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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



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Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 6.8-6.9
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

59 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 29.13, 29.17-29.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

29.13. וְלֹא אִתְּכֶם לְבַדְּכֶם אָנֹכִי כֹּרֵת אֶת־הַבְּרִית הַזֹּאת וְאֶת־הָאָלָה הַזֹּאת׃ 29.17. פֶּן־יֵשׁ בָּכֶם אִישׁ אוֹ־אִשָּׁה אוֹ מִשְׁפָּחָה אוֹ־שֵׁבֶט אֲשֶׁר לְבָבוֹ פֹנֶה הַיּוֹם מֵעִם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ לָלֶכֶת לַעֲבֹד אֶת־אֱלֹהֵי הַגּוֹיִם הָהֵם פֶּן־יֵשׁ בָּכֶם שֹׁרֶשׁ פֹּרֶה רֹאשׁ וְלַעֲנָה׃ 29.18. וְהָיָה בְּשָׁמְעוֹ אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הָאָלָה הַזֹּאת וְהִתְבָּרֵךְ בִּלְבָבוֹ לֵאמֹר שָׁלוֹם יִהְיֶה־לִּי כִּי בִּשְׁרִרוּת לִבִּי אֵלֵךְ לְמַעַן סְפוֹת הָרָוָה אֶת־הַצְּמֵאָה׃ 29.19. לֹא־יֹאבֶה יְהוָה סְלֹחַ לוֹ כִּי אָז יֶעְשַׁן אַף־יְהוָה וְקִנְאָתוֹ בָּאִישׁ הַהוּא וְרָבְצָה בּוֹ כָּל־הָאָלָה הַכְּתוּבָה בַּסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה וּמָחָה יְהוָה אֶת־שְׁמוֹ מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 29.13. Neither with you only do I make this covet and this oath;" 29.17. lest there should be among you man, or woman, or family, or tribe, whose heart turneth away this day from the LORD our God, to go to serve the gods of those nations; lest there should be among you a root that beareth gall and wormwood;" 29.18. and it come to pass, when he heareth the words of this curse, that he bless himself in his heart, saying: ‘I shall have peace, though I walk in the stubbornness of my heart—that the watered be swept away with the dry’;" 29.19. the LORD will not be willing to pardon him, but then the anger of the LORD and His jealousy shall be kindled against that man, and all the curse that is written in this book shall lie upon him, and the LORD shall blot out his name from under heaven;" 29.20. and the LORD shall separate him unto evil out of all the tribes of Israel, according to all the curses of the covet that is written in this book of the law."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 9.25, 37.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.25. וַיֹּאמֶר אָרוּר כְּנָעַן עֶבֶד עֲבָדִים יִהְיֶה לְאֶחָיו׃ 37.25. וַיֵּשְׁבוּ לֶאֱכָל־לֶחֶם וַיִּשְׂאוּ עֵינֵיהֶם וַיִּרְאוּ וְהִנֵּה אֹרְחַת יִשְׁמְעֵאלִים בָּאָה מִגִּלְעָד וּגְמַלֵּיהֶם נֹשְׂאִים נְכֹאת וּצְרִי וָלֹט הוֹלְכִים לְהוֹרִיד מִצְרָיְמָה׃ 9.25. And he said: Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren." 37.25. And they sat down to eat bread; and they lifted up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a caravan of Ishmaelites came from Gilead, with their camels bearing spicery and balm and ladanum, going to carry it down to Egypt."
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 7.37, 13.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.37. זֹאת הַתּוֹרָה לָעֹלָה לַמִּנְחָה וְלַחַטָּאת וְלָאָשָׁם וְלַמִּלּוּאִים וּלְזֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים׃ 13.9. נֶגַע צָרַעַת כִּי תִהְיֶה בְּאָדָם וְהוּבָא אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃ 7.37. This is the law of the burnt-offering, of the meal-offering, and of the sin-offering, and of the guilt-offering, and of the consecration-offering, and of the sacrifice of peace-offerings;" 13.9. When the plague of leprosy is in a man, then he shall be brought unto the priest."
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 3.17, 6.22-6.27, 27.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.17. וַיִּהְיוּ־אֵלֶּה בְנֵי־לֵוִי בִּשְׁמֹתָם גֵּרְשׁוֹן וּקְהָת וּמְרָרִי׃ 6.22. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 6.23. דַּבֵּר אֶל־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל־בָּנָיו לֵאמֹר כֹּה תְבָרֲכוּ אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אָמוֹר לָהֶם׃ 6.24. יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה וְיִשְׁמְרֶךָ׃ 6.25. יָאֵר יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וִיחֻנֶּךָּ׃ 6.26. יִשָּׂא יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וְיָשֵׂם לְךָ שָׁלוֹם׃ 6.27. וְשָׂמוּ אֶת־שְׁמִי עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַאֲנִי אֲבָרֲכֵם׃ 27.17. אֲשֶׁר־יֵצֵא לִפְנֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר יָבֹא לִפְנֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר יוֹצִיאֵם וַאֲשֶׁר יְבִיאֵם וְלֹא תִהְיֶה עֲדַת יְהוָה כַּצֹּאן אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לָהֶם רֹעֶה׃ 3.17. And these were the sons of Levi by their names: Gershon, and Kohath, and Merari." 6.22. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 6.23. ’Speak unto Aaron and unto his sons, saying: On this wise ye shall bless the children of Israel; ye shall say unto them:" 6.24. The LORD bless thee, and keep thee;" 6.25. The LORD make His face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee;" 6.26. The LORD lift up His countece upon thee, and give thee peace." 6.27. So shall they put My name upon the children of Israel, and I will bless them.’" 27.17. who may go out before them, and who may come in before them, and who may lead them out, and who may bring them in; that the congregation of the LORD be not as sheep which have no shepherd.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.34 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.34. אַשְׁרֵי אָדָם שֹׁמֵעַ לִי לִשְׁקֹד עַל־דַּלְתֹתַי יוֹם יוֹם לִשְׁמֹר מְזוּזֹת פְּתָחָי׃ 8.34. Happy is the man that hearkeneth to me, Watching daily at my gates, waiting at the posts of my doors."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. כִּי אִם בְּתוֹרַת יְהוָה חֶפְצוֹ וּבְתוֹרָתוֹ יֶהְגֶּה יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃ 1.2. But his delight is in the law of the LORD; and in His law doth he meditate day and night."
7. Hebrew Bible, Zephaniah, 1.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.6. וְאֶת־הַנְּסוֹגִים מֵאַחֲרֵי יְהוָה וַאֲשֶׁר לֹא־בִקְשׁוּ אֶת־יְהוָה וְלֹא דְרָשֻׁהוּ׃ 1.6. Them also that are turned back from following the LORD; And those that have not sought the LORD, nor inquired after Him. ."
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.3, 40.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.3. וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃ 40.3. קוֹל קוֹרֵא בַּמִּדְבָּר פַּנּוּ דֶּרֶךְ יְהוָה יַשְּׁרוּ בָּעֲרָבָה מְסִלָּה לֵאלֹהֵינוּ׃ 40.3. וְיִעֲפוּ נְעָרִים וְיִגָעוּ וּבַחוּרִים כָּשׁוֹל יִכָּשֵׁלוּ׃ 6.3. And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory." 40.3. Hark! one calleth: ‘Clear ye in the wilderness the way of the LORD, make plain in the desert a highway for our God."
9. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 1.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.8. לֹא־יָמוּשׁ סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה מִפִּיךָ וְהָגִיתָ בּוֹ יוֹמָם וָלַיְלָה לְמַעַן תִּשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכָל־הַכָּתוּב בּוֹ כִּי־אָז תַּצְלִיחַ אֶת־דְּרָכֶךָ וְאָז תַּשְׂכִּיל׃ 1.8. This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth, but thou shalt meditate therein day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written therein; for then thou shalt make thy ways prosperous, and then thou shalt have good success."
10. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 30.22 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.22. וַיְדַבֵּר יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ עַל־לֵב כָּל־הַלְוִיִּם הַמַּשְׂכִּילִים שֵׂכֶל־טוֹב לַיהוָה וַיֹּאכְלוּ אֶת־הַמּוֹעֵד שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים מְזַבְּחִים זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים וּמִתְוַדִּים לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם׃ 30.22. And Hezekiah spoke encouragingly unto all the Levites that were well skilled in the service of the LORD. So they did eat throughout the feast for the seven days, offering sacrifices of peace-offerings, and giving thanks to the LORD, the God of their fathers.
11. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 7.1-7.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7.1. כִּי עֶזְרָא הֵכִין לְבָבוֹ לִדְרוֹשׁ אֶת־תּוֹרַת יְהוָה וְלַעֲשֹׂת וּלְלַמֵּד בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל חֹק וּמִשְׁפָּט׃ 7.1. וְאַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּמַלְכוּת אַרְתַּחְשַׁסְתְּא מֶלֶךְ־פָּרָס עֶזְרָא בֶּן־שְׂרָיָה בֶּן־עֲזַרְיָה בֶּן־חִלְקִיָּה׃ 7.2. בֶּן־שַׁלּוּם בֶּן־צָדוֹק בֶּן־אֲחִיטוּב׃ 7.2. וּשְׁאָר חַשְׁחוּת בֵּית אֱלָהָךְ דִּי יִפֶּל־לָךְ לְמִנְתַּן תִּנְתֵּן מִן־בֵּית גִּנְזֵי מַלְכָּא׃ 7.3. בֶּן־אֲמַרְיָה בֶן־עֲזַרְיָה בֶּן־מְרָיוֹת׃ 7.4. בֶּן־זְרַחְיָה בֶן־עֻזִּי בֶּן־בֻּקִּי׃ 7.5. בֶּן־אֲבִישׁוּעַ בֶּן־פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן הָרֹאשׁ׃ 7.6. הוּא עֶזְרָא עָלָה מִבָּבֶל וְהוּא־סֹפֵר מָהִיר בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־נָתַן יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ הַמֶּלֶךְ כְּיַד־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו עָלָיו כֹּל בַּקָּשָׁתוֹ׃ 7.1. Now after these things, in the reign of Artaxerxes king of Persia, Ezra the son of Seraiah, the son of Azariah, the son of Hilkiah," 7.2. the son of Shallum, the son of Zadok, the son of Ahitub," 7.3. the son of Amariah, the son of Azariah, the son of Meraioth," 7.4. the son of Zerahiah, the son of Uzzi, the son of Bukki," 7.5. the son of Abishua, the son of Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the chief priest—" 7.6. this Ezra went up from Babylon; and he was a ready scribe in the Law of Moses, which the LORD, the God of Israel, had given; and the king granted him all his request, according to the hand of the LORD his God upon him."
12. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.6. וַיְבָרֶךְ עֶזְרָא אֶת־יְהוָה הָאֱלֹהִים הַגָּדוֹל וַיַּעֲנוּ כָל־הָעָם אָמֵן אָמֵן בְּמֹעַל יְדֵיהֶם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוֻּ לַיהוָה אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃ 8.6. And Ezra blessed the LORD, the great God. And all the people answered: ‘Amen, Amen’, with the lifting up of their hands; and they bowed their heads, and fell down before the LORD with their faces to the ground."
13. Anon., 1 Enoch, 14.9 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

14.9. the vision caused me to fly and lifted me upward, and bore me into heaven. And I went in till I drew nigh to a wall which is built of crystals and surrounded by tongues of fire: and it began to affright
14. Anon., Testament of Job, 49, 48 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q512, 6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 1, 2, 4, 4.20-5.11, 5, 6.7, 6.10, 7.18, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 12.20, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.11, 13.12, 13.17, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.12, 14.13, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 6.7, 6.10, 7.18, 10.4-10.6, 13.2-13.8, 13.17, 14.3-14.6, 14.12-14.13, 15.15-15.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q174 (The Florilegium) 195, 199, 339, 1.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q397, 15-21, 14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1.18-1.24, 2.1, 2.9-2.25, 3.13-3.15, 5.1-5.4, 5.7-5.12, 5.20-5.24, 6.2-6.7, 6.9-6.23, 7.1, 7.18, 8.1-8.18, 8.21-8.22, 8.24, 9.7, 9.18-9.19, 15.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 11.20-11.21, 19.10-19.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 11.20-11.21, 19.10-19.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Dead Sea Scrolls, Messianic Rule, 1.4-1.5, 1.9, 1.22, 2.11-2.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Dead Sea Scrolls, Rule of The Communityb, 9.7-9.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Dead Sea Scrolls, Scroll of Blessings, 4.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Dead Sea Scrolls, Sd (Olim Sb), 2.3-2.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 1.1-1.16, 6.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיֹּאמֶר שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים לְדָנִיֵּאל יָרֵא אֲנִי אֶת־אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר מִנָּה אֶת־מַאֲכַלְכֶם וְאֶת־מִשְׁתֵּיכֶם אֲשֶׁר לָמָּה יִרְאֶה אֶת־פְּנֵיכֶם זֹעֲפִים מִן־הַיְלָדִים אֲשֶׁר כְּגִילְכֶם וְחִיַּבְתֶּם אֶת־רֹאשִׁי לַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.1. בִּשְׁנַת שָׁלוֹשׁ לְמַלְכוּת יְהוֹיָקִים מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה בָּא נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל יְרוּשָׁלִַם וַיָּצַר עָלֶיהָ׃ 1.2. וַיִּתֵּן אֲדֹנָי בְּיָדוֹ אֶת־יְהוֹיָקִים מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה וּמִקְצָת כְּלֵי בֵית־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיְבִיאֵם אֶרֶץ־שִׁנְעָר בֵּית אֱלֹהָיו וְאֶת־הַכֵּלִים הֵבִיא בֵּית אוֹצַר אֱלֹהָיו׃ 1.2. וְכֹל דְּבַר חָכְמַת בִּינָה אֲשֶׁר־בִּקֵּשׁ מֵהֶם הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיִּמְצָאֵם עֶשֶׂר יָדוֹת עַל כָּל־הַחַרְטֻמִּים הָאַשָּׁפִים אֲשֶׁר בְּכָל־מַלְכוּתוֹ׃ 1.3. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְאַשְׁפְּנַז רַב סָרִיסָיו לְהָבִיא מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִזֶּרַע הַמְּלוּכָה וּמִן־הַפַּרְתְּמִים׃ 1.4. יְלָדִים אֲשֶׁר אֵין־בָּהֶם כָּל־מאום [מוּם] וְטוֹבֵי מַרְאֶה וּמַשְׂכִּילִים בְּכָל־חָכְמָה וְיֹדְעֵי דַעַת וּמְבִינֵי מַדָּע וַאֲשֶׁר כֹּחַ בָּהֶם לַעֲמֹד בְּהֵיכַל הַמֶּלֶךְ וּלֲלַמְּדָם סֵפֶר וּלְשׁוֹן כַּשְׂדִּים׃ 1.5. וַיְמַן לָהֶם הַמֶּלֶךְ דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ מִפַּת־בַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּמִיֵּין מִשְׁתָּיו וּלְגַדְּלָם שָׁנִים שָׁלוֹשׁ וּמִקְצָתָם יַעַמְדוּ לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.6. וַיְהִי בָהֶם מִבְּנֵי יְהוּדָה דָּנִיֵּאל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה׃ 1.7. וַיָּשֶׂם לָהֶם שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים שֵׁמוֹת וַיָּשֶׂם לְדָנִיֵּאל בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר וְלַחֲנַנְיָה שַׁדְרַךְ וּלְמִישָׁאֵל מֵישַׁךְ וְלַעֲזַרְיָה עֲבֵד נְגוֹ׃ 1.8. וַיָּשֶׂם דָּנִיֵּאל עַל־לִבּוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִתְגָּאַל בְּפַתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּבְיֵין מִשְׁתָּיו וַיְבַקֵּשׁ מִשַּׂר הַסָּרִיסִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִתְגָּאָל׃ 1.9. וַיִּתֵּן הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־דָּנִיֵּאל לְחֶסֶד וּלְרַחֲמִים לִפְנֵי שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים׃ 1.11. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּנִיֵּאל אֶל־הַמֶּלְצַר אֲשֶׁר מִנָּה שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים עַל־דָּנִיֵּאל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה׃ 1.12. נַס־נָא אֶת־עֲבָדֶיךָ יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה וְיִתְּנוּ־לָנוּ מִן־הַזֵּרֹעִים וְנֹאכְלָה וּמַיִם וְנִשְׁתֶּה׃ 1.13. וְיֵרָאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ מַרְאֵינוּ וּמַרְאֵה הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכַאֲשֶׁר תִּרְאֵה עֲשֵׂה עִם־עֲבָדֶיךָ׃ 1.14. וַיִּשְׁמַע לָהֶם לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַיְנַסֵּם יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה׃ 1.15. וּמִקְצָת יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה נִרְאָה מַרְאֵיהֶם טוֹב וּבְרִיאֵי בָּשָׂר מִן־כָּל־הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.16. וַיְהִי הַמֶּלְצַר נֹשֵׂא אֶת־פַּתְבָּגָם וְיֵין מִשְׁתֵּיהֶם וְנֹתֵן לָהֶם זֵרְעֹנִים׃ 1.1. IN THE third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah came Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon unto Jerusalem, and besieged it." 1.2. And the Lord gave Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, with all of the vessels of the house of God; and he carried them into the land of Shinar to the house of his god, and the vessels he brought into the treasure-house of his god." 1.3. And the king spoke unto Ashpenaz his chief officer, that he should bring in certain of the children of Israel, and of the seed royal, and of the nobles," 1.4. youths in whom was no blemish, but fair to look on, and skilful in all wisdom, and skilful in knowledge, and discerning in thought, and such as had ability to stand in the king’s palace; and that he should teach them the learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans." 1.5. And the king appointed for them a daily portion of the king’s food, and of the wine which he drank, and that they should be nourished three years; that at the end thereof they might stand before the king." 1.6. Now among these were, of the children of Judah, Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah." 1.7. And the chief of the officers gave names unto them: unto Daniel he gave the name of Belteshazzar; and to Haiah, of Shadrach; and to Mishael, of Meshach; and to Azariah, of Abed-nego." 1.8. But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king’s food, nor with the wine which he drank; therefore he requested of the chief of the officers that he might not defile himself." 1.9. And God granted Daniel mercy and compassion in the sight of the chief of the officers." 1.10. And the chief of the officers said unto Daniel: ‘I fear my lord the king, who hath appointed your food and your drink; for why should he see your faces sad in comparison with the youths that are of your own age? so would ye endanger my head with the king.’" 1.11. Then said Daniel to the steward, whom the chief of the officers had appointed over Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah:" 1.12. ’Try thy servants, I beseech thee, ten days; and let them give us pulse to eat, and water to drink." 1.13. Then let our counteces be looked upon before thee, and the countece of the youths that eat of the king’s food; and as thou seest, deal with thy servants.’" 1.14. So he hearkened unto them in this matter, and tried them ten days." 1.15. And at the end of ten days their counteces appeared fairer, and they were fatter in flesh, than all the youths that did eat of the king’s food." 1.16. So the steward took away their food, and the wine that they should drink, and gave them pulse." 6.10. Wherefore king Darius signed the writing and the interdict."
28. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.62-1.63 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.62. But many in Israel stood firm and were resolved in their hearts not to eat unclean food. 1.63. They chose to die rather than to be defiled by food or to profane the holy covet; and they did die.
29. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.18-6.21, 7.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.18. Eleazar, one of the scribes in high position, a man now advanced in age and of noble presence, was being forced to open his mouth to eat swine's flesh.' 6.19. But he, welcoming death with honor rather than life with pollution, went up to the the rack of his own accord, spitting out the flesh,' 6.20. as men ought to go who have the courage to refuse things that it is not right to taste, even for the natural love of life.' 6.21. Those who were in charge of that unlawful sacrifice took the man aside, because of their long acquaintance with him, and privately urged him to bring meat of his own providing, proper for him to use, and pretend that he was eating the flesh of the sacrificial meal which had been commanded by the king,' 7.1. It happened also that seven brothers and their mother were arrested and were being compelled by the king, under torture with whips and cords, to partake of unlawful swine's flesh.'
30. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 6.37, 50.16-50.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

50.16. Then the sons of Aaron shouted,they sounded the trumpets of hammered work,they made a great noise to be heard for remembrance before the Most High. 50.17. Then all the people together made haste and fell to the ground upon their faces to worship their Lord,the Almighty, God Most High. 50.18. And the singers praised him with their voices in sweet and full-toned melody. 50.19. And the people besought the Lord Most High in prayer before him who is merciful,till the order of worship of the Lord was ended;so they completed his service. 50.21. and they bowed down in worship a second time,to receive the blessing from the Most High.
31. Septuagint, Judith, 9.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

9.1. Then Judith fell upon her face, and put ashes on her head, and uncovered the sackcloth she was wearing; and at the very time when that evening's incense was being offered in the house of God in Jerusalem, Judith cried out to the Lord with a loud voice, and said
32. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 50.16-50.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

33. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 3.4, 3.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.4. but because they worshiped God and conducted themselves by his law, they kept their separateness with respect to foods. For this reason they appeared hateful to some; 3.6. Nevertheless those of other races paid no heed to their good service to their nation, which was common talk among all;
34. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 2.62-2.63 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.62. Accordingly, on the seventh day there are spread before the people in every city innumerable lessons of prudence, and temperance, and courage, and justice, and all other virtues; during the giving of which the common people sit down, keeping silence and pricking up their ears, with all possible attention, from their thirst for wholesome instruction; but some of those who are very learned explain to them what is of great importance and use, lessons by which the whole of their lives may be improved. 2.63. And there are, as we may say, two most especially important heads of all the innumerable particular lessons and doctrines; the regulating of one's conduct towards God by the rules of piety and holiness, and of one's conduct towards men by the rules of humanity and justice; each of which is subdivided into a great number of subordinate ideas, all praiseworthy.
35. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 31-33, 40-63, 66-90, 30 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Therefore, during six days, each of these individuals, retiring into solitude by himself, philosophises by himself in one of the places called monasteries, never going outside the threshold of the outer court, and indeed never even looking out. But on the seventh day they all come together as if to meet in a sacred assembly, and they sit down in order according to their ages with all becoming gravity, keeping their hands inside their garments, having their right hand between their chest and their dress, and the left hand down by their side, close to their flank;
36. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.215-2.216 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.215. for it was invariably the custom, as it was desirable on other days also, but especially on the seventh day, as I have already explained, to discuss matters of philosophy; the ruler of the people beginning the explanation, and teaching the multitude what they ought to do and to say, and the populace listening so as to improve in virtue, and being made better both in their moral character and in their conduct through life; 2.216. in accordance with which custom, even to this day, the Jews hold philosophical discussions on the seventh day, disputing about their national philosophy, and devoting that day to the knowledge and consideration of the subjects of natural philosophy; for as for their houses of prayer in the different cities, what are they, but schools of wisdom, and courage, and temperance, and justice, and piety, and holiness, and every virtue, by which human and divine things are appreciated, and placed upon a proper footing?
37. Philo of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 11.5 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

38. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 48, 122 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

122. And when they had spent the whole night in hymns and songs, they poured out through the gates at the earliest dawn, and hastened to the nearest point of the shore, for they had been deprived of their usual places for prayer, and standing in a clear and open space, they cried out
39. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 14.214-14.216 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.214. Now it does not please me that such decrees should be made against our friends and confederates, whereby they are forbidden to live according to their own customs, or to bring in contributions for common suppers and holy festivals, while they are not forbidden so to do even at Rome itself; 14.215. for even Caius Caesar, our imperator and consul, in that decree wherein he forbade the Bacchanal rioters to meet in the city, did yet permit these Jews, and these only, both to bring in their contributions, and to make their common suppers. 14.216. Accordingly, when I forbid other Bacchanal rioters, I permit these Jews to gather themselves together, according to the customs and laws of their forefathers, and to persist therein. It will be therefore good for you, that if you have made any decree against these our friends and confederates, to abrogate the same, by reason of their virtue and kind disposition towards us.”
40. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.131, 2.166 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.131. but a priest says grace before meat; and it is unlawful for anyone to taste of the food before grace be said. The same priest, when he hath dined, says grace again after meat; and when they begin, and when they end, they praise God, as he that bestows their food upon them; after which they lay aside their [white] garments, and betake themselves to their labors again till the evening; 2.166. Moreover, the Pharisees are friendly to one another, and are for the exercise of concord, and regard for the public; but the behavior of the Sadducees one towards another is in some degree wild, and their conversation with those that are of their own party is as barbarous as if they were strangers to them. And this is what I had to say concerning the philosophic sects among the Jews.
41. Mishnah, Berachot, 7, 6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

42. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.3, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.3. They do not recite the Shema responsively, And they do not pass before the ark; And the [the priests] do not lift up their hands; And they do not read the Torah [publicly]; And they do not conclude with a haftarah from the prophets; And they do not make stops [at funeral] processions; And they do not say the blessing for mourners, or the comfort of mourners, or the blessing of bridegrooms; And they do not mention God’s name in the invitation [to say Birkat Hamazon]; Except in the presence of ten. [For redeeming sanctified] land nine and a priest [are sufficient], and similarly with human beings." 4.5. The one who concludes with the haftarah also leads the responsive reading of the Shema and he passes before the ark and he lifts up his hands. If he is a child, his father or his teacher passes before the ark in his place."
43. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. The order of blessings [in the Musaf Amidah of Rosh Hashanah]:He says “patriarchs”, “powers” and the “sanctification of the name” and includes the kingship verses with them and does not blow [the shofar]. The sanctification of the day and blows [the shofar], the remembrance-verses and blows [the shofar], and the shofar-verses and blows [the shofar]. Then he says the blessing of the Temple service and “thanksgiving” and the blessing of the priests, the words of Rabbi Yoha ben Nuri. Rabbi Akiva said to him: if he does not blow the shofar for the kingship-verses, why should he say them? Rather he says: “patriarchs”, “powers” and the “sanctification of the name” and includes the kingship verse with the sanctification of the day and blows the shofar, then he says the remembrance-verses and blows, and the shofar-verses and blows. Then he says the Temple service and “thanksgiving” and the blessing of the priest."
44. Mishnah, Tamid, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. The superintendent said to them: Bless one blessing! And they blessed. They then read the Ten Commandments, the Shema, the “And it will be if you hearken” (the second paragraph of Shema) and Vayomer (the third paragraph of Shema), and they blessed the people with three blessings: Emet veYatziv, and Avodah, and the priestly benediction. On Shabbat they added a blessing to be said by the watch which was leaving."
45. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 11.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.10. For this cause the woman ought to have authority on her head,because of the angels.
46. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 4.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.13. Until I come, pay attention to reading, to exhortation, and to teaching.
47. New Testament, Acts, 6.9, 13.14-13.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.9. But some of those who were of the synagogue called "The Libertines," and of the Cyrenians, of the Alexandrians, and of those of Cilicia and Asia arose, disputing with Stephen. 13.14. But they, passing through from Perga, came to Antioch of Pisidia. They went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and sat down. 13.15. After the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Brothers, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, speak.
48. New Testament, Colossians, 2.18, 2.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.18. Let no one rob you of your prize by a voluntary humility and worshipping of the angels, dwelling in the things which he has not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind 2.23. Which things indeed appear like wisdom in self-imposed worship, and humility, and severity to the body; but aren't of any value against the indulgence of the flesh.
49. New Testament, Galatians, 2.11-2.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. But when Peter came to Antioch, I resisted him to the face,because he stood condemned. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 2.14. But when I sawthat they didn't walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do?
50. New Testament, John, 5.24-5.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.24. Most assuredly I tell you, he who hears my word, and believes him who sent me, has eternal life, and doesn't come into judgment, but has passed out of death into life. 5.25. Most assuredly, I tell you, the hour comes, and now is, when the dead will hear the Son of God's voice; and those who hear will live.
51. Tosefta, Berachot, 1.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.9. These are the Berachot (blessings) which do not seal off with [the phrase] Baruch [Ata Hashem] (Blessed are You Hashem): One that blesses on the fruit, and on the mitzvot, Birkat Hazimun, and the last Beracha in Birkat Hamazon. Rebbi Yossi Hagelili used to seal off the last Beracha in Birkat Hamazon and [therefore] make it long."
52. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 7.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

7.3. גּוּפָא אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי לְעוֹלָם אֵין הָעוֹלָה בָּאָה אֶלָּא עַל הַרְהוֹר הַלֵּב, אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי מִקְרָא מָלֵא הוּא (יחזקאל כ, לב): וְהָעֹלָה עַל רוּחֲכֶם הָיוֹ לֹא תִהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם אוֹמְרִים וגו', מִמִּי אַתָּה לָמֵד מִבָּנָיו שֶׁל אִיּוֹב, בַּתְּחִלָּה (איוב א, ד): וְהָלְכוּ בָנָיו וְעָשׂוּ מִשְׁתֶּה, רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי מְלָכִים לִהְיוֹת קוֹרִין לַאֲחֵיהֶן וּלְאַחְיוֹתֵיהֶן עִמָּהֶן בַּסְּעוּדָה. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּם בְּרַבִּי חִיָּא אָמַר לְהִטָּפֵל בָּהֶם הָלְכוּ, שֶׁקִּדְּשׁוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (איוב א, ה): וַיְהִי כִּי הֵקִיפוּ יְמֵי הַמִּשְׁתֶּה וַיִּשְׁלַח אִיּוֹב וַיְקַדְּשֵׁם, עַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי תַּנְחוּם בֶּן רַבִּי חִיָּא דְּאָמַר שֶׁקִּדְּשׁוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים, נִטְפְּלוּ בָּהֶם וְהָלְכוּ. עַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי מֵאִיר דְּהוּא אָמַר שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי מְלָכִים לִהְיוֹת קוֹרִין לַאֲחֵיהֶם וּלְאַחְיוֹתֵיהֶם בַּסְּעוּדָה, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (במדבר יא, יח): וְאֶל הָעָם תֹּאמַר הִתְקַדְּשׁוּ. (איוב א, ה): וְהִשְׁכִּים בַּבֹּקֶר וְהֶעֱלָה, אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן בַּר חִלְפַיי בְּעֵי מִסְפַּר יָמִים אוֹ מִסְפַּר בָּנָיו וּבְנוֹתָיו אוֹ מִסְפַּר כָּל קָרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה, כְּשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר כִּי אָמַר אִיּוֹב (איוב א, ה): אוּלַי חָטְאוּ בָנַי וּבֵרְכוּ אֱלֹהִים בִּלְבָבָם, הֲדָא אָמַר אֵין הָעוֹלָה בָּא אֶלָּא עַל הַרְהוֹר הַלֵּב. רַבִּי אַחָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר פַּפָּא שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹמְרִים לְשֶׁעָבַר הָיִינוּ מַקְרִיבִין קָרְבָּנוֹת וּמִתְעַסְּקִין בָּהֶן, עַכְשָׁו שֶׁאֵין קָרְבָּנוֹת מַהוּ לְהִתְעַסֵּק בָּהֶם, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הוֹאִיל וְאַתֶּם מִתְעַסְּקִים בָּהֶם, מַעֲלֶה אֲנִי עֲלֵיכֶם כְּאִלּוּ אַתֶּם מַקְרִיבִין אוֹתָן. רַבִּי הוּנָא אָמַר תַּרְתֵּי, אֵין כָּל הַגָּלֻיּוֹת הַלָּלוּ מִתְכַּנְסוֹת אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת מִשְׁנָיוֹת, מַה טַּעְמָא (הושע ח, י): גַּם כִּי יִתְנוּ בַגּוֹיִם עַתָּה אֲקַבְּצֵם. רַבִּי הוּנָא אָמַר חֳרֵי (מלאכי א, יא): כִּי מִמִּזְרַח שֶׁמֶשׁ וְעַד מְבוֹאוֹ גָּדוֹל שְׁמִי בַּגּוֹיִם וּבְכָל מָקוֹם מֻקְטָר מֻגָּשׁ, וְכִי יֵשׁ מִנְחָה טְהוֹרָה וּקְמִיצָה וְהַקְטָרָה בְּבָבֶל, אֶלָּא אֵיזוֹ, זוֹ מִשְׁנָה. אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הוֹאִיל וְאַתֶּם מִתְעַסְּקִים בַּמִּשְׁנָה כְּאִלּוּ אַתֶּם מַקְרִיבִין קָרְבָּן. שְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר (יחזקאל מג, יא): וְאִם נִכְלְמוּ מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ, וְכִי יֵשׁ צוּרַת הַבַּיִת עַד עַכְשָׁו, אֶלָּא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הוֹאִיל וְאַתֶּם מִתְעַסְּקִים בּוֹ כְּאִלּוּ אַתֶּם בּוֹנִין אוֹתוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי אַסֵּי מִפְּנֵי מָה מַתְחִילִין לַתִּינוֹקוֹת בְּתוֹרַת כֹּהֲנִים וְאֵין מַתְחִילִין בִּבְרֵאשִׁית, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַתִּינוֹקוֹת טְהוֹרִין וְהַקָּרְבָּנוֹת טְהוֹרִין יָבוֹאוּ טְהוֹרִין וְיִתְעַסְּקוּ בִּטְהוֹרִים.
53. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

110a. band swear to the Lord of hosts;one shall be called the city of destruction” (Isaiah 19:18). bThey went to Alexandria in Egypt and built an altar and sacrificedofferings bupon it for the sake of Heaven, as it is statedin the following verse: b“In that day shall there be an altar to the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt,and a pillar at its border, to the Lord” (Isaiah 19:19).,The verse states: b“One shall be called the city of destruction”(Isaiah 19:18). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the verse: b“One shall be called the city of destruction”?The Gemara answers: bAs Rav Yosef translatesinto Aramaic: Concerning bthe City of the Sun, which will be destroyed in the future, it will be said that it is one of them. And from whereis it derived bthatin the phrase: b“The city of destruction [ iheres /i],” the term iheres bisreferring bto the sun? As it is written: “Who commands the sun [ iḥeres /i], and it does not rise;and seals up the stars” (Job 9:7).,§ After mentioning the Jewish community in Egypt, the Gemara discusses Jewish communities in other locations. The verse states: “Fear not, for I am with you; I will bring your seed from the east and gather you from the west; I will say to the north: Give up, and to the south: Keep not back, bbring My sons from far, and My daughters from the end of the earth”(Isaiah 43:5–6). What is the meaning of b“bring My sons from far”? Rav Huna says: These are the exiles of Babylonia, whose minds are calm, like sons,and who can therefore focus properly on Torah study and mitzvot. What is the meaning of b“and My daughters from the end of the earth”? These are the exiles of other countries, whose minds are unsettled, like daughters. /b,§ bRabbi Abba bar Rav Yitzḥak saysthat bRav Ḥisda says, and some saythat bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:The gentiles living bfrom Tyre to Carthage recognize the Jewish people,their religion, band their Father in Heaven. Butthose living bto the west of Tyre and to the east of Carthage recognize neither the Jewish people nor their Father in Heaven. /b, bRav Shimi bar Ḥiyya raised an objection tothe statement of bRavfrom the verse: b“From the rising of the sun until it sets, My name is great among the nations; and in every place offerings are presented to My name, and a pure meal offering;for My name is great among the nations, says the Lord of hosts” (Malachi 1:11). This indicates that God’s name is known across the entire world, even to the west of Tyre and the east of Carthage. Rav bsaid to him: Shimi,is it byouwho is raising such an objection? The verse does not mean that they recognize God and worship him. Rather, it means bthatalthough they worship idols, bthey call Him the God of gods. /b,§ The verse states: “And bin every place offerings are presented to My name,and a pure meal offering; for My name is great among the nations, says the Lord of hosts.” Does it benter your mindto say that it is permitted to sacrifice offerings bin every place?Rather, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: These are Torah scholars, who engage in Torahstudy bin every place.God says: bI ascribe themcredit bas though they burn and presentofferings bto My name. /b,Furthermore, when the verse states: b“And a pure meal offering,” thisis referring to bone who studies Torah in purity,i.e., one who first bmarries a woman and afterward studies Torah.Since he is married, he is not disturbed by sinful thoughts.,The Gemara cites another verse that praises Torah scholars. b“A Song of Ascents, Behold, bless the Lord, all you servants of the Lord, who stand in the House of the Lord at night”(Psalms 134:1). bWhatis the meaning of b“at night,”given that the Temple service is not performed at night and all the offerings must be sacrificed during the daytime? bRabbi Yoḥa says: These are Torah scholars, who engage in Torahstudy bat night. The verse ascribes themcredit bas though they engage in theTemple bservice. /b,§ The Gemara cites another verse that is interpreted in a similar vein. King Solomon said to Hiram of Tyre: “Behold, I am about to build a house for the name of the Lord my God, to dedicate it to Him, and to burn before Him incense of sweet spices, and for the continual shewbread, and for the burnt offerings morning and evening, on the iShabbatot /i, and on the New Moons, and on the Festivals of the Lord our God. bThis is an ordice forever for Israel”(II Chronicles 2:3). Since the Temple was eventually destroyed, what did Solomon mean when he said that it is “an ordice forever”? bRav Giddel saysthat bRav says: Thisis referring to the baltarthat remains bbuiltin Heaven even after the earthly Temple was destroyed, bandthe angel bMichael, the great minister, stands and sacrifices an offering upon it. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa saysthat there is an alternative explanation of the verse: bThese are Torah scholars, who engage instudying bthe ihalakhotofthe Temple bservice. The verse ascribes themcredit bas though the Temple was built in their daysand they are serving in it.,§ The Gemara cites similar interpretations of verses: bReish Lakish said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “This is the law [ itorah /i] of the burnt offering, of the meal offering, and of the sin offering, and of the guilt offering,and of the consecration offering, and of the sacrifice of peace offerings” (Leviticus 7:37)? This teaches that banyone who engages in Torahstudy is considered bas though he sacrificed a burnt offering, a meal offering, a sin offering, and a guilt offering. /b, bRava saidan objection to this interpretation: bThisverse states: b“of the burnt offering, of the meal offering.”If the interpretation of Reish Lakish is correct, the verse bshould havewritten: b“Burnt offering and meal offering.” Rather, Rava saysthat the correct interpretation of this verse is: bAnyone who engages in Torahstudy bneed notbring ba burnt offering, nor a sin offering, nor a meal offering, nor a guilt offering. /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “This is the law of the sin offering”(Leviticus 6:18), band: “This is the law of the guilt offering”(Leviticus 7:1)? These verses teach that banyone who engages instudying bthe law of the sin offeringis ascribed credit bas though he sacrificed a sin offering, and anyone who engages instudying bthe law of a guilt offeringis ascribed credit bas though he sacrificed a guilt offering. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bIt is stated with regard to an animal burnt offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:9), band with regard to a bird burnt offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:17), band with regard to a meal offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 2:2). The repetitive language employed concerning all of these different offerings is bto say to youthat bone who brings a substantialoffering band one who brings a meageroffering have equal merit, bprovided that he directs his heart toward Heaven. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bRabbi Zeira said: What is the versefrom which this principle is derived? b“Sweet is the sleep of a laboring man, whether he consumes little or much” /b(Ecclesiastes 5:11).The verse is interpreted as referring to one who brings an offering, and teaches that one who brings a substantial offering and one who brings a meager offering can be equally assured that their offering will be accepted., bRav Adda bar Ahava saidthat the source is bfrom here: “When goods increase, those who consume them increase; and what advantage is there to the owner,except seeing them with his eyes?” (Ecclesiastes 5:10). One who brings a substantial offering, who thereby increases the number of priests who partake of it, does not have more merit than one who brings a meager offering. Rather, the offering that God desires is one where He recognizes, i.e., “seeing them with His eyes,” that its owner has the proper intent.,The Gemara addresses the expression “an aroma pleasing to the Lord” stated in the verses mentioned in the mishna. bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Azzai says: Come and see what is written in the portion of offerings: Asin these verses, the divine names iEland iElohimare not stated, butonly b“the Lord.”This is bsoas bnot to give a claim to a litigant to argue.Only one name of God is used in conjunction with all the various offerings, to prevent heretics from claiming that different offerings are brought to different gods., bAnd it is stated with regard to a large bulloffering: b“A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:9), band with regard to a small birdoffering: b“A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:17), band with regard to a meal offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:9). The repetitive language employed concerning all of these different offerings is bto say to youthat bone who brings a substantialoffering band one who brings a meageroffering have equal merit, bprovided that he directs his heart toward Heaven. /b, bAnd lest you saythat God bneedsthese offerings bfor consumption,in which case a larger offering would be preferable to a smaller one, bthe verse states: “If I were hungry, I would not tell you; for the world is Mine, and everything within it”(Psalms 50:12). bAnd it is stated: “For every beast of the forest is Mine, and the cattle upon a thousand hills. I know all the fowls of the mountains; and the wild beasts of the field are Mine”(Psalms 50:10–11). Similarly, it is stated in the following verse: b“Do I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats?”(Psalms 50:13)., bI did not say to you: Sacrificeofferings to me, bso that you will say: I will do His will,i.e., fulfill His needs, band He will do my will. You are not sacrificing tofulfill bMy will,i.e., My needs, bbut you are sacrificing tofulfill byour will,i.e., your needs, in order to achieve atonement for your sins by observing My mitzvot, bas it is stated:“And when you sacrifice an offering of peace offerings to the Lord, byou shall sacrifice it so that you may be accepted”(Leviticus 19:5)., bAlternatively,the verse: “And when you sacrifice an offering of peace offerings to the Lord, byou shall sacrifice it so that you may be accepted [ ilirtzonkhem /i]”(Leviticus 19:5), can be interpreted differently: bSacrifice willingly [ ilirtzonkhem /i]; sacrifice intentionally. /b,This is bas Shmuel asked Rav Huna: From whereis it derived with regard bto one who acts unawaresin the case bof consecrateditems, i.e., if one slaughtered an offering without intending to perform the act of slaughter at all, but rather appeared like one occupied with other matters, bthatthe offering bis disqualified?Rav Huna said to Shmuel: It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “And he shall slaughter the young bullbefore the Lord” (Leviticus 1:5), teaching that the mitzva is not performed properly bunless the slaughter is for the sake of a young bull,i.e., with the knowledge that he is performing an act of slaughter.,Shmuel bsaid toRav Huna: bWe have thisas an established ihalakhaalready, that it is a mitzva to slaughter the offering for the sake of a bull, but bfrom whereis it derived that this requirement is bindispensable?Rav Huna bsaid to himthat the verse states: b“With your will you shall slaughter it”(Leviticus 19:5), i.e., bsacrifice intentionally,in the form of a purposeful action.,...Y
54. Theodosius Ii Emperor of Rome, Theodosian Code, 16.8.4 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

55. Anon., 2 Enoch, 20.3

56. Anon., 3 Enoch, 11-16, 10

57. Anon., Apocalypse of Abraham, 17

58. Anon., Pesiqta De Rav Kahana, 6.3

59. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 129-142, 184-185, 128

128. It is worth while to mention briefly the information which he gave in reply to our questions. For I suppose that most people feel a curiosity with regard to some of the enactments in the law


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
( Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 244
admission procedure Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
angels Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43, 68; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 160
aristotle, pain as an emotion Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 238
art, priests Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43, 68
art, qumran Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43, 68
ascent to heaven Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 160
associations Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 27
authoritative works Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 68
authority, prophetic Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 32
authority Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
baumgarten, albert, on authority in the rule of the community Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 63
benedictions and graces Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 185
book of hagy Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 66
books, oral origins of Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 32
charity Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 102
christian clerics Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 92
christianity, early Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 62
colossians, letter to Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 160
community, qumran Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
community Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48, 63, 64
composition, oral and written Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 36
constitutionalism comparative, and community Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 74
constitutionalism comparative, qumran Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 74
dead sea scrolls, divine inspiration as source of halakhah Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 63
dead sea scrolls, qumran Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 160
dead sea scrolls Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43, 68
divine revelation, as source of authority Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 63
domination, emotion and Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 238
domination, in ritual Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 238
egalitarianism Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 63
emotion, in the classical world Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 238
emotion, in the hebrew bible Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 238
emulation Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48, 74
ethics Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
exercises, student Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 218
festival of the first fruits of oil Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 102
first fruits (bikkurim) Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 102
four who entered pardes, the story of the Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 160
glory, divine Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 68
god, visible Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
greco, roman Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 244
halakhah, divine versus human authority in Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 63
halakhah/halakhot, and aggadah; law and narrative Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 152, 240
hermeneutical method, dead sea scrolls Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 13
hierarchy Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48, 64
hillel, rabbi Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 361
holiness Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47
homily Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 27
iconography of Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 280
interpretation, biblical Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43, 68
interpretation, rabbinic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 68
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47, 50, 62, 152
job, testament of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 160
john the baptist Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 244
joseph (son of jacob) Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 361
josephus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 361; Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 280
joshua Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 50
kedushah Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 185
knowledge Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43, 68
laity, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 50, 62, 152, 240
law, dead sea scrolls Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 13
legal-exegetical method Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 13
literacy in antiquity Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 166
liturgy Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43, 68
love, among the dead sea sect Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 238
mandel, paul Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 276, 278
maskil Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 244
maśkîl Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
meals, jewish Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 27, 28
measurements, creation of Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 102
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 152, 195
midrash halakhah Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 13
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43, 68
moses Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 244
naeh, shlomo Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 276
overseer, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 195
pain, emotion and Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 238
paradise, pardes, entered pardes Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 160
patriarchs, texts Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 62, 240
paul Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 160
pedagogy Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
performance, oral Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 36
petuchowski j.j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 185
pharisees, on measurements Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 102
philo, of alexandria Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 280
philo judeas Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 244
power, power of god, powers Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 160
prayer, liturgy Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
prayer Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 62, 152, 195, 240
prayereucharistic Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 230
prayers Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 280
priest or priesthood Marcar, Divine Regeneration and Ethnic Identity in 1 Peter: Mapping Metaphors of Family, Race, and Nation (2022) 205
priesthood, priests, angelic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43, 68
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47, 50, 152, 195
purity/ritual purity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47
purpose-built communal structures Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 280
qumran, angels Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43, 68
qumran, liturgy Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43, 68
qumran, priesthood Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43, 68
qumran, scriptural traditions Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 68
qumran, songs Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43, 68
qumran/qumran community Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47, 50, 62, 152
qumran Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 27, 153
qumran library Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 280
qumran literature, councils Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 74
qumran literature, councils and community Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 74
qumran literature, legal authority in Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 74
qumran literature, priests Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 74
qumran sect Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 32
qumran sectarians, decison-making process of Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 63
qumran sectarians, measurements of Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 102
rabbinic judaism Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 68
rabbinic literature, human exegetical activity in Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 63
rabbinic literature, on measurements Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 102
reading, performative Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 32, 33, 34, 36, 166
reading in synagogue Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 153
reading of law Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 153
revelation, ongoing Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 68
revelation Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43, 68; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 152; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 244
ritual, as emotional practice Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 238
ritual, embodiment in Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 238
rule of the community, cave Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 63
sabbath Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 28
sadducees, on measurements Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 102
salt Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 28
salvation Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 244
schechter s. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 185
schremer, adiel Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 102
scribes, training of Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 166
scribes/scribal activity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 152, 195
scripture Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
scrolls, as storage media Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 166
second temple period, halakhic disputes from time of Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 102
sectarian/sectarianism Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 50, 62
sectarianism Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43, 68
shammai, rabbi Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 361
shekhina, ritual Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43, 68
shemesh, aharon Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 276
sinai, qumran literature Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43, 68
sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43, 68
sons of zadok (bne tsadok) Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 63
sophrosyne, among women Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 238
spirit, effects of, prophecy Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 244
spirit, evil spirits Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
spirit Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43, 68
study practices Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48, 63, 64, 65, 66, 74, 75
symposium Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 230
synagogue service Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 27, 28
synagogues Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 280
synoptic gospels Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 244
temple, community as Marcar, Divine Regeneration and Ethnic Identity in 1 Peter: Mapping Metaphors of Family, Race, and Nation (2022) 205
temple loyalty Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 280
temple of Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 280
tephillah Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 185
text-interpretive Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 32, 36
therapeutae Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 280
torah' Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 244
torah, sectarian identity Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
torah, study Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43, 68
torah, study of Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 32, 33, 34, 36
torah Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 63, 64, 65, 66; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47, 50, 62, 152
torah focus Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 218
torah study Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 102
transmission of tradition Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
urim and thummim Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 74
vedic, tzadokites Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 32, 33, 34, 36
vigils Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 74, 75
vision Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 160
wine Alikin, The Earliest History of the Christian Gathering (2009) 230
wisdom, and torah Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 63
wisdom, limits of Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 75
worship, daily and weekly Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 185
worship Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 160
writing, oral dimensions of Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 32
yahad Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 32, 34
zeal for the law Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 238