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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



3095
Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 6.22
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

39 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 28 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 9.3-9.4, 49.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.3. כָּל־רֶמֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר הוּא־חַי לָכֶם יִהְיֶה לְאָכְלָה כְּיֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת־כֹּל׃ 9.4. אַךְ־בָּשָׂר בְּנַפְשׁוֹ דָמוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ׃ 9.3. Every moving thing that liveth shall be for food for you; as the green herb have I given you all." 9.4. Only flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat." 49.10. The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, As long as men come to Shiloh; And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be."
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 3.17, 11.34, 11.38 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.17. חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם כָּל־חֵלֶב וְכָל־דָּם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ׃ 11.34. מִכָּל־הָאֹכֶל אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל אֲשֶׁר יָבוֹא עָלָיו מַיִם יִטְמָא וְכָל־מַשְׁקֶה אֲשֶׁר יִשָּׁתֶה בְּכָל־כְּלִי יִטְמָא׃ 11.38. וְכִי יֻתַּן־מַיִם עַל־זֶרַע וְנָפַל מִנִּבְלָתָם עָלָיו טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃ 3.17. It shall be a perpetual statute throughout your generations in all your dwellings, that ye shall eat neither fat nor blood." 11.34. All food therein which may be eaten, that on which water cometh, shall be unclean; and all drink in every such vessel that may be drunk shall be unclean." 11.38. But if water be put upon the seed, and aught of their carcass fall thereon, it is unclean unto you."
4. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 1.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.8. לֹא־יָמוּשׁ סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה מִפִּיךָ וְהָגִיתָ בּוֹ יוֹמָם וָלַיְלָה לְמַעַן תִּשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכָל־הַכָּתוּב בּוֹ כִּי־אָז תַּצְלִיחַ אֶת־דְּרָכֶךָ וְאָז תַּשְׂכִּיל׃ 1.8. This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth, but thou shalt meditate therein day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written therein; for then thou shalt make thy ways prosperous, and then thou shalt have good success."
5. Anon., Jubilees, 6.17, 14.8-14.20, 15.1, 15.3, 15.11-15.34, 16.13, 22.1-22.30, 44.1, 44.4-44.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.17. And this testimony is written concerning you that you should observe it continually, so that you should not eat on any day any blood of beasts or birds or cattle during all the days of the earth 14.8. And He said unto him: "I am the Lord that brought thee out of Ur of the Chaldees, to give thee the land of the Canaanites to possess it for ever; 14.9. and I shall be God unto thee and to thy seed after thee. 14.10. And he said: "Lord, Lord, whereby shall I know that I shall inherit (it)? 14.11. And he said unto him: "Take Me an heifer of three years, and a goat of three years, and a sheep of three years, and a turtle-dove, and a pigeon."... 14.12. And he took all these in the middle of the month; 14.13. and he dwelt at the oak of Mamre, which is near Hebron. 14.14. And he built there an altar, and sacrificed all these; and he poured their blood upon the altar, and divided them in the midst, and laid them over against each other; but the birds divided he not. 14.15. And birds came down upon the pieces, and Abram drove them away, and did not suffer the birds to touch them. 14.16. And it came to pass, when the sun had set, that an ecstasy fell upon Abram, and lo! an horror of great darkness fell upon him 14.17. and it was said unto Abram: "Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land (that is) not theirs, and they will bring them into bondage, and afflict them four hundred years. 14.18. And the nation also to whom they will be in bondage shall I judge, and after that they will come forth thence with much substance. 14.19. And thou wilt go to thy fathers in peace, and be buried in a good old age. 14.20. But in the fourth generation they will return hither; for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full. 15.1. And in the fifth year of the fourth week of this jubilee, in the third month, in the middle of the month, Abram celebrated the feast of the first-fruits of the grain harvest. 15.3. And the Lord appeared to Abram, and said unto him: "I am God Almighty; approve thyself before Me and be thou perfect. And I will make My covet between 15.11. And the Lord said unto Abraham: "And as for thee, do thou keep My Covet, thou and thy seed after thee 15.12. and circumcise ye every male among you, and circumcise your foreskins, and it will be a token of an eternal covet between Me and you. 15.13. And the child on the eighth day ye will circumcise, every male throughout your generations, him that is born in the house, or whom ye have bought with money from any stranger, whom ye have acquired 15.14. who is not of thy seed. brHe that is born in thy house will surely be circumcised, and those whom thou hast bought with money will be circumcised, and My covet will be in your flesh for an eternal ordice. 15.15. And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin on the eighth day, that soul will be cut off from his people, for he hath broken My covet. 15.16. And God said unto Abraham: "As for Sarai thy wife, her name will no more be called Sarai, but Sarah will be her name. 15.17. And I shall bless her, and give thee a son by her, and I shall bless him, and he will become a nation, and kings of nations will proceed from him. 15.18. And Abraham fell on his face, and rejoiced, and said in his heart: "Shall a son be born to him that is a hundred years old, and shall Sarah, who is ninety years old, bring forth? 15.19. And Abraham said unto God: "O that Ishmael might live before thee! 15.20. And God said: "Yea, and Sarah also will bear thee a son, and thou wilt call his name Isaac, and I shall establish My covet with him, an everlasting covet, and for his seed after him. 15.21. And as for Ishmael also have I heard thee, and behold I shall bless him, and make him great, and multiply him exceedingly, and he will beget twelve princes, and I shall make him a great nation. 15.22. But My covet shall I establish with Isaac, whom Sarah will bear to thee, in these days, in the next year. 15.23. And He left off speaking with him, and God went up from Abraham. 15.24. And Abraham did according as God had said unto him, and he took Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his house, and whom he had bought with his money, every male in his house, and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin. 15.25. And on the selfsame day was Abraham circumcised, and all the men of his house, (and those born in the house), and all those, whom he had bought with money from the children of the stranger, were circumcised with him. 15.26. This law is for all the generations for ever 15.27. and there is no circumcision of the days, and no omission of one day out of the eight days; for it is an eternal ordice, ordained and written on the heavenly tables. 15.28. And every one that is born, the flesh of whose foreskin is not circumcised on the eighth day, belongeth not to the children of the covet which the Lord made with Abraham, but to the children of destruction; 15.29. nor is there, moreover, any sign on him that he is the Lord's, but (he is destined) to be destroyed and slain from the earth, and to be rooted out of the earth, for he hath broken the covet of the Lord our God. 15.30. For all the angels of the presence and all the angels of sanctification have been so created from the day of their creation, and before the angels of the presence and the angels of sanctification He hath sanctified Israel, that they should be with Him and with His holy angels. 15.31. And do thou command the children of Israel and let them observe the sign of this covet for their generations as an eternal ordice, and they will not be rooted out of the land. 15.32. For the command is ordained for a covet, that they should observe it for ever among all the children of Israel. 15.33. For Ishmael and his sons and his brothers and Esau, the Lord did not cause to approach Him, and he chose them not because they are the children of Abraham, because He knew them, but He chose Israel to be His people. 15.34. And He sanctified it, and gathered it from amongst all the children of men ; 16.13. And, behold, it was commanded and engraven concerning all his seed, on the heavenly tables, to remove them and root them out, and to execute judgment upon them like the judgment of Sodom, and to leave no seed of the man on earth on the day of condemnation. 22.1. And it came to pass in the first week in the forty-fourth jubilee, in the second year, that is, the year in which Abraham died, that Isaac and Ishmael came from the Well of the Oath to celebrate the feast of weeks--that is, the feast of the first-fruits of the harvest--to Abraham, their father 22.2. and Abraham rejoiced because his two sons had come. 22.3. For Isaac had many possessions in Beersheba, and Isaac was wont to go and see his possessions and to return to his father. 22.4. And in those days Ishmael came to see his father, and they both came together 22.5. and Isaac offered a sacrifice for a burnt-offering, and presented it on the altar of his father which he had made in Hebron. brAnd he offered a thank-offering and made a feast of joy before Ishmael, his brother: 22.6. and Rebecca made new cakes from the new grain, and gave them to Jacob, her son, to take them to Abraham, his father, from the first-fruits of the land, that he might eat and bless the Creator of all things before he died. 22.7. And Isaac, too, sent by the hand of Jacob to Abraham a best thank-offering, that he might eat and drink. 22.8. And he ate and drank, and blessed the Most High God, Who hath created heaven and earth, Who hath made all the fat things of the earth, And given them to the children of men That they might eat and drink and bless their Creator. 22.9. And now I give thanks unto Thee, my God, because Thou hast caused me to see this day: 22.10. behold, I am one hundred three score and fifteen years, an old man and full of days, and all my days have been unto me peace. 22.11. The sword of the adversary hath not overcome me in all that Thou hast given me and my children all the days of my life until this day. 22.12. My God, may Thy mercy and Thy peace be upon Thy servant, and upon the seed of his sons, that they may be to Thee a chosen nation and an inheritance from amongst all the nations of the earth from henceforth unto all the days of the generations of the earth, unto all the ages. 22.13. And he called Jacob and said My son Jacob, may the God of all bless thee and strengthen thee to do righteousness, and His will before Him 22.14. and may He choose thee and thy seed that ye may become a people for His inheritance according to His will alway. And do thou, my son, Jacob, draw near and kiss me. 22.15. And he drew near and kissed him, and he said: "Blessed be my son Jacob And all the sons of God Most High, unto all the ages: May God give unto thee a seed of righteousness; And some of thy sons may He sanctify in the midst of the whole earth; 22.16. May nations serve thee, And all the nations bow themselves before thy seed. 22.17. Be strong in the presence of men, And exercise authority over all the seed of Seth. Then thy ways and the ways of thy sons will be justified, So that they shall become a holy nation. 22.18. May the Most High God give thee all the blessings Wherewith he hath blessed me And wherewith He blessed Noah and Adam; May they rest on the sacred head of thy seed from generation to generation for ever. 22.19. And may He cleanse thee from all unrighteousness and impurity, That thou mayest be forgiven all (thy) transgressions; (and) thy sins of ignorance. 22.20. And may He strengthen thee, And bless thee. And mayest thou inherit the whole earth, brAnd may He renew His covet with thee, That thou mayest be to Him a nation for His inheritance for all the ages 22.21. And that He may be to thee and to thy seed a God in truth and righteousness throughout all the days of the earth. 22.22. And do thou, my son Jacob, remember my words, And observe the commandments of Abraham, thy father: 22.23. Separate thyself from the nations, And eat not with them: And do not according to their works, And become not their associate; For their works are unclean, And all their ways are a pollution and an abomination and uncleanness. 22.24. They offer their sacrifices to the dead And they worship evil spirits, And they eat over the graves 22.25. And all their works are vanity and nothingness. brThey have no heart to understand And their eyes do not see what their works are, And how they err in saying to a piece of wood: 'Thou art my God,' And to a stone: 'Thou art my Lord and thou art my deliverer.' [And they have no heart.] 22.26. And as for thee, my son Jacob, May the Most High God help thee And the God of heaven bless thee And remove thee from their uncleanness and from all their error. 22.27. Be thou ware, my son Jacob, of taking a wife from any seed of the daughters of Canaan; For all his seed is to be rooted out of the earth. 22.28. For, owing to the transgression of Ham, Canaan erred, And all his seed will be destroyed from off the earth and all the residue thereof, And none springing from him will be saved on the day of judgment. 22.29. And as for all the worshippers of idols and the profane (b) There will be no hope for them in the land of the living; 22.30. (e) And there will be no remembrance of them on the earth; (c) For they will descend into Sheol 44.1. And Israel took his journey from Haran from his house on the new moon of the third month, and he went on the way of the Well of the Oath, and he offered a sacrifice to the God of his father Isaac on the seventh of this month. 44.4. And he celebrated the harvest festival of the first-fruits with old grain, for in all the land of Canaan there was not a handful of seed (in the land), for the famine was over all the beasts and cattle and birds, and also over man. 44.5. And on the sixteenth the Lord appeared unto him, and said unto him, "Jacob, Jacob"; and he said, "Here am I. 44.6. And He said unto him: "I am the God of thy fathers, the God of Abraham and Isaac; fear not to go down into Egypt, for I will there make of thee a great nation. 44.7. I shall go down with thee, and I shall bring thee up (again), and in this land wilt thou be buried, and Joseph will put his hands upon thy eyes. Fear not; go down into Egypt. 44.8. And his sons rose up, and his sons' sons, and they placed their father and their possessions upon wagons.
6. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 7.6, 7.10, 8.9, 10.4-10.6, 13.9, 13.11-13.12, 14.3-14.8, 15.5, 15.7, 16.1, 20.31-20.33 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Habakkuk, 8.1-8.3, 12.3-12.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 7.6, 7.10, 8.9, 10.4-10.6, 13.9, 13.11, 14.3-14.6, 15.5, 15.7, 16.1, 20.31-20.33 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1, 1.4, 1.5, 1.8, 2, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 2.22, 2.23, 2.24, 2.25, 3.1, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.13-4.26, 4.22, 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 6, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 6.21, 6.23, 7, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.18, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 8, 8.1, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.15, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.21, 8.22, 8.24, 9, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 15.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Document, 15.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Document, 15.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Dead Sea Scrolls, Messianic Rule, 1.1, 1.6-1.9, 2.11-2.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Dead Sea Scrolls, Rule of The Communityb, 9.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Dead Sea Scrolls, Sd (Olim Sb), 2.3-2.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 39.6-39.7, 45.11-45.12, 63.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 1.1-1.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיֹּאמֶר שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים לְדָנִיֵּאל יָרֵא אֲנִי אֶת־אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר מִנָּה אֶת־מַאֲכַלְכֶם וְאֶת־מִשְׁתֵּיכֶם אֲשֶׁר לָמָּה יִרְאֶה אֶת־פְּנֵיכֶם זֹעֲפִים מִן־הַיְלָדִים אֲשֶׁר כְּגִילְכֶם וְחִיַּבְתֶּם אֶת־רֹאשִׁי לַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.1. בִּשְׁנַת שָׁלוֹשׁ לְמַלְכוּת יְהוֹיָקִים מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה בָּא נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל יְרוּשָׁלִַם וַיָּצַר עָלֶיהָ׃ 1.2. וַיִּתֵּן אֲדֹנָי בְּיָדוֹ אֶת־יְהוֹיָקִים מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה וּמִקְצָת כְּלֵי בֵית־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיְבִיאֵם אֶרֶץ־שִׁנְעָר בֵּית אֱלֹהָיו וְאֶת־הַכֵּלִים הֵבִיא בֵּית אוֹצַר אֱלֹהָיו׃ 1.2. וְכֹל דְּבַר חָכְמַת בִּינָה אֲשֶׁר־בִּקֵּשׁ מֵהֶם הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיִּמְצָאֵם עֶשֶׂר יָדוֹת עַל כָּל־הַחַרְטֻמִּים הָאַשָּׁפִים אֲשֶׁר בְּכָל־מַלְכוּתוֹ׃ 1.3. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְאַשְׁפְּנַז רַב סָרִיסָיו לְהָבִיא מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִזֶּרַע הַמְּלוּכָה וּמִן־הַפַּרְתְּמִים׃ 1.4. יְלָדִים אֲשֶׁר אֵין־בָּהֶם כָּל־מאום [מוּם] וְטוֹבֵי מַרְאֶה וּמַשְׂכִּילִים בְּכָל־חָכְמָה וְיֹדְעֵי דַעַת וּמְבִינֵי מַדָּע וַאֲשֶׁר כֹּחַ בָּהֶם לַעֲמֹד בְּהֵיכַל הַמֶּלֶךְ וּלֲלַמְּדָם סֵפֶר וּלְשׁוֹן כַּשְׂדִּים׃ 1.5. וַיְמַן לָהֶם הַמֶּלֶךְ דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ מִפַּת־בַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּמִיֵּין מִשְׁתָּיו וּלְגַדְּלָם שָׁנִים שָׁלוֹשׁ וּמִקְצָתָם יַעַמְדוּ לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.6. וַיְהִי בָהֶם מִבְּנֵי יְהוּדָה דָּנִיֵּאל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה׃ 1.7. וַיָּשֶׂם לָהֶם שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים שֵׁמוֹת וַיָּשֶׂם לְדָנִיֵּאל בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר וְלַחֲנַנְיָה שַׁדְרַךְ וּלְמִישָׁאֵל מֵישַׁךְ וְלַעֲזַרְיָה עֲבֵד נְגוֹ׃ 1.8. וַיָּשֶׂם דָּנִיֵּאל עַל־לִבּוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִתְגָּאַל בְּפַתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּבְיֵין מִשְׁתָּיו וַיְבַקֵּשׁ מִשַּׂר הַסָּרִיסִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִתְגָּאָל׃ 1.9. וַיִּתֵּן הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־דָּנִיֵּאל לְחֶסֶד וּלְרַחֲמִים לִפְנֵי שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים׃ 1.11. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּנִיֵּאל אֶל־הַמֶּלְצַר אֲשֶׁר מִנָּה שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים עַל־דָּנִיֵּאל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה׃ 1.12. נַס־נָא אֶת־עֲבָדֶיךָ יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה וְיִתְּנוּ־לָנוּ מִן־הַזֵּרֹעִים וְנֹאכְלָה וּמַיִם וְנִשְׁתֶּה׃ 1.13. וְיֵרָאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ מַרְאֵינוּ וּמַרְאֵה הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכַאֲשֶׁר תִּרְאֵה עֲשֵׂה עִם־עֲבָדֶיךָ׃ 1.14. וַיִּשְׁמַע לָהֶם לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַיְנַסֵּם יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה׃ 1.15. וּמִקְצָת יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה נִרְאָה מַרְאֵיהֶם טוֹב וּבְרִיאֵי בָּשָׂר מִן־כָּל־הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.16. וַיְהִי הַמֶּלְצַר נֹשֵׂא אֶת־פַּתְבָּגָם וְיֵין מִשְׁתֵּיהֶם וְנֹתֵן לָהֶם זֵרְעֹנִים׃ 1.1. IN THE third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah came Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon unto Jerusalem, and besieged it." 1.2. And the Lord gave Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, with all of the vessels of the house of God; and he carried them into the land of Shinar to the house of his god, and the vessels he brought into the treasure-house of his god." 1.3. And the king spoke unto Ashpenaz his chief officer, that he should bring in certain of the children of Israel, and of the seed royal, and of the nobles," 1.4. youths in whom was no blemish, but fair to look on, and skilful in all wisdom, and skilful in knowledge, and discerning in thought, and such as had ability to stand in the king’s palace; and that he should teach them the learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans." 1.5. And the king appointed for them a daily portion of the king’s food, and of the wine which he drank, and that they should be nourished three years; that at the end thereof they might stand before the king." 1.6. Now among these were, of the children of Judah, Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah." 1.7. And the chief of the officers gave names unto them: unto Daniel he gave the name of Belteshazzar; and to Haiah, of Shadrach; and to Mishael, of Meshach; and to Azariah, of Abed-nego." 1.8. But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king’s food, nor with the wine which he drank; therefore he requested of the chief of the officers that he might not defile himself." 1.9. And God granted Daniel mercy and compassion in the sight of the chief of the officers." 1.10. And the chief of the officers said unto Daniel: ‘I fear my lord the king, who hath appointed your food and your drink; for why should he see your faces sad in comparison with the youths that are of your own age? so would ye endanger my head with the king.’" 1.11. Then said Daniel to the steward, whom the chief of the officers had appointed over Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah:" 1.12. ’Try thy servants, I beseech thee, ten days; and let them give us pulse to eat, and water to drink." 1.13. Then let our counteces be looked upon before thee, and the countece of the youths that eat of the king’s food; and as thou seest, deal with thy servants.’" 1.14. So he hearkened unto them in this matter, and tried them ten days." 1.15. And at the end of ten days their counteces appeared fairer, and they were fatter in flesh, than all the youths that did eat of the king’s food." 1.16. So the steward took away their food, and the wine that they should drink, and gave them pulse."
17. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.62-1.63 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.62. But many in Israel stood firm and were resolved in their hearts not to eat unclean food. 1.63. They chose to die rather than to be defiled by food or to profane the holy covet; and they did die.
18. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.18-6.21, 7.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.18. Eleazar, one of the scribes in high position, a man now advanced in age and of noble presence, was being forced to open his mouth to eat swine's flesh.' 6.19. But he, welcoming death with honor rather than life with pollution, went up to the the rack of his own accord, spitting out the flesh,' 6.20. as men ought to go who have the courage to refuse things that it is not right to taste, even for the natural love of life.' 6.21. Those who were in charge of that unlawful sacrifice took the man aside, because of their long acquaintance with him, and privately urged him to bring meat of his own providing, proper for him to use, and pretend that he was eating the flesh of the sacrificial meal which had been commanded by the king,' 7.1. It happened also that seven brothers and their mother were arrested and were being compelled by the king, under torture with whips and cords, to partake of unlawful swine's flesh.'
19. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 14.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14.12. For the idea of making idols was the beginning of fornication,and the invention of them was the corruption of life
20. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 3.4, 3.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.4. but because they worshiped God and conducted themselves by his law, they kept their separateness with respect to foods. For this reason they appeared hateful to some; 3.6. Nevertheless those of other races paid no heed to their good service to their nation, which was common talk among all;
21. Philo of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 11.14 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.120-2.123, 2.137-2.144, 2.150, 2.160-2.161 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.121. They do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued; but they guard against the lascivious behavior of women, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man. 2.122. 3. These men are despisers of riches, and so very communicative as raises our admiration. Nor is there anyone to be found among them who hath more than another; for it is a law among them, that those who come to them must let what they have be common to the whole order,—insomuch that among them all there is no appearance of poverty, or excess of riches, but every one’s possessions are intermingled with every other’s possessions; and so there is, as it were, one patrimony among all the brethren. 2.123. They think that oil is a defilement; and if anyone of them be anointed without his own approbation, it is wiped off his body; for they think to be sweaty is a good thing, as they do also to be clothed in white garments. They also have stewards appointed to take care of their common affairs, who every one of them have no separate business for any, but what is for the use of them all. 2.137. 7. But now, if anyone hath a mind to come over to their sect, he is not immediately admitted, but he is prescribed the same method of living which they use, for a year, while he continues excluded; and they give him also a small hatchet, and the fore-mentioned girdle, and the white garment. 2.138. And when he hath given evidence, during that time, that he can observe their continence, he approaches nearer to their way of living, and is made a partaker of the waters of purification; yet is he not even now admitted to live with them; for after this demonstration of his fortitude, his temper is tried two more years; and if he appear to be worthy, they then admit him into their society. 2.139. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous; 2.141. that he will be perpetually a lover of truth, and propose to himself to reprove those that tell lies; that he will keep his hands clear from theft, and his soul from unlawful gains; and that he will neither conceal anything from those of his own sect, nor discover any of their doctrines to others, no, not though anyone should compel him so to do at the hazard of his life. 2.142. Moreover, he swears to communicate their doctrines to no one any otherwise than as he received them himself; that he will abstain from robbery, and will equally preserve the books belonging to their sect, and the names of the angels [or messengers]. These are the oaths by which they secure their proselytes to themselves. 2.143. 8. But for those that are caught in any heinous sins, they cast them out of their society; and he who is thus separated from them does often die after a miserable manner; for as he is bound by the oath he hath taken, and by the customs he hath been engaged in, he is not at liberty to partake of that food that he meets with elsewhere, but is forced to eat grass, and to famish his body with hunger, till he perish; 2.144. for which reason they receive many of them again when they are at their last gasp, out of compassion to them, as thinking the miseries they have endured till they came to the very brink of death to be a sufficient punishment for the sins they had been guilty of. 2.161. However, they try their spouses for three years; and if they find that they have their natural purgations thrice, as trials that they are likely to be fruitful, they then actually marry them. But they do not use to accompany with their wives when they are with child, as a demonstration that they do not marry out of regard to pleasure, but for the sake of posterity. Now the women go into the baths with some of their garments on, as the men do with somewhat girded about them. And these are the customs of this order of Essenes.
23. Josephus Flavius, Life, 11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Mishnah, Beitzah, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. If [Yom Tov] fell on the day after Shabbat:Bet Shammai says: one must immerse everything [unclean] before Shabbat. But Bet Hillel says: vessels [must be immersed] before Shabbat but people [may immerse] on Shabbat."
25. Mishnah, Demai, 2.2-2.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. One who accepts upon himself to be trustworthy (ne’eman), must tithe whatever he eats and whatever he sells and whatever he buys, and he may not be the guest of an am haaretz. Rabbi Judah says: even one who is the guest of an am haaretz can still be considered trustworthy. They said to him: He is not trustworthy in respect of himself! How can he be considered trustworthy in respect of others?" 2.3. One who takes upon himself to become a “chaver” may not sell to an am haaretz either moist or dry [produce], nor may he buy from him moist [produce], nor may he be the guest of an am haaretz, nor may he host an am haaretz as a guest while [the am haaretz] is wearing his own garment. Rabbi Judah says: he may not also raise small animals, nor may make a lot of vows or merriment, nor may he defile himself by contact with the dead. Rather he should be an attendant at the house of study. They said to him: these [requirements] do not come within the general rule [of being a chaver].
26. Mishnah, Eduyot, 8.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.4. Rabbi Yose ben Yoezer, a man of Zereda, testified concerning the ayal-locust, that it is pure; And concerning liquid in the slaughter-house (of the Temple), that it is pure; And that one who touches a corpse is impure. And they called him “Yose the permitter”."
27. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.7. The garments of an am haaretz possess midras-impurity for Pharisees. The garments of Pharisees possess midras-impurity for those who eat terumah. The garments of those who eat terumah possess midras-impurity for [those who eat] sacred things. The garments of [those who eat] sacred things possess midras-impurity for [those who occupy themselves with the waters of] purification. Yose ben Yoezer was the most pious in the priesthood, yet his apron was [considered to possess] midras-impurity for [those who ate] sacred things. Yoha ben Gudgada all his life used to eat [unconsecrated food] in accordance with the purity required for sacred things, yet his apron was [considered to possess] midras-impurity for [those who occupied themselves with the water of] purification."
28. Mishnah, Negaim, 13.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

13.12. If he enters a synagogue, a partition ten handbreadths high and four cubits wide must be made for him. He should enter first and come out last. Any vessel that affords protection by having a tightly fitting cover in the tent of a corpse affords protection by a tightly fitting cover in the house of one afflicted by a nega, And whatsoever affords protection when covered in the tent of a corpse affords protection when covered in the house of one afflicted with a nega, the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yose says: any vessel that affords protection by having a tightly fitting cover in the tent of a corpse affords protection when covered in the house of one afflicted with a nega; and whatsoever affords protection when covered in the tent of a corpse remains clean even when uncovered in a leprous house."
29. Mishnah, Toharot, 2.2-2.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. Rabbi Eliezer says: he who eats food with first degree uncleanness contracts first decree uncleanness; [He who eats food with] second [degree uncleanness contracts] second [degree uncleanness]; With third [degree uncleanness contracts] third [degree uncleanness]. Rabbi Joshua says: he who eats food with first [degree] or with second [degree uncleanness contracts] second [degree uncleanness]; With third [degree uncleanness, he contracts] second [degree uncleanness] in regard to holy things but not in regard to terumah. All this applies to common food that was prepared in condition of cleanness that is appropriate for terumah." 2.3. First [degree uncleanness] in common food is unclean and conveys uncleanness; Second [degree uncleanness] invalidates but does not convey uncleanness. And third [degree uncleanness] may be eaten in a dish mixed with terumah."
30. New Testament, Acts, 10.38 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.38. even Jesus of Nazareth, how God anointed him with the Holy Spirit and with power, who went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with him.
31. New Testament, Galatians, 2.11-2.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.11. But when Peter came to Antioch, I resisted him to the face,because he stood condemned. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 2.13. And the rest of the Jews joined him in his hypocrisy; so that evenBarnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy. 2.14. But when I sawthat they didn't walk uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, Isaid to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as theGentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles tolive as the Jews do?
32. New Testament, Romans, 1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

33. New Testament, John, 5.24-5.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.24. Most assuredly I tell you, he who hears my word, and believes him who sent me, has eternal life, and doesn't come into judgment, but has passed out of death into life. 5.25. Most assuredly, I tell you, the hour comes, and now is, when the dead will hear the Son of God's voice; and those who hear will live.
34. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 5.73 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

35. Tosefta, Demai, 2.2, 2.5, 2.9, 2.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

36. Tosefta, Zavim, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

37. Tertullian, On Baptism, 5.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

38. Tosefta, Tevulyom, 1.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

39. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 129-142, 152, 128

128. It is worth while to mention briefly the information which he gave in reply to our questions. For I suppose that most people feel a curiosity with regard to some of the enactments in the law


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
( Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 245
abegg, martin g. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 103
admission Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 56
admission procedure Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 47
alexander, philip s. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 103
alexandria Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 158
apocalyptic(ism) (see also dualism) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 158
apostate Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 103
archaeology, arch(a)eological Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 158, 436
atonement Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 81
audience Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 87
baillet, m. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 103
barthélemy, d. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 103
baumgarten, joseph m. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 103
bread McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 81
charles, r. h. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 103
clement of alexandria, on the catechumenate, ancient analogues for catechumenate Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 116
clement of alexandria, on the catechumenate, qumran sect compared Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 116
clement of alexandria, on the catechumenate Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 116
commandment/commandments Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 46
community Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 28, 44, 47
community rule Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 194
community rule (qumran text) Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 116
covenant Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 68; Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 81
covenant renewal Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 103, 104
culture Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 286
damascus document Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 194; Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 103
darkness, light Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 28
david Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 245
dead sea scrolls Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 68
dio chrysostom Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 436
disputes, schools (of shammai and hillel) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 647
drink Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 56
education, introduction/definitions Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 68
education, judaism/jewish education Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 68
eleazar, high priest Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 286
eleusinian mysteries Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 116
essenes, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 130
essenes Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 81; McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 81
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 158, 436
ethical education, ideals of Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 68
ethical education, judaism Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 68
ethical education, related/relationships between Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 68
evans, craig a. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 103
excommunication Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 647
excrement Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 194
exegesis Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 68
exercises, student Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 218
flood McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 81
food/dietary laws Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 286
food Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 56
food laws Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 81
gentiles, as sources of impurity Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 194
halakhah/halakhot, and aggadah; law and narrative Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 239
hazon gabriel Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 103, 104
hierarchy Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 47
high priest Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 499
hillel, rabbi Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 361
hillel, school of Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 647
holiness Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47
hultgren, stephen Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 103
identity, jewish/ethnic Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 286
idol/idol worship/idolatry Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 286
initiation Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 56
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 46, 47
israel Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 286
jerusalem Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 87
joseph (son of jacob) Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 361
josephus Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 194, 196; Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 361; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 158, 436
jubilees, and covenant renewal Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 103, 104
judah (patriarch, tribe, biblical region, kingdom) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 158
judaism, asceticism McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 81
judaism Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 68
knowledge Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 245
laity, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 239
light, darkness Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 28
liquids, transmission and duplication of impurity by Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 196
manual of discipline (iqs) McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 81
marriage (see also divorce) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 436
maskil Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 245
maśkîl Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 44, 47
meat McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 81
meir, r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 647
milgrom, jacob Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 196
milik, j. t. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 103
mithras cult Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 116
mixture, of wealth Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 103
moses Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 103; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 286
mĕbaqqēr Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 44
newsom, carol a. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 104
octave of easter, of purity Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 229
particularism Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 286
patriarchs, texts Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 239
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 436
pedagogy Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 44, 47
pharisees, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 130
philo Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 158, 436
philo judeas Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 245
place and place studies, importance to judaism Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 68
pliny the elder Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 436
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 87, 130, 239; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 245
priest Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 106
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 46, 47, 87
priests Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 194
prophet(ess)/prophecy/prophetic Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 245
proto-rabbinic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 647
psalm Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 245
pure food Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 56
purification ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 436
purity/impurity Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 81
purity/ritual purity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47, 87
purity Poorthuis and Schwartz, A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity (2006) 56
purity (see also food laws) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 158, 647
pāqîd Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 44
qumran/qumran community Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 46, 47, 87, 130
qumran Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 68; McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 81; Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 286
qumran and qumranic texts Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 194
qumran community Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 158, 436
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 436
qumran sect and texts Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 116
rabbinic tradition/literature, movement Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 647
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 647
rabbîm Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 44
redaction Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 245
related/relationships between Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 68
religion within a cultural system, space and Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 68
sacrospace, replacing material place' Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 68
sacrospace Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 68
sanctuary Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 245
second temple judaism Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 245
sectarian, non-sectarian Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 28
sectarian/sectarianism Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 87, 130
separation, jewish Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 286
shammai, rabbi Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 361
shammai, school Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 647
spirit, evil spirits Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 47
study practices Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 47
synesius of cyrene Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 436
talmon, shemaryahu Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 103, 104
teacher of righteousness Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 87
temple scroll Balberg, Purity, Body, and Self in Early Rabbinic Literature (2014) 194
tertullian, on mithras cult Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 116
teruma (heave offering) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 647
the temple Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 229
tirosh McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 81
tora (see also pentateuch) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 158
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 46, 47; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 245
torah focus Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 218
two ways Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 104
urim Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 106
van ruiten, jacques Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 103
vermes, geza Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 103
vision, visionary Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 245
wealth, as boundary marker Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 103
wealth, of outsiders Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 103
wealth Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 103
weber, max, weeks, festival of Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 103, 104
wine McGowan, Ascetic Eucharists: Food and Drink in Early Christian Ritual Meals (1999) 81
wisdom, texts from qumran Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 28
worship Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 245
yahad, leadership of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 103
yahad Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 103
yaḥad—see also qumran/qumran, community Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 130
yehuda (yuda), r. Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 647
yhd Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 499