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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



3095
Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 2.22
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

42 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.5, 10.12, 11.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 10.12. וְעַתָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל מָה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ שֹׁאֵל מֵעִמָּךְ כִּי אִם־לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָלֶכֶת בְּכָל־דְּרָכָיו וּלְאַהֲבָה אֹתוֹ וְלַעֲבֹד אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשֶׁךָ׃ 11.13. וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־מִצְוֺתַי אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וּלְעָבְדוֹ בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶם וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁכֶם׃ 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." 10.12. And now, Israel, what doth the LORD thy God require of thee, but to fear the LORD thy God, to walk in all His ways, and to love Him, and to serve the LORD thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul;" 11.13. And it shall come to pass, if ye shall hearken diligently unto My commandments which I command you this day, to love the LORD your God, and to serve Him with all your heart and with all your soul,"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 18.21-18.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.21. וְאַתָּה תֶחֱזֶה מִכָּל־הָעָם אַנְשֵׁי־חַיִל יִרְאֵי אֱלֹהִים אַנְשֵׁי אֱמֶת שֹׂנְאֵי בָצַע וְשַׂמְתָּ עֲלֵהֶם שָׂרֵי אֲלָפִים שָׂרֵי מֵאוֹת שָׂרֵי חֲמִשִּׁים וְשָׂרֵי עֲשָׂרֹת׃ 18.22. וְשָׁפְטוּ אֶת־הָעָם בְּכָל־עֵת וְהָיָה כָּל־הַדָּבָר הַגָּדֹל יָבִיאוּ אֵלֶיךָ וְכָל־הַדָּבָר הַקָּטֹן יִשְׁפְּטוּ־הֵם וְהָקֵל מֵעָלֶיךָ וְנָשְׂאוּ אִתָּךְ׃ 18.21. Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating unjust gain; and place such over them, to be rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens." 18.22. And let them judge the people at all seasons; and it shall be, that every great matter they shall bring unto thee, but every small matter they shall judge themselves; so shall they make it easier for thee and bear the burden with thee."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.21. וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לְאָדָם וּלְאִשְׁתּוֹ כָּתְנוֹת עוֹר וַיַּלְבִּשֵׁם׃ 3.21. And the LORD God made for Adam and for his wife garments of skins, and clothed them."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 3.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.22. זִכְרוּ תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה עַבְדִּי אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אוֹתוֹ בְחֹרֵב עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל חֻקִּים וּמִשְׁפָּטִים׃ 3.22. Remember ye the law of Moses My servant, which I commanded unto him in Horeb for all Israel, even statutes and ordices."
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 6.24-6.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.24. יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה וְיִשְׁמְרֶךָ׃ 6.25. יָאֵר יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וִיחֻנֶּךָּ׃ 6.26. יִשָּׂא יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וְיָשֵׂם לְךָ שָׁלוֹם׃ 6.24. The LORD bless thee, and keep thee;" 6.25. The LORD make His face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee;" 6.26. The LORD lift up His countece upon thee, and give thee peace."
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 2.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.3. וַיָּבֹא בְנָיָהוּ אֶל־אֹהֶל יְהוָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו כֹּה־אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ צֵא וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא כִּי פֹה אָמוּת וַיָּשֶׁב בְּנָיָהוּ אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּבָר לֵאמֹר כֹּה־דִבֶּר יוֹאָב וְכֹה עָנָנִי׃ 2.3. וְשָׁמַרְתָּ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָלֶכֶת בִּדְרָכָיו לִשְׁמֹר חֻקֹּתָיו מִצְוֺתָיו וּמִשְׁפָּטָיו וְעֵדְוֺתָיו כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה לְמַעַן תַּשְׂכִּיל אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה וְאֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר תִּפְנֶה שָׁם׃ 2.3. and keep the charge of the LORD thy God, to walk in His ways, to keep His statutes, and His commandments, and His ordices, and His testimonies, according to that which is written in the law of Moses, that thou mayest prosper in all that thou doest, and whithersoever thou turnest thyself;"
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 15.12, 30.22 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.12. וַיָּבֹאוּ בַבְּרִית לִדְרוֹשׁ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם בְּכָל־לְבָבָם וּבְכָל־נַפְשָׁם׃ 30.22. וַיְדַבֵּר יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ עַל־לֵב כָּל־הַלְוִיִּם הַמַּשְׂכִּילִים שֵׂכֶל־טוֹב לַיהוָה וַיֹּאכְלוּ אֶת־הַמּוֹעֵד שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים מְזַבְּחִים זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים וּמִתְוַדִּים לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם׃ 15.12. And they entered into the covet to seek the LORD, the God of their fathers, with all their heart and with all their soul;" 30.22. And Hezekiah spoke encouragingly unto all the Levites that were well skilled in the service of the LORD. So they did eat throughout the feast for the seven days, offering sacrifices of peace-offerings, and giving thanks to the LORD, the God of their fathers.
9. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.6. וַיְבָרֶךְ עֶזְרָא אֶת־יְהוָה הָאֱלֹהִים הַגָּדוֹל וַיַּעֲנוּ כָל־הָעָם אָמֵן אָמֵן בְּמֹעַל יְדֵיהֶם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוֻּ לַיהוָה אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃ 8.6. And Ezra blessed the LORD, the great God. And all the people answered: ‘Amen, Amen’, with the lifting up of their hands; and they bowed their heads, and fell down before the LORD with their faces to the ground."
10. Anon., 1 Enoch, 14.9 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

14.9. the vision caused me to fly and lifted me upward, and bore me into heaven. And I went in till I drew nigh to a wall which is built of crystals and surrounded by tongues of fire: and it began to affright
11. Anon., Testament of Job, 49, 48 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 7.5-7.6, 9.2-9.8, 10.4-10.6, 14.3-14.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 9.2-9.8, 10.4-10.6, 14.3-14.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q504, 8.4-8.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17, 1.18, 1.18-2.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.24, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 2.23, 2.24, 2.25, 4, 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.9, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 6, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.18, 6.19, 6.22, 8.1, 9.7, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 4.14-4.15, 11.20-11.21, 19.10-19.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 4.14-4.15, 11.20-11.21, 19.10-19.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Dead Sea Scrolls, Messianic Rule, 1.9, 2.17-2.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Dead Sea Scrolls, Rule of The Communityb, 9.7-9.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Dead Sea Scrolls, Scroll of Blessings, 4.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Dead Sea Scrolls, Sd (Olim Sb), 2.3-2.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Mishnah, Avot, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.4. Rabbi Levitas a man of Yavneh said: be exceeding humble spirit, for the end of man is the worm. Rabbi Yoha ben Berokah said: whoever profanes the name of heaven in secret, he shall be punished in the open. Unwittingly or wittingly, it is all one in profaning the name."
23. Mishnah, Berachot, 6.6, 7.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.6. If [those at the table] are sitting upright, each one blesses for himself. If they are reclining, one blesses for them all. If wine came during the meal, each one says a blessing for himself. If after the meal, one blesses for them all. The same one says [the blessing] over the incense, even though the incense is not brought until after the meal." 7.3. How do they invite [one another to recite the Birkat Hamazon]?If there are three, he [the one saying Birkat Hamazon] says, “Let us bless [Him of whose food we have eaten].” If there are three and him he says, “Bless [Him of whose food we have eaten]” If there are ten, he says, “Let us bless our God [of whose food we have eaten].” If there are ten and he says, “Bless.” It is the same whether there are ten or ten myriads (ten ten thousands). If there are a hundred he says, “Let us bless the Lord our God [of whose food we have eaten]. If there are a hundred and him he says, “Bless.” If there are a thousand he says “Let us bless the Lord our God, the God of Israel [of whose food we have eaten].” If there are a thousand and him he says “Bless.” If there are ten thousand he says, “Let us bless the Lord our God, the God of Israel, the God of hosts, who dwells among the cherubim, for the food which we have eaten.” If there are ten thousand and him he says, “Bless.” Corresponding to his blessing the others answer after him, “Blessed be the Lord our God the God of Israel, the God of hosts, who dwells among the cherubim, for the food which we have eaten.” Rabbi Yose the Galilean says: According to the number of the congregation, they bless, as it says, “In assemblies bless God, the Lord, O you who are from the fountain of Israel.” Rabbi Akiba said: What do we find in the synagogue? Whether there are many or few the he says, “Bless the Lord your God.” Rabbi Ishmael says: “Bless the Lord your God who is blessed.”"
24. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.3. They do not recite the Shema responsively, And they do not pass before the ark; And the [the priests] do not lift up their hands; And they do not read the Torah [publicly]; And they do not conclude with a haftarah from the prophets; And they do not make stops [at funeral] processions; And they do not say the blessing for mourners, or the comfort of mourners, or the blessing of bridegrooms; And they do not mention God’s name in the invitation [to say Birkat Hamazon]; Except in the presence of ten. [For redeeming sanctified] land nine and a priest [are sufficient], and similarly with human beings."
25. New Testament, 1 John, 1.2-1.3, 2.14-2.16, 3.24, 4.1-4.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. (and the life was revealed, and we have seen, and testify, and declare to you the life, the eternal life, which was with the Father, and was revealed to us); 1.3. that which we have seen and heard we declare to you, that you also may have fellowship with us. Yes, and our fellowship is with the Father, and with his Son, Jesus Christ. 2.14. I have written to you, fathers, because you know him who is from the beginning. I have written to you, young men, because you are strong, and the word of God remains in you, and you have overcome the evil one. 2.15. Don't love the world, neither the things that are in the world. If anyone loves the world, the Father's love isn't in him. 2.16. For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life, isn't the Father's, but is the world's. 3.24. He who keeps his commandments remains in him, and he in him. By this we know that he remains in us, by the Spirit which he gave us. 4.1. Beloved, don't believe every spirit, but test the spirits, whether they are of God, because many false prophets have gone out into the world. 4.2. By this you know the Spirit of God: every spirit who confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is of God 4.3. and every spirit who doesn't confess that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is not of God, and this is the spirit of the antichrist, of whom you have heard that it comes. Now it is in the world already. 4.4. You are of God, little children, and have overcome them; because greater is he who is in you than he who is in the world. 4.5. They are of the world. Therefore they speak of the world, and the world hears them. 4.6. We are of God. He who knows God listens to us. He who is not of God doesn't listen to us. By this we know the spirit of truth, and the spirit of error.
26. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 11.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.10. For this cause the woman ought to have authority on her head,because of the angels.
27. New Testament, Acts, 12.15, 26.24-26.25 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12.15. They said to her, "You are crazy!" But she insisted that it was so. They said, "It is his angel. 26.24. As he thus made his defense, Festus said with a loud voice, "Paul, you are crazy! Your great learning is driving you insane! 26.25. But he said, "I am not crazy, most excellent Festus, but boldly declare words of truth and reasonableness.
28. New Testament, Apocalypse, 9.20, 12.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.20. The rest of mankind, who were not killed with these plagues, didn't repent of the works of their hands, that they wouldn't worship demons, and the idols of gold, and of silver, and of brass, and of stone, and of wood; which can neither see, nor hear, nor walk. 12.9. The great dragon was thrown down, the old serpent, he who is called the devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world. He was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him.
29. New Testament, Colossians, 2.18, 2.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.18. Let no one rob you of your prize by a voluntary humility and worshipping of the angels, dwelling in the things which he has not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind 2.23. Which things indeed appear like wisdom in self-imposed worship, and humility, and severity to the body; but aren't of any value against the indulgence of the flesh.
30. New Testament, John, 1.14, 1.17, 4.1-4.42, 8.32, 8.40, 8.44-8.46, 8.48-8.52, 9.1-9.41, 10.20, 14.6, 15.26, 17.15-17.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 1.17. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 4.1. Therefore when the Lord knew that the Pharisees had heard that Jesus was making and baptizing more disciples than John 4.2. (although Jesus himself didn't baptize, but his disciples) 4.3. he left Judea, and departed into Galilee. 4.4. He needed to pass through Samaria. 4.5. So he came to a city of Samaria, called Sychar, near the parcel of ground that Jacob gave to his son, Joseph. 4.6. Jacob's well was there. Jesus therefore, being tired from his journey, sat down by the well. It was about the sixth hour. 4.7. A woman of Samaria came to draw water. Jesus said to her, "Give me a drink. 4.8. For his disciples had gone away into the city to buy food. 4.9. The Samaritan woman therefore said to him, "How is it that you, being a Jew, ask for a drink from me, a Samaritan woman?" (For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans.) 4.10. Jesus answered her, "If you knew the gift of God, and who it is who says to you, 'Give me a drink,' you would have asked him, and he would have given you living water. 4.11. The woman said to him, "Sir, you have nothing to draw with, and the well is deep. From where then have you that living water? 4.12. Are you greater than our father, Jacob, who gave us the well, and drank of it himself, as did his sons, and his cattle? 4.13. Jesus answered her, "Everyone who drinks of this water will thirst again 4.14. but whoever drinks of the water that I will give him will never thirst again; but the water that I will give him will become in him a well of water springing up to eternal life. 4.15. The woman said to him, "Sir, give me this water, so that I don't get thirsty, neither come all the way here to draw. 4.16. Jesus said to her, "Go, call your husband, and come here. 4.17. The woman answered, "I have no husband."Jesus said to her, "You said well, 'I have no husband,' 4.18. for you have had five husbands; and he whom you now have is not your husband. This you have said truly. 4.19. The woman said to him, "Sir, I perceive that you are a prophet. 4.20. Our fathers worshiped in this mountain, and you Jews say that in Jerusalem is the place where people ought to worship. 4.21. Jesus said to her, "Woman, believe me, the hour comes, when neither in this mountain, nor in Jerusalem, will you worship the Father. 4.22. You worship that which you don't know. We worship that which we know; for salvation is from the Jews. 4.23. But the hour comes, and now is, when the true worshippers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father seeks such to be his worshippers. 4.24. God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth. 4.25. The woman said to him, "I know that Messiah comes," (he who is called Christ). "When he has come, he will declare to us all things. 4.26. Jesus said to her, "I am he, the one who speaks to you. 4.27. At this, his disciples came. They marveled that he was speaking with a woman; yet no one said, "What are you looking for?" or, "Why do you speak with her? 4.28. So the woman left her water pot, and went away into the city, and said to the people 4.29. Come, see a man who told me everything that I did. Can this be the Christ? 4.30. They went out of the city, and were coming to him. 4.31. In the meanwhile, the disciples urged him, saying, "Rabbi, eat. 4.32. But he said to them, "I have food to eat that you don't know about. 4.33. The disciples therefore said one to another, "Has anyone brought him something to eat? 4.34. Jesus said to them, "My food is to do the will of him who sent me, and to accomplish his work. 4.35. Don't you say, 'There are yet four months until the harvest?' Behold, I tell you, lift up your eyes, and look at the fields, that they are white for harvest already. 4.36. He who reaps receives wages, and gathers fruit to eternal life; that both he who sows and he who reaps may rejoice together. 4.37. For in this the saying is true, 'One sows, and another reaps.' 4.38. I sent you to reap that for which you haven't labored. Others have labored, and you have entered into their labor. 4.39. From that city many of the Samaritans believed in him because of the word of the woman, who testified, 'He told me everything that I did. 4.40. So when the Samaritans came to him, they begged him to stay with them. He stayed there two days. 4.41. Many more believed because of his word. 4.42. They said to the woman, "Now we believe, not because of your speaking; for we have heard for ourselves, and know that this is indeed the Christ, the Savior of the world. 8.32. You will know the truth, and the truth will make you free. 8.40. But now you seek to kill me, a man who has told you the truth, which I heard from God. Abraham didn't do this. 8.44. You are of your Father, the devil, and you want to do the desires of your father. He was a murderer from the beginning, and doesn't stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaks a lie, he speaks on his own; for he is a liar, and the father of it. 8.45. But because I tell the truth, you don't believe me. 8.46. Which of you convicts me of sin? If I tell the truth, why do you not believe me? 8.48. Then the Jews answered him, "Don't we say well that you are a Samaritan, and have a demon? 8.49. Jesus answered, "I don't have a demon, but I honor my Father, and you dishonor me. 8.50. But I don't seek my own glory. There is one who seeks and judges. 8.51. Most assuredly, I tell you, if a person keeps my word, he will never see death. 8.52. Then the Jews said to him, "Now we know that you have a demon. Abraham died, and the prophets; and you say, 'If a man keeps my word, he will never taste of death.' 9.1. As he passed by, he saw a man blind from birth. 9.2. His disciples asked him, "Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, that he was born blind? 9.3. Jesus answered, "Neither did this man sin, nor his parents; but, that the works of God might be revealed in him. 9.4. I must work the works of him who sent me, while it is day. The night is coming, when no one can work. 9.5. While I am in the world, I am the light of the world. 9.6. When he had said this, he spat on the ground, made mud with the saliva, anointed the blind man's eyes with the mud 9.7. and said to him, "Go, wash in the pool of Siloam" (which means "Sent"). So he went away, washed, and came back seeing. 9.8. The neighbors therefore, and those who saw that he was blind before, said, "Isn't this he who sat and begged? 9.9. Others were saying, "It is he." Still others were saying, "He looks like him."He said, "I am he. 9.10. They therefore were asking him, "How were your eyes opened? 9.11. He answered, "A man called Jesus made mud, anointed my eyes, and said to me, "Go to the pool of Siloam, and wash." So I went away and washed, and I received sight. 9.12. Then they asked him, "Where is he?"He said, "I don't know. 9.13. They brought him who had been blind to the Pharisees. 9.14. It was a Sabbath when Jesus made the mud and opened his eyes. 9.15. Again therefore the Pharisees also asked him how he received his sight. He said to them, "He put mud on my eyes, I washed, and I see. 9.16. Some therefore of the Pharisees said, "This man is not from God, because he doesn't keep the Sabbath." Others said, "How can a man who is a sinner do such signs?" There was division among them. 9.17. Therefore they asked the blind man again, "What do you say about him, because he opened your eyes?"He said, "He is a prophet. 9.18. The Jews therefore did not believe concerning him, that he had been blind, and had received his sight, until they called the parents of him who had received his sight 9.19. and asked them, "Is this your son, who you say was born blind? How then does he now see? 9.20. His parents answered them, "We know that this is our son, and that he was born blind; 9.21. but how he now sees, we don't know; or who opened his eyes, we don't know. He is of age. Ask him. He will speak for himself. 9.22. His parents said these things because they feared the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that if any man would confess him as Christ, he would be put out of the synagogue. 9.23. Therefore his parents said, "He is of age. Ask him. 9.24. So they called the man who was blind a second time, and said to him, "Give glory to God. We know that this man is a sinner. 9.25. He therefore answered, "I don't know if he is a sinner. One thing I do know: that though I was blind, now I see. 9.26. They said to him again, "What did he do to you? How did he open your eyes? 9.27. He answered them, "I told you already, and you didn't listen. Why do you want to hear it again? You don't also want to become his disciples, do you? 9.28. They insulted him and said, "You are his disciple, but we are disciples of Moses. 9.29. We know that God has spoken to Moses. But as for this man, we don't know where he comes from. 9.30. The man answered them, "How amazing! You don't know where he comes from, yet he opened my eyes. 9.31. We know that God doesn't listen to sinners, but if anyone is a worshipper of God, and does his will, he listens to him. 9.32. Since the world began it has never been heard of that anyone opened the eyes of someone born blind. 9.33. If this man were not from God, he could do nothing. 9.34. They answered him, "You were altogether born in sins, and do you teach us?" They threw him out. 9.35. Jesus heard that they had thrown him out, and finding him, he said, "Do you believe in the Son of God? 9.36. He answered, "Who is he, Lord, that I may believe in him? 9.37. Jesus said to him, "You have both seen him, and it is he who speaks with you. 9.38. He said, "Lord, I believe!" and he worshiped him. 9.39. Jesus said, "I came into this world for judgment, that those who don't see may see; and that those who see may become blind. 9.40. Those of the Pharisees who were with him heard these things, and said to him, "Are we also blind? 9.41. Jesus said to them, "If you were blind, you would have no sin; but now you say, 'We see.' Therefore your sin remains. 10.20. Many of them said, "He has a demon, and is insane! Why do you listen to him? 14.6. Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father, except through me. 15.26. When the Counselor has come, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father, he will testify about me. 17.15. I pray not that you would take them from the world, but that you would keep them from the evil one. 17.16. They are not of the world even as I am not of the world. 17.17. Sanctify them in your truth. Your word is truth. 17.18. As you sent me into the world, even so I have sent them into the world. 17.19. For their sakes I sanctify myself, that they themselves also may be sanctified in truth.
31. Anon., Deuteronomy Rabbah, 11.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

11.3. וְזֹאת הַבְּרָכָה, זֶה שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב (משלי לא, כט): רַבּוֹת בָּנוֹת עָשׂוּ חָיִל וְאַתְּ עָלִית עַל כֻּלָּנָה, מַהוּ וְאַתְּ עָלִית עַל כֻּלָּנָה, מְדַבֵּר בְּמשֶׁה, עַל שֶׁנִּתְעַלָּה יוֹתֵר מִן הַכֹּל. כֵּיצַד, אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן אוֹמֵר לְמשֶׁה אֲנִי גָּדוֹל מִמְּךָ שֶׁנִּבְרֵאתִי בְּצַלְּמוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, כז): וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ, אוֹמֵר לוֹ משֶׁה, אֲנִי נִתְעַלֵּיתִי יוֹתֵר מִמְּךָ, אַתָּה כָּבוֹד שֶׁנִּתַּן לְךָ נִטַּל מִמְּךָ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים מט, יג): וְאָדָם בִּיקָר בַּל יָלִין, אֲבָל אֲנִי זִיו הַפָּנִים שֶׁנָּתַן לִי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, עִמִּי הוּא, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לד, ז): לֹא כָהֲתָה עֵינוֹ וְלֹא נָס לֵחֹה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, נֹחַ אָמַר לְמשֶׁה אֲנִי גָּדוֹל מִמְּךָ שֶׁנִּצַּלְתִּי מִדּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל, אָמַר לוֹ משֶׁה אֲנִי נִתְעַלֵּיתִי יוֹתֵר מִמְּךָ, אַתָּה הִצַּלְתָּ אֶת עַצְמְךָ וְלֹא הָיָה בְךָ כֹּחַ לְהַצִּיל אֶת דּוֹרְךָ, אֲבָל אֲנִי הִצַּלְתִּי אֶת עַצְמִי וְהִצַּלְתִּי אֶת דּוֹרִי כְּשֶׁנִּתְחַיְּבוּ כְּלָיָה בָּעֵגֶל, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לב, יד): וַיִּנָּחֶם ה' עַל הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר לַעֲשׂוֹת לְעַמּוֹ, לְמָה הַדָּבָר דּוֹמֶה לִשְׁתֵּי סְפִינוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ בַּיָּם וְהָיוּ בְּתוֹכָן שְׁנֵי קַבַּרְנִיטִים, אֶחָד הִצִּיל אֶת עַצְמוֹ וְלֹא הִצִּיל אֶת סְפִינָתוֹ, וְאֶחָד הִצִּיל אֶת עַצְמוֹ וְאֶת סְפִינָתוֹ, לְמִי מְקַלְּסִין לֹא לְאוֹתוֹ שֶׁהִצִּיל אֶת עַצְמוֹ וְאֶת סְפִינָתוֹ, כָּךְ נֹחַ לֹא הִצִּיל אֶלָּא אֶת עַצְמוֹ, אֲבָל משֶׁה הִצִּיל אֶת עַצְמוֹ וְאֶת דּוֹרוֹ, הֱוֵי וְאַתְּ עָלִית עַל כֻּלָּנָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אַבְרָהָם אוֹמֵר לְמשֶׁה אֲנִי גָּדוֹל מִמְּךָ שֶׁהָיִיתִי זָן לָעוֹבְרִים וְשָׁבִים, אוֹמֵר לוֹ משֶׁה אֲנִי נִתְעַלֵּיתִי יוֹתֵר מִמְּךָ, אַתָּה הָיִיתָ זָן בְּנֵי אָדָם עֲרֵלִים, וַאֲנִי הָיִיתִי זָן בְּנֵי אָדָם מְהוּלִים, וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא אַתְּ הָיִיתָ זָן בַּיִּשּׁוּב, וַאֲנִי הָיִיתִי זָן בַּמִּדְבָּר. יִצְחָק אָמַר לְמשֶׁה אֲנִי גָּדוֹל מִמְּךָ שֶׁפָּשַׁטְתִּי אֶת צַוָּארִי עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְרָאִיתִי אֶת פְּנֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה, אָמַר לוֹ משֶׁה אֲנִי נִתְעַלֵּיתִי יוֹתֵר מִמְּךָ, שֶׁאַתָּה רָאִיתָ פְּנֵי הַשְּׁכִינָה וְכָהוּ עֵינֶיךָ, מִנַּיִן, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית כז, א): וַיְהִי כִּי זָקֵן יִצְחָק וַתִּכְהֶיןָ עֵינָיו מֵרְאֹת, מַהוּ מֵרְאֹת, מֵרְאוֹת בַּשְּׁכִינָה, אֲבָל אֲנִי הָיִיתִי מְדַבֵּר עִם הַשְּׁכִינָה פָּנִים בְּפָנִים וְלֹא כָהוּ עֵינָי, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לד, כט): וּמשֶׁה לֹא יָדַע כִּי קָרַן עוֹר פָּנָיו. יַעֲקֹב אָמַר לְמשֶׁה אֲנִי גָּדוֹל מִמְּךָ שֶׁנִּפְגַּשְׁתִּי עִם הַמַּלְאָךְ וְנִצַּחְתִּי אוֹתוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ משֶׁה אַתָּה נִפְגַּשְׁתָּ עִם הַמַּלְאָךְ בַּפִּירְבּוֹרִין שֶׁלָּךְ, וַאֲנִי עוֹלֶה אֶצְלָן בַּפִּירְבּוֹרִין שֶׁלָּהֶן וְהֵן מִתְיָרְאִין מִמֶּנִּי, מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים סח, יג): מַלְכֵי צְבָאוֹת יִדֹּדוּן יִדֹּדוּן וגו', לְפִיכָךְ אָמַר שְׁלֹמֹה: רַבּוֹת בָּנוֹת עָשׂוּ חָיִל וגו', אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הוֹאִיל וְנִתְעַלָּה מִן הַכֹּל הוּא יְבָרֵךְ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְזֹאת הַבְּרָכָה.
32. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 20.12 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

20.12. וַיַּעַשׂ ה' אֱלֹהִים לְאָדָם וּלְאִשְׁתּוֹ כָּתְנוֹת עוֹר וַיַּלְבִּשֵּׁם (בראשית ג, כא), בְּתוֹרָתוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי מֵאִיר מָצְאוּ כָּתוּב כָּתְנוֹת אוֹר, אֵלּוּ בִּגְדֵי אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁהֵן דּוֹמִים לְפִיגָם, רְחָבִים מִלְּמַטָּה וְצָרִין מִלְּמַעְלָה, רַבִּי יִצְחָק רַבְיָא אוֹמֵר חֲלָקִים הָיוּ כְּצִפֹּרֶן וְנָאִים כְּמַרְגָלִיּוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק כִּכְלֵי פִּשְׁתָּן הַדַּקִּים הַבָּאִים מִבֵּית שְׁאָן. כָּתְנוֹת עוֹר, שֶׁהֵן דְּבוּקִים לָעוֹר. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר אַיגֵיאָה, רַבִּי אַיְבוּ אָמַר אַגְנֶיָיה, רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר לָגָאי, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲנִינָא אָמַר סִיסַרְטוֹן, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ אָמַר גַּלֵי קָסִינוֹן, וּבָהֶם הָיוּ בְּכוֹרוֹת מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין, רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר צֶמֶר גְּמַלִּים וְצֶמֶר אַרְנָבִים הָיוּ. כָּתְנוֹת עוֹר, כֻּתֳּנוֹת שֶׁהֵן בָּאִין מֵעוֹר, אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי לִמְדָתְךָ תּוֹרָה דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ, לְפוּם חֵילָךְ אֱכוֹל וּפְרָא מִן מַה דְּאַתְּ לָבֵישׁ, וְיַתִּיר מִמַּה דְּאַתְּ שָׁרֵי. לְפוּם חֵילָךְ אֱכוֹל, (בראשית ב, טז): מִכֹּל עֵץ הַגָּן אָכֹל תֹּאכֵל. וּפְרָא מִן מַה דְּאַתְּ לָבֵישׁ, וַיַּעַשׂ ה' אֱלֹהִים לְאָדָם וּלְאִשְׁתּוֹ, וְיַתִּיר מִמַּה דְּאַתְּ שָׁרֵי, שֶׁהֲרֵי שְׁנַיִם הָיוּ שְׁרוּיִין בְּכָל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ. 20.12. \"And the Lord God made for the human and for his woman clothing of skin, and dressed them\" (Gen 3:21). In the Torah of Rabbi Meir we find written \"clothing of light\" - these garments of the primordial human resembled a torch: narrow at the top and wide and the bottom. Rabbi Yitzchak the Greater says: This clothing was like fingernails, effulgent like pearl. Rabbi Yitzchak says: Like garments of the finest linen, like the kind that comes from Beit Sh'an. \"Garments of skin\" - because they clung to the skin."
33. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 2.31.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

34. Justin, First Apology, 56 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

56. But the evil spirits were not satisfied with saying, before Christ's appearance, that those who were said to be sons of Jupiter were born of him; but after He had appeared, and been born among men, and when they learned how He had been foretold by the prophets, and knew that He should be believed on and looked for by every nation, they again, as was said above, put forward other men, the Samaritans Simon and Meder, who did many mighty works by magic, and deceived many, and still keep them deceived. For even among yourselves, as we said before, Simon was in the royal city Rome in the reign of Claudius C sar, and so greatly astonished the sacred senate and people of the Romans, that he was considered a god, and honoured, like the others whom you honour as gods, with a statue. Wherefore we pray that the sacred senate and your people may, along with yourselves, be arbiters of this our memorial, in order that if any one be entangled by that man's doctrines, he may learn the truth, and so be able to escape error; and as for the statue, if you please, destroy it.
35. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16a. מעין העולם הבא,(איוב א, טז) עוד זה מדבר וזה בא ויאמר אש אלהים וגו עוד זה מדבר וזה בא ויאמר כשדים שמו שלשה ראשים ויפשטו על הגמלים ויקחום וגו' עוד זה מדבר וזה בא ויאמר בניך ובנותיך אוכלים ושותים יין בבית אחיהם הבכור והנה רוח גדולה באה מעבר המדבר ויגע בארבע פנות הבית ויפול על הנערים וגו' ויקם איוב ויקרע את מעילו ויגז את ראשו וגו' ויאמר ערום יצאתי מבטן אמי וערום אשוב שמה ה' נתן וה' לקח יהי שם ה' מבורך בכל זאת לא חטא איוב ולא נתן תפלה לאלהים,ויהי היום ויבואו בני האלהים להתיצב וגו' ויאמר ה' אל השטן אי מזה תבא ויען השטן את ה' ויאמר משוט בארץ [וגו'] אמר לפניו רבש"ע שטתי בכל העולם ולא מצאתי כעבדך אברהם שאמרת לו (בראשית יג, יז) קום התהלך בארץ לארכה ולרחבה כי לך אתננה ובשעה שבקש לקבור שרה לא מצא מקום לקוברה ולא הרהר אחר מדותיך,ויאמר ה' אל השטן השמת לבך אל עבדי איוב כי אין כמוהו בארץ וגו' ועודנו מחזיק בתומתו ותסיתני בו לבלעו חנם,אמר רבי יוחנן אלמלא מקרא כתוב אי אפשר לאומרו כאדם שמסיתין אותו וניסת,במתניתא תנא יורד ומתעה ועולה ומרגיז נוטל רשות ונוטל נשמה,(איוב ב, ד) ויען השטן את ה' ויאמר עור בעד עור וכל אשר לאיש יתן בעד נפשו אולם שלח נא ידך וגע אל עצמו ואל בשרו אם לא (על) פניך יברכך ויאמר ה' אל השטן הנו בידך אך את נפשו שמור ויצא השטן מאת פני ה' ויך את איוב וגו' אמר רבי יצחק קשה צערו של שטן יותר משל איוב משל לעבד שאמר לו רבו שבור חבית ושמור את יינה,אמר ר"ל הוא שטן הוא יצר הרע הוא מלאך המות הוא שטן דכתיב (איוב ב, ז) ויצא השטן מאת פני ה' הוא יצר הרע כתיב התם (בראשית ו, ה) רק רע כל היום וכתיב הכא (רק את נפשו שמור) [(איוב א, יב) רק אליו אל תשלח ידך] הוא מלאך המות דכתיב (איוב ב, ו) (רק) [אך] את נפשו שמור אלמא בדידיה קיימא,א"ר לוי שטן ופנינה לשם שמים נתכוונו שטן כיון דחזיא להקדוש ברוך הוא דנטיה דעתיה בתר איוב אמר חס ושלום מינשי ליה לרחמנותיה דאברהם פנינה דכתיב (שמואל א א, ו) וכעסתה צרתה גם כעס בעבור הרעימה דרשה רב אחא בר יעקב בפפוניא אתא שטן נשקיה לכרעיה,(איוב ב, י) בכל זאת לא חטא איוב בשפתיו אמר רבא בשפתיו לא חטא בלבו חטא מאי קאמר (איוב ט, כד) ארץ נתנה ביד רשע פני שופטיה יכסה אם לא איפו מי הוא אמר רבא בקש איוב להפוך קערה על פיה אמר ליה אביי לא דבר איוב אלא כנגד השטן,כתנאי ארץ נתנה ביד רשע רבי אליעזר אומר בקש איוב להפוך קערה על פיה אמר לו רבי יהושע לא דבר איוב אלא כלפי שטן,(איוב י, ז) על דעתך כי לא ארשע ואין מידך מציל אמר רבא בקש איוב לפטור את כל העולם כולו מן הדין אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם בראת שור פרסותיו סדוקות בראת חמור פרסותיו קלוטות בראת גן עדן בראת גיהנם בראת צדיקים בראת רשעים מי מעכב על ידך,ומאי אהדרו ליה חבריה [דאיוב] (איוב טו, ד) אף אתה תפר יראה ותגרע שיחה לפני אל ברא הקדוש ברוך הוא יצר הרע ברא לו תורה תבלין,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (איוב כט, יג) ברכת אובד עלי תבא ולב אלמנה ארנין ברכת אובד עלי תבא מלמד שהיה גוזל שדה מיתומים ומשביחה ומחזירה להן ולב אלמנה ארנין דכל היכא דהוה (איכא) אלמנה דלא הוו נסבי לה הוה אזיל שדי שמיה עילווה והוו אתו נסבי לה,(איוב ו, ב) לו שקול ישקל כעשי והותי במאזנים ישאו יחד אמר רב עפרא לפומיה דאיוב חברותא כלפי שמיא (איוב ט, לג) לו יש בינינו מוכיח ישת ידו על שנינו אמר רב עפרא לפומיה דאיוב כלום יש עבד שמוכיח את רבו (איוב לא, א) ברית כרתי לעיני ומה אתבונן על בתולה אמר רבא עפרא לפומיה דאיוב איהו באחרניתא אברהם אפילו בדידיה לא איסתכל דכתיב (בראשית יב, יא) הנה נא ידעתי כי אשה יפת מראה את מכלל דמעיקרא לא הוה ידע לה,(איוב ז, ט) כלה ענן וילך כן יורד שאול לא יעלה אמר רבא מכאן שכפר איוב בתחיית המתים (איוב ט, יז) אשר בשערה ישופני והרבה פצעי חנם אמר רבה איוב בסערה חרף ובסערה השיבוהו,בסערה חרף דכתיב אשר בשערה ישופני אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם שמא רוח סערה עברה לפניך ונתחלף לך בין איוב לאויב בסערה השיבוהו דכתיב (איוב לח, א) ויען ה' את איוב מן הסערה ויאמר [וגו'] אזר נא כגבר חלציך אשאלך והודיעני,אמר לו הרבה נימין בראתי באדם וכל נימא ונימא בראתי לה גומא בפני עצמה שלא יהו שתים יונקות מגומא אחת שאלמלי שתים יונקות מגומא אחת מחשיכות מאור עיניו של אדם בין גומא לגומא לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי,(איוב לח, כה) מי פלג לשטף תעלה [וגו'] הרבה טיפין בראתי בעבים וכל טיפה וטיפה בראתי לה דפוס בפני עצמה כדי שלא יהו שתי טיפין יוצאות מדפוס אחד שאלמלי שתי טיפין יוצאות מדפוס אחד מטשטשות את הארץ ואינה מוציאה פירות בין טיפה לטיפה לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי מאי משמע דהאי תעלה לישנא דדפוס היא אמר רבה בר שילא דכתיב (מלכים א יח, לב) ויעש תעלה כבית סאתים זרע,(איוב לח, כה) ודרך לחזיז קולות הרבה קולות בראתי בעבים וכל קול וקול בראתי לו שביל בפני עצמו כדי שלא יהו שתי קולות יוצאות משביל אחד שאלמלי שתי קולות יוצאות משביל אחד מחריבין את כל העולם בין קול לקול לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי,(איוב לט, א) הידעת עת לדת יעלי סלע חולל אילות תשמור יעלה זו אכזרית על בניה בשעה שכורעת 16a. bof the World-to-Come,when plowing and harvesting will take place at the same time. Here too, the oxen plowed and the donkeys grazed on the crops that grew from that effort.,The Gemara continues to interpret verses from the book of Job. b“While he was yet speaking, there came also another and said: The fire of Godhas fallen from heaven, and has burned up the sheep, and the servants, and consumed them… bWhile he was yet speaking, there came also another and said: The Chaldeans formed three bands, and fell among the camels, and have carried them away,and have slain the servants with the edge of the sword… bWhile he was yet speaking, there came also another and said: Your sons and your daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother’s house; and, behold, there came a great wind from across the wilderness, and smote the four corners of the house, and it fell upon the young men,and they are dead… bThen Job arose, and rent his coat, and shaved his head,and fell down on the ground and prostrated himself. bAnd he said: I came naked out of my mother’s womb, and naked I shall return there; the Lord gave, and the Lord has taken away, blessed be the name of the Lord. In all this Job sinned not, nor did he lay reproach on God”(Job 1:16–22)., b“Again there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselvesbefore the Lord, and the Satan came also among them to present himself before God. bAnd the Lord said to the Satan: From where do you come? And the Satan answered the Lord, and said: From going to and fro in the earthand from walking up and down in it” (Job 2:1–2). The Satan bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, I have gone to and fro across the entire world and have not found anyone as faithful as your servant Abraham, to whom you said: “Arise, walk through the land in the length of it and in the breadth of it; for I will give it to you”(Genesis 13:17). bAnd when he wanted to bury Sarah, he could not find a place to bury her, andyet bhe did not criticize Your ways,or accuse You of having failed to keep Your promise.,About this it says: b“And the Lord said to the Satan: Have you considered My servant Job, that there is none like him on earth,a perfect and an upright man, one that fears God and turns away from evil? bAnd still he holds fast to his integrity, although you moved Me against him, to destroy him without cause”(Job 2:3)., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Were it notexplicitly bwritten in the verse, it would be impossible to say this,as it would be insulting to God’s honor. The verse states: “You moved Me against him,” blike a person whom others persuade andallows himself to be bpersuaded,as if God had not wanted to do anything, but allowed Himself to be persuaded to bring harm to Job., bIt was taught in a ibaraita /iwith regard to the methods of the Satan: He bdescendsto this world band misleadsa person into sinning. He then bascendsto Heaven, levels accusations against that very sinner, band inflamesGod’s bangeragainst him. He then breceives permissionto act band takes away thesinner’s bsoulas punishment.,The Gemara returns to discuss the text of the book of Job: b“And the Satan answered the Lord, and said: Skin for skin, for all that a man has he will give for his life. But put forth Your hand now, and touch his bone and his flesh, and he will curse You to Your face. And the Lord said to the Satan: Behold, he is in your hand; only spare his life. So the Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord, and smote Jobwith vile sores from the sole of his foot to his crown” (Job 2:4–7). bRabbi Yitzḥak says: Satan’s suffering was more difficult than that of Job.This can be explained by means of ba parable involving a servant whose master said to him: Break the barrel but save its wine.Here too, God told the Satan that he could do whatever he liked short of taking Job’s life, and that limitation caused Satan to suffer., bReish Lakish says: Satan, the evil inclination, and the Angel of Death are one,that is, they are three aspects of the same essence. bHe is the Satanwho seduces people and then accuses them, bas it is written: “So the Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord,and smote Job with vile sores” (Job 2:7). bHe isalso bthe evil inclination,as bit is written there:“The impulse of the thoughts of his heart bwas only evil continuously”(Genesis 6:5); band it is written here: “Only upon himself do not put forth your hand”(Job 1:12). The verbal analogy between the various uses of the word “only” teaches that the evil inclination is to be identified with the Satan. bHe isalso bthe Angel of Death, as it is written: “Only spare his life”(Job 2:6); bapparentlyJob’s life bdepends upon him,the Satan, and accordingly the Satan must also be the Angel of Death., bRabbi Levi says:Both bSatan,who brought accusations against Job, band Peninnah,who tormented Hannah, mother of Samuel the prophet, acted with bintentthat was bfor the sake of Heaven.As for bSatan, when he saw that the Holy One, Blessed be He, inclined tofavor bJoband praised him, bhe said: Heaven forbid that He should forget the love of Abraham.With regard to bPeninnah, as it is written: “And her rival wife also provoked her sore, to make her fret”(I Samuel 1:6), i.e., Peninnah upset Hannah in order to motivate her to pray. bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov taughtthis bin Paphunya,and bSatan came and kissed his feetin gratitude for speaking positively about him.,The Gemara considers the character of Job. The verse states: b“In all this Job did not sin with his lips”(Job 2:10). bRava says:A close reading of the verse indicates that bhe did not sin with his lips,but bhe sinned in his heart. What did he saythat suggests that he had wicked thoughts? b“The earth is given into the hand of the wicked, he covers the faces of its judges; if not he, then who is it?”(Job 9:24). bRava says: Job sought to turn the bowl upside down,that is to say, he alluded here to a heretical thought, as he said that the earth is given into the hand of the wicked, indicating that he had God in mind. bAbaye said to him: Job was referringhere bonly to the Satan,he being the wicked one into whose hands the land was given.,The Gemara comments: This is bparallel toa dispute between itanna’im /i,as it was taught in a ibaraita /i: b“The earth is given into the hand of the wicked.” Rabbi Eliezer says: Job sought to turn the bowl upside down; Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: Job was referringhere bonly to the Satan. /b,The Gemara continues to discuss Job’s statements: b“Although You know that I am not wicked, and there is none that can deliver out of Your hand”(Job 10:7). bRava says: Job sought to exempt the whole world from judgment,claiming that all of a person’s actions are directed by God, and therefore one cannot be held culpable for his misdeeds. Job bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, You created the ox with split hooves,making it kosher, and bYou created the donkey with closed hooves,making it forbidden; bYou created the Garden of Eden,and bYou created Gehenna;and similarly, bYou created righteous peopleand bYou created wicked people; who can restrain You?Seeing that You created people as either righteous or wicked, You cannot later complain about their actions., bAnd how did Job’s friends answer him? “You do away with fear, and impair devotion before God”(Job 15:4) with such statements. True, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, created the evil inclination,but bHealso bcreated the Torahas ban antidoteto counter its effects and prevent it from gaining control of a person., bRava interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written,Job saying about himself: b“The blessing of him that was lost came upon me, and I caused the widow’s heart to sing for joy”(Job 29:13). b“The blessing of him that was lost came upon me” teaches thatJob bused to steal a field from orphans,cultivate it, bimprove it, andthen breturn it to them;consequently, they would bless him for the field they had lost. b“I caused the widow’s heart to sing for joy”teaches that banywhere that there was a widow whom no one would marry, he would goand bcast his name upon her,i.e., he would start a rumor that she was related to him, bandthen bsomebody wouldcome forward and bmarry her. /b,Job further said: b“O that my vexation were thoroughly weighed, and my calamity laid in the balances”(Job 6:2). bRav says: Dustshould be put bin the mouth of Job,meaning, he should not have spoken in such a manner, as if he were weighing his deeds against those of God; may one act as if he is in ba friendship with Heaven?And similarly, Job said: b“There is no arbiter between us, who may lay his hand upon us both”(Job 9:33). bRav says: Dustshould be put bin the mouth of Jobfor saying this; bis there a servant who rebukes his master?Job also said: b“I have made a covet with my eyes; why then should I look upon a virgin?”(Job 31:1). bRava says: Dustshould be put bin the mouthof bJobfor saying this; bhedid not look bat otherwomen, but bAbraham did not even look at his ownwife, bas it is written: “Now I know that you are a beautiful woman”(Genesis 12:11). One may learn bby inference that initially he did not knowhow beautiful she was because he had not gazed at her.,Job further said: b“As the cloud is consumed and vanishes away, so he who goes down to the grave shall come up no more”(Job 7:9). bRava says: From hereit may be inferred bthat Job denied the resurrection of the dead,as he said that one who goes down to the grave will not come up and live again, just as a cloud that dissipates will not return. He also stated: b“He crushes me with a tempest, and multiplies my wounds without cause”(Job 9:17). bRabba says: Job blasphemed withmention of ba tempest and he was answered withmention of ba tempest. /b,Rabba explains: bHe blasphemed withmention of ba tempest [ ibise’ara /i], as it is written: “He crushes me with a tempest.”Job bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, perhaps a tempest passed before You and You confused iIyov /i,Job, bwith ioyev /i,enemy. bHe was answered withmention of ba tempest, as it is written: “Then the Lord answered Job out of the tempest, and said:Who is this that darkens counsel by words without knowledge? bGird up now your loins like a man, for I will demand of you and let me know your answer”(Job 38:1–3).,What is the meaning of “out of the tempest”? God bsaid to him: I have created many hairs [ inimin /i] on a person, and for each hair I created its own folliclethrough which the hair is sustained, bso that twohairs bshould not draw from one follicle. As were twohairs bto draw from one follicle, they would impair a man’s vision.Now, if bI do not confuse one follicle with another, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i?The Hebrew word for tempest, ise’ara /i, is phonetically identical to the Hebrew word for hair.,God further said to Job: b“Who has divided a channel [ ite’ala /i] for the torrentof rain, or a path for the lightning of thunder”? (Job 38:25). bI have created many dropsof water bin the clouds, and for each drop I created its own channel, so that two drops should not emerge from the same channel. As were two drops to emerge from the same channel they would destroy the earth and it would not yield produce.Now, if bI do not confuse one drop with another, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i?Incidentally, the Gemara asks: bFrom where mayit bbe inferred that thisterm ite’ala /imeans ba channel? Rabba bar Sheila said: As it is writtenwith regard to Elijah the prophet: b“And he fashioned a channel [ ite’ala /i]about the altar, basgreat as would contain btwo ise’aof seed”(I Kings 18:32).,The second half of the aforementioned verse in Job states: b“Or a path for the lightning of thunder,”which is interpreted as follows: God said: bI have created many thunderclaps in the clouds, and for each and every thunderclap I created its own path, so that two thunderclaps should not issue forth from the same path. As were two thunderclaps to issue from the same path, they would destroy the world.Now, bif I do not confuse one thunderclap with another, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i? /b,It is further stated there: b“Do you know when the wild goats of the rock give birth? Can you mark when the hinds do calve?”(Job 39:1). bThis goat is cruel to her youngand shows them no pity; bwhen she squats /b
36. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

42a. דגורם ברכה לעצמו,רב הונא אכל תליסר ריפתי בני תלתא תלתא בקבא ולא בריך א"ל רב נחמן עדי כפנא אלא כל שאחרים קובעים עליו סעודה צריך לברך,רב יהודה הוה עסיק ליה לבריה בי רב יהודה בר חביבא אייתו לקמייהו פת הבאה בכסנין כי אתא שמעינהו דקא מברכי המוציא אמר להו מאי ציצי דקא שמענא דילמא המוציא לחם מן הארץ קא מברכיתו אמרי ליה אין דתניא רבי מונא אמר משום רבי יהודה פת הבאה בכסנין מברכין עליה המוציא ואמר שמואל הלכה כרבי מונא,אמר להו אין הלכה כרבי מונא אתמר אמרי ליה והא מר הוא דאמר משמיה דשמואל לחמניות מערבין בהן ומברכין עליהן המוציא שאני התם דקבע סעודתיה עלייהו אבל היכא דלא קבע סעודתיה עלייהו לא,רב פפא איקלע לבי רב הונא בריה דרב נתן בתר דגמר סעודתייהו אייתו לקמייהו מידי למיכל שקל רב פפא וקא אכיל אמרי ליה לא סבר לה מר גמר אסור מלאכול אמר להו סלק אתמר,רבא ורבי זירא איקלעו לבי ריש גלותא לבתר דסליקו תכא מקמייהו שדרו להו ריסתנא מבי ריש גלותא רבא אכיל ורבי זירא לא אכיל א"ל לא סבר לה מר סלק אסור מלאכול א"ל אנן אתכא דריש גלותא סמכינן:,אמר רב הרגיל בשמן שמן מעכבו אמר רב אשי כי הוינן בי רב כהנא אמר לן כגון אנן דרגילינן במשחא משחא מעכבא לן ולית הלכתא ככל הני שמעתתא אלא כי הא דאמר רבי חייא בר אשי אמר רב שלש תכיפות הן תכף לסמיכה שחיטה תכף לגאולה תפלה תכף לנטילת ידים ברכה,אמר אביי אף אנו נאמר תכף לתלמידי חכמים ברכה שנאמר (בראשית ל, כז) ויברכני ה' בגללך איבעית אימא מהכא שנאמר (בראשית לט, ה) ויברך ה' את בית המצרי בגלל יוסף:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ברך על היין שלפני המזון פטר את היין שלאחר המזון ברך על הפרפרת שלפני המזון פטר את הפרפרת שלאחר המזון ברך על הפת פטר את הפרפרת על הפרפרת לא פטר את הפת בש"א אף לא מעשה קדרה,היו יושבין כל אחד מברך לעצמו הסבו אחד מברך לכולן 42a. bas it causes a blessing itself.It is so significant, that one recites a blessing over it together with other blessings like ikiddushand ihavdala /i, even though he does not particularly want to drink it. During a meal too, a blessing is recited over the wine and it is not exempted by the blessing over the bread.,As the Gemara mentioned bread that comes as dessert, it now relates that bRav Huna ate thirteensubstantially sized, sweetened bloaves, threeloaves bper ikav /iof flour, band he did not reciteGrace after Meals because they were not genuine bread. bRav Naḥman said to him: That is hunger.One does not typically eat that much merely as dessert. bRather, over anything whichis substantial enough to satiate and bothers base a mealupon it, bone must reciteGrace after Meals.,The Gemara also relates: bRav Yehuda was engagedin preparations for bhis son’swedding bat the house of Rav Yehuda bar Ḥaviva when they brought bread that comes as dessert before them. When it arrived, he heard them reciting: Who brings forthbread from the earth. bHe said to them: What is this itzitzi /isound bthat I hear? Perhaps you are reciting: Who brings forth bread from the earth? They said to him: Yes,indeed, bas it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Mona said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda: Over bread that comes as dessert, one recites: Who brings forthbread from the earth. bAnd Shmuel said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Mona. /b,Rav Yehuda bsaid to them:You are mistaken. Actually, bit was statedthat Shmuel said: bThe ihalakhais not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Mona. They said to him: But aren’tyou, bMaster, the one who said in the nameof bShmuelwith regard to bwafers: One may establish an ieiruv /i,the joining of courtyards, to permit carrying in a shared courtyard and the joining of cooked foods, to permit cooking on a festival for Shabbat, bwith them and recite over them: Who brings forthbread from the earth. Why is that the blessing over those wafers? They too are sweetened bread that comes as dessert. He answered them: bIt is different there as he based his meal upon them, but here, where one did not base his meal upon them, no,he does not recite: Who brings forth bread from the earth.,The Gemara relates: bRav Pappa happenedto come bto the house of Rav Huna, son of Rav Natan. After they finished their meal, they brought before them something to eat. Rav Pappa tookthis food item band ateit without reciting a blessing. bThey said to him:Do you, bMaster, not holdthat once bone finishedhis meal bhe is forbidden to eatagain without reciting a blessing? bHe said to themthat in the correct version of that ihalakha /i, bit is stated: Removed.One need recite a second blessing only when eating after the table was removed from before him.,Similarly, the Gemara relates: bRava and Rabbi Zeira happenedto come bto the house of the Exilarch. Afterthe meal, when bthey removed the table from before them, a portion [ iristena /i]of food bwas sent to them from the house of the Exilarch. Rava ateit band Rabbi Zeira did not eatit. Rabbi Zeira bsaid toRava: Do you, bMaster, not holdthat once the table was bremoved, he is forbidden to eat?Rava bsaid to him: We are dependent upon the table of the Exilarch,and so long as he has not completed his meal, his guests have not completed their meals either., bRav said: One who is accustomed toapplying fragrant boilto his hands after meals, failure to apply that boil delaysthe end of bhismeal and he is not considered to have finished his meal and is not required to recite a blessing before continuing to eat. Similarly, bRav Ashi said: When we were in the house of Rav Kahana, he said to us: We, for example, who are accustomed to oil,failure to apply that boil delaysthe end of the meal bfor us.Nevertheless, the Gemara concludes: bAnd the ihalakhais not in accordance with all of these statementsand the end of the meal is not determined by those factors. bRather, it isdetermined by bthat which Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Ashi saidthat bRav said: There are threepairs that bimmediatelyfollow each other: bImmediatelyfollowing bplacing handson the head of a sacrifice, is its bslaughter; immediatelyfollowing the blessing of bredemptionrecited after iShema /i, is the iAmida bprayer;and bimmediatelyfollowing the ritual bwashing of the handsafter a meal, is bthe blessing ofGrace after Meals., bAbaye saidthat on a similar note, bwe too will say: Immediatelyfollowing the entrance of bTorah scholarsinto a house, a bblessingrests upon that house, bas it is statedwith regard to Laban and Jacob: b“The Lord has blessed me because of you”(Genesis 30:27). bIf you wish, sayinstead, that the proof is bfrom here, as it is stated:“And it was from when he placed him in charge of his house and over all that he owned, bthe Lord blessed the house of the Egyptian on account of Joseph”(Genesis 39:5)., strongMISHNA: /strong This mishna explains those cases and those circumstances in which blessings recited over particular foods exempt other foods at the meal from the requirement to recite a blessing over them. bOne who recited a blessing over the wine thatone drank bbefore the meal,with that blessing bhe exempted the wine thathe drinks bafter the meal.Similarly, bone who recited a blessing over the appetizers thatone ate bbefore the meal,with that blessing bhe exempted the appetizers thathe eats bafter the meal. One who recited a blessing over the bread exempted the appetizers,as they are considered secondary to the bread. However, one who recited a blessing bover the appetizers did not exempt the bread. Beit Shammai say:The blessing recited over the appetizers bdid not exempt even a cooked dishthat he eats during the meal.,An additional ihalakhais cited: If several people bwere sittingto eat not in the framework of a joint meal, beach recites a blessing for himself. If they were reclinedon divans to eat, which renders it a joint meal, bone recites a blessing on behalf of them all. /b
37. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

66a. שורך נרבע והלה שותק נאמן ותנא תונא ושנעבדה בו עבירה ושהמית על פי עד אחד או ע"פ הבעלים נאמן האי ע"פ עד אחד היכי דמי אי דקא מודו בעלים היינו ע"פ הבעלים אלא לאו דשתיק,וצריכא דאי אשמעינן הך קמייתא אי לאו דקים ליה בנפשיה דעבד חולין בעזרה לא הוה מייתי,אבל נטמאו טהרותיך מימר אמרינן האי דשתיק דסבר חזי ליה בימי טומאתו,ואי אשמעינן הא משום דקא מפסיד ליה בימי טהרתו אבל שורו נרבע מימר אמר כל השוורים לאו לגבי מזבח קיימי צריכא,איבעיא להו אשתו זינתה בעד אחד ושותק מהו אמר אביי נאמן רבא אמר אינו נאמן הוי דבר שבערוה ואין דבר שבערוה פחות משנים,אמר אביי מנא אמינא לה דההוא סמיא דהוה מסדר מתנייתא קמיה דמר שמואל יומא חד נגה ליה ולא הוה קאתי שדר שליחא אבתריה אדאזיל שליח בחדא אורחא אתא איהו בחדא כי אתא שליח אמר אשתו זינתה אתא לקמיה דמר שמואל א"ל אי מהימן לך זיל אפקה ואי לא לא תפיק,מאי לאו אי מהימן עלך דלאו גזלנא הוא ורבא אי מהימן לך כבי תרי זיל אפקה ואי לא לא תפקה,ואמר אביי מנא אמינא לה דתניא מעשה בינאי המלך שהלך לכוחלית שבמדבר וכיבש שם ששים כרכים ובחזרתו היה שמח שמחה גדולה וקרא לכל חכמי ישראל אמר להם אבותינו היו אוכלים מלוחים בזמן שהיו עסוקים בבנין בית המקדש אף אנו נאכל מלוחים זכר לאבותינו והעלו מלוחים על שולחנות של זהב ואכלו,והיה שם אחד איש לץ לב רע ובליעל ואלעזר בן פועירה שמו ויאמר אלעזר בן פועירה לינאי המלך ינאי המלך לבם של פרושים עליך ומה אעשה הקם להם בציץ שבין עיניך הקים להם בציץ שבין עיניו,היה שם זקן אחד ויהודה בן גדידיה שמו ויאמר יהודה בן גדידיה לינאי המלך ינאי המלך רב לך כתר מלכות הנח כתר כהונה לזרעו של אהרן שהיו אומרים אמו נשבית במודיעים ויבוקש הדבר ולא נמצא ויבדלו חכמי ישראל בזעם,ויאמר אלעזר בן פועירה לינאי המלך ינאי המלך הדיוט שבישראל כך הוא דינו ואתה מלך וכהן גדול כך הוא דינך ומה אעשה אם אתה שומע לעצתי רומסם ותורה מה תהא עליה הרי כרוכה ומונחת בקרן זוית כל הרוצה ללמוד יבוא וילמוד,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מיד נזרקה בו אפיקורסות דהוה ליה למימר תינח תורה שבכתב תורה שבעל פה מאי מיד ותוצץ הרעה על ידי אלעזר בן פועירה ויהרגו כל חכמי ישראל והיה העולם משתומם עד שבא שמעון בן שטח והחזיר את התורה ליושנה,היכי דמי אילימא דבי תרי אמרי אישתבאי ובי תרי אמרי לא אישתבאי מאי חזית דסמכת אהני סמוך אהני,אלא בעד אחד וטעמא דקא מכחשי ליה בי תרי הא לאו הכי מהימן,ורבא לעולם תרי ותרי וכדאמר רב אחא בר רב מניומי בעדי הזמה הכא נמי בעדי הזמה,ואיבעית אימא כדרבי יצחק דאמר רבי יצחק שפחה הכניסו תחתיה,אמר רבא 66a. bYour ox was usedby a man bfor an act of bestialityand is therefore unfit for an offering, band the other,the owner of the ox, bis silent,the witness is bdeemed credible. And the itanna /iof the mishna also btaught( iBekhorot41a): bAndwith regard to an animal bthat was used for a transgressionor bthat killed,if this is attested to bby one witness or by the owner,he is bdeemed credible.The Gemara clarifies this case: bWhat are the circumstancesof bthiscase of the mishna, where the knowledge is established bby one witness? If the owner admitsto the claim, bthis isthe same as: bBy the owner. Rather, is it notreferring to a case bwherethe owner remains bsilent? /b,The Gemara comments: bAndeach of these statements of Abaye is bnecessary. As, had he taught usonly bthat firstcase, where the witness said someone ate forbidden fat, one might have said that he is deemed credible for the following reason: bWere it notfor the fact bthat he himselfwas bconvinced that he had committeda transgression, bhe would notcommit the transgression of bbringing a non-sacredanimal btothe Temple bcourtyardon the basis of the testimony of one witness. Consequently, his silence is evidently an admission., bButif the witness said: bYour ritually purefoods bwere rendered ritually impure,and the accused was silent, bwe would say:The reason bthathe is bsilentand refrains from denying the claim is bthat he thinkshe is not suffering any significant loss, as the food bis fit for himto eat bon his days of ritual impurity,because he is not required to destroy ritually impure foods., bAnd hadAbaye btaught usonly the case of: Your ritually pure food was rendered ritually impure, one might have said that the reason bthiswitness is deemed credible is bthat he causes him a loss on his days of ritual impurity,and therefore his silence is tantamount to a confession. bButin the case of: bHis ox was usedby a man bfor an act of bestiality,the owner of the ox bcan saywith regard to his animal: bNot all the oxen standready to be sacrificed basan offering on the baltar.Perhaps one would think that the owner does not bother denying the claim because he merely forfeits the possibility of sacrificing his ox as an offering, which he considers an inconsequential matter. It is only if there were two witnesses to the act that the animal is put to death, whereas here there was only one witness. It is therefore bnecessaryfor Abaye to specify all these cases.,§ bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: If a husband is told bby one witnessthat bhis wife committed adultery, andthe husband remains bsilent, what isthe ihalakha /i? bAbaye said:The witness is bdeemed credible. Rava said: He is not deemed credible.Why not? Because bit is a matter involving forbidden relations, and there is no matterof testimony bfor forbidden sexual relationsthat can be attested to by bfewer than twowitnesses., bAbaye said: From where do I saythis claim of mine? It happened bthatthere was ba certain blind man who would review imishnayotbefore Mar Shmuel. One daythe blind man bwas late for him and was not arriving.Mar Shmuel bsent a messenger after himto assist him. bWhilethe bmessenger was goingto the blind man’s house bby one way,the blind man barrivedat the house of study bby a differentroute, and therefore the messenger missed him and reached his house. bWhenthe bmessenger cameback, bhe saidthat he had been to the blind man’s house and saw that bhis wife committed adultery.The blind man bcame before Mar Shmuelto inquire whether he must pay heed to this testimony. Mar Shmuel bsaid to him: Ifthis messenger bis trusted by you, goand bdivorce her, but if not, do not divorceher.,Abaye comments: bWhat, is it notcorrect to say that this means that bif he is trusted by you that he is not a thiefbut is a valid witness, you must rely on him? This would prove that a single witness can testify in a case of this kind. bAnd Ravaexplains that Mar Shmuel meant: bIfhe bis trusted by you like twowitnesses, bgoand bdivorce her, but if not, do not divorceher. Consequently, Rava maintains that this episode affords no proof., bAnd Abaye said: From where do I saythis claim of mine? bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAn incidentoccurred bwith King Yannai, who went tothe region of bKoḥalit in the desert and conquered sixty cities there. And upon his return he rejoicedwith ba great happinessover his victory. bAnd hesubsequently bsummoned all the Sages of the Jewish peopleand bsaid to them: Our ancestorsin their poverty bwould eat salty foods when they were busy with the building of the Temple; we too shall eat salty foods in memory of our ancestors. And they brought salty food on tables of gold, and ate. /b, bAnd there was oneperson bpresent, a scoffer,a man of ban evil heart and a scoundrel called Elazar ben Po’ira. And Elazar ben Po’ira said to King Yannai: King Yannai, the hearts of the Pharisees,the Sages, bare against you.In other words, they harbor secret resentment against you and do not like you. The king replied: bAnd what shall I doto clarify this matter? Elazar responded: bHave them stand bywearing bthe frontplate between your eyes.Since the frontplate bears the Divine Name, they should stand in its honor. Yannai, who was a member of the priestly Hasmonean family, also served as High Priest, who wears the frontplate. bHe hadthe Pharisees bstand bywearing bthe frontplate between his eyes. /b,Now bthere was a certain elder present called Yehuda ben Gedidya, and Yehuda ben Gedidya said to King Yannai: King Yannai, the crown of the monarchy suffices for you,i.e., you should be satisfied that you are king. bLeave the crown of the priesthood for the descendants of Aaron.The Gemara explains this last comment: bAs they would saythat Yannai’s bmother was taken captive in Modi’in,and she was therefore disqualified from marrying into the priesthood, which meant that Yannai was a iḥalal /i. bAnd the matter was investigated and was not discovered,i.e., they sought witnesses for that event but none were found. bAnd the Sages of Israel were expelled inthe king’s brage,due to this rumor., bAnd Elazar ben Po’ira said to King Yannai: King Yannai, such is the judgment of a common person in Israel.In other words, merely expelling a slanderer is appropriate if the subject of the slander is a commoner. bBut you are a king and a High Priest.Is bthis your judgmentas well? Yannai replied: bAnd what should I do?Elazar responded: bIf you listen to my advice, crush them.Yannai countered: bBut what will become of the Torah?He retorted: bBehold,it bis wrapped and placed in the corner. Anyone who wishes to study can come and study.We have no need for the Sages.,The Gemara interjects: bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: Immediately, heresy was injected intoYannai, bas he should have saidto Elazar ben Po’ira: This bworks out wellwith regard to bthe Written Torah,as it can be studied by all on their own, but bwhatwill become of bthe Oral Torah?The Oral Torah is transmitted only by the Sages. The ibaraitacontinues: bImmediately, the evilarose and bcaught fire through Elazar ben Po’ira, and all the Sages of the Jewish people were killed. And the world was desolateof Torah buntil Shimon ben Shataḥ came and restored the Torah to its formerglory. This completes the ibaraita /i.,Abaye asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof this case? How did those who conducted the investigation refute the rumor that Yannai’s mother had been taken captive? bIf we say that twowitnesses bsaidthat bshe was taken captive, and twoothers bsaidthat bshe was not taken captive, what did you see that you rely on thesewho said that she was not taken captive? Instead, brely on thesewho said that she was taken captive. In such a scenario, one cannot say definitively that the matter was investigated and found to be false., bRather,it must be referring bto one witnesswho testified she was taken captive, and two testified that she was not taken captive. bAnd the reasonthat the lone witness is not deemed credible is only bthat he is contradicted by theother btwo,from which it may be inferred that bif not for thatfact, bhe would be deemed credible.This supports Abaye’s claim that an uncontested lone witness is deemed credible in a case of this kind., bAnd Ravacould reply that this incident affords no proof, for the following reason: bActually,one can say that there were btwowitnesses who testified that she was captured band twowho testified that she was not, bandthe case was decided bin accordance with thatwhich bRav Aḥa bar Rav Minyumi saysin a different context, that it is referring bto conspiring witnesses.The second pair of witnesses did not contradict the testimony of the first pair but established them as liars by stating that the first pair were not there to witness the event. This serves to disqualify the testimony of the first pair altogether. bHere too,it is referring btowitnesses who rendered the first set bconspiring witnesses. /b, bAnd if you wish, saythat this is bin accordance withthe version of the story stated bby Rabbi Yitzḥak, as Rabbi Yitzḥak says: They replacedYannai’s mother bwith a maidservant.The first witnesses saw that Yannai’s mother was about to be taken captive, but the second pair revealed that she had actually been replaced with a maidservant, thereby negating the testimony of the first set., bRava says: /b
38. Anon., 2 Enoch, 20.3

39. Anon., 3 Baruch, 4.16

40. Anon., 3 Enoch, 11-16, 10

41. Anon., Apocalypse of Abraham, 17

42. Anon., Midrash On Song of Songs, 7.9



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adam Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 295
admission procedure Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
alexander jannaeus Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71
amoraim, amoraic period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 206
angel Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 113
angelic Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 295
angels Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 160
apocalypses Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 295
aristotle, pain as an emotion Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228, 237, 238
ascent to heaven Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 160
assembly Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 113
authority(ies) Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 133
belial—see also angels Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 101
bread, wine, food Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
bread, wine Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198
bread Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198
colossians, letter to Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 160
community Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
contact Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 113
council Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 113
d/demonisation Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 133
dead sea scrolls, qumran Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 160
dead sea scrolls Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 65
dinner, formal Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 206
dinner, informal Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
disciples/discipleship Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 133
domination, emotion and Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 237, 238
domination, in ritual Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 237, 238
eating Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
education, judaism/jewish education Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 65
emotion, in the classical world Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228, 237, 238
emotion, in the hebrew bible Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228, 237, 238
emulation Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
encampment and march Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 198
end of days Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198
eschatology, sectarian Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198
ethical education, judaism Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 65
exegesis, sectarian Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71
exorcisms/exorcise/exorcists/exorcistic Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 133
flesh Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 113
four who entered pardes, the story of the Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 160
glory/glory Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 113
grace before and after meals, invitation to say (zimmun) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
grace before and after meals, recited by one for all Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 206
grace before and after meals, recited individually Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198, 206
grace before and after meals Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198, 206
hasmonean period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
hate, power and Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 237
heal/healers/healings Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 133
heaven Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 113
hebrew, biblical Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71
hebrew, tannaitic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also, interpretation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 101
herodian period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
hierarchy Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
high priest Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71
holiness Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47
house Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 113
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47
jesus, name of Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 133
job, testament of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 160
judaism Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 65
laity, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47
life Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 295
light Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 295
liturgical Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 295
love, among the dead sea sect Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 237, 238
love, power and Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 237
majority, legal Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71
maśkîl Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
meals, communal Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198, 206
meals, cultic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
meals, reclining at Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
meals, sacral/sacred Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198
meals, sitting at Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 198, 206
messiah, davidic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 198
messiah, of israel Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198
messiah, priestly Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 198
messiah Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 295
messiahs, two Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 198
messianic banquet, era Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198
messianic banquet Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198, 206
moses Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71; Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 295
moshav ha-rabbim Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
oath Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71
orthography, masoretic, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71
pain, emotion and Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228, 237, 238
palestinian talmud Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
paradise, pardes, entered pardes Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 160
passover seder Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
paul Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 160
pedagogy Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
pharisees Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71
place and place studies, importance to judaism Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 65
place and place studies, materiality and fluidity Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 65
power, power of god, powers Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 160
pray/prayers Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 133
prayer, liturgy Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 101
priests, aaronide Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71, 197, 198, 206
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47, 101
psalms Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 295
puberty Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71
purity/ritual purity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47
purity and impurity, ritual purity Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 206
qumran/qumran community Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47
qumran Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 65
quorum, ten, ritual quorum, three Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
quorum, ten, ritual quorum Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198, 206
rabbi akiva Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
rabbi yose the galilean Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
rabbis, rabbinic literature Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71, 198
rank (status in sect), ranking system Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 198
rava Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
religion within a cultural system, space and Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 65
ritual, as emotional practice Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 237, 238
ritual, embodiment in Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 237, 238
sabbath, and festival meals Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
sacrospace' Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 65
sect, admittance to Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71
sect, members of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
sects, sectarianism Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
serekh ha-'edah" Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
social movement theory Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 65
sophrosyne, among women Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228, 237, 238
spirit, evil spirits Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
splendour Seim and Okland, Metamorphoses: Resurrection, Body and Transformative Practices in Early Christianity (2009) 295
study practices Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
tannaim, tannaitic law, judaism, period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
temple, cult Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 198
temple Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 113
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47
union/unification Putthoff, Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology (2016) 113
vision Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 160
wine, grape juice Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 198
witnesses, qualifications of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 71
worship Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 160
zeal for the law Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228, 237, 238