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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



3095
Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.15-3.17
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

30 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.28, 2.7, 2.27, 2.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 1.28. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 1.28. And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul."
2. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 19.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.11. הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵת לְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ אָדָם וְטָמֵא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 19.11. He that toucheth the dead, even any man’s dead body, shall be unclean seven days;"
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 54.8, 104.29, 110.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

104.29. תַּסְתִּיר פָּנֶיךָ יִבָּהֵלוּן תֹּסֵף רוּחָם יִגְוָעוּן וְאֶל־עֲפָרָם יְשׁוּבוּן׃ 110.3. עַמְּךָ נְדָבֹת בְּיוֹם חֵילֶךָ בְּהַדְרֵי־קֹדֶשׁ מֵרֶחֶם מִשְׁחָר לְךָ טַל יַלְדֻתֶיךָ׃ 104.29. Thou hidest Thy face, they vanish; Thou withdrawest their breath, they perish, And return to their dust." 110.3. Thy people offer themselves willingly in the day of thy warfare; in adornments of holiness, from the womb of the dawn, Thine is the dew of thy youth."
4. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 29.15-29.16, 41.25, 45.9-45.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

29.15. הוֹי הַמַּעֲמִיקִים מֵיהוָה לַסְתִּר עֵצָה וְהָיָה בְמַחְשָׁךְ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ מִי רֹאֵנוּ וּמִי יוֹדְעֵנוּ׃ 29.16. הַפְכְּכֶם אִם־כְּחֹמֶר הַיֹּצֵר יֵחָשֵׁב כִּי־יֹאמַר מַעֲשֶׂה לְעֹשֵׂהוּ לֹא עָשָׂנִי וְיֵצֶר אָמַר לְיוֹצְרוֹ לֹא הֵבִין׃ 41.25. הַעִירוֹתִי מִצָּפוֹן וַיַּאת מִמִּזְרַח־שֶׁמֶשׁ יִקְרָא בִשְׁמִי וְיָבֹא סְגָנִים כְּמוֹ־חֹמֶר וּכְמוֹ יוֹצֵר יִרְמָס־טִיט׃ 45.9. הוֹי רָב אֶת־יֹצְרוֹ חֶרֶשׂ אֶת־חַרְשֵׂי אֲדָמָה הֲיֹאמַר חֹמֶר לְיֹצְרוֹ מַה־תַּעֲשֶׂה וּפָעָלְךָ אֵין־יָדַיִם לוֹ׃ 45.11. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיֹצְרוֹ הָאֹתִיּוֹת שְׁאָלוּנִי עַל־בָּנַי וְעַל־פֹּעַל יָדַי תְּצַוֻּנִי׃ 45.12. אָנֹכִי עָשִׂיתִי אֶרֶץ וְאָדָם עָלֶיהָ בָרָאתִי אֲנִי יָדַי נָטוּ שָׁמַיִם וְכָל־צְבָאָם צִוֵּיתִי׃ 45.13. אָנֹכִי הַעִירֹתִהוּ בְצֶדֶק וְכָל־דְּרָכָיו אֲיַשֵּׁר הוּא־יִבְנֶה עִירִי וְגָלוּתִי יְשַׁלֵּחַ לֹא בִמְחִיר וְלֹא בְשֹׁחַד אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 29.15. Woe unto them that seek deep to hide their counsel from the LORD, and their works are in the dark, and they say: ‘Who seeth us? and who knoweth us?’" 29.16. O your perversity! Shall the potter be esteemed as clay; that the thing made should say of him that made it: ‘He made me not’; Or the thing framed say of him that framed it: ‘He hath no understanding?’" 41.25. I have roused up one from the north, and he is come, From the rising of the sun one that calleth upon My name; And he shall come upon rulers as upon mortar, And as the potter treadeth clay." 45.9. Woe unto him that striveth with his Maker, as a potsherd with the potsherds of the earth! Shall the clay say to him that fashioned it: ‘What makest thou?’ Or: ‘Thy work, it hath no hands’?" 45.10. Woe unto him that saith unto his father. 'Wherefore begettest thou?’ Or to a woman: ‘Wherefore travailest thou?’" 45.11. Thus saith the LORD, The Holy One of Israel, and his Maker: Ask Me of the things that are to come; Concerning My sons, and concerning the work of My hands, command ye Me." 45.12. I, even I, have made the earth, And created man upon it; I, even My hands, have stretched out the heavens, And all their host have I commanded." 45.13. I have roused him up in victory, And I make level all his ways; He shall build My city, And he shall let Mine exiles go free, Not for price nor reward, Saith the LORD of hosts."
5. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 18.3-18.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

18.3. וָאֵרֵד בֵּית הַיּוֹצֵר והנהו [וְהִנֵּה־] [הוּא] עֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה עַל־הָאָבְנָיִם׃ 18.4. וְנִשְׁחַת הַכְּלִי אֲשֶׁר הוּא עֹשֶׂה בַּחֹמֶר בְּיַד הַיּוֹצֵר וְשָׁב וַיַּעֲשֵׂהוּ כְּלִי אַחֵר כַּאֲשֶׁר יָשַׁר בְּעֵינֵי הַיּוֹצֵר לַעֲשׂוֹת׃ 18.5. וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמוֹר׃ 18.6. הֲכַיּוֹצֵר הַזֶּה לֹא־אוּכַל לַעֲשׂוֹת לָכֶם בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל נְאֻם־יְהוָה הִנֵּה כַחֹמֶר בְּיַד הַיּוֹצֵר כֵּן־אַתֶּם בְּיָדִי בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 18.3. Then I went down to the potter’s house, and, behold, he was at his work on the wheels." 18.4. And whensoever the vessel that he made of the clay was marred in the hand of the potter, he made it again another vessel, as seemed good to the potter to make it." 18.5. Then the word of the LORD came to me, saying:" 18.6. ’O house of Israel, cannot I do with you as this potter? saith the LORD. Behold, as the clay in the potter’s hand, so are ye in My hand, O house of Israel."
6. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q512, 6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 1.7, 1.9-1.11, 2.2, 2.5-2.8, 6.7, 7.18, 9.16-9.23, 12.21-12.22, 13.5-13.8, 14.6-14.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Habakkuk, 2.7-2.10, 7.5-7.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 2.6, 9.16-9.23, 12.21-12.22, 13.5-13.8, 14.6-14.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Dead Sea Scrolls, 1Qha, 20.7-20.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q427, 8.2.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 6.11-6.12, 9.13, 11.23-11.25, 19.33-19.34 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 6.11-6.12, 9.13, 11.23-11.25, 19.33-19.34 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Dead Sea Scrolls, Rule of The Community, 3.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Dead Sea Scrolls, Rule of The Community, 3.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

18. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 33.11, 33.13-33.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

33.11. In the fulness of his knowledge the Lord distinguished them and appointed their different ways; 33.13. As clay in the hand of the potter -- for all his ways are as he pleases -- so men are in the hand of him who made them,to give them as he decides. 33.14. Good is the opposite of evil,and life the opposite of death;so the sinner is the opposite of the godly. 33.15. Look upon all the works of the Most High;they likewise are in pairs, one the opposite of the other.
19. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 15.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

15.6. Lovers of evil things and fit for such objects of hope are those who either make or desire or worship them.
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 152-169, 151 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

151. But since nothing in creation lasts for ever, but all mortal things are liable to inevitable changes and alterations, it was unavoidable that the first man should also undergo some disaster. And the beginning of his life being liable to reproach, was his wife. For, as long as he was single, he resembled, as to his creation, both the world and God; and he represented in his soul the characteristics of the nature of each, I do not mean all of them, but such as a mortal constitution was capable of admitting. But when woman also was created, man perceiving a closely connected figure and a kindred formation to his own, rejoiced at the sight, and approached her and embraced her.
21. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.31-1.42, 2.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.31. And God created man, taking a lump of clay from the earth, and breathed into his face the breath of life: and man became a living soul." The races of men are twofold; for one is the heavenly man, and the other the earthly man. Now the heavenly man, as being born in the image of God, has no participation in any corruptible or earthlike essence. But the earthly man is made of loose material, which he calls a lump of clay. On which account he says, not that the heavenly man was made, but that he was fashioned according to the image of God; but the earthly man he calls a thing made, and not begotten by the maker. 1.32. And we must consider that the man who was formed of earth, means the mind which is to be infused into the body, but which has not yet been so infused. And this mind would be really earthly and corruptible, if it were not that God had breathed into it the spirit of genuine life; for then it "exists," and is no longer made into a soul; and its soul is not inactive, and incapable of proper formation, but a really intellectual and living one. "For man," says Moses, "became a living soul." XIII. 1.33. But some one may ask, why God thought an earth-born mind, which was wholly devoted to the body, worthy of divine inspiration, and yet did not treat the one made after his own idea and image in the same manner. In the second place he may ask, what is the meaning of the expression "breathed into." And thirdly, why he breathed into his face: fourthly also, why, since he knew the name of the Spirit when he says, "And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the Waters," he now speaks of breath, and not of the Spirit. 1.34. Now in reply to the first question we must say this one thing; God being very munificent gives his good things to all men, even to those who are not perfect; inviting them to a participation and rivalry in virtue, and at the same time displaying his abundant riches, and showing that it is sufficient for those also who will not be greatly benefited by it; and he also shows this in the most evident manner possible in other cases; for when he rains on the sea, and when he raises up fountains in desert places, and waters shallow and rough and unproductive land, making the rivers to overflow with floods, what else is he doing but displaying the great abundance of his riches and of his goodness? This is the cause why he has created no soul in such a condition as to be wholly barren of good, even if the employment of that good be beyond the reach of some people. 1.35. We must also give a second reason, which is this: Moses wished to represent all the actions of the Deity as just--therefore a man who had not had a real life breathed into him, but who was ignorant of virtue, when he was chastised for the sins which he had committed would say that he was punished unjustly, in that it was only through ignorance of what was good that he had erred respecting it; and that he was to blame who had not breathed any proper wisdom into him; and perhaps he will even say, that he has absolutely committed no offence whatever; since some people affirm that actions done involuntarily and in ignorance have not the nature of offences. 1.36. Now the expression "breathed into" is equivalent to "inspired," or "gave life to" things iimate: for let us take care that we are never filled with such absurdity as to think that God employs the organs of the mouth or nostrils for the purpose of breathing into anything; for God is not only devoid of peculiar qualities, but he is likewise not of the form of man, and the use of these words shows some more secret mystery of nature; 1.37. for there must be three things, that which breathes in, that which receives what is breathed in, and that which is breathed in. Now that which breathes in is God, that which receives what is breathed in is the mind, and that which is breathed in is the spirit. What then is collected from these three things? A union of the three takes place, through God extending the power, which proceeds from himself through the spirit, which is the middle term, as far as the subject. Why does he do this, except that we may thus derive a proper notion of him? 1.38. Since how could the soul have perceived God if he had not inspired it, and touched it according to his power? For human intellect would not have dared to mount up to such a height as to lay claim to the nature of God, if God himself had not drawn it up to himself, as far as it was possible for the mind of man to be drawn up, and if he had not formed it according to those powers which can be comprehended. 1.39. And God breathed into man's face both physically and morally. Physically, when he placed the senses in the face: and this portion of the body above all others is vivified and inspired; and morally, in this manner, as the face is the domit portion of the body, so also is the mind the domit portion of the soul. It is into this alone that God breathes; but the other parts, the sensations, the power of speech, and the power of generation, he does not think worthy of his breath, for they are inferior in power. 1.40. By what then were these subordinate parts inspired? beyond all question by the mind; for of the qualities which the mind has received form God, it gives a share to the irrational portion of the soul, so that the mind is vivified by God, and the irrational part of the soul by the mind; for the mind is as it were a god to the irrational part of the soul, for which reason Moses did not hesitate to call it "the god of Pharaoh. 1.41. For of all created things some are created by God, and through him: some not indeed by God, but yet through him: and the rest have their existence both by him and through him. At all events Moses as he proceeds says, that God planted a paradise, and among the best things as made both by God and through God, is the mind. But the irrational part of the soul was made indeed by God but not through God, but through the reasoning power which bears rule and sovereignty in the soul; 1.42. and Moses has used the word "breath," not "spirit," as there is a difference between the two words; for spirit is conceived of according to strength, and intensity, and power; but breath is a gentle and moderate kind of breeze and exhalation; therefore the mind, which was created in accordance with the image and idea of God, may be justly said to partake in his spirit, for its reasoning has strength: but that which is derived from matter is only a partaker in a thin and very light air, being as it were a sort of exhalation, such as arises from spices; for they, although they be preserved intact, and are not exposed to fire or fumigation, do nevertheless emit a certain fragrance. XIV.
22. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.51 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 6.14-7.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24. New Testament, Romans, 9.20-9.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.20. But indeed, O man, who are you to reply against God? Will the thing formed ask him who formed it, "Why did you make me like this? 9.21. Or hasn't the potter a right over the clay, from the same lump to make one part a vessel for honor, and another for dishonor? 9.22. What if God, willing to show his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much patience vessels of wrath made for destruction 9.23. and that he might make known the riches of his glory on vessels of mercy, which he prepared beforehand for glory
25. New Testament, John, 9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

26. New Testament, Mark, 1.7, 1.15, 1.21-1.35, 1.38-1.39, 3.22, 3.30, 5.1-5.4, 5.10-5.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. He preached, saying, "After me comes he who is mightier than I, the thong of whose sandals I am not worthy to stoop down and loosen. 1.15. and saying, "The time is fulfilled, and the Kingdom of God is at hand! Repent, and believe in the gospel. 1.21. They went into Capernaum, and immediately on the Sabbath day he entered into the synagogue and taught. 1.22. They were astonished at his teaching, for he taught them as having authority, and not as the scribes. 1.23. Immediately there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit, and he cried out 1.24. saying, "Ha! What do we have to do with you, Jesus, you Nazarene? Have you come to destroy us? I know you who you are: the Holy One of God! 1.25. Jesus rebuked him, saying, "Be quiet, and come out of him! 1.26. The unclean spirit, convulsing him and crying with a loud voice, came out of him. 1.27. They were all amazed, so that they questioned among themselves, saying, "What is this? A new teaching? For with authority he commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey him! 1.28. The report of him went out immediately everywhere into all the region of Galilee and its surrounding area. 1.29. Immediately, when they had come out of the synagogue, they came into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John. 1.30. Now Simon's wife's mother lay sick with a fever, and immediately they told him about her. 1.31. He came and took her by the hand, and raised her up. The fever left her, and she served them. 1.32. At evening, when the sun had set, they brought to him all who were sick, and those who were possessed by demons. 1.33. All the city was gathered together at the door. 1.34. He healed many who were sick with various diseases, and cast out many demons. He didn't allow the demons to speak, because they knew him. 1.35. Early in the night, he rose up and went out, and departed into a deserted place, and prayed there. 1.38. He said to them, "Let's go elsewhere into the next towns, that I may preach there also, because for this reason I came forth. 1.39. He went into their synagogues throughout all Galilee, preaching and casting out demons. 3.22. The scribes who came down from Jerusalem said, "He has Beelzebul," and, "By the prince of the demons he casts out the demons. 3.30. -- because they said, "He has an unclean spirit. 5.1. They came to the other side of the sea, into the country of the Gadarenes. 5.2. When he had come out of the boat, immediately there met him out of the tombs a man with an unclean spirit 5.3. who had his dwelling in the tombs. Nobody could bind him any more, not even with chains 5.4. because he had been often bound with fetters and chains, and the chains had been torn apart by him, and the fetters broken in pieces. Nobody had the strength to tame him. 5.10. He begged him much that he would not send them away out of the country. 5.11. Now there was on the mountainside a great herd of pigs feeding. 5.12. All the demons begged him, saying, "Send us into the pigs, that we may enter into them. 5.13. At once Jesus gave them permission. The unclean spirits came out and entered into the pigs. The herd of about two thousand rushed down the steep bank into the sea, and they were drowned in the sea.
27. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 85 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

85. He proves that Christ is the Lord of Hosts from Psalm 24, and from his authority over demons Justin: Moreover, some of you venture to expound the prophecy which runs, 'Lift up your gates, you rulers; and be lifted up, you everlasting doors, that the King of glory may enter,' as if it referred likewise to Hezekiah, and others of you [expound it] of Solomon; but neither to the latter nor to the former, nor, in short, to any of your kings, can it be proved to have reference, but to this our Christ alone, who appeared without comeliness, and inglorious, as Isaiah and David and all the Scriptures said; who is the Lord of hosts, by the will of the Father who conferred on Him [the dignity]; who also rose from the dead, and ascended to heaven, as the Psalm and the other Scriptures manifested when they announced Him to be Lord of hosts; and of this you may, if you will, easily be persuaded by the occurrences which take place before your eyes. For every demon, when exorcised in the name of this very Son of God— who is the First-born of every creature, who became man by the Virgin, who suffered, and was crucified under Pontius Pilate by your nation, who died, who rose from the dead, and ascended into heaven — is overcome and subdued. But though you exorcise any demon in the name of any of those who were among you— either kings, or righteous men, or prophets, or patriarchs — it will not be subject to you. But if any of you exorcise it in [the name of] the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, it will perhaps be subject to you. Now assuredly your exorcists, I have said, make use of craft when they exorcise, even as the Gentiles do, and employ fumigations and incantations. But that they are angels and powers whom the word of prophecy by David [commands] to lift up the gates, that He who rose from the dead, Jesus Christ, the Lord of hosts, according to the will of the Father, might enter, the word of David has likewise showed; which I shall again recall to your attention for the sake of those who were not with us yesterday, for whose benefit, moreover, I sum up many things I said yesterday. And now, if I say this to you, although I have repeated it many times, I know that it is not absurd so to do. For it is a ridiculous thing to see the sun, and the moon, and the other stars, continually keeping the same course, and bringing round the different seasons; and to see the computer who may be asked how many are twice two, because he has frequently said that they are four, not ceasing to say again that they are four; and equally so other things, which are confidently admitted, to be continually mentioned and admitted in like manner; yet that he who founds his discourse on the prophetic Scriptures should leave them and abstain from constantly referring to the same Scriptures, because it is thought he can bring forth something better than Scripture. The passage, then, by which I proved that God reveals that there are both angels and hosts in heaven is this: 'Praise the Lord from the heavens: praise Him in the highest. Praise Him, all His angels: praise Him, all His hosts.' Mnaseas (one of those who had come with them on the second day): We are greatly pleased that you undertake to repeat the same things on our account. Justin: Listen, my friends, to the Scripture which induces me to act thus. Jesus commanded [us] to love even [our] enemies, as was predicted by Isaiah in many passages, in which also is contained the mystery of our own regeneration, as well, in fact, as the regeneration of all who expect that Christ will appear in Jerusalem, and by their works endeavour earnestly to please Him. These are the words spoken by Isaiah: 'Hear the word of the Lord, you that tremble at His word. Say, our brethren, to them that hate you and detest you, that the name of the Lord has been glorified. He has appeared to your joy, and they shall be ashamed. A voice of noise from the city, a voice from the temple, a voice of the Lord who renders recompense to the proud. Before she that travailed brought forth, and before the pains of labour came, she brought forth a male child. Who has heard such a thing? And who has seen such a thing? Has the earth brought forth in one day? And has she produced a nation at once? For Zion has travailed and borne her children. But I have given such an expectation even to her that does not bring forth, said the Lord. Behold, I have made her that begets, and her that is barren, says the Lord. Rejoice, O Jerusalem, and hold a joyous assembly, all you that love her. Be glad, all you that mourn for her, that you may nurse and be filled with the breast of her consolation, that having suck you may be delighted with the entrance of His glory.' Isaiah 66:5-11
28. Origen, Against Celsus, 1.6 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.6. After this, through the influence of some motive which is unknown to me, Celsus asserts that it is by the names of certain demons, and by the use of incantations, that the Christians appear to be possessed of (miraculous) power; hinting, I suppose, at the practices of those who expel evil spirits by incantations. And here he manifestly appears to malign the Gospel. For it is not by incantations that Christians seem to prevail (over evil spirits), but by the name of Jesus, accompanied by the announcement of the narratives which relate to Him; for the repetition of these has frequently been the means of driving demons out of men, especially when those who repeated them did so in a sound and genuinely believing spirit. Such power, indeed, does the name of Jesus possess over evil spirits, that there have been instances where it was effectual, when it was pronounced even by bad men, which Jesus Himself taught (would be the case), when He said: Many shall say to Me in that day, In Your name we have cast out devils, and done many wonderful works. Whether Celsus omitted this from intentional malignity, or from ignorance, I do not know. And he next proceeds to bring a charge against the Saviour Himself, alleging that it was by means of sorcery that He was able to accomplish the wonders which He performed; and that foreseeing that others would attain the same knowledge, and do the same things, making a boast of doing them by help of the power of God, He excludes such from His kingdom. And his accusation is, that if they are justly excluded, while He Himself is guilty of the same practices, He is a wicked man; but if He is not guilty of wickedness in doing such things, neither are they who do the same as He. But even if it be impossible to show by what power Jesus wrought these miracles, it is clear that Christians employ no spells or incantations, but the simple name of Jesus, and certain other words in which they repose faith, according to the holy Scriptures.
29. Anon., Apocalypse of Abraham, 27

30. Zoroastrian Literature, Yasna, 30.4



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
4q instruction Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 187
adjure/adjurations Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 66
angel, angelic, angelic transformation, angelomorphism Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 63
angels Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
anima/soul Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 23
antichrist Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 408
apocalypses Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 302
apocrypha Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 23
art, priests Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
art, qumran Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
atonement Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 168
authority Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
beast Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 63
beliar Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303
body Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
christian, literature/authors Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 408
clay Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 50
collective humanity Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 50
community, qumran Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
creation, creation of cult, cultic Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303
creation Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 134
creation topoi Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 50, 54
d/demonisation Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 66
damascus document Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 187
darkness, light Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 112
dead sea scrolls Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303; Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 23
death Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
delphi Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303, 387, 408
demon, demonic Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 63
determinism Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 50; Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 23
deterministic Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 54
discourse on the two spirits Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 187
divine plan Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 38
dreams Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303, 387, 408
dualism Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 54; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
dust Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 50, 54
elect of god Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 41
eschatology, in dead sea scrolls Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 41
ethics Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
evil Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303, 408
evil will, stoic non-free free will Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 23
exercises, student Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 217, 225
exorcise, exorcism Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 63
exorcisms/exorcise/exorcists/exorcistic Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 66
fate/fatalism Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 23
fate Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 54
flesh Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 177; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
foreknowledge Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 23
foundation of injustice Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 112
foundation of truth Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 112
free choice/free will Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 23
generations Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 112
god, creating/creativity of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
god, visible Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
god of knowledge Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 134
grace Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 23
ground, from the Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 50, 54
heal/healers/healings Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 66
healers, healing Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 63
healing Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 408
heart Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 408
herodotus Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
hidden things Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 38
hodayot Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 187
human/humankind Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387, 408
hyh Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 134
idol/idolatry Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303
illness Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 66
incantations Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 66
inclination Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 54
initiation Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 38
injustice, justice Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 112
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303, 387, 408
interpretation, biblical Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
interpretation Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 112
jesus, resurrection of Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 66
jesus christ, in paul Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303
jesus christ, in the fourth gospel Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 408
jew/jewish, culture Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 408
jew/jewish, literature/ authors Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303, 387, 408
jew/jewish, relationship to christianity Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 408
john, fourth gospel Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387, 408
judaism, second temple/apocrypha Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 23
judaism Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 23
judgment Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 50, 177
justice' "151.0_387.0@law, god's" Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
justice, injustice Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 112
justice Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303
king/βασιλεύς/kingdom/βασιλεία Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 66
knowledge Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
knowledge of good and evil Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 112
language, secret Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 187
law, god's" "151.0_408.0@law, god's" Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303
law, lawlessness Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303
licht, jacob Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 168
life, christian/community Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 408
life, concept of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
life, israelite/jewish Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 408
life, of virtue Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
light, illumination Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 63
light Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 302
light and darknessdead sea scrolls Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 190
literature Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303, 387, 408
liturgy Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
manuscripts, and revelation Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 190
manuscripts, instruction on the two spirits Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 190
manuscripts, light and darkness Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 190
manuscripts, teacher of righteousness Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 190
maskil Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 71
mebaqqer Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 71
merciful Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 50
metaphor Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 168
moses, art Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
moses Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
mysteries Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 302
mystery, rāz nihyeh Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 38
mēbîn Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 38
obedience Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 54
original sin Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 23
paqqid Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 71
paul (saul) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303
pesharim Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 190
philo judaeus Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
plutarch Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
potter Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 50
power Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 63
practice Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 63
prayer Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43; Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 63
prayer (jewish/rabbinic) Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 168
predestination Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 23
predetermination Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 23
priest Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303
priestess Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 408
priesthood, priests, angelic Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
priests and textuality Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 217
providence, judaeo-christian type Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 23
purity Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 302
qumran, angels Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
qumran, liturgy Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
qumran, priesthood Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
qumran, songs Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
qumran Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 187
qumran community Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 54
qumran essenes Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 23
qumran literature, leadership figures Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 71
qumran literature, legal authority in Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 71
responsibility Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 50
revelation Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 38; Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43; Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 302
ritual purity, maintained beyond the temple Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 168
rāz nihyeh, mystery Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 38
schuller, eileen Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 168
scripture Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
sectarianism' Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 187
sectarianism Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 41; Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
self Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 177; Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 302
serek Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 302
sex Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 302
shekhina, ritual Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
sin Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303
sinai, qumran literature Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
sinai Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
solomon Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 66
sons, of adamlmzw Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 408
sons, of darkness Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303
sons, of deceit Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
sons, of justice Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
sons, of light Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303, 408
sovereignty of god, judaeo-christian view Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 23
sovereignty of god Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 23
spirit, characterizations as, breath (life itself) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303, 387, 408
spirit, characterizations as, soul Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
spirit, characterizations as, truth Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387, 408
spirit, effects of, virtue Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387
spirit, evil spirits Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 112
spirit, modes of presence, indwelling Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303, 387, 408
spirit, modes of presence, receiving of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303, 387, 408
spirit, of man Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 177
spirit-breath Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 177
spirit Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43; Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 177
spirits, two (lqs 3-4) Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 387, 408
sukkoth Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 408
sun, moon Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 63
teacher of righteousness Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 190; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 408
temple, as community, at qumran Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 168
temple Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 303, 408
topoi, creation Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 50, 54
torah, sectarian identity Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
torah, study Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
torah focus Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 225
transmission of tradition Brooke et al., Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity (2008) 43
two spirits (qumran) Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 190
two spirits treatise (tst) Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 112, 134
two ways Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 54
vessels Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 50
violence group privileging and Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 41
violence salvation and Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 41
war, x, eschatological Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 41
watchers Werline et al., Experientia, Volume 1: Inquiry Into Religious Experience in Early Judaism and Christianity (2008) 63
wealth Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 54
wisdom literature, distinctive function in education Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 225
yahad Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 302