Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



3095
Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 5.9
NaN


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

32 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 17.8-17.12, 29.28 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.8. כִּי יִפָּלֵא מִמְּךָ דָבָר לַמִּשְׁפָּט בֵּין־דָּם לְדָם בֵּין־דִּין לְדִין וּבֵין נֶגַע לָנֶגַע דִּבְרֵי רִיבֹת בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ וְקַמְתָּ וְעָלִיתָ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ׃ 17.9. וּבָאתָ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם וְאֶל־הַשֹּׁפֵט אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְדָרַשְׁתָּ וְהִגִּידוּ לְךָ אֵת דְּבַר הַמִּשְׁפָּט׃ 17.11. עַל־פִּי הַתּוֹרָה אֲשֶׁר יוֹרוּךָ וְעַל־הַמִּשְׁפָּט אֲשֶׁר־יֹאמְרוּ לְךָ תַּעֲשֶׂה לֹא תָסוּר מִן־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־יַגִּידוּ לְךָ יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאל׃ 17.12. וְהָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה בְזָדוֹן לְבִלְתִּי שְׁמֹעַ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן הָעֹמֵד לְשָׁרֶת שָׁם אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אוֹ אֶל־הַשֹּׁפֵט וּמֵת הָאִישׁ הַהוּא וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 29.28. הַנִּסְתָּרֹת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ וְהַנִּגְלֹת לָנוּ וּלְבָנֵינוּ עַד־עוֹלָם לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 17.8. If there arise a matter too hard for thee in judgment, between blood and blood, between plea and plea, and between stroke and stroke, even matters of controversy within thy gates; then shalt thou arise, and get thee up unto the place which the LORD thy God shall choose." 17.9. And thou shall come unto the priests the Levites, and unto the judge that shall be in those days; and thou shalt inquire; and they shall declare unto thee the sentence of judgment." 17.10. And thou shalt do according to the tenor of the sentence, which they shall declare unto thee from that place which the LORD shall choose; and thou shalt observe to do according to all that they shall teach thee." 17.11. According to the law which they shall teach thee, and according to the judgment which they shall tell thee, thou shalt do; thou shalt not turn aside from the sentence which they shall declare unto thee, to the right hand, nor to the left." 17.12. And the man that doeth presumptuously, in not hearkening unto the priest that standeth to minister there before the LORD thy God, or unto the judge, even that man shall die; and thou shalt exterminate the evil from Israel." 29.28. The secret things belong unto the LORD our God; but the things that are revealed belong unto us and to our children for ever, that we may do all the words of this law."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 9.25, 15.1, 22.15, 37.25, 49.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.25. וַיֹּאמֶר אָרוּר כְּנָעַן עֶבֶד עֲבָדִים יִהְיֶה לְאֶחָיו׃ 15.1. אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם בַּמַּחֲזֶה לֵאמֹר אַל־תִּירָא אַבְרָם אָנֹכִי מָגֵן לָךְ שְׂכָרְךָ הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד׃ 15.1. וַיִּקַּח־לוֹ אֶת־כָּל־אֵלֶּה וַיְבַתֵּר אֹתָם בַּתָּוֶךְ וַיִּתֵּן אִישׁ־בִּתְרוֹ לִקְרַאת רֵעֵהוּ וְאֶת־הַצִפֹּר לֹא בָתָר׃ 22.15. וַיִּקְרָא מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָהָם שֵׁנִית מִן־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 37.25. וַיֵּשְׁבוּ לֶאֱכָל־לֶחֶם וַיִּשְׂאוּ עֵינֵיהֶם וַיִּרְאוּ וְהִנֵּה אֹרְחַת יִשְׁמְעֵאלִים בָּאָה מִגִּלְעָד וּגְמַלֵּיהֶם נֹשְׂאִים נְכֹאת וּצְרִי וָלֹט הוֹלְכִים לְהוֹרִיד מִצְרָיְמָה׃ 9.25. And he said: Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren." 15.1. After these things the word of the LORD came unto Abram in a vision, saying: ‘Fear not, Abram, I am thy shield, thy reward shall be exceeding great.’" 22.15. And the angel of the LORD called unto Abraham a second time out of heaven," 37.25. And they sat down to eat bread; and they lifted up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a caravan of Ishmaelites came from Gilead, with their camels bearing spicery and balm and ladanum, going to carry it down to Egypt." 49.10. The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, As long as men come to Shiloh; And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be."
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 14.4-14.20, 16.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.4. וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְלָקַח לַמִּטַּהֵר שְׁתֵּי־צִפֳּרִים חַיּוֹת טְהֹרוֹת וְעֵץ אֶרֶז וּשְׁנִי תוֹלַעַת וְאֵזֹב׃ 14.4. וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְחִלְּצוּ אֶת־הָאֲבָנִים אֲשֶׁר בָּהֵן הַנָּגַע וְהִשְׁלִיכוּ אֶתְהֶן אֶל־מִחוּץ לָעִיר אֶל־מָקוֹם טָמֵא׃ 14.5. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הָאֶחָת אֶל־כְּלִי־חֶרֶשׂ עַל־מַיִם חַיִּים׃ 14.5. וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַצִּפּוֹר הָאֶחָת אֶל־כְּלִי־חֶרֶשׂ עַל־מַיִם חַיִּים׃ 14.6. אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה יִקַּח אֹתָהּ וְאֶת־עֵץ הָאֶרֶז וְאֶת־שְׁנִי הַתּוֹלַעַת וְאֶת־הָאֵזֹב וְטָבַל אוֹתָם וְאֵת הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה בְּדַם הַצִּפֹּר הַשְּׁחֻטָה עַל הַמַּיִם הַחַיִּים׃ 14.7. וְהִזָּה עַל הַמִּטַּהֵר מִן־הַצָּרַעַת שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וְטִהֲרוֹ וְשִׁלַּח אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 14.8. וְכִבֶּס הַמִּטַּהֵר אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וְגִלַּח אֶת־כָּל־שְׂעָרוֹ וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָהֵר וְאַחַר יָבוֹא אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וְיָשַׁב מִחוּץ לְאָהֳלוֹ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 14.9. וְהָיָה בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי יְגַלַּח אֶת־כָּל־שְׂעָרוֹ אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ וְאֶת־זְקָנוֹ וְאֵת גַּבֹּת עֵינָיו וְאֶת־כָּל־שְׂעָרוֹ יְגַלֵּחַ וְכִבֶּס אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ אֶת־בְּשָׂרוֹ בַּמַּיִם וְטָהֵר׃ 14.11. וְהֶעֱמִיד הַכֹּהֵן הַמְטַהֵר אֵת הָאִישׁ הַמִּטַּהֵר וְאֹתָם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 14.12. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד וְהִקְרִיב אֹתוֹ לְאָשָׁם וְאֶת־לֹג הַשָּׁמֶן וְהֵנִיף אֹתָם תְּנוּפָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 14.13. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַכֶּבֶשׂ בִּמְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁחַט אֶת־הַחַטָּאת וְאֶת־הָעֹלָה בִּמְקוֹם הַקֹּדֶשׁ כִּי כַּחַטָּאת הָאָשָׁם הוּא לַכֹּהֵן קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הוּא׃ 14.14. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִדַּם הָאָשָׁם וְנָתַן הַכֹּהֵן עַל־תְּנוּךְ אֹזֶן הַמִּטַּהֵר הַיְמָנִית וְעַל־בֹּהֶן יָדוֹ הַיְמָנִית וְעַל־בֹּהֶן רַגְלוֹ הַיְמָנִית׃ 14.15. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִלֹּג הַשָּׁמֶן וְיָצַק עַל־כַּף הַכֹּהֵן הַשְּׂמָאלִית׃ 14.16. וְטָבַל הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־אֶצְבָּעוֹ הַיְמָנִית מִן־הַשֶּׁמֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל־כַּפּוֹ הַשְּׂמָאלִית וְהִזָּה מִן־הַשֶּׁמֶן בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 14.17. וּמִיֶּתֶר הַשֶּׁמֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל־כַּפּוֹ יִתֵּן הַכֹּהֵן עַל־תְּנוּךְ אֹזֶן הַמִּטַּהֵר הַיְמָנִית וְעַל־בֹּהֶן יָדוֹ הַיְמָנִית וְעַל־בֹּהֶן רַגְלוֹ הַיְמָנִית עַל דַּם הָאָשָׁם׃ 14.18. וְהַנּוֹתָר בַּשֶּׁמֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל־כַּף הַכֹּהֵן יִתֵּן עַל־רֹאשׁ הַמִּטַּהֵר וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 14.19. וְעָשָׂה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַחַטָּאת וְכִפֶּר עַל־הַמִּטַּהֵר מִטֻּמְאָתוֹ וְאַחַר יִשְׁחַט אֶת־הָעֹלָה׃ 16.16. וְכִפֶּר עַל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ מִטֻּמְאֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִפִּשְׁעֵיהֶם לְכָל־חַטֹּאתָם וְכֵן יַעֲשֶׂה לְאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד הַשֹּׁכֵן אִתָּם בְּתוֹךְ טֻמְאֹתָם׃ 14.4. then shall the priest command to take for him that is to be cleansed two living clean birds, and cedar-wood, and scarlet, and hyssop." 14.5. And the priest shall command to kill one of the birds in an earthen vessel over running water." 14.6. As for the living bird, he shall take it, and the cedar-wood, and the scarlet, and the hyssop, and shall dip them and the living bird in the blood of the bird that was killed over the running water." 14.7. And he shall sprinkle upon him that is to be cleansed from the leprosy seven times, and shall pronounce him clean, and shall let go the living bird into the open field." 14.8. And he that is to be cleansed shall wash his clothes, and shave off all his hair, and bathe himself in water, and he shall be clean; and after that he may come into the camp, but shall dwell outside his tent seven days." 14.9. And it shall be on the seventh day, that he shall shave all his hair off his head and his beard and his eyebrows, even all his hair he shall shave off; and he shall wash his clothes, and he shall bathe his flesh in water, and he shall be clean." 14.10. And on the eighth day he shall take two he-lambs without blemish, and one ewe-lamb of the first year without blemish, and three tenth parts of an ephah of fine flour for a meal-offering, mingled with oil, and one log of oil." 14.11. And the priest that cleanseth him shall set the man that is to be cleansed, and those things, before the LORD, at the door of the tent of meeting." 14.12. And the priest shall take one of the he-lambs, and offer him for a guilt-offering, and the log of oil, and wave them for a wave-offering before the LORD." 14.13. And he shall kill the he-lamb in the place where they kill the sin-offering and the burnt-offering, in the place of the sanctuary; for as the sin-offering is the priest’s, so is the guilt-offering; it is most holy." 14.14. And the priest shall take of the blood of the guilt-offering, and the priest shall put it upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be cleansed, and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot." 14.15. And the priest shall take of the log of oil, and pour it into the palm of his own left hand." 14.16. And the priest shall dip his right finger in the oil that is in his left hand, and shall sprinkle of the oil with his finger seven times before the LORD." 14.17. And of the rest of the oil that is in his hand shall the priest put upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be cleansed, and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot, upon the blood of the guilt-offering." 14.18. And the rest of the oil that is in the priest’s hand he shall put upon the head of him that is to be cleansed; and the priest shall make atonement for him before the LORD." 14.19. And the priest shall offer the sin-offering, and make atonement for him that is to be cleansed because of his uncleanness; and afterward he shall kill the burnt-offering." 14.20. And the priest shall offer the burnt-offering and the meal-offering upon the altar; and the priest shall make atonement for him, and he shall be clean." 16.16. And he shall make atonement for the holy place, because of the uncleannesses of the children of Israel, and because of their transgressions, even all their sins; and so shall he do for the tent of meeting, that dwelleth with them in the midst of their uncleannesses."
4. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.2, 19.15, 119.45 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. כִּי אִם בְּתוֹרַת יְהוָה חֶפְצוֹ וּבְתוֹרָתוֹ יֶהְגֶּה יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃ 19.15. יִהְיוּ לְרָצוֹן אִמְרֵי־פִי וְהֶגְיוֹן לִבִּי לְפָנֶיךָ יְהוָה צוּרִי וְגֹאֲלִי׃ 119.45. וְאֶתְהַלְּכָה בָרְחָבָה כִּי פִקֻּדֶיךָ דָרָשְׁתִּי׃ 1.2. But his delight is in the law of the LORD; and in His law doth he meditate day and night." 19.15. Let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable before Thee, O LORD, my Rock, and my Redeemer." 119.45. And I will walk at ease, for I have sought Thy precepts;"
5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 16.5, 28.16, 49.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16.5. וְהוּכַן בַּחֶסֶד כִּסֵּא וְיָשַׁב עָלָיו בֶּאֱמֶת בְּאֹהֶל דָּוִד שֹׁפֵט וְדֹרֵשׁ מִשְׁפָּט וּמְהִר צֶדֶק׃ 28.16. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנְנִי יִסַּד בְּצִיּוֹן אָבֶן אֶבֶן בֹּחַן פִּנַּת יִקְרַת מוּסָד מוּסָּד הַמַּאֲמִין לֹא יָחִישׁ׃ 49.9. לֵאמֹר לַאֲסוּרִים צֵאוּ לַאֲשֶׁר בַּחֹשֶׁךְ הִגָּלוּ עַל־דְּרָכִים יִרְעוּ וּבְכָל־שְׁפָיִים מַרְעִיתָם׃ 16.5. And a throne is established through mercy, And there sitteth thereon in truth, in the tent of David, One that judgeth, and seeketh justice, and is ready in righteousness." 28.16. Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, A tried stone, a costly corner-stone of sure foundation; He that believeth shall not make haste." 49.9. Saying to the prisoners: ‘Go forth’; To them that are in darkness: ‘Show yourselves’; They shall feed in the ways, And in all high hills shall be their pasture;"
6. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 1.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.8. לֹא־יָמוּשׁ סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה מִפִּיךָ וְהָגִיתָ בּוֹ יוֹמָם וָלַיְלָה לְמַעַן תִּשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכָל־הַכָּתוּב בּוֹ כִּי־אָז תַּצְלִיחַ אֶת־דְּרָכֶךָ וְאָז תַּשְׂכִּיל׃ 1.8. This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth, but thou shalt meditate therein day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written therein; for then thou shalt make thy ways prosperous, and then thou shalt have good success."
7. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 4.6, 44.15 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.6. וְכִלִּיתָ אֶת־אֵלֶּה וְשָׁכַבְתָּ עַל־צִדְּךָ הימוני [הַיְמָנִי] שֵׁנִית וְנָשָׂאתָ אֶת־עֲוֺן בֵּית־יְהוּדָה אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם יוֹם לַשָּׁנָה יוֹם לַשָּׁנָה נְתַתִּיו לָךְ׃ 44.15. וְהַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם בְּנֵי צָדוֹק אֲשֶׁר שָׁמְרוּ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת מִקְדָּשִׁי בִּתְעוֹת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵעָלַי הֵמָּה יִקְרְבוּ אֵלַי לְשָׁרְתֵנִי וְעָמְדוּ לְפָנַי לְהַקְרִיב לִי חֵלֶב וָדָם נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 4.6. And again, when thou hast accomplished these, thou shalt lie on thy right side, and shalt bear the iniquity of the house of Judah; forty days, each day for a year, have I appointed it unto thee." 44.15. But the priests the Levites, the sons of Zadok, that kept the charge of My sanctuary when the children of Israel went astray from Me, they shall come near to Me to minister unto Me; and they shall stand before Me to offer unto Me the fat and the blood, saith the Lord GOD;"
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 28.8 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

28.8. וְעַתָּה לְעֵינֵי כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל קְהַל־יְהוָה וּבְאָזְנֵי אֱלֹהֵינוּ שִׁמְרוּ וְדִרְשׁוּ כָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם לְמַעַן תִּירְשׁוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַטּוֹבָה וְהִנְחַלְתֶּם לִבְנֵיכֶם אַחֲרֵיכֶם עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 28.8. Now therefore, in the sight of all Israel, the congregation of the LORD, and in the hearing of our God, observe and seek out all the commandments of the LORD your God; that ye may possess this good land, and leave it for an inheritance to your children after you for ever."
9. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 7.1-7.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

7.1. כִּי עֶזְרָא הֵכִין לְבָבוֹ לִדְרוֹשׁ אֶת־תּוֹרַת יְהוָה וְלַעֲשֹׂת וּלְלַמֵּד בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל חֹק וּמִשְׁפָּט׃ 7.1. וְאַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּמַלְכוּת אַרְתַּחְשַׁסְתְּא מֶלֶךְ־פָּרָס עֶזְרָא בֶּן־שְׂרָיָה בֶּן־עֲזַרְיָה בֶּן־חִלְקִיָּה׃ 7.2. בֶּן־שַׁלּוּם בֶּן־צָדוֹק בֶּן־אֲחִיטוּב׃ 7.2. וּשְׁאָר חַשְׁחוּת בֵּית אֱלָהָךְ דִּי יִפֶּל־לָךְ לְמִנְתַּן תִּנְתֵּן מִן־בֵּית גִּנְזֵי מַלְכָּא׃ 7.3. בֶּן־אֲמַרְיָה בֶן־עֲזַרְיָה בֶּן־מְרָיוֹת׃ 7.4. בֶּן־זְרַחְיָה בֶן־עֻזִּי בֶּן־בֻּקִּי׃ 7.5. בֶּן־אֲבִישׁוּעַ בֶּן־פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן הָרֹאשׁ׃ 7.6. הוּא עֶזְרָא עָלָה מִבָּבֶל וְהוּא־סֹפֵר מָהִיר בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־נָתַן יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ הַמֶּלֶךְ כְּיַד־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו עָלָיו כֹּל בַּקָּשָׁתוֹ׃ 7.1. Now after these things, in the reign of Artaxerxes king of Persia, Ezra the son of Seraiah, the son of Azariah, the son of Hilkiah," 7.2. the son of Shallum, the son of Zadok, the son of Ahitub," 7.3. the son of Amariah, the son of Azariah, the son of Meraioth," 7.4. the son of Zerahiah, the son of Uzzi, the son of Bukki," 7.5. the son of Abishua, the son of Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the chief priest—" 7.6. this Ezra went up from Babylon; and he was a ready scribe in the Law of Moses, which the LORD, the God of Israel, had given; and the king granted him all his request, according to the hand of the LORD his God upon him."
10. Anon., Jubilees, 6.22, 6.31-6.32, 7.26-7.39 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.22. And He gave to Noah and his sons a sign that there should not again be a flood on the earth. 6.31. For it is the feast of weeks and the feast of first-fruits: 6.32. this feast is twofold and of a double nature: according to what is written and engraven concerning it celebrate it. 7.26. owing to the fornication wherein the Watchers against the law of their ordices went a whoring after the daughters of men, and took themselves wives of all which they chose: and they made the beginning of uncleanness. 7.27. And they begat sons the Nâphîdîm, and they were all unlike, and they devoured one another: and the Giants slew the Nâphîl, and the Nâphîl slew the Eljô, and the Eljô mankind, and one man another. 7.28. And every one sold himself to work iniquity and to shed much blood, and the earth was filled with iniquity. 7.29. And after this they sinned against the beasts and birds, and all that moveth and walketh on the earth: and much blood was shed on the earth 7.30. and every imagination and desire of men imagined vanity and evil continually. 7.31. And the Lord destroyed everything from off the face of the earth; because of the wickedness of their deeds, and because of the blood which they had shed in the midst of the earth He destroyed everything. 7.32. And we were left, I and you, my sons, and everything that entered with us into the ark 7.33. and behold I see your works before me that ye do not walk in righteousness; for in the path of destruction ye have begun to walk 7.34. and ye are parting one from another, and are envious one of another, and (so it cometh) that ye are not in harmony, my sons, each with his brother. 7.35. For I see, and behold the demons have begun (their) seductions against you and against your children 7.36. and now I fear on your behalf, that after my death ye will shed the blood of men upon the earth, and that ye, too, will be destroyed from the face of the earth. 7.37. For whoso sheddeth man's blood, and whoso eateth the blood of any flesh, will all be destroyed from the earth. 7.38. And there will not be left any man that eateth blood. Or that sheddeth the blood of man on the earth, Nor will there be left to him any seed or descendants living under heaven; 7.39. For into Sheol will they go, And into the place of condemnation will they descend.
11. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 1, 1.8, 1.9, 2, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.20, 3.21-4.4, 4, 4.20-5.11, 5, 5.2, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 9, 10, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 11, 12, 13.2, 13.3, 13.11, 13.12, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 15.7, 16, 20.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Habakkuk, 2.6-2.10, 7.4-7.5, 11.4-11.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 13.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 1.8, 1.9, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.20, 3.21-4.4, 5.2, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 9, 10, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 11, 12, 13.2, 13.3, 13.11, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 15.7, 16, 20.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Document, 3.13-3.15, 6.3-6.4, 6.6, 6.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Document, 3.13-3.15, 6.3-6.4, 6.6, 6.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 9.27-9.29, 19.13-19.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 9.27-9.29, 19.13-19.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Dead Sea Scrolls, Messianic Rule, 1.6-1.9, 1.13-1.22, 2.17-2.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Dead Sea Scrolls, Rule of The Communityb, 9.7-9.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 35 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

35. and sometimes when I have come to my work empty I have suddenly become full, ideas being, in an invisible manner, showered upon me, and implanted in me from on high; so that, through the influence of divine inspiration, I have become greatly excited, and have known neither the place in which I was nor those who were present, nor myself, nor what I was saying, nor what I was writing; for then I have been conscious of a richness of interpretation, an enjoyment of light, a most penetrating sight, a most manifest energy in all that was to be done, having such an effect on my mind as the clearest ocular demonstration would have on the eyes. VIII.
23. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 18.19, 18.117 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.19. and when they send what they have dedicated to God into the temple, they do not offer sacrifices because they have more pure lustrations of their own; on which account they are excluded from the common court of the temple, but offer their sacrifices themselves; yet is their course of life better than that of other men; and they entirely addict themselves to husbandry. 18.19. But when Caesar had gone round the hippodrome, he found Agrippa standing: “For certain,” said he, “Macro, this is the man I meant to have bound;” and when he still asked, “Which of these is to be bound?” he said “Agrippa.” 18.117. for Herod slew him, who was a good man, and commanded the Jews to exercise virtue, both as to righteousness towards one another, and piety towards God, and so to come to baptism; for that the washing [with water] would be acceptable to him, if they made use of it, not in order to the putting away [or the remission] of some sins [only], but for the purification of the body; supposing still that the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness.
24. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.139-2.142, 2.150 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.139. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous; 2.141. that he will be perpetually a lover of truth, and propose to himself to reprove those that tell lies; that he will keep his hands clear from theft, and his soul from unlawful gains; and that he will neither conceal anything from those of his own sect, nor discover any of their doctrines to others, no, not though anyone should compel him so to do at the hazard of his life. 2.142. Moreover, he swears to communicate their doctrines to no one any otherwise than as he received them himself; that he will abstain from robbery, and will equally preserve the books belonging to their sect, and the names of the angels [or messengers]. These are the oaths by which they secure their proselytes to themselves.
25. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 2.8-2.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.8. Rabban Gamaliel had diagrams of the moon on a tablet [hung] on the wall of his upper chamber, and he used to show them to the unlearned and say, “Did it look like this or this?” It happened that two witnesses came and said, “We saw it in the morning in the east and in the evening in the west.” Rabbi Yoha ben Nuri said: they are lying witnesses. When they came to Yavneh Rabban Gamaliel accepted them. On another occasion two witnesses came and said, “We saw it at its proper time, but on the night which should have been the new moon it was not seen,” and Rabban Gamaliel accepted their evidence. Rabbi Dosa ben Harkinas said: they are lying witnesses. How can they testify that a woman has given birth when on the next day her belly is between her teeth (swollen)? Rabbi Joshua to him: I see your argument." 2.9. Rabban Gamaliel sent to him: I order you to appear before me with your staff and your money on the day which according to your count should be Yom Hakippurim. Rabbi Akiva went and found him in distress. He said to him: I can teach that whatever Rabban Gamaliel has done is valid, because it says, “These are the appointed seasons of the Lord, holy convocations, which you shall proclaim at their appointed times” (Leviticus 23:4), whether they are [proclaimed] at their proper time or not at their proper time, I have no other appointed times save these. He [Rabbi Joshua] then went to Rabbi Dosa ben Harkinas. He said to him: if we call in question the court of Rabban Gamaliel we must call in question the decisions of every court which has existed since the days of Moses until now. As it says, “Then Moses and Aaron, Nadav and Avihu and seventy of the elders of Israel went up” (Exodus 24:9). Why were the names of the elders not mentioned? To teach that every group of three which has acted as a court over Israel, behold it is like the court of Moses. He [Rabbi Joshua] took his staff and his money and went to Yavneh to Rabban Gamaliel on the day which according to his count should be Yom Hakippurim. Rabban Gamaliel rose and kissed him on his head and said to him: Come in peace, my teacher and my student my teacher in wisdom and my student because you have accepted my decision."
26. New Testament, Acts, 10.38 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.38. even Jesus of Nazareth, how God anointed him with the Holy Spirit and with power, who went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with him.
27. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.3-1.10, 1.17-1.18, 3.3-3.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ; 1.4. even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and without blemish before him in love; 1.5. having predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his desire 1.6. to the praise of the glory of his grace, by which he freely bestowed favor on us in the Beloved 1.7. in whom we have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace 1.8. which he made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence 1.9. making known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he purposed in him 1.10. to an administration of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things on the earth, in him; 1.17. that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give to you a spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him; 1.18. having the eyes of your hearts enlightened, that you may know what is the hope of his calling, and what are the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints 3.3. how that by revelation the mystery was made known to me, as I wrote before in few words 3.4. by which, when you read, you can perceive my understanding in the mystery of Christ; 3.5. which in other generations was not made known to the sons of men, as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles and prophets in the Spirit;
28. New Testament, Galatians, 1.15-1.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. Butwhen it was the good pleasure of God, who separated me from my mother'swomb, and called me through his grace 1.16. to reveal his Son in me,that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately conferwith flesh and blood
29. New Testament, Mark, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.11. He said to them, "To you is given the mystery of the Kingdom of God, but to those who are outside, all things are done in parables
30. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

13a. בבתי גואי הא בבתי בראי ואמר רב אחא בר יעקב עוד רקיע אחד יש למעלה מראשי החיות דכתיב (יחזקאל א, כב) ודמות על ראשי החיה רקיע כעין הקרח הנורא,עד כאן יש לך רשות לדבר מכאן ואילך אין לך רשות לדבר שכן כתוב בספר בן סירא במופלא ממך אל תדרוש ובמכוסה ממך אל תחקור במה שהורשית התבונן אין לך עסק בנסתרות תניא אמר רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מה תשובה השיבתו בת קול לאותו רשע בשעה שאמר (ישעיהו יד, יד) אעלה על במתי עב אדמה לעליון יצתה בת קול ואמרה לו רשע בן רשע בן בנו של נמרוד הרשע שהמריד כל העולם כולו עליו במלכותו,כמה שנותיו של אדם שבעים שנה שנאמר (תהלים צ, י) ימי שנותינו בהם שבעים שנה ואם בגבורות שמונים שנה והלא מן הארץ עד לרקיע מהלך חמש מאות שנה ועוביו של רקיע מהלך חמש מאות שנה וכן בין כל רקיע ורקיע,למעלה מהן חיות הקדש רגלי החיות כנגד כולם קרסולי החיות כנגד כולן שוקי החיות כנגד כולן רכובי החיות כנגד כולן ירכי החיות כנגד כולן גופי החיות כנגד כולן צוארי החיות כנגד כולן ראשי החיות כנגד כולן קרני החיות כנגד כולן למעלה מהן כסא כבוד רגלי כסא הכבוד כנגד כולן כסא הכבוד כנגד כולן מלך אל חי וקים רם ונשא שוכן עליהם ואתה אמרת אעלה על במתי עב אדמה לעליון אך אל שאול תורד אל ירכתי בור:,ולא במרכבה ביחיד: תני רבי חייא אבל מוסרין לו ראשי פרקים אמר רבי זירא אין מוסרין ראשי פרקים אלא לאב ב"ד ולכל מי שלבו דואג בקרבו איכא דאמרי והוא שלבו דואג בקרבו,אמר רבי אמי אין מוסרין סתרי תורה אלא למי שיש בו חמשה דברים (ישעיהו ג, ג) שר חמשים ונשוא פנים ויועץ וחכם חרשים ונבון לחש ואמר רבי אמי אין מוסרין דברי תורה לעובד כוכבים שנאמר (תהלים קמז, כ) לא עשה כן לכל גוי ומשפטים בל ידעום,א"ל רבי יוחנן לרבי אלעזר תא אגמרך במעשה המרכבה א"ל לא קשאי כי קש נח נפשיה דרבי יוחנן א"ל ר' אסי תא ואגמרך במעשה מרכבה א"ל אי זכאי גמירתא מר' יוחנן רבך,רב יוסף הוה גמיר מעשה המרכבה סבי דפומבדיתא הוו תנו במעשה בראשית אמרו ליה ליגמור לן מר מעשה מרכבה אמר להו אגמרון לי מעשה בראשית בתר דאגמרון אמרו ליה ליגמרון מר במעשה מרכבה אמר להו תנינא בהו (שיר השירים ד, יא) דבש וחלב תחת לשונך דברים המתוקין מדבש וחלב יהו תחת לשונך,ר' אבהו אמר מהכא (משלי כז, כו) כבשים ללבושך דברים שהן כבשונו של עולם יהיו תחת לבושך אמרו ליה תנינן בהו עד (יחזקאל ב, א) ויאמר אלי בן אדם אמר להו הן הן מעשה המרכבה,מיתיבי עד היכן מעשה המרכבה רבי אומר עד (יחזקאל א, כז) וארא בתרא ר' יצחק אומר עד החשמל עד וארא מגמרינן מכאן ואילך מסרינן ראשי פרקים איכא דאמרי עד וארא מסרינן ראשי פרקים מכאן ואילך אם הוא חכם מבין מדעתו אין אי לא לא,ומי דרשינן בחשמל והא ההוא ינוקא דדרש בחשמל ונפקא נורא ואכלתיה שאני ינוקא דלאו מטי זימניה,אמר רב יהודה ברם זכור אותו האיש לטוב וחנניה בן חזקיה שמו אלמלא הוא נגנז ספר יחזקאל שהיו דבריו סותרין דברי תורה מה עשה העלו לו ג' מאות גרבי שמן וישב בעלייה ודרשו,ת"ר מעשה בתינוק אחד שהיה קורא בבית רבו בספר יחזקאל והיה מבין בחשמל ויצאה אש מחשמל ושרפתו וביקשו לגנוז ספר יחזקאל אמר להם חנניה בן חזקיה אם זה חכם הכל חכמים הן,מאי חשמל אמר רב יהודה 13a. btothe binner houses,where there is only light; bthatsource, according to which He is surrounded by darkness, is referring btothe bouter houses. And Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: There is one more firmamentabove these, which is babove the heads of the divine creatures, as it is written: “And over the heads of the divine creatures there was the likeness of a firmament, like the color of the terrible ice”(Ezekiel 1:22).,The Gemara comments: bUntil here, you have permission to speak; from thispoint bforward you do not have permission to speak, as it is written in the book of Ben Sira: Seek not things concealed from you, nor search those hidden from you. Reflect on that which is permitted to you; you have no business with secret matters. It is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai said: What response did the Divine Voice provide to that wicked man,Nebuchadnezzar, bwhen he said: “I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most High”(Isaiah 14:14), thereby intending to rise to heaven? bA Divine Voice came and said to him: Wicked man, son of a wicked man, descendant,i.e., follower of the ways, bof Nimrod the wicked, who caused the entire world to rebel against Him duringthe time of bhis reign. /b, bHow many are the years of man? Seventy years, as it is stated: “The span of our life is seventy years, or if we are strong, eighty years”(Psalms 90:10). bNow isthere bnot from the earth to the firmament a walkingdistance bof five hundred years, and the thickness of the firmamentitself is ba walkingdistance bof five hundred years, and a similardistance exists bbetween each and every one of the firmaments? /b,And babove them,above all the firmaments, bare the divine creatures. The feet of the divine creatures correspondin distance bto allthe firmaments; bthe ankles of the animals correspond to all of them, the shins of the animals correspond to all of them, the knees of the animals correspond to all of them, the thighs of the animals correspond to all of them, the bodies of the animals correspond to all of them, the necks of the animals correspond to all of them, the heads of the animals correspond to all of them,and bthe horns of the animals correspond to all of them. Above themis the bThrone of Glory: The feet of the Throne of Glory correspond to all of them, the Throne of Glory corresponds to all of them,and the bliving, almighty, lofty, exalted King dwells above them. And you,Nebuchadnezzar, bsay: “I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most High”(Isaiah 14:15), but the next verse states: b“Yet you shall be brought down to the netherworld, to the uttermost parts of the pit”(Isaiah 14:15).,§ It is taught in the mishna, according to the Gemara’s explanation: bNormay one expound btheDesign of the Divine bChariot to an individual. Rabbi Ḥiyya taught: But one may transmit to him,an individual, bthe outlinesof this topic, leaving him to comprehend the rest on his own. bRabbi Zeira said: One may transmit the outlinesof the Design of the Divine Chariot bonly to the president of the court,who needs to know them due to his wisdom and meritorious deeds, band to anyone whose heart inside him is concerned,i.e., one who is concerned about his sins and desires to achieve full repentance. bThere arethose bwho saythat this does not refer to two separate individuals, but to the president of the court, bwhose heart inside him is concerned. /b, bRabbi Ami said: The secrets of the Torah may be transmitted only to one who possessesthe following bfive characteristics: “The captain of fifty, and the man of favor, and the counselor, and the cunning charmer, and the skillful enchanter”(Isaiah 3:3). bAnd Rabbi Ami saidfurther: bThe words of Torah may not be transmitted to a gentile, as it is stated: “He has not dealt so with any nation, and as for His ordices, they have not known them”(Psalms 147:20).,§ The Gemara relates: bRabbi Yoḥa said to Rabbi Elazar: Come and I will teach you the Design of theDivine bChariot.Rabbi Elazar bsaid to him:I have bnotyet bagedsufficiently, as one must be very settled in one’s mind for these studies. bWhen he grew old, Rabbi Yoḥa hadalready bpassed away. Rabbi Asi said to him: Come and I will teach you the Design of theDivine bChariot. He said to him: Had I merited, I would have learnedit bfrom Rabbi Yoḥa, your teacher.It therefore appears that I am unworthy of studying it.,The Gemara relates: bRav Yosef would study the Design of theDivine bChariotand was familiar with the subject, whereas bthe Elders of Pumbedita would study the act of Creation. They said toRav Yosef: bLet the Master teach us the Design of theDivine bChariot. He said to them:You bteach me the act of Creation. After they taught himthat subject, bthey said to him: Let the Master teach us the Design of theDivine bChariot. He said to them: We learned with regard to themthe secrets of the Torah: b“Honey and milk are under your tongue”(Song of Songs 4:11), meaning that bmatters that are sweeter than honey and milk should remain under your tongue.In other words, one should not speak of such matters, and anyone who is familiar with them may not reveal them to others., bRabbi Abbahu said:It is derived from bhere,from the following verse: b“The lambs[ikevasim/b] bwill be for your clothing”(Proverbs 27:26), which he expounds as though it were written with the letter ishin /i, ikevashim /i, meaning concealed matters: bThings that constitute the concealed matters of the world should be under your clothing;you should not reveal them. When the Elders of Pumbedita saw that Rav Yosef was not going to teach them, bthey said to him: We have learned them,the verses concerning the Design of the Divine Chariot written in the book of Ezekiel, bup tothe verse b“And He said to me, son of man”(Ezekiel 2:1). bHe said to them:If so, btheseverses barethe very essence of the bDesign of theDivine bChariot,as they provide the main details of the topic.,The Gemara braises an objectionto this from a ibaraita /i: bUntil where is the Design of theDivine bChariotrelated? bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Until the latter “And I saw”(Ezekiel 1:27), not including the last verse. bRabbi Yitzḥak says: Untilthe word b“the electrum”(Ezekiel 1:27). Neither of these opinions accord with Rav Yosef’s opinion that the Design of the Divine Chariot continues until the end of the chapter. The Gemara answers: bUntil “And I saw,” we teachthose worthy of it; bfrom thispoint bforward,we btransmitonly the boutlines. There arethose bwho say: Until “And I saw,” we transmit the outlines; from thispoint bforward, if he is wiseand bcan understand of his own accord, yes,we teach him. bIf not,we do bnotteach him even the outlines.,The Gemara poses a question: bAnd may one teach about the electrumof the Design of the Divine Chariot at all? bBut wasn’t there a certain youthwho bexpounded the electrum, and fire came out and consumed him,showing that such study is highly dangerous? The Gemara answers: That byouth was different, for his timeto study such matters bhad notyet barrived.Therefore, he was punished., bRav Yehuda said: Indeed, that man is remembered for good, and Ḥaya ben Ḥizkiya was his name,because bwere it not for him, the book of Ezekiel would have been suppressed.Why did they wish to suppress it? Because they found bthat its words contradicted the words of Torah,as its later chapters contain many ihalakhotthat appear not to accord with those of the Torah. bWhat did he do? They brought up to him three hundred barrels of oil,for light and sustece, band he sat in an upper chamber and expounded it,to reconcile its teachings with those of the Torah., bThe Sages taught: An incidentoccurred binvolving a youth who was reading the book of Ezekiel in the house of his teacher, andhe bwasable to bcomprehend the electrum, and fire came out of the electrum and burned him. And they sought to suppress the book of Ezekieldue to the danger it posed. bḤaya ben Ḥizkiya said to them: If thisyouth happened to be bwise,are ballpeople bwiseenough to understand this book?,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe belectrum? Rav Yehuda said: /b
31. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

18b. מותרין בהספד ותענית אימת אילימא בני חמיסר וקא קרו ליה בארביסר ומי שרי,והכתיב במגילת תענית יום ארבעה עשר בו ויום חמשה עשר בו יומי פוריא אינון דלא למיספד בהון ואמר רבא לא נצרכא אלא לאסור את של זה בזה ואת של זה בזה,ואלא בני ארביסר וקא קרי ליה בתליסר יום ניקנור הוא ואלא בני ארביסר וקא קרי ליה בתריסר יום טוריינוס הוא,אלא לאו דקא קרו ליה בחדיסר וקתני מותר בהספד ובתענית,לא בני ארבעה עשר וקא קרו ליה בתריסר ודקאמרת יום טריינוס הוא יום טריינוס גופיה בטולי בטלוהו הואיל ונהרגו בו שמעיה ואחיה אחיו כי הא דרב נחמן גזר תעניתא בתריסר אמרו ליה רבנן יום טוריינוס הוא אמר להו יום טוריינוס גופיה בטולי בטלוהו הואיל ונהרגו בו שמעיה ואחיה אחיו,ותיפוק ליה דהוה ליה יום שלפני ניקנור אמר רב אשי השתא איהו גופיה בטלוהו משום יום ניקנור ניקום ונגזר,מאי ניקנור ומאי טוריינוס דתניא ניקנור אחד מאפרכי יוונים היה ובכל יום ויום היה מניף ידו על יהודה וירושלים ואומר אימתי תפול בידי וארמסנה וכשגברה מלכות בית חשמונאי ונצחום קצצו בהונות ידיו ורגליו ותלאום בשערי ירושלים ואמרו פה שהיה מדבר בגאוה וידים שהיו מניפות על ירושלים תעשה בהם נקמה,מאי טוריינוס אמרו כשבקש טוריינוס להרוג את לולינוס ופפוס אחיו בלודקיא אמר להם אם מעמו של חנניה מישאל ועזריה אתם יבא אלהיכם ויציל אתכם מידי כדרך שהציל את חנניה מישאל ועזריה מיד נבוכדנצר אמרו לו חנניה מישאל ועזריה צדיקים גמורין היו וראויין היו ליעשות להם נס ונבוכדנצר מלך הגון היה וראוי ליעשות נס על ידו,ואותו רשע הדיוט הוא ואינו ראוי ליעשות נס על ידו ואנו נתחייבנו כליה למקום ואם אין אתה הורגנו הרבה הורגים יש לו למקום והרבה דובין ואריות יש לו למקום בעולמו שפוגעין בנו והורגין אותנו אלא לא מסרנו הקדוש ברוך הוא בידך אלא שעתיד ליפרע דמינו מידך,אעפ"כ הרגן מיד אמרו לא זזו משם עד שבאו דיופלי מרומי ופצעו את מוחו בגיזרין:,אין גוזרין תענית על הצבור בתחלה בחמישי כו' אין גוזרין תענית בראשי חדשים כו': וכמה הויא התחלה רב אחא אמר שלש רבי אסי אמר אחת,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב זו דברי רבי מאיר שאמר משום רבן (שמעון בן) גמליאל אבל חכמים אומרים מתענה ומשלים דרש מר זוטרא משמיה דרב הונא הלכה מתענה ומשלים:, br br big strongהדרן עלך סדר תעניות כיצד /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongסדר /strong /big תעניות אלו האמור ברביעה ראשונה אבל צמחים ששנו מתריעין עליהן מיד וכן שפסקו גשמים בין גשם לגשם ארבעים יום מתריעין עליהן מפני שהיא מכת בצורת,ירדו לצמחין אבל לא ירדו לאילן לאילן ולא לצמחין לזה ולזה אבל לא לבורות לשיחין ולמערות מתריעין עליהן מיד וכן עיר שלא ירדו עליה גשמים דכתיב (עמוס ד, ז) והמטרתי על עיר אחת ועל עיר אחת לא אמטיר חלקה אחת תמטר וגו' 18b. as the Sages decreed that in certain places one may read the Scroll of Esther on the eleventh, twelfth, or thirteenth of Adar, nevertheless, it is bpermitted to eulogize and faston these days. The Gemara clarifies: bWhendoes this ruling apply? bIf we saythat it applies to bthosein walled cities, who normally read the scroll on the bfifteenthof Adar bandyet this year bthey read it on the fourteenth,a day on which they normally are permitted to fast and eulogize, bbutthis cannot be the case, as bare they permittedto fast and eulogize at all on these days?, bBut isn’t it written in iMegillat Ta’anit /i: The day of the fourteenth ofAdar band the day of the fifteenth ofAdar bare the days of Purim, on which eulogizing is prohibited. And Rava said:Since these days are already mentioned in the Bible (Esther 9:18–19), it bis necessaryto state this ihalakhain iMegillat Ta’anit bonly to prohibitthose living bin thesewalled cities from fasting and eulogizing bon thisdate, the fourteenth, and those living bin thesenon-walled cities from fasting and eulogizing bon this date,the fifteenth.,The Gemara continues its explanation of the difficulty. bBut rather,the mishna must be referring to bthosewho normally read on the bfourteenthof Adar, bbut who readthe Scroll of Esther early, bon the thirteenth.However, it is already prohibited to fast on the thirteenth, as bit is Nicanor’s Day,which is a commemorative day in its own right. bBut rather,you will say that the mishna is referring to bthoseresidents of cities who normally read on bthe fourteenth, but who read itearly that year, bon the twelfth;however, the twelfth of Adar is also a commemorative day, as bit is Trajan’s Day. /b, bRather, isn’tthe mishna referring to a case bwhere they readthe Scroll of Esther bon the eleventhof Adar, bandnevertheless that mishna bteachesthat it is bpermitted to eulogize and faston this day, despite the fact that it is the day before Trajan’s Day? The opinion in this unattributed mishna is not in accordance with that of Rabbi Yosei, which means that there is a contradiction between the two statements of Rabbi Yoḥa.,The Gemara answers: bNo;the mishna is actually referring to bthosewho normally read bon the fourteenth, but who read itthat year bon the twelfthof Adar. bAndwith regard to bthat which you said,that bit is Trajan’s Day, Trajan’s Day itself was annulledand is no longer celebrated, bsince Shemaya and his brother Aḥiya were killed on thatday. We learn this bas inthe incident bwhen Rav Naḥman decreed a fast on the twelfthof Adar and bthe Sages said to him: It is Trajan’s Day. He said to them: Trajan’s Day itself was annulled, since Shemaya and his brother Aḥiya were killed on thatday.,The Gemara asks: bAnd let him derivethat fasting on the twelfth is prohibited in any case, bas it is the day before Nicanor’sDay. bRav Ashi said: Nowthat with regard to Trajan’s Day bitself, they annulled it, will wethen barise and issue a decreenot to fast on this date bdue tothe following day, bNicanor’sDay?,In relation to the above, the Gemara inquires: bWhat isthe origin of bNicanor’sDay band what isthe origin of bTrajan’sDay? bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bNicanor was one of the generals [ iiparkhei /i]in the bGreekarmy, band each and every day he would wave his hand over Judea and Jerusalem and say: When willthis city bfall into my hands, and I shall trample it? And when the Hasmonean monarchy overcamethe Greeks band emerged victorious over them,they killed Nicanor in battle, bcut off his thumbs and big toes, and hung them on the gates of Jerusalem, saying: The mouth that spoke with pride, and the hands that waved over Jerusalem, may vengeance be taken against them.This occurred on the thirteenth of Adar., bWhat isthe origin of bTrajan’sDay? bThey saidin explanation: bWhen Trajan sought to killthe important leaders bLuleyanus and his brother Pappas in Laodicea, he said to them: If you are from the nation of Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah, let your God come and save you from my hand, just as He saved Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah from the hand of Nebuchadnezzar.Luleyanus and Pappas bsaid to him: Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah were full-fledged righteouspeople, band they were worthy that a miracleshould be bperformed for them, and Nebuchadnezzar was a legitimate kingwho rose to power through his merit, band it is fitting that a miraclebe performed bthrough him. /b, bBut this wickedman, Trajan, bis a commoner,not a real king, band it is not fitting that a miraclebe performed bthrough him.Luleyanus and Pappas continued: bAndwe are not wholly righteous, band have been condemned to destruction by the Omnipresentfor our sins. bAnd if you do not kill us, the Omnipresent has many other executioners. Andif men do not kill us, bthe Omnipresent has many bears and lions in His world thatcan bhurt us and kill us. Instead, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed us into your hands only so that He will avenge our blood in the future. /b, bEven so,Trajan remained unmoved by their response and bkilled them immediately. It is saidthat bthey had not moved fromthe place of execution bwhen two officials [ idiyoflei /i] arrived from Romewith permission to remove Trajan from power, band they split his skull with clubs.This was viewed as an act of divine retribution and was established as a commemorative day.,§ The mishna taught: bOne may not decree a fast on the community starting on a Thursday,so as not to cause prices to rise. Furthermore, bone may not decree a fast on New Moons,on Hanukkah, or on Purim. However, if one began a set of fasts, one does not interrupt the sequence for these days. The Gemara asks: bAnd how manyfasts bareconsidered ba beginning? Rav Aḥa said:If one fasted bthreefasts before the festive day. bRabbi Asi said:Even if one fasted bonefast before it., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: This ihalakhaof the mishna that a fast that occurs on a festival is not observed, bis the statement of Rabbi Meir, who saidit bin the name of Rabban Gamliel. However, the Rabbis say:If a communal fast occurs on one of these days, one must bfast and completethe fast until nightfall. bMar Zutra taught in the name of Rav Huna:The practical ihalakha /iis in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, that one bfasts and completeshis fast until nightfall.,, strongMISHNA: /strong bThe order of these fastsof increasing severity, as explained in Chapter One, bis statedonly bina case when bthe first rainfallhas not materialized. bHowever,if there is bvegetation thatgrew and its appearance bchangeddue to disease, the court does not wait at all; bthey cry out about it immediately. And likewise, if rain ceasedfor a period of bforty daysbetween bone rainfall and another, they cry out about it because it is a plague of drought. /b,If sufficient rain bfell for the vegetation but notenough bfell for the trees;or if it was enough bfor the trees but not for the vegetation;or if sufficient rain fell bfor both this and that,i.e., vegetation and trees, bbut notenough btofill the bcisterns, ditches, and caveswith water to last the summer, bthey cry out about it immediately. And likewise,if there is a particular bcity upon which it did not rain,while the surrounding area did receive rain, this is considered a divine curse, bas it is written: “And I caused it to rain upon one city, but caused it not to rain upon another city; one piece was rained upon,and the portion upon which it did not rain withered” (Amos 4:7).
32. Anon., 4 Ezra, 14.26, 14.45-14.48

14.26. And when you have finished, some things you shall make public, and some you shall deliver in secret to the wise; tomorrow at this hour you shall begin to write. 14.45. And when the forty days were ended, the Most High spoke to me, saying, "Make public the twenty-four books that you wrote first and let the worthy and the unworthy read them; 14.46. but keep the seventy that were written last, in order to give them to the wise among your people. 14.47. For in them is the spring of understanding, the fountain of wisdom, and the river of knowledge. 14.48. And I did so.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 60
abegg m. et al. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 72
anderson, gary a. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 90
apocalyptic Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 139
archaeology Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 60
aristotle, pain as an emotion Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 254
atonement Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 81
audience Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 87
brooke, george j. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 90
canon, old testament Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 72
commandment/commandments Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 46, 151
constitutional impurity Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 530
covenant, concept of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186
covenant Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 81; Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 317; van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 155
creation, story of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186
day of atonement Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 530
dead sea scrolls Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 69; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186
delphi Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186, 189
divine Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 317
domination, emotion and Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 254
domination, in ritual Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 254
dreams Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186, 189
dualism, dualist(ic) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 417
dualism Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 530
education, judaism/jewish education Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 69
election (of israel) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 417
emotion, in the classical world Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 254
emotion, in the hebrew bible Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 254
enoch literature, its motivation Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 47
eschatology, in dead sea scrolls Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 22
essene Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 60
essenes, proto-essenes Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 47
essenes, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 63
essenes Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 81
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 417
ethical education, judaism Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 69
ethical education, related/relationships between Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 69
ethnic boundary making model, equalization van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 155
ethnicity (common features), culture van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 155
ethnicity (common features), customs van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 155
ethnicity (common features), homeland van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 155
exegesis Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 69
ezekiel Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 189
food laws Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 81
fornication Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 530
ginzberg, louis Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 91
god, breath/inbreathing Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186
god, disclosure by Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186
god, gift of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186, 189
god, miracle/wonder of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186
god, plan of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186
god, secrets/mysteries of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 189
halakhah/halakhot, and aggadah; law and narrative Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 151, 153
hasmonean kingdom van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 155
hazon gabriel Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 90, 91
healing Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186
hermeneutic, of sectarian exclusivity Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 22
hermeneutical method, dead sea scrolls Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 13
hidden (things, matters) Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 317
hidden things (nistarot) Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 90, 91
high priest Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 530
high priesthood Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 156
holiness Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47
holiness code Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 530
holy spirit Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 530
hultgren, stephen Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 90
human/humankind Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186
idolatry Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 530
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186, 189
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 46, 47, 63, 151, 153
introversionist ideology Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 22
jassen, alex p. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 90, 91
jerusalem, on differences between pharisees and sadducees Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 103
jerusalem Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 317; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 87
jew/jewish, literature/ authors Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186, 189
josephus Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 60; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 417
judaism Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 69
judges Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 317
knowledge, of god's wisdom/secrets/glory" Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 189
laity, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 63, 151, 153
law, dead sea scrolls Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 13
law, god's" "151.0_186.0@law, god's" '151.0_186.0@law, torah Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 189
law, torah Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 189
legal-exegetical method Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 13
leiman s.z. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 72
licht, jacob Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 91
lim, timothy Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 90
literature Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186, 189
measurements, creation of Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 103
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 151, 153
midrash halakhah Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 13
moral impurity Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 530
moral purity Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 237
moses Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 63; Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 60; Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 90, 91
murder Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 530
nebuchadnezzar Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 189
non-pentateuchal scripture, appeal to Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 230
other, the, mythicized Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 139
pain, emotion and Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 254
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 417
pharisees, on measurements Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 103
philo judaeus Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 189
place and place studies, importance to judaism Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 69
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 63, 87, 151, 153
priest Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 317; Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 60; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 46, 47, 87, 151
prooftexts, non-pentateuchal Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 230
prophecy, at qumran Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 90, 91
prophets Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 63, 151
pseudonymity, motives for Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 47
purification Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 530
purification liturgies Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 530
purity/impurity Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 81
purity/ritual purity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47, 87
purity Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 237
qumran/qumran community Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 46, 47, 63, 87, 151, 153
qumran Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 69; Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 60
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 417
qumran sectarians, measurements of Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 103
rabbinic literature, on measurements Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 103
rabbis, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 63
reading, performative Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 34
related/relationships between Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 69
religion within a cultural system, space and Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 69
revealed things (niglot) Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 90, 91
revelation Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186
revelations Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 139
rewritten bible Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 63
ritual, as emotional practice Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 254
ritual, canonical messages Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 254
ritual, embodiment in Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 254
ritual, purity Hellholm et al., Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity (2010) 237
ritual-physical impurity Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 530
ritual impurity, of temple, at qumran Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 156
ritual purity, ablutions as emotional practice Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 254
rule of the community Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 317
sacrospace, replacing material place' Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 69
sacrospace Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 69
sadducees, on measurements Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 103
sadducees, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 153
schiffman, lawrence h. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 90, 91
second temple period, halakhic disputes from time of Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 103
secrecy Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 90, 91
sectarian/sectarianism Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 63, 87
sectarianism Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 22
septuagint Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 230
shemesh, aharon Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 90
sinai, mount Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 63; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186
sophrosyne, among women Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 254
spirit, and translation issues Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186
spirit, characterizations as, breath (life itself) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186, 189
spirit, effects of, ecstasy/frenzy Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 189
spirit, effects of, interpret dreams/scripture Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 189
spirit, effects of, knowledge/understanding Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 189
spirit, effects of, life itself Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186
spirit, effects of, mental control, loss of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 189
spirit, effects of, mind enlightened Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 189
spirit, modes of presence, indwelling Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186, 189
spirit, modes of presence, receiving of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186, 189
teacher of righteousness Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 87; Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 90; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 186
temple, as ritually inadequate, at qumran Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 156, 157
temple van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 155
temple scroll, its character and purpose Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 72
thomas, samuel i. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 90
torah, study of Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 34
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 46, 47, 63, 151, 153; van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 155
tzoref, shani Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 90
urim (and thummim) Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 317
vedic, tzadokites Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 34
war Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 417
werman, cana Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 90
wieder, naphtali Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 90, 91
wilderness Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 151
wise, michael o. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 91
yadin y. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 72
yahad Jaffee, Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE (2001) 34
zadok Feldman, Goldman and Dimant, Scripture and Interpretation: Qumran Texts That Rework the Bible (2014) 317; Grabbe, Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel and Jesus (2010) 60
zadokite priests Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 156, 157
zeal for the law Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 254