish My covet with him, an everlasting covet, and for his seed after him. 15.21. And as for Ishmael also have I heard thee, and behold I shall bless him, and make him great, and multiply him exceedingly, and he will beget twelve princes, and I shall make him a great nation. 15.22. But My covet shall I establish with Isaac, whom Sarah will bear to thee, in these days, in the next year. 15.23. And He left off speaking with him, and God went up from Abraham. 15.24. And Abraham did according as God had said unto him, and he took Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his house, and whom he had bought with his money, every male in his house, and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin. 15.25. And on the selfsame day was Abraham circumcised, and all the men of his house, (and those born in the house), and all those, whom he had bought with money from the children of the stranger, were circumcised with him. 15.26. This law is for all the generations for ever 15.27. and there is no circumcision of the days, and no omission of one day out of the eight days; for it is an eternal ordice, ordained and written on the heavenly tables. 15.28. And every one that is born, the flesh of whose foreskin is not circumcised on the eighth day, belongeth not to the children of the covet which the Lord made with Abraham, but to the children of destruction; 15.29. nor is there, moreover, any sign on him that he is the Lord's, but (he is destined) to be destroyed and slain from the earth, and to be rooted out of the earth, for he hath broken the covet of the Lord our God. 15.30. For all the angels of the presence and all the angels of sanctification have been so created from the day of their creation, and before the angels of the presence and the angels of sanctification He hath sanctified Israel, that they should be with Him and with His holy angels. 15.31. And do thou command the children of Israel and let them observe the sign of this covet for their generations as an eternal ordice, and they will not be rooted out of the land. 15.32. For the command is ordained for a covet, that they should observe it for ever among all the children of Israel. 15.33. For Ishmael and his sons and his brothers and Esau, the Lord did not cause to approach Him, and he chose them not because they are the children of Abraham, because He knew them, but He chose Israel to be His people. 15.34. And He sanctified it, and gathered it from amongst all the children of men ; 21.3. And behold, I am one hundred and seventy-five years old, and throughout all the days of my life I have remembered the Lord, and sought with all my heart to do His will, and to walk uprightly in all His ways. 21.6. And do thou, my son, observe His commandments and His ordices and His judgments, and walk not after the abominations and after the graven images and after the molten images. brAnd eat no blood at all of animals or cattle, or of any bird which flieth in the heaven. 21.10. and the two kidneys, and all the fat that is upon them, and upon the loins and liver thou shalt remove together with the kidneys. 21.16. And as regards the wood of the sacrifices, beware lest thou bring (other) wood for the altar in addition to these: cypress, dêfrân, sagâd, pine, fir, cedar, savin, palm, olive, myrrh, laurel, and citron, juniper, and balsam. 21.17. And of these kinds of wood lay upon the altar under the sacrifice, such as have been tested as to their appearance, and do not lay (thereon) any split or dark wood 21.18. (but) hard and clean, without fault, a sound and new growth; and do not lay (thereon) old wood, [for its fragrance is gone] for there is no longer fragrance in it as before. 21.21. And at all times be clean in thy body, and wash thyself with water before thou approachest to offer on the altar, and wash thy hands and thy feet before thou drawest near to the altar; 21.23. be on thy guard, my son, against blood, be on thy guard exceedingly; cover it with dust. brAnd do not eat any blood, for it is the soul; eat no blood whatever. 32.1. And he abode that night at Bethel, and Levi dreamed that they had ordained and made him the priest of the Most High God,him and his sons for ever; 32.2. and he awoke from his sleep and blessed the Lord. 32.3. And Jacob rose early in the morning, on the fourteenth of this month, and he gave a tithe of all that came with him, both of men and cattle, both of gold and every vessel and garment, yea, he gave tithes of all. 32.4. And in those days Rachel became pregt with her son Benjamin. And Jacob counted his sons from him upwards and Levi fell to the portion of the Lord 32.5. and his father clothed him in the garments of the priesthood and filled his hands. 32.6. And on the fifteenth of this month, he brought to the altar fourteen oxen from amongst the cattle, and twenty-eight rams, and forty-nine sheep, and seven lambs, and twenty-one kids of the goats as a burnt-offering on the altar of sacrifice, well pleasing for a sweet savour before God 32.7. This was his offering, in consequence of the vow which he had vowed that he would give a tenth, with their fruit-offerings and their drink-offerings. 32.8. And when the fire had consumed it, he burnt incense on the fire over the fire 32.9. and for a thank-offering two oxen and four rams and four sheep, four he-goats, and two sheep of a year old, and two kids of the goats; 32.10. and thus he did daily for seven days. brAnd he and all his sons and his men were eating (this) with joy there during seven day 32.11. and blessing and thanking the Lord, who had delivered him out of all his tribulation and had given him his vow. 32.12. And he tithed all the clean animals, and made a burnt sacrifice, but the unclean animals he gave (not) to Levi his son, and he gave him all the souls of the men 32.13. And Levi discharged the priestly office at Bethel before Jacob his father in preference to his ten brothers, and he was a priest there 32.14. and Jacob gave his vow: thus he tithed again the tithe to the Lord and sanctified it, and it became holy unto Him. 32.15. And for this reason it is ordained on the heavenly tables as a law for the tithing again the tithe to eat before the Lord from year to year 32.20. And all the tithes of the oxen and sheep shall be holy unto the Lord, and shall belong to His priests, which they will eat before Him from year to year; for thus is it ordained and engraven regarding the tithe on the heavenly tables. 32.21. And on the following night, on the twenty-second day of this month, Jacob resolved to build that place, and to surround the court with a wall, and to sanctify it and make it holy for ever, for himself and his children after him. 32.22. And the Lord appeared to him by night and blessed him and said unto him: "Thy name shall not be called Jacob, but Israel shall they name thy name. 32.23. And He said unto him again: "I am the Lord who created the heaven and the earth, and I shall increase thee and multiply thee exceedingly, and kings will come forth from thee, and they will judge everywhere wherever the foot of the sons of men hath trodden. 32.24. Ana I shall give to thy seed all the earth which is under heaven, and they will judge all the nations according to their desires, and after that they will get possession of the whole earth and inherit it for ever. 32.25. And He finished speaking with him, and He went up from him, and Jacob looked till He had ascended into heaven. 32.26. And he saw in a vision of the night, and behold an angel descended from heaven with seven tablets in his hands, and he gave them to Jacob, and he read them and knew all that was written therein which would befall him and his sons through-out all the ages. 32.27. And he showed him all that was written on the tablets, and said unto him: "Do not build this place, and do not make it an eternal sanctuary, and do not dwell here; for this is not the place. 32.28. Go to the house of Abraham thy father and dwell with Isaac thy father until the day of the death of thy father. 32.29. For in Egypt thou wilt die in peace, and in this land thou wilt be buried with honour in the sepulchre of thy fathers, with Abraham and Isaac. 34.18. And his sons and his daughter rose up to comfort him, but he refused to be comforted for his son. 41.23. And after that she bare two sons, Perez and Zerah, in the seventh year of this second week. brAnd thereupon the seven years of fruitfulness were accomplished, of which Joseph spake to Pharaoh. 41.24. And Judah acknowledged that the deed which he had done was evil, for he had lain with his daughter-in-law, and he esteemed it hateful in his eyes, and he acknowledged that he had transgressed and gone astray; for he had uncovered the skirt of his son 41.25. and he began to lament and to supplicate before the Lord because of his transgression.<>br>And we told him in a dream that it was forgiven him because he supplicated earnestly, and lamented, and did not again commit it. 41.26. And he received forgiveness because he turned from his sin and from his ignorance, for he transgressed greatly before our God;
21. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q444, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 1, 1.7, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 2, 2.12, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 4, 4.20-5.11, 5, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.21-6.1, 6.7, 6.19, 7.15, 7.18, 7.19, 8.16, 9, 10, 11, 12, 12.19, 13.11, 13.12, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.17, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 14.21, 14.22, 14.23, 16, 19.34, 20.6, 20.12, 20.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Habakkuk, 2.7-2.10, 11.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 2.12, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.21-6.1, 6.19, 7.15, 7.19, 8.16, 9, 10, 11, 12, 12.19, 14.6, 14.7, 14.17, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 14.21, 14.22, 14.23, 16, 19.34, 20.6, 20.12, 20.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Dead Sea Scrolls, 1Qha, 4.38, 6.24, 8.19-8.20, 15.10, 17.32, 20.11-20.13, 20.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q174 (The Florilegium) 195, 199, 339, 1.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q175, 18, 17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

28. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q266, 5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

29. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q270, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2, 3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.13-4.26, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.24, 3.25, 4.6, 4.7, 4.21, 5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.12, 5.13, 6, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 6.24, 6.24-7.25, 7, 7.18, 8, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.15, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23, 8.24, 8.26, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.11, 9.13, 9.14, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 11.1, 15.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Dead Sea Scrolls, Compositions 11Q5, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

32. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Document, 1.16, 2.2, 2.12, 3.13-3.15, 6.3-6.4, 6.6, 7.18, 16.3-16.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

33. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Document, 1.16, 2.2, 2.12, 3.13-3.15, 6.3-6.4, 6.6, 7.18, 16.3-16.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

34. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 8.18-8.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

35. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 8.18-8.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

36. Dead Sea Scrolls, Messianic Rule, 1.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

37. Dead Sea Scrolls, Rule of The Community, 8.13-8.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

38. Dead Sea Scrolls, Rule of The Community, 8.13-8.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

39. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 1.2-1.16, 12.4, 12.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.2. וַיִּתֵּן אֲדֹנָי בְּיָדוֹ אֶת־יְהוֹיָקִים מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה וּמִקְצָת כְּלֵי בֵית־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיְבִיאֵם אֶרֶץ־שִׁנְעָר בֵּית אֱלֹהָיו וְאֶת־הַכֵּלִים הֵבִיא בֵּית אוֹצַר אֱלֹהָיו׃ 1.2. וְכֹל דְּבַר חָכְמַת בִּינָה אֲשֶׁר־בִּקֵּשׁ מֵהֶם הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיִּמְצָאֵם עֶשֶׂר יָדוֹת עַל כָּל־הַחַרְטֻמִּים הָאַשָּׁפִים אֲשֶׁר בְּכָל־מַלְכוּתוֹ׃ 1.3. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְאַשְׁפְּנַז רַב סָרִיסָיו לְהָבִיא מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִזֶּרַע הַמְּלוּכָה וּמִן־הַפַּרְתְּמִים׃ 1.4. יְלָדִים אֲשֶׁר אֵין־בָּהֶם כָּל־מאום [מוּם] וְטוֹבֵי מַרְאֶה וּמַשְׂכִּילִים בְּכָל־חָכְמָה וְיֹדְעֵי דַעַת וּמְבִינֵי מַדָּע וַאֲשֶׁר כֹּחַ בָּהֶם לַעֲמֹד בְּהֵיכַל הַמֶּלֶךְ וּלֲלַמְּדָם סֵפֶר וּלְשׁוֹן כַּשְׂדִּים׃ 1.5. וַיְמַן לָהֶם הַמֶּלֶךְ דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ מִפַּת־בַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּמִיֵּין מִשְׁתָּיו וּלְגַדְּלָם שָׁנִים שָׁלוֹשׁ וּמִקְצָתָם יַעַמְדוּ לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.6. וַיְהִי בָהֶם מִבְּנֵי יְהוּדָה דָּנִיֵּאל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה׃ 1.7. וַיָּשֶׂם לָהֶם שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים שֵׁמוֹת וַיָּשֶׂם לְדָנִיֵּאל בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר וְלַחֲנַנְיָה שַׁדְרַךְ וּלְמִישָׁאֵל מֵישַׁךְ וְלַעֲזַרְיָה עֲבֵד נְגוֹ׃ 1.8. וַיָּשֶׂם דָּנִיֵּאל עַל־לִבּוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִתְגָּאַל בְּפַתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּבְיֵין מִשְׁתָּיו וַיְבַקֵּשׁ מִשַּׂר הַסָּרִיסִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִתְגָּאָל׃ 1.9. וַיִּתֵּן הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־דָּנִיֵּאל לְחֶסֶד וּלְרַחֲמִים לִפְנֵי שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים׃ 1.11. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּנִיֵּאל אֶל־הַמֶּלְצַר אֲשֶׁר מִנָּה שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים עַל־דָּנִיֵּאל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה׃ 1.12. נַס־נָא אֶת־עֲבָדֶיךָ יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה וְיִתְּנוּ־לָנוּ מִן־הַזֵּרֹעִים וְנֹאכְלָה וּמַיִם וְנִשְׁתֶּה׃ 1.13. וְיֵרָאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ מַרְאֵינוּ וּמַרְאֵה הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכַאֲשֶׁר תִּרְאֵה עֲשֵׂה עִם־עֲבָדֶיךָ׃ 1.14. וַיִּשְׁמַע לָהֶם לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַיְנַסֵּם יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה׃ 1.15. וּמִקְצָת יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה נִרְאָה מַרְאֵיהֶם טוֹב וּבְרִיאֵי בָּשָׂר מִן־כָּל־הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.16. וַיְהִי הַמֶּלְצַר נֹשֵׂא אֶת־פַּתְבָּגָם וְיֵין מִשְׁתֵּיהֶם וְנֹתֵן לָהֶם זֵרְעֹנִים׃ 12.4. וְאַתָּה דָנִיֵּאל סְתֹם הַדְּבָרִים וַחֲתֹם הַסֵּפֶר עַד־עֵת קֵץ יְשֹׁטְטוּ רַבִּים וְתִרְבֶּה הַדָּעַת׃ 12.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ דָּנִיֵּאל כִּי־סְתֻמִים וַחֲתֻמִים הַדְּבָרִים עַד־עֵת קֵץ׃ 1.2. And the Lord gave Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, with all of the vessels of the house of God; and he carried them into the land of Shinar to the house of his god, and the vessels he brought into the treasure-house of his god." 1.3. And the king spoke unto Ashpenaz his chief officer, that he should bring in certain of the children of Israel, and of the seed royal, and of the nobles," 1.4. youths in whom was no blemish, but fair to look on, and skilful in all wisdom, and skilful in knowledge, and discerning in thought, and such as had ability to stand in the king’s palace; and that he should teach them the learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans." 1.5. And the king appointed for them a daily portion of the king’s food, and of the wine which he drank, and that they should be nourished three years; that at the end thereof they might stand before the king." 1.6. Now among these were, of the children of Judah, Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah." 1.7. And the chief of the officers gave names unto them: unto Daniel he gave the name of Belteshazzar; and to Haiah, of Shadrach; and to Mishael, of Meshach; and to Azariah, of Abed-nego." 1.8. But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king’s food, nor with the wine which he drank; therefore he requested of the chief of the officers that he might not defile himself." 1.9. And God granted Daniel mercy and compassion in the sight of the chief of the officers." 1.10. And the chief of the officers said unto Daniel: ‘I fear my lord the king, who hath appointed your food and your drink; for why should he see your faces sad in comparison with the youths that are of your own age? so would ye endanger my head with the king.’" 1.11. Then said Daniel to the steward, whom the chief of the officers had appointed over Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah:" 1.12. ’Try thy servants, I beseech thee, ten days; and let them give us pulse to eat, and water to drink." 1.13. Then let our counteces be looked upon before thee, and the countece of the youths that eat of the king’s food; and as thou seest, deal with thy servants.’" 1.14. So he hearkened unto them in this matter, and tried them ten days." 1.15. And at the end of ten days their counteces appeared fairer, and they were fatter in flesh, than all the youths that did eat of the king’s food." 1.16. So the steward took away their food, and the wine that they should drink, and gave them pulse." 12.4. But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end; many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased.’" 12.9. And he said: ‘Go thy way, Daniel; for the words are shut up and sealed till the time of the end."
40. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.62-1.63, 4.46, 14.41 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.62. But many in Israel stood firm and were resolved in their hearts not to eat unclean food. 1.63. They chose to die rather than to be defiled by food or to profane the holy covet; and they did die. 4.46. and stored the stones in a convenient place on the temple hill until there should come a prophet to tell what to do with them. 14.41. And the Jews and their priests decided that Simon should be their leader and high priest for ever, until a trustworthy prophet should arise
41. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 2.13-2.14, 6.18-6.21, 7.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.13. The same things are reported in the records and in the memoirs of Nehemiah, and also that he founded a library and collected the books about the kings and prophets, and the writings of David, and letters of kings about votive offerings.' 2.14. In the same way Judas also collected all the books that had been lost on account of the war which had come upon us, and they are in our possession.' 6.18. Eleazar, one of the scribes in high position, a man now advanced in age and of noble presence, was being forced to open his mouth to eat swine's flesh.' 6.19. But he, welcoming death with honor rather than life with pollution, went up to the the rack of his own accord, spitting out the flesh,' 6.20. as men ought to go who have the courage to refuse things that it is not right to taste, even for the natural love of life.' 6.21. Those who were in charge of that unlawful sacrifice took the man aside, because of their long acquaintance with him, and privately urged him to bring meat of his own providing, proper for him to use, and pretend that he was eating the flesh of the sacrificial meal which had been commanded by the king,' 7.1. It happened also that seven brothers and their mother were arrested and were being compelled by the king, under torture with whips and cords, to partake of unlawful swine's flesh.'
42. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 49.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

49.8. It was Ezekiel who saw the vision of glory which God showed him above the chariot of the cherubim.
43. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 3.4, 3.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.4. but because they worshiped God and conducted themselves by his law, they kept their separateness with respect to foods. For this reason they appeared hateful to some; 3.6. Nevertheless those of other races paid no heed to their good service to their nation, which was common talk among all;
44. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 116-117, 115 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

115. But if there were any such thing as an absolutely independent authority added, then becoming full of arrogant domination, and elated with vanity and false opinions, forgetting themselves and the contemptible material of which they are composed, they look upon themselves as composed of a more valuable material than the composition of man admits of; and becoming swollen with pride, they think themselves worthy of even divine honours. At all events, before now some persons have ventured to say, that they "do not know the true God," forgetting their own human nature, by reason of the immoderate excess of corporeal and external things [...] and each imagining [...] XXXIV.
45. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 25, 5, 2 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

2. but the deliberate intention of the philosopher is at once displayed from the appellation given to them; for with strict regard to etymology, they are called therapeutae and therapeutrides, either because they process an art of medicine more excellent than that in general use in cities (for that only heals bodies, but the other heals souls which are under the mastery of terrible and almost incurable diseases, which pleasures and appetites, fears and griefs, and covetousness, and follies, and injustice, and all the rest of the innumerable multitude of other passions and vices, have inflicted upon them), or else because they have been instructed by nature and the sacred laws to serve the living God, who is superior to the good, and more simple than the one, and more ancient than the unit;
46. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.144 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.144. who distributed a garrison about the city, because he could not persuade anyone of those that had fled to the temple to come to terms of accommodation; he then disposed all things that were round about them so as might favor their attacks, as having Hyrcanus’s party very ready to afford them both counsel and assistance.
47. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.186-1.187 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.186. Again, Hecateus says to the same purpose, as follows:—“Ptolemy got possession of the places in Syria after the battle at Gaza; and many, when they heard of Ptolemy’s moderation and humanity, went along with him to Egypt, and were willing to assist him in his affairs; 1.187. one of whom (Hecateus says) was Hezekiah, the high priest of the Jews; a man of about sixty-six years of age, and in great dignity among his own people. He was a very sensible man, and could speak very movingly, and was very skilful in the management of affairs, if any other man ever were so;
48. Mishnah, Avot, 5.22 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.22. Ben Bag Bag said:Turn it over, and [again] turn it over, for all is therein. And look into it; And become gray and old therein; And do not move away from it, for you have no better portion than it."
49. Mishnah, Zevahim, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. The shelamim of the public and the ashams: These are the[different types of] ashams: The asham for robbery; The asham or illegal use of holy property; The asham for a betrothed maidservant; A nazirite's asham; A leper's asham; And the suspended asham. These are slaughtered in the north, and their blood is received in a service vessel in the north, and their blood requires two sprinklings, which constitute four. And they are eaten within the curtains [of the Tabernacle], by male priests, prepared in any manner, the same day and night, until midnight."
50. New Testament, 1 Peter, 3.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.19. in which he also went and preached to the spirits in prison
51. New Testament, Acts, 11, 19, 8, 10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

52. New Testament, Apocalypse, 22.1-22.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22.1. He showed me a river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb 22.2. in the midst of its street. On this side of the river and on that was the tree of life, bearing twelve kinds of fruits, yielding its fruit every month. The leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations.
53. New Testament, Galatians, 2.11-2.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. But when Peter came to Antioch, I resisted him to the face,because he stood condemned. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 2.14. But when I sawthat they didn't walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do?
54. New Testament, John, 1.23, 1.45, 5.24-5.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.23. He said, "I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make straight the way of the Lord,' as Isaiah the prophet said. 1.45. Philip found Nathanael, and said to him, "We have found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, wrote: Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph. 5.24. Most assuredly I tell you, he who hears my word, and believes him who sent me, has eternal life, and doesn't come into judgment, but has passed out of death into life. 5.25. Most assuredly, I tell you, the hour comes, and now is, when the dead will hear the Son of God's voice; and those who hear will live.
55. New Testament, Luke, 3.2-3.6, 3.9, 7.21, 16.16, 24.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.2. in the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John, the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness. 3.3. He came into all the region around the Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for remission of sins. 3.4. As it is written in the book of the words of Isaiah the prophet, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make ready the way of the Lord. Make his paths straight. 3.5. Every valley will be filled. Every mountain and hill will be brought low. The crooked will become straight, And the rough ways smooth. 3.6. All flesh will see God's salvation.' 3.9. Even now the ax also lies at the root of the trees. Every tree therefore that doesn't bring forth good fruit is cut down, and thrown into the fire. 7.21. In that hour he cured many of diseases and plagues and evil spirits; and to many who were blind he gave sight. 16.16. The law and the prophets were until John. From that time the gospel of the Kingdom of God is preached, and everyone is forcing his way into it. 24.44. He said to them, "This is what I told you, while I was still with you, that all things which are written in the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me must be fulfilled.
56. New Testament, Mark, 1.3-1.5, 1.23, 1.26-1.27, 3.11, 3.29-3.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make ready the way of the Lord! Make his paths straight!' 1.4. John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. 1.5. All the country of Judea and all those of Jerusalem went out to him. They were baptized by him in the Jordan river, confessing their sins. 1.23. Immediately there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit, and he cried out 1.26. The unclean spirit, convulsing him and crying with a loud voice, came out of him. 1.27. They were all amazed, so that they questioned among themselves, saying, "What is this? A new teaching? For with authority he commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey him! 3.11. The unclean spirits, whenever they saw him, fell down before him, and cried, "You are the Son of God! 3.29. but whoever may blaspheme against the Holy Spirit never has forgiveness, but is guilty of an eternal sin 3.30. -- because they said, "He has an unclean spirit.
57. New Testament, Matthew, 3.3-3.6, 5.17, 7.12, 11.13, 22.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.3. For this is he who was spoken of by Isaiah the prophet, saying, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make ready the way of the Lord, Make his paths straight. 3.4. Now John himself wore clothing made of camel's hair, with a leather belt around his waist. His food was locusts and wild honey. 3.5. Then people from Jerusalem, all of Judea, and all the region around the Jordan went out to him. 3.6. They were baptized by him in the Jordan, confessing their sins. 5.17. Don't think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn't come to destroy, but to fulfill. 7.12. Therefore whatever you desire for men to do to you, you shall also do to them; for this is the law and the prophets. 11.13. For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John. 22.40. The whole law and the prophets depend on these two commandments.
58. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14b. שברי לוחות שמונחים בארון ואי ס"ד ס"ת הקיפו ו' טפחים מכדי כל שיש בהקיפו שלשה טפחים יש בו רוחב טפח וכיון דלאמצעיתו נגלל נפיש ליה מתרי טפחא רווחא דביני ביני בתרי פושכי היכי יתיב,אמר רב אחא בר יעקב ספר עזרה לתחלתו הוא נגלל ואכתי תרי בתרי היכי יתיב אמר רב אשי דכריך ביה פורתא וכרכיה לעיל,ור' יהודה מקמי דליתי ארגז ספר תורה היכי הוה יתיב דפא הוה נפיק מיניה ויתיב עילוה ספר תורה ור"מ האי מצד ארון מאי עביד ליה ההוא מיבעי ליה דמתנח ליה מצד ולא מתנח ביני לוחי ולעולם בגויה מן הצד,ור"מ עמודין היכא הוו קיימי מבראי ור"מ שברי לוחות דמונחין בארון מנא ליה נפקא ליה מדרב הונא דאמר רב הונא מאי דכתיב (שמואל ב ו, ב) אשר נקרא שם שם ה' צבאות יושב הכרובים עליו מלמד שלוחות ושברי לוחות מונחים בארון,ואידך ההוא מבעי ליה לכדרבי יוחנן ד"ר יוחנן א"ר שמעון בן יוחאי מלמד שהשם וכל כינויו מונחין בארון,ואידך נמי מיבעי ליה להכי אין הכי נמי אלא שברי לוחות דמונחין בארון מנא ליה נפקא ליה מדתני רב יוסף דתני רב יוסף (דברים י, ב) אשר שברת ושמתם מלמד שהלוחות ושברי לוחות מונחין בארון,ואידך ההוא מיבעי ליה לכדריש לקיש דאמר ר"ל אשר שברת אמר לו הקב"ה למשה יישר כחך ששברת:,תנו רבנן סדרן של נביאים יהושע ושופטים שמואל ומלכים ירמיה ויחזקאל ישעיה ושנים עשר מכדי הושע קדים דכתיב (הושע א, ב) תחלת דבר ה' בהושע וכי עם הושע דבר תחלה והלא ממשה ועד הושע כמה נביאים היו וא"ר יוחנן שהיה תחלה לארבעה נביאים שנתנבאו באותו הפרק ואלו הן הושע וישעיה עמוס ומיכה וליקדמיה להושע ברישא,כיון דכתיב נבואתיה גבי חגי זכריה ומלאכי וחגי זכריה ומלאכי סוף נביאים הוו חשיב ליה בהדייהו וליכתביה לחודיה וליקדמיה איידי דזוטר מירכס,מכדי ישעיה קדים מירמיה ויחזקאל ליקדמיה לישעיה ברישא כיון דמלכים סופיה חורבנא וירמיה כוליה חורבנא ויחזקאל רישיה חורבנא וסיפיה נחמתא וישעיה כוליה נחמתא סמכינן חורבנא לחורבנא ונחמתא לנחמתא:,סידרן של כתובים רות וספר תהלים ואיוב ומשלי קהלת שיר השירים וקינות דניאל ומגילת אסתר עזרא ודברי הימים ולמאן דאמר איוב בימי משה היה ליקדמיה לאיוב ברישא אתחולי בפורענותא לא מתחלינן רות נמי פורענות היא פורענות דאית ליה אחרית דאמר רבי יוחנן למה נקרא שמה רות שיצא ממנה דוד שריוהו להקב"ה בשירות ותושבחות,ומי כתבן משה כתב ספרו ופרשת בלעם ואיוב יהושע כתב ספרו ושמונה פסוקים שבתורה שמואל כתב ספרו ושופטים ורות דוד כתב ספר תהלים על ידי עשרה זקנים ע"י אדם הראשון על ידי מלכי צדק ועל ידי אברהם וע"י משה ועל ידי הימן וע"י ידותון ועל ידי אסף 14b. bthe broken pieces of thefirst set of btablets, which were placed in the Ark.Having cited the ibaraita /i, the Gemara now presents its objection to what was taught earlier with regard to the dimensions of a Torah scroll: bAnd if it should enter your mindto say, as Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi held, that bthe circumference of a Torah scroll is six handbreadths, now since anycylindrical object bhaving a circumference of three handbreadths has a diameter of one handbreadth,a Torah scroll with a circumference of six handbreadths has a diameter of two handbreadths. bAnd sincea Torah scroll bis wound to the middle,since it is rolled from both sides, bitmust take up bmore than two handbreadthsdue to bthe space betweenthe sheets of parchment and the double rolling. According to Rabbi Meir, who says that the Torah scroll was placed inside the ark, bhow didthe scroll bfit inthe remaining btwo handbreadths [ ipushkei /i]of space in the Ark?, bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: The scroll of theTemple bcourtyard,which was kept in the Ark, bwas wound to its beginning,i.e., it had only a single pole, so that its circumference was only two handbreadths. The Gemara asks: bBut still, how doesan item bthat is twohandbreadths wide bfit intoa space that is precisely btwohandbreadths? It would be impossible to fit it in. bRav Ashi said: A small sectionof the scroll bwas woundseparately bandthen bplaced on topof the scroll.,Having concluded its current discussion, the Gemara now addresses the details of the aforementioned ibaraitaand asks: bAndaccording to bRabbi Yehuda,who says that the Torah scroll rested on the chest that came from the Philistines, bwhere was the Torah scroll placed before the chest arrived?The Gemara answers: bA shelf protruded fromthe Ark band the Torah scroll rested on it.The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bRabbi Meir,who says that the Torah scroll rested inside the Ark, bwhat does he do with thisverse: “Take this Torah scroll and put it bat the side of the Ark”(Deuteronomy 31:26)? The Gemara answers: bHe requiresthat verse to teach bthatthe Torah scroll bwas placed at the sideof the tablets, band that it was not placed betweenthe two btablets, butit was bactuallyplaced binsidethe Ark bat the sideof the tablets.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bRabbi Meir, where were thesilver bcolumns placed?The Gemara answers: bOutsidethe Ark. The Gemara further asks: bAnd from where does Rabbi Meirderive that bthe broken pieces of thefirst set of btablets were placed in the Ark,as the verse from which Rabbi Yehuda learns this: “There was nothing in the Ark except” (I Kings 8:9), is needed by Rabbi Meir to teach that the Torah scroll was placed there? The Gemara answers: bHe derivesthis point bfrom what Rav Hunaexpounded, bas Rav Huna says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“The Ark of God, bwhereupon is called the Name, the name of the Lord of hosts that sits upon the cherubs”(II Samuel 6:2)? The phrase “the name, the name of the Lord” bteaches thatboth bthesecond btablets and the broken pieces of thefirst set of btablets were placed in the Ark. /b,The Gemara asks: bAndwhat does bthe otherSage, i.e., Rabbi Yehuda, derive from this verse? The Gemara responds: bHe requiresthat text bforthat bwhich Rabbi Yoḥasays, bas Rabbi Yoḥa saysthat bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says:This bteaches that theineffable bnameof God band all of His appellations were placed in the Ark. /b,The Gemara inquires: bAnddoesn’t bthe otherSage, Rabbi Meir, balso require it for that?The Gemara answers: bYes,it bis indeed so. Rather, from where does hederive that bthe broken pieces of thefirst set of btablets were placed in the Ark?The Gemara expounds: bHe derivesthis bfromthat bwhich Rav Yosef taught, as Rav Yosef taughta ibaraita /i: The verses state: “At that time the Lord said to me: Hew for yourself two tablets of stone like the first…and I will write on the tablets the words that were on the first tablets, bwhich you broke, and you shall put themin the Ark” (Deuteronomy 10:1–2). bThis teaches thatboth bthesecond set of btablets and the broken pieces of thefirst set of btablets were placed in the Ark. /b,The Gemara asks: bAndwhat does bthe otherone, Rabbi Yehuda, learn from this verse? The Gemara answers: bHe requires it forthat bwhich Reish Lakishteaches, bas Reish Lakish says:What is the meaning of that which is stated: “The first tablets, bwhich you broke [ iasher shibbarta /i]”?These words allude to the fact that God approved of Moses’ action, as if bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: May your strength be straight [ iyishar koḥakha /i] because you brokethem.,§ bThe Sages taught: The order of thebooks of the bProphetswhen they are attached together is as follows: bJoshua and Judges, Samuel and Kings, Jeremiah and Ezekiel,and bIsaiah and the TwelveProphets. The Gemara asks: bConsider: Hosea precededsome of the other prophets whose books are included in the Bible, bas it is written: “The Lord spoke first to Hosea”(Hosea 1:2). At first glance this verse is difficult: bBut did God speak first with Hosea,and not with any other prophet before him? bWeren’t there many prophets between Moses and Hosea? And Rabbi Yoḥa says: He was the first of four prophets who prophesied in that period, and they were: Hosea and Isaiah, Amos and Micah.Accordingly, Hosea preceded those three prophets; bandthe book of bHoseaas well bshould precedethe books of those prophets.,The Gemara answers: bSince his prophecy is written together withthose of bHaggai, Zechariah, and Malachiin one book of the Twelve Prophets, band Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi were the last of the prophets, he is counted with them.The Gemara inquires: bBut letthe book of Hosea bbe written separately and let it precedethe others. The Gemara answers: Were it written separately, bsince it is small it would be lost. /b,The Gemara further asks: bConsider: Isaiah preceded Jeremiah and Ezekiel; letthe book of bIsaiah precedethe books of those other prophets. The Gemara answers: bSincethe book of bKings ends with the destructionof the Temple, bandthe book of bJeremiahdeals bentirely withprophecies of bthe destruction, andthe book of bEzekiel begins with the destructionof the Temple bbut ends with consolationand the rebuilding of the Temple, band Isaiahdeals bentirely with consolation,as most of his prophecies refer to the redemption, bwe juxtapose destruction to destruction and consolation to consolation.This accounts for the order: Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Isaiah.,The ibaraitacontinues: bThe order of the Writingsis: bRuth and the book of Psalms, and Job and Proverbs; Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Lamentations; Daniel and the Scroll of Esther;and bEzra and Chronicles.The Gemara asks: bAnd according to the one who saysthat bJoblived bin the time of Moses, letthe book of bJob precedethe others. The Gemara answers: bWe do not begin with suffering,i.e., it is inappropriate to start the Writings with a book that deals so extensively with suffering. The Gemara asks: But the book of bRuth,with which the Writings opens, bis alsoabout bsuffering,since it describes the tragedies that befell the family of Elimelech. The Gemara answers: This is bsuffering which has a futureof hope and redemption. bAs Rabbi Yoḥa says: Why was she named Ruth,spelled ireish /i, ivav /i, itav /i? Because there bdescended from her David who sated,a word with the root ireish /i, ivav /i, iheh /i, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, with songs and praises. /b,The ibaraitanow considers the authors of the biblical books: bAnd who wrotethe books of the Bible? bMoses wrote his own book,i.e., the Torah, band the portion of Balaamin the Torah, bandthe book of bJob. Joshua wrote his own book and eight verses in the Torah,which describe the death of Moses. bSamuel wrote his own book,the book of bJudges, andthe book of bRuth. David wrote the book of Psalms by means of ten eldersof previous generations, assembling a collection that included compositions of others along with his own. He included psalms authored bby Adam the firstman, bby Melchizedekking of Salem, band by Abraham, and by Moses, and by Heman, and by Jeduthun, and by Asaph, /b
59. Anon., 4 Ezra, 14.22-14.48

14.22. If then I have found favor before thee, send the Holy Spirit into me, and I will write everything that has happened in the world from the beginning, the things which were written in thy law, that men may be able to find the path, and that those who wish to live in the last days may live. 14.23. He answered me and said, "Go and gather the people, and tell them not to seek you for forty days. 14.24. But prepare for yourself many writing tablets, and take with you Sarea, Dabria, Selemia, Ethanus, and Asiel -- these five, because they are trained to write rapidly; 14.25. and you shall come here, and I will light in your heart the lamp of understanding, which shall not be put out until what you are about to write is finished. 14.26. And when you have finished, some things you shall make public, and some you shall deliver in secret to the wise; tomorrow at this hour you shall begin to write. 14.27. Then I went as he commanded me, and I gathered all the people together, and said 14.28. Hear these words, O Israel 14.29. At first our fathers dwelt as aliens in Egypt, and they were delivered from there 14.30. and received the law of life, which they did not keep, which you also have transgressed after them. 14.31. Then land was given to you for a possession in the land of Zion; but you and your fathers committed iniquity and did not keep the ways which the Most High commanded you. 14.32. And because he is a righteous judge, in due time he took from you what he had given. 14.33. And now you are here, and your brethren are farther in the interior. 14.34. If you, then, will rule over your minds and discipline your hearts, you shall be kept alive, and after death you shall obtain mercy. 14.35. For after death the judgment will come, when we shall live again; and then the names of the righteous will become manifest, and the deeds of the ungodly will be disclosed. 14.36. But let no one come to me now, and let no one seek me for forty days. 14.37. So I took the five men, as he commanded me, and we proceeded to the field, and remained there. 14.38. And on the next day, behold, a voice called me, saying, "Ezra, open your mouth and drink what I give you to drink. 14.39. Then I opened my mouth, and behold, a full cup was offered to me; it was full of something like water, but its color was like fire. 14.40. And I took it and drank; and when I had drunk it, my heart poured forth understanding, and wisdom increased in my breast, for my spirit retained its memory; 14.41. and my mouth was opened, and was no longer closed. 14.42. And the Most High gave understanding to the five men, and by turns they wrote what was dictated, in characters which they did not know. They sat forty days, and wrote during the daytime, and ate their bread at night. 14.43. As for me, I spoke in the daytime and was not silent at night. 14.44. So during the forty days ninety-four books were written. 14.45. And when the forty days were ended, the Most High spoke to me, saying, "Make public the twenty-four books that you wrote first and let the worthy and the unworthy read them; 14.46. but keep the seventy that were written last, in order to give them to the wise among your people. 14.47. For in them is the spring of understanding, the fountain of wisdom, and the river of knowledge. 14.48. And I did so.
60. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 132-139, 131

131. the means of escaping from ignorance and amending their lives. Our Lawgiver first of all laid down the principles of piety and righteousness and inculcated them point by point, not merely by prohibitions but by the use of examples as well, demonstrating the injurious effects of sin and the


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
( Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 349
aaron Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 183; Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 117
adam Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 123
anderson,gary a. Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 90
angels Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57; Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 198, 349
apocalypse of zephaniah Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 349
apostates/apostasy Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 54
aristotle,pain as an emotion Mermelstein (2021), Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation, 245
art,priests Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57
art,qumran Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57
assumption of moses Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 349
atonement Eckhardt (2011), Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals. 87; Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 167
audience Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 85, 154
biblical referents,canonization Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 51
bipartite vs. tripartite canon.,of the pentateuch Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 51
bipartite vs. tripartite canon Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 51
brooke,george j. Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 90
clement of alexandria Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 349
covenant renewal Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 99, 100
dead sea scrolls,access to; dating of Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 154
dead sea scrolls,divine inspiration as source of halakhah Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 44
dead sea scrolls,qumran Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 308
dead sea scrolls Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57; Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 183
demon Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 349
diaspora Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 592
divine origins of halakhic law Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 44
divine presence Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 167
divine revelation,as source of authority Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 44
domination,emotion and Mermelstein (2021), Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation, 245
domination,in ritual Mermelstein (2021), Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation, 245
eden Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 123
emotion,in the classical world Mermelstein (2021), Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation, 245
emotion,in the hebrew bible Mermelstein (2021), Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation, 245
enochic lit./trad. Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 349
eschatology Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 308
essenes,the Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 63
essenes Eckhardt (2011), Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals. 87
exegesis Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 198
exercises,student Carr (2004), Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature, 217, 218
exile/exilic Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 44, 54
ezekiel,,book of Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 349
ezekiel,,prophet Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 349
ezekiel Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 308
flesh Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 112
ginzberg,louis Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 91, 99
glory,divine Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57
glory/glory Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 112
god,and Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57
god,body Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57
halakhah,divine versus human authority in Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 44
halakhah/halakhot,and aggadah; law and narrative Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 150, 154, 233
hazon gabriel Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 90, 91, 99, 100
hermeneutical method,dead sea scrolls Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 13
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also,interpretation Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 150
hidden commandments,revelation of Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 44
hidden things (nistarot) Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 90, 91
hiddenness Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 308
hillel,rabbi Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 361
hodayot (thanksgiving) ( Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 349
holiness Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 85
holy of holies (most holy dwelling) Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 112
holy spirit,geographic universalism Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 592
holy spirit,lukan conception Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 592
holy spirit,qumran Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 592
holy spirit,revelation and Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 187
horeb theophany DeJong (2022), A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession, 193
horus,diaspora jews Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 160
horus,qumran Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 160
house Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 112
hultgren,stephen Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 90, 100
image xvi Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 308
interpretation,biblical Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 44, 54, 63, 150, 154
interpreter of the law Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 99
israel,nan Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 233
israel Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 112
jassen,alex p. Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 90, 91
jerusalem Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 44, 154
john the baptist Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 117
joseph (son of jacob) Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 361
josephus Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 349; Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 361
joshua Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 54
jubilees,and covenant renewal Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 99, 100
karaites Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 99
knowledge Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57
knowledge and wisdom Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 187
laity,the Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 54
language,secret Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 160
law,biblical/rabbinic—see also,halakhah Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 63, 150, 154, 233
law,dead sea scrolls Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 1, 13
legal-exegetical method Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 13
licht,jacob Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 91, 100
lim,timothy Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 90
liturgy Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57
logos theology,at qumran DeJong (2022), A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession, 199
maśkîl Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 46
merkava xiii–xvi,xix Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 308
messiah Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 349
midrash/midrashim Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 150, 154
midrash halakhah Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 13
milik,j. t. Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 100
moses,art Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57
moses Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 44, 63; Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 1, 51; Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 90, 91, 100; Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 117; Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 112
najman,hindy Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 100
new testament—see also,christianity Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 44
pain,emotion and Mermelstein (2021), Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation, 245
pedagogy Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 46
pneumatology,lukan Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 592
prayer Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 54, 63, 85, 150, 154, 233
priest,priesthood Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 308
priesthood,priests,angelic Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57
priests/priesthood Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 54, 154, 233
priests and priesthood,messiah of aaron, DeJong (2022), A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession, 199
priests and textuality Carr (2004), Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature, 217
prophecy,at qumran Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 90, 91
prophecy,eschatological return of DeJong (2022), A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession, 199
prophecy,genealogical model of DeJong (2022), A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession, 193
prophecy,halakhic model of DeJong (2022), A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession, 193, 199
prophecy Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 150
prophet(ess)/prophecy/prophetic Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 198, 349
prophets,prophecy Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 51
prophets Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 44, 63, 150, 154
prophets (nebi'im,canonical division)" Jassen (2014), Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 51
pseudepigraphic attribution Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 44
purity/impurity Eckhardt (2011), Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals. 87
qimron,elisha Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 100
qumran,angels Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57
qumran,body Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57
qumran,liturgy Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57
qumran,priesthood Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57
qumran,songs Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57
qumran/qumran community Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 44, 54, 63, 85, 150, 154
qumran literature Flatto (2021), The Crown and the Courts, 206
rabbinic literature,human exegetical activity in Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 44
rabbis,the Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 63
resurrection,way and Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 187
revealed things (niglot) Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 90, 91
revelation Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 44, 54
rewritten bible Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 63
ritual,as emotional practice Mermelstein (2021), Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation, 245
rule of the community,on revealing hidden things Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 44
sadducees,the Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 154
sages,the Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 54
samaritans DeJong (2022), A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession, 199
sanctuary Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 123
schiffman,lawrence h. Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 90, 91
scribes/scribal activity Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 150
second temple judaism Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 349
secrecy Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 90, 91
sectarian/sectarianism Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 54, 63, 85, 154
sectarianism Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57
self-exile Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 160
shammai,rabbi Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 361
shekhina,ritual Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57
shemesh,aharon Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 90
sin Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 183
sinai,mount Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 63
sinai,qumran literature Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57
sinai Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57
sophrosyne,among women Mermelstein (2021), Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation, 245
spirit,characterizations as,,angelic or daemonic beings Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 349
spirit,characterizations as,,divine Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 349
spirit,characterizations as,,holiest holiness Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 349
spirit,characterizations as,,revealer Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 183
spirit,characterizations as,,spirit of the lord Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 183
spirit,characterizations as,,truth Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 198
spirit,effects of,,prophecy' Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 183
spirit,effects of,,prophecy Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 349
spirit,evil spirits Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 46
spirit,spirit Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 112
spirit Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 57
stegemann,hartmut Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 100
teacher of righteousness Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 54; Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 90, 99; Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 117
temple,as community,at qumran Klawans (2009), Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism, 167
temple Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 123; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 308
thomas,samuel i. Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 90
throne,enthroned Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 308
time Bakker (2023), The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 46
torah Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 44, 54, 63, 150, 154; Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 187; Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 112, 123
torah focus Carr (2004), Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature, 218
tzoref,shani Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 90
van ruiten,jacques Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 100
vanderkam,james c. Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 100
vision Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 308
way,ministry of scripture and Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 187
way,of god (the lord) Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 187
way (church as),in lukan corpus Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 187
way (jesus as),in qumranic texts Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 187
way (jesus as),semantics of Graham (2022), The Church as Paradise and the Way Therein: Early Christian Appropriation of Genesis 3:22–24, 187
werman,cana Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 90
wicked priest,the Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 44
wieder,naphtali Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 90, 91, 100
wilderness Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 150
wise,michael o. Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 91
zeal for the law Mermelstein (2021), Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation, 245