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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



3095
Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 2.19-2.25
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40 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.18, 7.3, 11.29, 12.28, 17.20, 27.1-27.9, 27.12, 27.15-27.26, 28.1, 28.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.18. וְעָשִׂיתָ הַיָּשָׁר וְהַטּוֹב בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ וּבָאתָ וְיָרַשְׁתָּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַטֹּבָה אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ׃ 7.3. וְלֹא תִתְחַתֵּן בָּם בִּתְּךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לִבְנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ לֹא־תִקַּח לִבְנֶךָ׃ 11.29. וְהָיָה כִּי יְבִיאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה בָא־שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ וְנָתַתָּה אֶת־הַבְּרָכָה עַל־הַר גְּרִזִים וְאֶת־הַקְּלָלָה עַל־הַר עֵיבָל׃ 12.28. שְׁמֹר וְשָׁמַעְתָּ אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּךָּ לְמַעַן יִיטַב לְךָ וּלְבָנֶיךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ עַד־עוֹלָם כִּי תַעֲשֶׂה הַטּוֹב וְהַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 27.1. וְשָׁמַעְתָּ בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְעָשִׂיתָ אֶת־מִצְוֺתָו וְאֶת־חֻקָּיו אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם׃ 27.1. וַיְצַו מֹשֶׁה וְזִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הָעָם לֵאמֹר שָׁמֹר אֶת־כָּל־הַמִּצְוָה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם׃ 27.2. אָרוּר שֹׁכֵב עִם־אֵשֶׁת אָבִיו כִּי גִלָּה כְּנַף אָבִיו וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.2. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר תַּעַבְרוּ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ וַהֲקֵמֹתָ לְךָ אֲבָנִים גְּדֹלוֹת וְשַׂדְתָּ אֹתָם בַּשִּׂיד׃ 27.3. וְכָתַבְתָּ עֲלֵיהֶן אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת בְּעָבְרֶךָ לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר תָּבֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲ‍שֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבַשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־אֲבֹתֶיךָ לָךְ׃ 27.4. וְהָיָה בְּעָבְרְכֶם אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן תָּקִימוּ אֶת־הָאֲבָנִים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם בְּהַר עֵיבָל וְשַׂדְתָּ אוֹתָם בַּשִּׂיד׃ 27.5. וּבָנִיתָ שָּׁם מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִזְבַּח אֲבָנִים לֹא־תָנִיף עֲלֵיהֶם בַּרְזֶל׃ 27.6. אֲבָנִים שְׁלֵמוֹת תִּבְנֶה אֶת־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהַעֲלִיתָ עָלָיו עוֹלֹת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 27.7. וְזָבַחְתָּ שְׁלָמִים וְאָכַלְתָּ שָּׁם וְשָׂמַחְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 27.8. וְכָתַבְתָּ עַל־הָאֲבָנִים אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת בַּאֵר הֵיטֵב׃ 27.9. וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה וְהַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם אֶל כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר הַסְכֵּת וּשְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה נִהְיֵיתָ לְעָם לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 27.12. אֵלֶּה יַעַמְדוּ לְבָרֵךְ אֶת־הָעָם עַל־הַר גְּרִזִים בְּעָבְרְכֶם אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי וִיהוּדָה וְיִשָּׂשכָר וְיוֹסֵף וּבִנְיָמִן׃ 27.15. אָרוּר הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה פֶסֶל וּמַסֵּכָה תּוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי חָרָשׁ וְשָׂם בַּסָּתֶר וְעָנוּ כָל־הָעָם וְאָמְרוּ אָמֵן׃ 27.16. אָרוּר מַקְלֶה אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.17. אָרוּר מַסִּיג גְּבוּל רֵעֵהוּ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.18. אָרוּר מַשְׁגֶּה עִוֵּר בַּדָּרֶךְ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.19. אָרוּר מַטֶּה מִשְׁפַּט גֵּר־יָתוֹם וְאַלְמָנָה וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.21. אָרוּר שֹׁכֵב עִם־כָּל־בְּהֵמָה וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.22. אָרוּר שֹׁכֵב עִם־אֲחֹתוֹ בַּת־אָבִיו אוֹ בַת־אִמּוֹ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.23. אָרוּר שֹׁכֵב עִם־חֹתַנְתּוֹ וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.24. אָרוּר מַכֵּה רֵעֵהוּ בַּסָּתֶר וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.25. אָרוּר לֹקֵחַ שֹׁחַד לְהַכּוֹת נֶפֶשׁ דָּם נָקִי וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 27.26. אָרוּר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָקִים אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה־הַזֹּאת לַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹתָם וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃ 28.1. וְהָיָה אִם־שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺתָיו אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם וּנְתָנְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ עֶלְיוֹן עַל כָּל־גּוֹיֵי הָאָרֶץ׃ 28.1. וְרָאוּ כָּל־עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ כִּי שֵׁם יְהוָה נִקְרָא עָלֶיךָ וְיָרְאוּ מִמֶּךָּ׃ 28.14. וְלֹא תָסוּר מִכָּל־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאול לָלֶכֶת אַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים לְעָבְדָם׃ 6.18. And thou shalt do that which is right and good in the sight of the LORD; that it may be well with thee, and that thou mayest go in and possess the good land which the LORD swore unto thy fathers," 7.3. neither shalt thou make marriages with them: thy daughter thou shalt not give unto his son, nor his daughter shalt thou take unto thy son." 11.29. And it shall come to pass, when the LORD thy God shall bring thee into the land whither thou goest to possess it, that thou shalt set the blessing upon mount Gerizim, and the curse upon mount Ebal." 12.28. Observe and hear all these words which I command thee, that it may go well with thee, and with thy children after thee for ever, when thou doest that which is good and right in the eyes of the LORD thy God." 17.20. that his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left; to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his children, in the midst of Israel." 27.1. And Moses and the elders of Israel commanded the people, saying: ‘Keep all the commandment which I command you this day." 27.2. And it shall be on the day when ye shall pass over the Jordan unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, that thou shalt set thee up great stones, and plaster them with plaster." 27.3. And thou shalt write upon them all the words of this law, when thou art passed over; that thou mayest go in unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, a land flowing with milk and honey, as the LORD, the God of thy fathers, hath promised thee." 27.4. And it shall be when ye are passed over the Jordan, that ye shall set up these stones, which I command you this day, in mount Ebal, and thou shalt plaster them with plaster." 27.5. And there shalt thou build an altar unto the LORD thy God, an altar of stones; thou shalt lift up no iron tool upon them." 27.6. Thou shalt build the altar of the LORD thy God of unhewn stones; and thou shalt offer burnt-offerings thereon unto the LORD thy God." 27.7. And thou shalt sacrifice peace-offerings, and shalt eat there; and thou shalt rejoice before the LORD thy God." 27.8. And thou shalt write upon the stones all the words of this law very plainly.’" 27.9. And Moses and the priests the Levites spoke unto all Israel, saying: ‘Keep silence, and hear, O Israel; this day thou art become a people unto the LORD thy God." 27.12. ’These shall stand upon mount Gerizim to bless the people, when ye are passed over the Jordan: Simeon, and Levi, and Judah, and Issachar, and Joseph, and Benjamin;" 27.15. Cursed be the man that maketh a graven or molten image, an abomination unto the LORD, the work of the hands of the craftsman, and setteth it up in secret. And all the people shall answer and say: Amen." 27.16. Cursed be he that dishonoureth his father or his mother. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.17. Cursed be he that removeth his neighbour’s landmark. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.18. Cursed be he that maketh the blind to go astray in the way. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.19. Cursed be he that perverteth the justice due to the stranger, fatherless, and widow. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.20. Cursed be he that lieth with his father’s wife; because he hath uncovered his father’s skirt. And all the people shall say: Amen. ." 27.21. Cursed be he that lieth with any manner of beast. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.22. Cursed be he that lieth with his sister, the daughter of his father, or the daughter of his mother. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.23. Cursed be he that lieth with his mother-in-law. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.24. Cursed be he that smiteth his neighbour in secret. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.25. Cursed be he that taketh a bribe to slay an innocent person. And all the people shall say: Amen." 27.26. Cursed be he that confirmeth not the words of this law to do them. And all the people shall say: Amen.’" 28.1. And it shall come to pass, if thou shalt hearken diligently unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to observe to do all His commandments which I command thee this day, that the LORD thy God will set thee on high above all the nations of the earth." 28.14. and shalt not turn aside from any of the words which I command you this day, to the right hand, or to the left, to go after other gods to serve them. ."
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.19, 26.3, 26.7-26.9, 26.11-26.14, 26.19, 26.25-26.26, 26.30-26.31, 26.33-26.36, 26.39, 26.41-26.42, 26.44-26.46 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.19. אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא־תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא־תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ׃ 26.3. אִם־בְּחֻקֹּתַי תֵּלֵכוּ וְאֶת־מִצְוֺתַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם׃ 26.3. וְהִשְׁמַדְתִּי אֶת־בָּמֹתֵיכֶם וְהִכְרַתִּי אֶת־חַמָּנֵיכֶם וְנָתַתִּי אֶת־פִּגְרֵיכֶם עַל־פִּגְרֵי גִּלּוּלֵיכֶם וְגָעֲלָה נַפְשִׁי אֶתְכֶם׃ 26.7. וּרְדַפְתֶּם אֶת־אֹיְבֵיכֶם וְנָפְלוּ לִפְנֵיכֶם לֶחָרֶב 26.8. וְרָדְפוּ מִכֶּם חֲמִשָּׁה מֵאָה וּמֵאָה מִכֶּם רְבָבָה יִרְדֹּפוּ וְנָפְלוּ אֹיְבֵיכֶם לִפְנֵיכֶם לֶחָרֶב׃ 26.9. וּפָנִיתִי אֲלֵיכֶם וְהִפְרֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם וְהִרְבֵּיתִי אֶתְכֶם וַהֲקִימֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתְּכֶם׃ 26.11. וְנָתַתִּי מִשְׁכָּנִי בְּתוֹכְכֶם וְלֹא־תִגְעַל נַפְשִׁי אֶתְכֶם׃ 26.12. וְהִתְהַלַּכְתִּי בְּתוֹכְכֶם וְהָיִיתִי לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃ 26.13. אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִהְיֹת לָהֶם עֲבָדִים וָאֶשְׁבֹּר מֹטֹת עֻלְּכֶם וָאוֹלֵךְ אֶתְכֶם קוֹמְמִיּוּת׃ 26.14. וְאִם־לֹא תִשְׁמְעוּ לִי וְלֹא תַעֲשׂוּ אֵת כָּל־הַמִּצְוֺת הָאֵלֶּה׃ 26.19. וְשָׁבַרְתִּי אֶת־גְּאוֹן עֻזְּכֶם וְנָתַתִּי אֶת־שְׁמֵיכֶם כַּבַּרְזֶל וְאֶת־אַרְצְכֶם כַּנְּחֻשָׁה׃ 26.25. וְהֵבֵאתִי עֲלֵיכֶם חֶרֶב נֹקֶמֶת נְקַם־בְּרִית וְנֶאֱסַפְתֶּם אֶל־עָרֵיכֶם וְשִׁלַּחְתִּי דֶבֶר בְּתוֹכְכֶם וְנִתַּתֶּם בְּיַד־אוֹיֵב׃ 26.26. בְּשִׁבְרִי לָכֶם מַטֵּה־לֶחֶם וְאָפוּ עֶשֶׂר נָשִׁים לַחְמְכֶם בְּתַנּוּר אֶחָד וְהֵשִׁיבוּ לַחְמְכֶם בַּמִּשְׁקָל וַאֲכַלְתֶּם וְלֹא תִשְׂבָּעוּ׃ 26.31. וְנָתַתִּי אֶת־עָרֵיכֶם חָרְבָּה וַהֲשִׁמּוֹתִי אֶת־מִקְדְּשֵׁיכֶם וְלֹא אָרִיחַ בְּרֵיחַ נִיחֹחֲכֶם׃ 26.33. וְאֶתְכֶם אֱזָרֶה בַגּוֹיִם וַהֲרִיקֹתִי אַחֲרֵיכֶם חָרֶב וְהָיְתָה אַרְצְכֶם שְׁמָמָה וְעָרֵיכֶם יִהְיוּ חָרְבָּה׃ 26.34. אָז תִּרְצֶה הָאָרֶץ אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתֶיהָ כֹּל יְמֵי הֳשַׁמָּה וְאַתֶּם בְּאֶרֶץ אֹיְבֵיכֶם אָז תִּשְׁבַּת הָאָרֶץ וְהִרְצָת אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתֶיהָ׃ 26.35. כָּל־יְמֵי הָשַּׁמָּה תִּשְׁבֹּת אֵת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־שָׁבְתָה בְּשַׁבְּתֹתֵיכֶם בְּשִׁבְתְּכֶם עָלֶיהָ׃ 26.36. וְהַנִּשְׁאָרִים בָּכֶם וְהֵבֵאתִי מֹרֶךְ בִּלְבָבָם בְּאַרְצֹת אֹיְבֵיהֶם וְרָדַף אֹתָם קוֹל עָלֶה נִדָּף וְנָסוּ מְנֻסַת־חֶרֶב וְנָפְלוּ וְאֵין רֹדֵף׃ 26.39. וְהַנִּשְׁאָרִים בָּכֶם יִמַּקּוּ בַּעֲוֺנָם בְּאַרְצֹת אֹיְבֵיכֶם וְאַף בַּעֲוֺנֹת אֲבֹתָם אִתָּם יִמָּקּוּ׃ 26.41. אַף־אֲנִי אֵלֵךְ עִמָּם בְּקֶרִי וְהֵבֵאתִי אֹתָם בְּאֶרֶץ אֹיְבֵיהֶם אוֹ־אָז יִכָּנַע לְבָבָם הֶעָרֵל וְאָז יִרְצוּ אֶת־עֲוֺנָם׃ 26.42. וְזָכַרְתִּי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי יַעֲקוֹב וְאַף אֶת־בְּרִיתִי יִצְחָק וְאַף אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אַבְרָהָם אֶזְכֹּר וְהָאָרֶץ אֶזְכֹּר׃ 26.44. וְאַף־גַּם־זֹאת בִּהְיוֹתָם בְּאֶרֶץ אֹיְבֵיהֶם לֹא־מְאַסְתִּים וְלֹא־גְעַלְתִּים לְכַלֹּתָם לְהָפֵר בְּרִיתִי אִתָּם כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם׃ 26.45. וְזָכַרְתִּי לָהֶם בְּרִית רִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי־אֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לְעֵינֵי הַגּוֹיִם לִהְיֹת לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 26.46. אֵלֶּה הַחֻקִּים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים וְהַתּוֹרֹת אֲשֶׁר נָתַן יְהוָה בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהַר סִינַי בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה׃ 19.19. Ye shall keep My statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together." 26.3. If ye walk in My statutes, and keep My commandments, and do them;" 26.7. And ye shall chase your enemies, and they shall fall before you by the sword." 26.8. And five of you shall chase a hundred, and a hundred of you shall chase ten thousand; and your enemies shall fall before you by the sword." 26.9. And I will have respect unto you, and make you fruitful, and multiply you; and will establish My covet with you." 26.11. And I will set My tabernacle among you, and My soul shall not abhor you." 26.12. And I will walk among you, and will be your God, and ye shall be My people." 26.13. I am the LORD your God, who brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, that ye should not be their bondmen; and I have broken the bars of your yoke, and made you go upright." 26.14. But if ye will not hearken unto Me, and will not do all these commandments;" 26.19. And I will break the pride of your power; and I will make your heaven as iron, and your earth as brass." 26.25. And I will bring a sword upon you, that shall execute the vengeance of the covet; and ye shall be gathered together within your cities; and I will send the pestilence among you; and ye shall be delivered into the hand of the enemy." 26.26. When I break your staff of bread, ten women shall bake your bread in one oven, and they shall deliver your bread again by weight; and ye shall eat, and not be satisfied." 26.30. And I will destroy your high places, and cut down your sun-pillars, and cast your carcasses upon the carcasses of your idols; and My soul shall abhor you." 26.31. And I will make your cities a waste, and will bring your sanctuaries unto desolation, and I will not smell the savour of your sweet odours." 26.33. And you will I scatter among the nations, and I will draw out the sword after you; and your land shall be a desolation, and your cities shall be a waste." 26.34. Then shall the land be paid her sabbaths, as long as it lieth desolate, and ye are in your enemies’land; even then shall the land rest, and repay her sabbaths." 26.35. As long as it lieth desolate it shall have rest; even the rest which it had not in your sabbaths, when ye dwelt upon it." 26.36. And as for them that are left of you, I will send a faintness into their heart in the lands of their enemies; and the sound of a driven leaf shall chase them; and they shall flee, as one fleeth from the sword; and they shall fall when none pursueth." 26.39. And they that are left of you shall pine away in their iniquity in your enemies’lands; and also in the iniquities of their fathers shall they pine away with them." 26.41. I also will walk contrary unto them, and bring them into the land of their enemies; if then perchance their uncircumcised heart be humbled, and they then be paid the punishment of their iniquity;" 26.42. then will I remember My covet with Jacob, and also My covet with Isaac, and also My covet with Abraham will I remember; and I will remember the land." 26.44. And yet for all that, when they are in the land of their enemies, I will not reject them, neither will I abhor them, to destroy them utterly, and to break My covet with them; for I am the LORD their God." 26.45. But I will for their sakes remember the covet of their ancestors, whom I brought forth out of the land of Egypt in the sight of the nations, that I might be their God: I am the LORD." 26.46. These are the statutes and ordices and laws, which the LORD made between Him and the children of Israel in mount Sinai by the hand of Moses."
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 6.24-6.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.24. יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה וְיִשְׁמְרֶךָ׃ 6.25. יָאֵר יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וִיחֻנֶּךָּ׃ 6.26. יִשָּׂא יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וְיָשֵׂם לְךָ שָׁלוֹם׃ 6.24. The LORD bless thee, and keep thee;" 6.25. The LORD make His face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee;" 6.26. The LORD lift up His countece upon thee, and give thee peace."
4. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 6.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.12. הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה בֹנֶה אִם־תֵּלֵךְ בְּחֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי תַּעֲשֶׂה וְשָׁמַרְתָּ אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺתַי לָלֶכֶת בָּהֶם וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת־דְּבָרִי אִתָּךְ אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתִּי אֶל־דָּוִד אָבִיךָ׃ 6.12. ’As for this house which thou art building, if thou wilt walk in My statutes, and execute Mine ordices, and keep all My commandments to walk in them; then will I establish My word with thee, which I spoke unto David thy father;"
5. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 8.30-8.35 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.31. כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־יְהוָה אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּכָּתוּב בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה מִזְבַּח אֲבָנִים שְׁלֵמוֹת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־הֵנִיף עֲלֵיהֶן בַּרְזֶל וַיַּעֲלוּ עָלָיו עֹלוֹת לַיהוָה וַיִּזְבְּחוּ שְׁלָמִים׃ 8.32. וַיִּכְתָּב־שָׁם עַל־הָאֲבָנִים אֵת מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר כָּתַב לִפְנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 8.33. וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וּזְקֵנָיו וְשֹׁטְרִים וְשֹׁפְטָיו עֹמְדִים מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה לָאָרוֹן נֶגֶד הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם נֹשְׂאֵי אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה כַּגֵּר כָּאֶזְרָח חֶצְיוֹ אֶל־מוּל הַר־גְּרִזִים וְהַחֶצְיוֹ אֶל־מוּל הַר־עֵיבָל כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־יְהוָה לְבָרֵךְ אֶת־הָעָם יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּרִאשֹׁנָה׃ 8.34. וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן קָרָא אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַבְּרָכָה וְהַקְּלָלָה כְּכָל־הַכָּתוּב בְּסֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה׃ 8.35. לֹא־הָיָה דָבָר מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־קָרָא יְהוֹשֻׁעַ נֶגֶד כָּל־קְהַל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַטַּף וְהַגֵּר הַהֹלֵךְ בְּקִרְבָּם׃ 8.30. Then Joshua built an altar unto the LORD, the God of Israel, in mount Ebal," 8.31. as Moses the servant of the LORD commanded the children of Israel, as it is written in the book of the law of Moses, an altar of unhewn stones, upon which no man had lifted up any iron; and they offered thereon burnt-offerings unto the LORD, and sacrificed peace-offerings." 8.32. And he wrote there upon the stones a copy of the law of Moses, which he wrote before the children of Israel." 8.33. And all Israel, and their elders and officers, and their judges, stood on this side the ark and on that side before the priests the Levites, that bore the ark of the covet of the LORD, as well the stranger as the home-born; half of them in front of mount Gerizim and half of them in front of mount Ebal; as Moses the servant of the LORD had commanded at the first, that they should bless the people of Israel." 8.34. And afterward he read all the words of the law, the blessing and the curse, according to all that is written in the book of the law." 8.35. There was not a word of all that Moses commanded, which Joshua read not before all the assembly of Israel, and the women, and the little ones, and the strangers that walked among them."
6. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 15.12, 30.22 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.12. וַיָּבֹאוּ בַבְּרִית לִדְרוֹשׁ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם בְּכָל־לְבָבָם וּבְכָל־נַפְשָׁם׃ 30.22. וַיְדַבֵּר יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ עַל־לֵב כָּל־הַלְוִיִּם הַמַּשְׂכִּילִים שֵׂכֶל־טוֹב לַיהוָה וַיֹּאכְלוּ אֶת־הַמּוֹעֵד שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים מְזַבְּחִים זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים וּמִתְוַדִּים לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם׃ 15.12. And they entered into the covet to seek the LORD, the God of their fathers, with all their heart and with all their soul;" 30.22. And Hezekiah spoke encouragingly unto all the Levites that were well skilled in the service of the LORD. So they did eat throughout the feast for the seven days, offering sacrifices of peace-offerings, and giving thanks to the LORD, the God of their fathers.
7. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.6. וַיְבָרֶךְ עֶזְרָא אֶת־יְהוָה הָאֱלֹהִים הַגָּדוֹל וַיַּעֲנוּ כָל־הָעָם אָמֵן אָמֵן בְּמֹעַל יְדֵיהֶם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוֻּ לַיהוָה אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃ 8.6. And Ezra blessed the LORD, the great God. And all the people answered: ‘Amen, Amen’, with the lifting up of their hands; and they bowed their heads, and fell down before the LORD with their faces to the ground."
8. Anon., 1 Enoch, 98.4-98.5, 108.8-108.15 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

98.4. I have sworn unto you, ye sinners, as a mountain has not become a slave, And a hill does not become the handmaid of a woman, Even so sin has not been sent upon the earth, But man of himself has created it, And under a great curse shall they fall who commit it. 98.5. And barrenness has not been given to the woman, But on account of the deeds of her own hands she dies without children. 98.5. the righteous; for ye shall have no hope of life. Woe to you who write down lying and godless words; for they write down their lies that men may hear them and act godlessly towards (their) 108.8. by God; and of those who have been put to shame by wicked men: Who love God and loved neither gold nor silver nor any of the good things which are in the world, but gave over their bodies to torture. Who, since they came into being, longed not after earthly food, but regarded everything as a passing breath, and lived accordingly, and the Lord tried them much, and their spirits were 108.11. yet they blessed Me. And now I will summon the spirits of the good who belong to the generation of light, and I will transform those who were born in darkness, who in the flesh were not recompensed 108.12. with such honour as their faithfulness deserved. And I will bring forth in shining light those who 108.13. have loved My holy name, and I will seat each on the throne of his honour. And they shall be resplendent for times without number; for righteousness is the judgement of God; for to the faithful 108.14. He will give faithfulness in the habitation of upright paths. And they shall see those who were 108.15. born in darkness led into darkness, while the righteous shall be resplendent. And the sinners shall cry aloud and see them resplendent, and they indeed will go where days and seasons are prescribed for them.'
9. Anon., Jubilees, 1.1, 1.20-1.21, 6.10-6.11, 6.17-6.19, 10.11-10.12, 14.18, 14.20, 15.1, 15.33, 16.13-16.14, 22.1, 22.15, 22.30, 30.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. THIS is the history of the division of the days of the law and of the testimony, of the events of the years, of their (year) weeks, of their jubilees throughout all the years of the world, as the Lord spake to Moses on Mount Sinai when he went up to receive the tables of the law and of the commandment, according to the voice of God as He said unto him, "Go up to the top of the Mount." br) And it came to pass in the first year of the A.M. (A.M. = Anno Mundi) exodus of the children of Israel out of Egypt, in the third month, on the sixteenth day of the month, that God spake to Moses, saying: 1.20. And after this they will turn to Me from amongst the Gentiles with all their heart and with all their soul and with all their strength 1.21. and I shall gather them from amongst all the Gentiles, and they will seek Me, so that I shall be found of them 6.10. But flesh, with the life thereof, with the blood, ye shall not eat; for the life of all flesh is in the blood, lest your blood of your lives be required. 6.11. At the hand of every man, at the hand of every (beast), shall I require the blood of man. 6.17. And this testimony is written concerning you that you should observe it continually, so that you should not eat on any day any blood of beasts or birds or cattle during all the days of the earth 6.18. and the man who eateth the blood of beast or of cattle or of birds during all the days of the earth, he and his seed shall be rooted out of the land. 6.19. And do thou command the children of Israel to eat no blood, so that their names and their seed may be before the Lord our God continually. 10.11. And the chief of the spirits, Mastêmâ, came and said: "Lord, Creator, let some of them remain before me, and let them hearken to my voice, and do all that I shall say unto them; 10.12. for if some of them are not left to me, I shall not be able to execute the power of my will on the sons of men; 14.18. And the nation also to whom they will be in bondage shall I judge, and after that they will come forth thence with much substance. 14.20. But in the fourth generation they will return hither; for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full. 15.1. And in the fifth year of the fourth week of this jubilee, in the third month, in the middle of the month, Abram celebrated the feast of the first-fruits of the grain harvest. 15.33. For Ishmael and his sons and his brothers and Esau, the Lord did not cause to approach Him, and he chose them not because they are the children of Abraham, because He knew them, but He chose Israel to be His people. 16.13. And, behold, it was commanded and engraven concerning all his seed, on the heavenly tables, to remove them and root them out, and to execute judgment upon them like the judgment of Sodom, and to leave no seed of the man on earth on the day of condemnation. 16.14. And in this month Abraham moved from Hebron, and departed and dwelt between Kadesh and Shur in the mountains of Gerar. 22.1. And it came to pass in the first week in the forty-fourth jubilee, in the second year, that is, the year in which Abraham died, that Isaac and Ishmael came from the Well of the Oath to celebrate the feast of weeks--that is, the feast of the first-fruits of the harvest--to Abraham, their father 22.15. And he drew near and kissed him, and he said: "Blessed be my son Jacob And all the sons of God Most High, unto all the ages: May God give unto thee a seed of righteousness; And some of thy sons may He sanctify in the midst of the whole earth; 22.30. (e) And there will be no remembrance of them on the earth; (c) For they will descend into Sheol 30.11. And if there is any man who wisheth in Israel to give his daughter or his sister to any man who is of the seed of the Gentiles he shall surely die, and they shall stone him with stones; for he hath wrought shame in Israel;
10. Anon., Testament of Asher, 1.8, 3.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.8. But if it incline to the evil inclination, all its actions are in wickedness, and it driveth away the good, and cleaveth to the evil, and is ruled by Beliar; even though it work what is good, he perverteth it to evil. 3.2. But from wickedness flee away, destroying the (evil) inclination by your good works; for they that are double-faced serve not God, but their own lusts, so that they may please Beliar and men like unto themselves.
11. Anon., Testament of Dan, 5.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Anon., Testament of Levi, 19.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

19.1. And now, my children, ye have heard all; choose, therefore, for yourselves either the light or the darkness, either the law of the Lord or the works of Beliar.
13. Anon., Testament of Naphtali, 2.6, 3.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.6. As a man's strength, so also is his work; and as his mind, so also is his skill; and as his purpose, so also is his achievement; and as his heart, so also is his mouth; as his eye, so also is his sleep; as his soul, so also is his word, either in the law of the Lord or in the works of Beliar. 3.1. Be ye, therefore, not eager to corrupt your doings through covetousness or with vain words to beguile your souls; because if ye keep silence in purity of heart, ye shall understand how to hold fast the will of God, and to cast away the will of Beliar.
14. Anon., Testament of Reuben, 4.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.7. For many hath fornication destroyed; because, though a man be old or noble, or rich or poor, he bringeth reproach upon himself with the sons of men and derision with Beliar.
15. Anon., Testament of Judah, 25.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 4.13-4.18, 5.17-5.18, 6.10, 6.13-6.19, 10.4-10.6, 14.3-14.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 1.1-1.5, 1.8-1.11, 1.13, 13.2-13.6, 13.11, 14.9-14.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 4.13-4.18, 5.17-5.18, 6.10, 6.13-6.19, 10.4-10.6, 14.3-14.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17, 1.18, 1.18-2.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.23, 1.24, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.20, 2.21, 2.22, 2.23, 2.24, 2.25, 3.5, 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.9, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 6, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.18, 6.19, 6.22, 8.1, 9.7, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 10.18, 10.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Dead Sea Scrolls, Messianic Rule, 1.9, 2.17-2.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Dead Sea Scrolls, Rule of The Communityb, 9.7-9.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Dead Sea Scrolls, Sd (Olim Sb), 2.3-2.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Dead Sea Scrolls, Shira, 1.5-1.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.15. and removed the marks of circumcision, and abandoned the holy covet. They joined with the Gentiles and sold themselves to do evil.
25. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.63 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.63. Endamage Rome. And perish shall all men
26. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.307 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.307. After this, curses were denounced upon those that should transgress those laws, they, answering one another alternately, by way of confirmation of what had been said. Moses also wrote their blessings and their curses, that they might learn them so thoroughly, that they might never be forgotten by length of time.
27. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.122 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.122. 3. These men are despisers of riches, and so very communicative as raises our admiration. Nor is there anyone to be found among them who hath more than another; for it is a law among them, that those who come to them must let what they have be common to the whole order,—insomuch that among them all there is no appearance of poverty, or excess of riches, but every one’s possessions are intermingled with every other’s possessions; and so there is, as it were, one patrimony among all the brethren.
28. Mishnah, Berachot, 6.6, 7.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.6. If [those at the table] are sitting upright, each one blesses for himself. If they are reclining, one blesses for them all. If wine came during the meal, each one says a blessing for himself. If after the meal, one blesses for them all. The same one says [the blessing] over the incense, even though the incense is not brought until after the meal." 7.3. How do they invite [one another to recite the Birkat Hamazon]?If there are three, he [the one saying Birkat Hamazon] says, “Let us bless [Him of whose food we have eaten].” If there are three and him he says, “Bless [Him of whose food we have eaten]” If there are ten, he says, “Let us bless our God [of whose food we have eaten].” If there are ten and he says, “Bless.” It is the same whether there are ten or ten myriads (ten ten thousands). If there are a hundred he says, “Let us bless the Lord our God [of whose food we have eaten]. If there are a hundred and him he says, “Bless.” If there are a thousand he says “Let us bless the Lord our God, the God of Israel [of whose food we have eaten].” If there are a thousand and him he says “Bless.” If there are ten thousand he says, “Let us bless the Lord our God, the God of Israel, the God of hosts, who dwells among the cherubim, for the food which we have eaten.” If there are ten thousand and him he says, “Bless.” Corresponding to his blessing the others answer after him, “Blessed be the Lord our God the God of Israel, the God of hosts, who dwells among the cherubim, for the food which we have eaten.” Rabbi Yose the Galilean says: According to the number of the congregation, they bless, as it says, “In assemblies bless God, the Lord, O you who are from the fountain of Israel.” Rabbi Akiba said: What do we find in the synagogue? Whether there are many or few the he says, “Bless the Lord your God.” Rabbi Ishmael says: “Bless the Lord your God who is blessed.”"
29. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.3. They do not recite the Shema responsively, And they do not pass before the ark; And the [the priests] do not lift up their hands; And they do not read the Torah [publicly]; And they do not conclude with a haftarah from the prophets; And they do not make stops [at funeral] processions; And they do not say the blessing for mourners, or the comfort of mourners, or the blessing of bridegrooms; And they do not mention God’s name in the invitation [to say Birkat Hamazon]; Except in the presence of ten. [For redeeming sanctified] land nine and a priest [are sufficient], and similarly with human beings."
30. Mishnah, Sotah, 7.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.5. How were the blessings and curses [pronounced]?When Israel crossed the Jordan and came to Mt. Gerizim and Mt. Ebal which are by Samaria, in the vicinity of Shechem which is near the terebinths of Moreh, as it is said, “Are they not the other side of the Jordan, [beyond the west road that is in the land of the Canaanites who dwell in the Arabah near Gilgal, by the terebinths of Moreh] (Deut. 11:30), and elsewhere it says, “And Abram passed through the land unto the place of Shechem unto the terebinth of Moreh” (Genesis 12:6) just as the terebinth of Moreh mentioned in this latter verse is Shechem, so the terebinth of Moreh mentioned in the former verse is Shechem. Six tribes went up Mt. Gerizim and six tribes went up Mt. Ebal, and the priests and Levites with the ark stood below in the middle, the priests surrounding the ark, the Levites [surrounding] the priests, and all Israel on this side and that side, as it is said, “And all Israel, with their elders, officials, and judges stood on both sides of the ark, facing the levitical priests” (Joshua 8:33). They turned their faces towards Mt. Gerizim and opened with the blessing: Blessed be anyone who does not make a graven or molten image”. And these and these respond amen. They then turned their faces towards Mt. Ebal and opened with the curse: “Cursed be anyone who makes a graven or molten image” (Deut. 27:15). And these and these respond amen. [So they continue] until they complete the blessings and curses. After that they brought the stones, built the altar and plastered it with plaster, and inscribed upon it all the words of the Torah in seventy languages, as it is said, “most distinctly (be’er hetev). Then they took the stones and went and spent the night in their place."
31. New Testament, 1 John, 1.2-1.3, 2.14-2.16, 3.24, 4.1-4.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. (and the life was revealed, and we have seen, and testify, and declare to you the life, the eternal life, which was with the Father, and was revealed to us); 1.3. that which we have seen and heard we declare to you, that you also may have fellowship with us. Yes, and our fellowship is with the Father, and with his Son, Jesus Christ. 2.14. I have written to you, fathers, because you know him who is from the beginning. I have written to you, young men, because you are strong, and the word of God remains in you, and you have overcome the evil one. 2.15. Don't love the world, neither the things that are in the world. If anyone loves the world, the Father's love isn't in him. 2.16. For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life, isn't the Father's, but is the world's. 3.24. He who keeps his commandments remains in him, and he in him. By this we know that he remains in us, by the Spirit which he gave us. 4.1. Beloved, don't believe every spirit, but test the spirits, whether they are of God, because many false prophets have gone out into the world. 4.2. By this you know the Spirit of God: every spirit who confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is of God 4.3. and every spirit who doesn't confess that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is not of God, and this is the spirit of the antichrist, of whom you have heard that it comes. Now it is in the world already. 4.4. You are of God, little children, and have overcome them; because greater is he who is in you than he who is in the world. 4.5. They are of the world. Therefore they speak of the world, and the world hears them. 4.6. We are of God. He who knows God listens to us. He who is not of God doesn't listen to us. By this we know the spirit of truth, and the spirit of error.
32. New Testament, Acts, 12.15, 26.24-26.25 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12.15. They said to her, "You are crazy!" But she insisted that it was so. They said, "It is his angel. 26.24. As he thus made his defense, Festus said with a loud voice, "Paul, you are crazy! Your great learning is driving you insane! 26.25. But he said, "I am not crazy, most excellent Festus, but boldly declare words of truth and reasonableness.
33. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.5, 2.16, 2.21-2.22, 3.3, 3.19, 9.20, 12.9, 13.16-13.17, 18.4, 19.19, 20.8-20.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.5. Remember therefore from where you have fallen, and repent and do the first works; or else I am coming to you swiftly, and will move your lampstand out of its place, unless you repent. 2.16. Repent therefore, or else I am coming to you quickly, and I will make war against them with the sword of my mouth. 2.21. I gave her time to repent, but she refuses to repent of her sexual immorality. 2.22. Behold, I will throw her into a bed, and those who commit adultery with her into great oppression, unless they repent of her works. 3.3. Remember therefore how you have received and heard. Keep it, and repent. If therefore you won't watch, I will come as a thief, and you won't know what hour I will come upon you. 3.19. As many as I love, I reprove and chasten. Be zealous therefore, and repent. 9.20. The rest of mankind, who were not killed with these plagues, didn't repent of the works of their hands, that they wouldn't worship demons, and the idols of gold, and of silver, and of brass, and of stone, and of wood; which can neither see, nor hear, nor walk. 12.9. The great dragon was thrown down, the old serpent, he who is called the devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world. He was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him. 13.16. He causes all, the small and the great, the rich and the poor, and the free and the slave, so that they should give them marks on their right hand, or on their forehead; 13.17. and that no one would be able to buy or to sell, unless he has that mark, the name of the beast or the number of his name. 18.4. I heard another voice from heaven, saying, "Come forth, my people, out of her, that you have no participation in her sins, and that you don't receive of her plagues 19.19. I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him who sat on the horse, and against his army. 20.8. and he will come out to deceive the nations which are in the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to the war; the number of whom is as the sand of the sea. 20.9. They went up over the breadth of the earth, and surrounded the camp of the saints, and the beloved city. Fire came down out of heaven from God, and devoured them.
34. New Testament, John, 1.14, 1.17, 4.1-4.42, 8.32, 8.40, 8.44-8.46, 8.48-8.52, 9.1-9.41, 10.20, 14.6, 15.26, 17.15-17.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 1.17. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 4.1. Therefore when the Lord knew that the Pharisees had heard that Jesus was making and baptizing more disciples than John 4.2. (although Jesus himself didn't baptize, but his disciples) 4.3. he left Judea, and departed into Galilee. 4.4. He needed to pass through Samaria. 4.5. So he came to a city of Samaria, called Sychar, near the parcel of ground that Jacob gave to his son, Joseph. 4.6. Jacob's well was there. Jesus therefore, being tired from his journey, sat down by the well. It was about the sixth hour. 4.7. A woman of Samaria came to draw water. Jesus said to her, "Give me a drink. 4.8. For his disciples had gone away into the city to buy food. 4.9. The Samaritan woman therefore said to him, "How is it that you, being a Jew, ask for a drink from me, a Samaritan woman?" (For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans.) 4.10. Jesus answered her, "If you knew the gift of God, and who it is who says to you, 'Give me a drink,' you would have asked him, and he would have given you living water. 4.11. The woman said to him, "Sir, you have nothing to draw with, and the well is deep. From where then have you that living water? 4.12. Are you greater than our father, Jacob, who gave us the well, and drank of it himself, as did his sons, and his cattle? 4.13. Jesus answered her, "Everyone who drinks of this water will thirst again 4.14. but whoever drinks of the water that I will give him will never thirst again; but the water that I will give him will become in him a well of water springing up to eternal life. 4.15. The woman said to him, "Sir, give me this water, so that I don't get thirsty, neither come all the way here to draw. 4.16. Jesus said to her, "Go, call your husband, and come here. 4.17. The woman answered, "I have no husband."Jesus said to her, "You said well, 'I have no husband,' 4.18. for you have had five husbands; and he whom you now have is not your husband. This you have said truly. 4.19. The woman said to him, "Sir, I perceive that you are a prophet. 4.20. Our fathers worshiped in this mountain, and you Jews say that in Jerusalem is the place where people ought to worship. 4.21. Jesus said to her, "Woman, believe me, the hour comes, when neither in this mountain, nor in Jerusalem, will you worship the Father. 4.22. You worship that which you don't know. We worship that which we know; for salvation is from the Jews. 4.23. But the hour comes, and now is, when the true worshippers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father seeks such to be his worshippers. 4.24. God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth. 4.25. The woman said to him, "I know that Messiah comes," (he who is called Christ). "When he has come, he will declare to us all things. 4.26. Jesus said to her, "I am he, the one who speaks to you. 4.27. At this, his disciples came. They marveled that he was speaking with a woman; yet no one said, "What are you looking for?" or, "Why do you speak with her? 4.28. So the woman left her water pot, and went away into the city, and said to the people 4.29. Come, see a man who told me everything that I did. Can this be the Christ? 4.30. They went out of the city, and were coming to him. 4.31. In the meanwhile, the disciples urged him, saying, "Rabbi, eat. 4.32. But he said to them, "I have food to eat that you don't know about. 4.33. The disciples therefore said one to another, "Has anyone brought him something to eat? 4.34. Jesus said to them, "My food is to do the will of him who sent me, and to accomplish his work. 4.35. Don't you say, 'There are yet four months until the harvest?' Behold, I tell you, lift up your eyes, and look at the fields, that they are white for harvest already. 4.36. He who reaps receives wages, and gathers fruit to eternal life; that both he who sows and he who reaps may rejoice together. 4.37. For in this the saying is true, 'One sows, and another reaps.' 4.38. I sent you to reap that for which you haven't labored. Others have labored, and you have entered into their labor. 4.39. From that city many of the Samaritans believed in him because of the word of the woman, who testified, 'He told me everything that I did. 4.40. So when the Samaritans came to him, they begged him to stay with them. He stayed there two days. 4.41. Many more believed because of his word. 4.42. They said to the woman, "Now we believe, not because of your speaking; for we have heard for ourselves, and know that this is indeed the Christ, the Savior of the world. 8.32. You will know the truth, and the truth will make you free. 8.40. But now you seek to kill me, a man who has told you the truth, which I heard from God. Abraham didn't do this. 8.44. You are of your Father, the devil, and you want to do the desires of your father. He was a murderer from the beginning, and doesn't stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaks a lie, he speaks on his own; for he is a liar, and the father of it. 8.45. But because I tell the truth, you don't believe me. 8.46. Which of you convicts me of sin? If I tell the truth, why do you not believe me? 8.48. Then the Jews answered him, "Don't we say well that you are a Samaritan, and have a demon? 8.49. Jesus answered, "I don't have a demon, but I honor my Father, and you dishonor me. 8.50. But I don't seek my own glory. There is one who seeks and judges. 8.51. Most assuredly, I tell you, if a person keeps my word, he will never see death. 8.52. Then the Jews said to him, "Now we know that you have a demon. Abraham died, and the prophets; and you say, 'If a man keeps my word, he will never taste of death.' 9.1. As he passed by, he saw a man blind from birth. 9.2. His disciples asked him, "Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, that he was born blind? 9.3. Jesus answered, "Neither did this man sin, nor his parents; but, that the works of God might be revealed in him. 9.4. I must work the works of him who sent me, while it is day. The night is coming, when no one can work. 9.5. While I am in the world, I am the light of the world. 9.6. When he had said this, he spat on the ground, made mud with the saliva, anointed the blind man's eyes with the mud 9.7. and said to him, "Go, wash in the pool of Siloam" (which means "Sent"). So he went away, washed, and came back seeing. 9.8. The neighbors therefore, and those who saw that he was blind before, said, "Isn't this he who sat and begged? 9.9. Others were saying, "It is he." Still others were saying, "He looks like him."He said, "I am he. 9.10. They therefore were asking him, "How were your eyes opened? 9.11. He answered, "A man called Jesus made mud, anointed my eyes, and said to me, "Go to the pool of Siloam, and wash." So I went away and washed, and I received sight. 9.12. Then they asked him, "Where is he?"He said, "I don't know. 9.13. They brought him who had been blind to the Pharisees. 9.14. It was a Sabbath when Jesus made the mud and opened his eyes. 9.15. Again therefore the Pharisees also asked him how he received his sight. He said to them, "He put mud on my eyes, I washed, and I see. 9.16. Some therefore of the Pharisees said, "This man is not from God, because he doesn't keep the Sabbath." Others said, "How can a man who is a sinner do such signs?" There was division among them. 9.17. Therefore they asked the blind man again, "What do you say about him, because he opened your eyes?"He said, "He is a prophet. 9.18. The Jews therefore did not believe concerning him, that he had been blind, and had received his sight, until they called the parents of him who had received his sight 9.19. and asked them, "Is this your son, who you say was born blind? How then does he now see? 9.20. His parents answered them, "We know that this is our son, and that he was born blind; 9.21. but how he now sees, we don't know; or who opened his eyes, we don't know. He is of age. Ask him. He will speak for himself. 9.22. His parents said these things because they feared the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that if any man would confess him as Christ, he would be put out of the synagogue. 9.23. Therefore his parents said, "He is of age. Ask him. 9.24. So they called the man who was blind a second time, and said to him, "Give glory to God. We know that this man is a sinner. 9.25. He therefore answered, "I don't know if he is a sinner. One thing I do know: that though I was blind, now I see. 9.26. They said to him again, "What did he do to you? How did he open your eyes? 9.27. He answered them, "I told you already, and you didn't listen. Why do you want to hear it again? You don't also want to become his disciples, do you? 9.28. They insulted him and said, "You are his disciple, but we are disciples of Moses. 9.29. We know that God has spoken to Moses. But as for this man, we don't know where he comes from. 9.30. The man answered them, "How amazing! You don't know where he comes from, yet he opened my eyes. 9.31. We know that God doesn't listen to sinners, but if anyone is a worshipper of God, and does his will, he listens to him. 9.32. Since the world began it has never been heard of that anyone opened the eyes of someone born blind. 9.33. If this man were not from God, he could do nothing. 9.34. They answered him, "You were altogether born in sins, and do you teach us?" They threw him out. 9.35. Jesus heard that they had thrown him out, and finding him, he said, "Do you believe in the Son of God? 9.36. He answered, "Who is he, Lord, that I may believe in him? 9.37. Jesus said to him, "You have both seen him, and it is he who speaks with you. 9.38. He said, "Lord, I believe!" and he worshiped him. 9.39. Jesus said, "I came into this world for judgment, that those who don't see may see; and that those who see may become blind. 9.40. Those of the Pharisees who were with him heard these things, and said to him, "Are we also blind? 9.41. Jesus said to them, "If you were blind, you would have no sin; but now you say, 'We see.' Therefore your sin remains. 10.20. Many of them said, "He has a demon, and is insane! Why do you listen to him? 14.6. Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father, except through me. 15.26. When the Counselor has come, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father, he will testify about me. 17.15. I pray not that you would take them from the world, but that you would keep them from the evil one. 17.16. They are not of the world even as I am not of the world. 17.17. Sanctify them in your truth. Your word is truth. 17.18. As you sent me into the world, even so I have sent them into the world. 17.19. For their sakes I sanctify myself, that they themselves also may be sanctified in truth.
35. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 55 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

36. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 2.31.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

37. Justin, First Apology, 56 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

56. But the evil spirits were not satisfied with saying, before Christ's appearance, that those who were said to be sons of Jupiter were born of him; but after He had appeared, and been born among men, and when they learned how He had been foretold by the prophets, and knew that He should be believed on and looked for by every nation, they again, as was said above, put forward other men, the Samaritans Simon and Meder, who did many mighty works by magic, and deceived many, and still keep them deceived. For even among yourselves, as we said before, Simon was in the royal city Rome in the reign of Claudius C sar, and so greatly astonished the sacred senate and people of the Romans, that he was considered a god, and honoured, like the others whom you honour as gods, with a statue. Wherefore we pray that the sacred senate and your people may, along with yourselves, be arbiters of this our memorial, in order that if any one be entangled by that man's doctrines, he may learn the truth, and so be able to escape error; and as for the statue, if you please, destroy it.
38. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16a. מעין העולם הבא,(איוב א, טז) עוד זה מדבר וזה בא ויאמר אש אלהים וגו עוד זה מדבר וזה בא ויאמר כשדים שמו שלשה ראשים ויפשטו על הגמלים ויקחום וגו' עוד זה מדבר וזה בא ויאמר בניך ובנותיך אוכלים ושותים יין בבית אחיהם הבכור והנה רוח גדולה באה מעבר המדבר ויגע בארבע פנות הבית ויפול על הנערים וגו' ויקם איוב ויקרע את מעילו ויגז את ראשו וגו' ויאמר ערום יצאתי מבטן אמי וערום אשוב שמה ה' נתן וה' לקח יהי שם ה' מבורך בכל זאת לא חטא איוב ולא נתן תפלה לאלהים,ויהי היום ויבואו בני האלהים להתיצב וגו' ויאמר ה' אל השטן אי מזה תבא ויען השטן את ה' ויאמר משוט בארץ [וגו'] אמר לפניו רבש"ע שטתי בכל העולם ולא מצאתי כעבדך אברהם שאמרת לו (בראשית יג, יז) קום התהלך בארץ לארכה ולרחבה כי לך אתננה ובשעה שבקש לקבור שרה לא מצא מקום לקוברה ולא הרהר אחר מדותיך,ויאמר ה' אל השטן השמת לבך אל עבדי איוב כי אין כמוהו בארץ וגו' ועודנו מחזיק בתומתו ותסיתני בו לבלעו חנם,אמר רבי יוחנן אלמלא מקרא כתוב אי אפשר לאומרו כאדם שמסיתין אותו וניסת,במתניתא תנא יורד ומתעה ועולה ומרגיז נוטל רשות ונוטל נשמה,(איוב ב, ד) ויען השטן את ה' ויאמר עור בעד עור וכל אשר לאיש יתן בעד נפשו אולם שלח נא ידך וגע אל עצמו ואל בשרו אם לא (על) פניך יברכך ויאמר ה' אל השטן הנו בידך אך את נפשו שמור ויצא השטן מאת פני ה' ויך את איוב וגו' אמר רבי יצחק קשה צערו של שטן יותר משל איוב משל לעבד שאמר לו רבו שבור חבית ושמור את יינה,אמר ר"ל הוא שטן הוא יצר הרע הוא מלאך המות הוא שטן דכתיב (איוב ב, ז) ויצא השטן מאת פני ה' הוא יצר הרע כתיב התם (בראשית ו, ה) רק רע כל היום וכתיב הכא (רק את נפשו שמור) [(איוב א, יב) רק אליו אל תשלח ידך] הוא מלאך המות דכתיב (איוב ב, ו) (רק) [אך] את נפשו שמור אלמא בדידיה קיימא,א"ר לוי שטן ופנינה לשם שמים נתכוונו שטן כיון דחזיא להקדוש ברוך הוא דנטיה דעתיה בתר איוב אמר חס ושלום מינשי ליה לרחמנותיה דאברהם פנינה דכתיב (שמואל א א, ו) וכעסתה צרתה גם כעס בעבור הרעימה דרשה רב אחא בר יעקב בפפוניא אתא שטן נשקיה לכרעיה,(איוב ב, י) בכל זאת לא חטא איוב בשפתיו אמר רבא בשפתיו לא חטא בלבו חטא מאי קאמר (איוב ט, כד) ארץ נתנה ביד רשע פני שופטיה יכסה אם לא איפו מי הוא אמר רבא בקש איוב להפוך קערה על פיה אמר ליה אביי לא דבר איוב אלא כנגד השטן,כתנאי ארץ נתנה ביד רשע רבי אליעזר אומר בקש איוב להפוך קערה על פיה אמר לו רבי יהושע לא דבר איוב אלא כלפי שטן,(איוב י, ז) על דעתך כי לא ארשע ואין מידך מציל אמר רבא בקש איוב לפטור את כל העולם כולו מן הדין אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם בראת שור פרסותיו סדוקות בראת חמור פרסותיו קלוטות בראת גן עדן בראת גיהנם בראת צדיקים בראת רשעים מי מעכב על ידך,ומאי אהדרו ליה חבריה [דאיוב] (איוב טו, ד) אף אתה תפר יראה ותגרע שיחה לפני אל ברא הקדוש ברוך הוא יצר הרע ברא לו תורה תבלין,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (איוב כט, יג) ברכת אובד עלי תבא ולב אלמנה ארנין ברכת אובד עלי תבא מלמד שהיה גוזל שדה מיתומים ומשביחה ומחזירה להן ולב אלמנה ארנין דכל היכא דהוה (איכא) אלמנה דלא הוו נסבי לה הוה אזיל שדי שמיה עילווה והוו אתו נסבי לה,(איוב ו, ב) לו שקול ישקל כעשי והותי במאזנים ישאו יחד אמר רב עפרא לפומיה דאיוב חברותא כלפי שמיא (איוב ט, לג) לו יש בינינו מוכיח ישת ידו על שנינו אמר רב עפרא לפומיה דאיוב כלום יש עבד שמוכיח את רבו (איוב לא, א) ברית כרתי לעיני ומה אתבונן על בתולה אמר רבא עפרא לפומיה דאיוב איהו באחרניתא אברהם אפילו בדידיה לא איסתכל דכתיב (בראשית יב, יא) הנה נא ידעתי כי אשה יפת מראה את מכלל דמעיקרא לא הוה ידע לה,(איוב ז, ט) כלה ענן וילך כן יורד שאול לא יעלה אמר רבא מכאן שכפר איוב בתחיית המתים (איוב ט, יז) אשר בשערה ישופני והרבה פצעי חנם אמר רבה איוב בסערה חרף ובסערה השיבוהו,בסערה חרף דכתיב אשר בשערה ישופני אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם שמא רוח סערה עברה לפניך ונתחלף לך בין איוב לאויב בסערה השיבוהו דכתיב (איוב לח, א) ויען ה' את איוב מן הסערה ויאמר [וגו'] אזר נא כגבר חלציך אשאלך והודיעני,אמר לו הרבה נימין בראתי באדם וכל נימא ונימא בראתי לה גומא בפני עצמה שלא יהו שתים יונקות מגומא אחת שאלמלי שתים יונקות מגומא אחת מחשיכות מאור עיניו של אדם בין גומא לגומא לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי,(איוב לח, כה) מי פלג לשטף תעלה [וגו'] הרבה טיפין בראתי בעבים וכל טיפה וטיפה בראתי לה דפוס בפני עצמה כדי שלא יהו שתי טיפין יוצאות מדפוס אחד שאלמלי שתי טיפין יוצאות מדפוס אחד מטשטשות את הארץ ואינה מוציאה פירות בין טיפה לטיפה לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי מאי משמע דהאי תעלה לישנא דדפוס היא אמר רבה בר שילא דכתיב (מלכים א יח, לב) ויעש תעלה כבית סאתים זרע,(איוב לח, כה) ודרך לחזיז קולות הרבה קולות בראתי בעבים וכל קול וקול בראתי לו שביל בפני עצמו כדי שלא יהו שתי קולות יוצאות משביל אחד שאלמלי שתי קולות יוצאות משביל אחד מחריבין את כל העולם בין קול לקול לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי,(איוב לט, א) הידעת עת לדת יעלי סלע חולל אילות תשמור יעלה זו אכזרית על בניה בשעה שכורעת 16a. bof the World-to-Come,when plowing and harvesting will take place at the same time. Here too, the oxen plowed and the donkeys grazed on the crops that grew from that effort.,The Gemara continues to interpret verses from the book of Job. b“While he was yet speaking, there came also another and said: The fire of Godhas fallen from heaven, and has burned up the sheep, and the servants, and consumed them… bWhile he was yet speaking, there came also another and said: The Chaldeans formed three bands, and fell among the camels, and have carried them away,and have slain the servants with the edge of the sword… bWhile he was yet speaking, there came also another and said: Your sons and your daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother’s house; and, behold, there came a great wind from across the wilderness, and smote the four corners of the house, and it fell upon the young men,and they are dead… bThen Job arose, and rent his coat, and shaved his head,and fell down on the ground and prostrated himself. bAnd he said: I came naked out of my mother’s womb, and naked I shall return there; the Lord gave, and the Lord has taken away, blessed be the name of the Lord. In all this Job sinned not, nor did he lay reproach on God”(Job 1:16–22)., b“Again there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselvesbefore the Lord, and the Satan came also among them to present himself before God. bAnd the Lord said to the Satan: From where do you come? And the Satan answered the Lord, and said: From going to and fro in the earthand from walking up and down in it” (Job 2:1–2). The Satan bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, I have gone to and fro across the entire world and have not found anyone as faithful as your servant Abraham, to whom you said: “Arise, walk through the land in the length of it and in the breadth of it; for I will give it to you”(Genesis 13:17). bAnd when he wanted to bury Sarah, he could not find a place to bury her, andyet bhe did not criticize Your ways,or accuse You of having failed to keep Your promise.,About this it says: b“And the Lord said to the Satan: Have you considered My servant Job, that there is none like him on earth,a perfect and an upright man, one that fears God and turns away from evil? bAnd still he holds fast to his integrity, although you moved Me against him, to destroy him without cause”(Job 2:3)., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Were it notexplicitly bwritten in the verse, it would be impossible to say this,as it would be insulting to God’s honor. The verse states: “You moved Me against him,” blike a person whom others persuade andallows himself to be bpersuaded,as if God had not wanted to do anything, but allowed Himself to be persuaded to bring harm to Job., bIt was taught in a ibaraita /iwith regard to the methods of the Satan: He bdescendsto this world band misleadsa person into sinning. He then bascendsto Heaven, levels accusations against that very sinner, band inflamesGod’s bangeragainst him. He then breceives permissionto act band takes away thesinner’s bsoulas punishment.,The Gemara returns to discuss the text of the book of Job: b“And the Satan answered the Lord, and said: Skin for skin, for all that a man has he will give for his life. But put forth Your hand now, and touch his bone and his flesh, and he will curse You to Your face. And the Lord said to the Satan: Behold, he is in your hand; only spare his life. So the Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord, and smote Jobwith vile sores from the sole of his foot to his crown” (Job 2:4–7). bRabbi Yitzḥak says: Satan’s suffering was more difficult than that of Job.This can be explained by means of ba parable involving a servant whose master said to him: Break the barrel but save its wine.Here too, God told the Satan that he could do whatever he liked short of taking Job’s life, and that limitation caused Satan to suffer., bReish Lakish says: Satan, the evil inclination, and the Angel of Death are one,that is, they are three aspects of the same essence. bHe is the Satanwho seduces people and then accuses them, bas it is written: “So the Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord,and smote Job with vile sores” (Job 2:7). bHe isalso bthe evil inclination,as bit is written there:“The impulse of the thoughts of his heart bwas only evil continuously”(Genesis 6:5); band it is written here: “Only upon himself do not put forth your hand”(Job 1:12). The verbal analogy between the various uses of the word “only” teaches that the evil inclination is to be identified with the Satan. bHe isalso bthe Angel of Death, as it is written: “Only spare his life”(Job 2:6); bapparentlyJob’s life bdepends upon him,the Satan, and accordingly the Satan must also be the Angel of Death., bRabbi Levi says:Both bSatan,who brought accusations against Job, band Peninnah,who tormented Hannah, mother of Samuel the prophet, acted with bintentthat was bfor the sake of Heaven.As for bSatan, when he saw that the Holy One, Blessed be He, inclined tofavor bJoband praised him, bhe said: Heaven forbid that He should forget the love of Abraham.With regard to bPeninnah, as it is written: “And her rival wife also provoked her sore, to make her fret”(I Samuel 1:6), i.e., Peninnah upset Hannah in order to motivate her to pray. bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov taughtthis bin Paphunya,and bSatan came and kissed his feetin gratitude for speaking positively about him.,The Gemara considers the character of Job. The verse states: b“In all this Job did not sin with his lips”(Job 2:10). bRava says:A close reading of the verse indicates that bhe did not sin with his lips,but bhe sinned in his heart. What did he saythat suggests that he had wicked thoughts? b“The earth is given into the hand of the wicked, he covers the faces of its judges; if not he, then who is it?”(Job 9:24). bRava says: Job sought to turn the bowl upside down,that is to say, he alluded here to a heretical thought, as he said that the earth is given into the hand of the wicked, indicating that he had God in mind. bAbaye said to him: Job was referringhere bonly to the Satan,he being the wicked one into whose hands the land was given.,The Gemara comments: This is bparallel toa dispute between itanna’im /i,as it was taught in a ibaraita /i: b“The earth is given into the hand of the wicked.” Rabbi Eliezer says: Job sought to turn the bowl upside down; Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: Job was referringhere bonly to the Satan. /b,The Gemara continues to discuss Job’s statements: b“Although You know that I am not wicked, and there is none that can deliver out of Your hand”(Job 10:7). bRava says: Job sought to exempt the whole world from judgment,claiming that all of a person’s actions are directed by God, and therefore one cannot be held culpable for his misdeeds. Job bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, You created the ox with split hooves,making it kosher, and bYou created the donkey with closed hooves,making it forbidden; bYou created the Garden of Eden,and bYou created Gehenna;and similarly, bYou created righteous peopleand bYou created wicked people; who can restrain You?Seeing that You created people as either righteous or wicked, You cannot later complain about their actions., bAnd how did Job’s friends answer him? “You do away with fear, and impair devotion before God”(Job 15:4) with such statements. True, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, created the evil inclination,but bHealso bcreated the Torahas ban antidoteto counter its effects and prevent it from gaining control of a person., bRava interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written,Job saying about himself: b“The blessing of him that was lost came upon me, and I caused the widow’s heart to sing for joy”(Job 29:13). b“The blessing of him that was lost came upon me” teaches thatJob bused to steal a field from orphans,cultivate it, bimprove it, andthen breturn it to them;consequently, they would bless him for the field they had lost. b“I caused the widow’s heart to sing for joy”teaches that banywhere that there was a widow whom no one would marry, he would goand bcast his name upon her,i.e., he would start a rumor that she was related to him, bandthen bsomebody wouldcome forward and bmarry her. /b,Job further said: b“O that my vexation were thoroughly weighed, and my calamity laid in the balances”(Job 6:2). bRav says: Dustshould be put bin the mouth of Job,meaning, he should not have spoken in such a manner, as if he were weighing his deeds against those of God; may one act as if he is in ba friendship with Heaven?And similarly, Job said: b“There is no arbiter between us, who may lay his hand upon us both”(Job 9:33). bRav says: Dustshould be put bin the mouth of Jobfor saying this; bis there a servant who rebukes his master?Job also said: b“I have made a covet with my eyes; why then should I look upon a virgin?”(Job 31:1). bRava says: Dustshould be put bin the mouthof bJobfor saying this; bhedid not look bat otherwomen, but bAbraham did not even look at his ownwife, bas it is written: “Now I know that you are a beautiful woman”(Genesis 12:11). One may learn bby inference that initially he did not knowhow beautiful she was because he had not gazed at her.,Job further said: b“As the cloud is consumed and vanishes away, so he who goes down to the grave shall come up no more”(Job 7:9). bRava says: From hereit may be inferred bthat Job denied the resurrection of the dead,as he said that one who goes down to the grave will not come up and live again, just as a cloud that dissipates will not return. He also stated: b“He crushes me with a tempest, and multiplies my wounds without cause”(Job 9:17). bRabba says: Job blasphemed withmention of ba tempest and he was answered withmention of ba tempest. /b,Rabba explains: bHe blasphemed withmention of ba tempest [ ibise’ara /i], as it is written: “He crushes me with a tempest.”Job bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, perhaps a tempest passed before You and You confused iIyov /i,Job, bwith ioyev /i,enemy. bHe was answered withmention of ba tempest, as it is written: “Then the Lord answered Job out of the tempest, and said:Who is this that darkens counsel by words without knowledge? bGird up now your loins like a man, for I will demand of you and let me know your answer”(Job 38:1–3).,What is the meaning of “out of the tempest”? God bsaid to him: I have created many hairs [ inimin /i] on a person, and for each hair I created its own folliclethrough which the hair is sustained, bso that twohairs bshould not draw from one follicle. As were twohairs bto draw from one follicle, they would impair a man’s vision.Now, if bI do not confuse one follicle with another, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i?The Hebrew word for tempest, ise’ara /i, is phonetically identical to the Hebrew word for hair.,God further said to Job: b“Who has divided a channel [ ite’ala /i] for the torrentof rain, or a path for the lightning of thunder”? (Job 38:25). bI have created many dropsof water bin the clouds, and for each drop I created its own channel, so that two drops should not emerge from the same channel. As were two drops to emerge from the same channel they would destroy the earth and it would not yield produce.Now, if bI do not confuse one drop with another, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i?Incidentally, the Gemara asks: bFrom where mayit bbe inferred that thisterm ite’ala /imeans ba channel? Rabba bar Sheila said: As it is writtenwith regard to Elijah the prophet: b“And he fashioned a channel [ ite’ala /i]about the altar, basgreat as would contain btwo ise’aof seed”(I Kings 18:32).,The second half of the aforementioned verse in Job states: b“Or a path for the lightning of thunder,”which is interpreted as follows: God said: bI have created many thunderclaps in the clouds, and for each and every thunderclap I created its own path, so that two thunderclaps should not issue forth from the same path. As were two thunderclaps to issue from the same path, they would destroy the world.Now, bif I do not confuse one thunderclap with another, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i? /b,It is further stated there: b“Do you know when the wild goats of the rock give birth? Can you mark when the hinds do calve?”(Job 39:1). bThis goat is cruel to her youngand shows them no pity; bwhen she squats /b
39. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

42a. דגורם ברכה לעצמו,רב הונא אכל תליסר ריפתי בני תלתא תלתא בקבא ולא בריך א"ל רב נחמן עדי כפנא אלא כל שאחרים קובעים עליו סעודה צריך לברך,רב יהודה הוה עסיק ליה לבריה בי רב יהודה בר חביבא אייתו לקמייהו פת הבאה בכסנין כי אתא שמעינהו דקא מברכי המוציא אמר להו מאי ציצי דקא שמענא דילמא המוציא לחם מן הארץ קא מברכיתו אמרי ליה אין דתניא רבי מונא אמר משום רבי יהודה פת הבאה בכסנין מברכין עליה המוציא ואמר שמואל הלכה כרבי מונא,אמר להו אין הלכה כרבי מונא אתמר אמרי ליה והא מר הוא דאמר משמיה דשמואל לחמניות מערבין בהן ומברכין עליהן המוציא שאני התם דקבע סעודתיה עלייהו אבל היכא דלא קבע סעודתיה עלייהו לא,רב פפא איקלע לבי רב הונא בריה דרב נתן בתר דגמר סעודתייהו אייתו לקמייהו מידי למיכל שקל רב פפא וקא אכיל אמרי ליה לא סבר לה מר גמר אסור מלאכול אמר להו סלק אתמר,רבא ורבי זירא איקלעו לבי ריש גלותא לבתר דסליקו תכא מקמייהו שדרו להו ריסתנא מבי ריש גלותא רבא אכיל ורבי זירא לא אכיל א"ל לא סבר לה מר סלק אסור מלאכול א"ל אנן אתכא דריש גלותא סמכינן:,אמר רב הרגיל בשמן שמן מעכבו אמר רב אשי כי הוינן בי רב כהנא אמר לן כגון אנן דרגילינן במשחא משחא מעכבא לן ולית הלכתא ככל הני שמעתתא אלא כי הא דאמר רבי חייא בר אשי אמר רב שלש תכיפות הן תכף לסמיכה שחיטה תכף לגאולה תפלה תכף לנטילת ידים ברכה,אמר אביי אף אנו נאמר תכף לתלמידי חכמים ברכה שנאמר (בראשית ל, כז) ויברכני ה' בגללך איבעית אימא מהכא שנאמר (בראשית לט, ה) ויברך ה' את בית המצרי בגלל יוסף:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ברך על היין שלפני המזון פטר את היין שלאחר המזון ברך על הפרפרת שלפני המזון פטר את הפרפרת שלאחר המזון ברך על הפת פטר את הפרפרת על הפרפרת לא פטר את הפת בש"א אף לא מעשה קדרה,היו יושבין כל אחד מברך לעצמו הסבו אחד מברך לכולן 42a. bas it causes a blessing itself.It is so significant, that one recites a blessing over it together with other blessings like ikiddushand ihavdala /i, even though he does not particularly want to drink it. During a meal too, a blessing is recited over the wine and it is not exempted by the blessing over the bread.,As the Gemara mentioned bread that comes as dessert, it now relates that bRav Huna ate thirteensubstantially sized, sweetened bloaves, threeloaves bper ikav /iof flour, band he did not reciteGrace after Meals because they were not genuine bread. bRav Naḥman said to him: That is hunger.One does not typically eat that much merely as dessert. bRather, over anything whichis substantial enough to satiate and bothers base a mealupon it, bone must reciteGrace after Meals.,The Gemara also relates: bRav Yehuda was engagedin preparations for bhis son’swedding bat the house of Rav Yehuda bar Ḥaviva when they brought bread that comes as dessert before them. When it arrived, he heard them reciting: Who brings forthbread from the earth. bHe said to them: What is this itzitzi /isound bthat I hear? Perhaps you are reciting: Who brings forth bread from the earth? They said to him: Yes,indeed, bas it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Mona said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda: Over bread that comes as dessert, one recites: Who brings forthbread from the earth. bAnd Shmuel said: The ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Mona. /b,Rav Yehuda bsaid to them:You are mistaken. Actually, bit was statedthat Shmuel said: bThe ihalakhais not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Mona. They said to him: But aren’tyou, bMaster, the one who said in the nameof bShmuelwith regard to bwafers: One may establish an ieiruv /i,the joining of courtyards, to permit carrying in a shared courtyard and the joining of cooked foods, to permit cooking on a festival for Shabbat, bwith them and recite over them: Who brings forthbread from the earth. Why is that the blessing over those wafers? They too are sweetened bread that comes as dessert. He answered them: bIt is different there as he based his meal upon them, but here, where one did not base his meal upon them, no,he does not recite: Who brings forth bread from the earth.,The Gemara relates: bRav Pappa happenedto come bto the house of Rav Huna, son of Rav Natan. After they finished their meal, they brought before them something to eat. Rav Pappa tookthis food item band ateit without reciting a blessing. bThey said to him:Do you, bMaster, not holdthat once bone finishedhis meal bhe is forbidden to eatagain without reciting a blessing? bHe said to themthat in the correct version of that ihalakha /i, bit is stated: Removed.One need recite a second blessing only when eating after the table was removed from before him.,Similarly, the Gemara relates: bRava and Rabbi Zeira happenedto come bto the house of the Exilarch. Afterthe meal, when bthey removed the table from before them, a portion [ iristena /i]of food bwas sent to them from the house of the Exilarch. Rava ateit band Rabbi Zeira did not eatit. Rabbi Zeira bsaid toRava: Do you, bMaster, not holdthat once the table was bremoved, he is forbidden to eat?Rava bsaid to him: We are dependent upon the table of the Exilarch,and so long as he has not completed his meal, his guests have not completed their meals either., bRav said: One who is accustomed toapplying fragrant boilto his hands after meals, failure to apply that boil delaysthe end of bhismeal and he is not considered to have finished his meal and is not required to recite a blessing before continuing to eat. Similarly, bRav Ashi said: When we were in the house of Rav Kahana, he said to us: We, for example, who are accustomed to oil,failure to apply that boil delaysthe end of the meal bfor us.Nevertheless, the Gemara concludes: bAnd the ihalakhais not in accordance with all of these statementsand the end of the meal is not determined by those factors. bRather, it isdetermined by bthat which Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Ashi saidthat bRav said: There are threepairs that bimmediatelyfollow each other: bImmediatelyfollowing bplacing handson the head of a sacrifice, is its bslaughter; immediatelyfollowing the blessing of bredemptionrecited after iShema /i, is the iAmida bprayer;and bimmediatelyfollowing the ritual bwashing of the handsafter a meal, is bthe blessing ofGrace after Meals., bAbaye saidthat on a similar note, bwe too will say: Immediatelyfollowing the entrance of bTorah scholarsinto a house, a bblessingrests upon that house, bas it is statedwith regard to Laban and Jacob: b“The Lord has blessed me because of you”(Genesis 30:27). bIf you wish, sayinstead, that the proof is bfrom here, as it is stated:“And it was from when he placed him in charge of his house and over all that he owned, bthe Lord blessed the house of the Egyptian on account of Joseph”(Genesis 39:5)., strongMISHNA: /strong This mishna explains those cases and those circumstances in which blessings recited over particular foods exempt other foods at the meal from the requirement to recite a blessing over them. bOne who recited a blessing over the wine thatone drank bbefore the meal,with that blessing bhe exempted the wine thathe drinks bafter the meal.Similarly, bone who recited a blessing over the appetizers thatone ate bbefore the meal,with that blessing bhe exempted the appetizers thathe eats bafter the meal. One who recited a blessing over the bread exempted the appetizers,as they are considered secondary to the bread. However, one who recited a blessing bover the appetizers did not exempt the bread. Beit Shammai say:The blessing recited over the appetizers bdid not exempt even a cooked dishthat he eats during the meal.,An additional ihalakhais cited: If several people bwere sittingto eat not in the framework of a joint meal, beach recites a blessing for himself. If they were reclinedon divans to eat, which renders it a joint meal, bone recites a blessing on behalf of them all. /b
40. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

33a. כל התורה בכל לשון נאמרה דאי סלקא דעתך בלשון הקודש נאמרה והיו דכתב רחמנא למה לי,איצטריך משום דכתיב שמע,לימא קסברי רבנן כל התורה כולה בלשון קודש נאמרה דאי סלקא דעתך בכל לשון שמע דכתב רחמנא למה לי,איצטריך משום דכתיב והיו,תפלה רחמי היא כל היכי דבעי מצלי,ותפלה בכל לשון והאמר רב יהודה לעולם אל ישאל אדם צרכיו בלשון ארמית דאמר רבי יוחנן כל השואל צרכיו בלשון ארמי אין מלאכי השרת נזקקין לו לפי שאין מלאכי השרת מכירין בלשון ארמי,לא קשיא הא ביחיד הא בצבור,ואין מלאכי השרת מכירין בלשון ארמי והתניא יוחנן כהן גדול שמע ב"ק מבית קדש הקדשים שהוא אומר נצחו טליא דאזלו לאגחא קרבא לאנטוכיא ושוב מעשה בשמעון הצדיק ששמע בת קול מבית קדש הקדשים שהוא אומר בטילת עבידתא דאמר שנאה לאייתאה על היכלא ונהרג גסקלגס ובטלו גזירותיו וכתבו אותה שעה וכיוונו ובלשון ארמי היה אומר,אי בעית אימא בת קול שאני דלאשמועי עבידא ואי בעית אימא גבריאל הוה דאמר מר בא גבריאל ולימדו שבעים לשון,ברכת המזון דכתיב (דברים ח, י) ואכלת ושבעת וברכת את ה' אלהיך בכל לשון שאתה מברך,שבועת העדות דכתיב (ויקרא ה, א) ונפש כי תחטא ושמעה קול אלה בכל לשון שהיא שומעת,שבועת הפקדון אתיא תחטא תחטא משבועת העדות,ואלו נאמרין בלשון הקודש מקרא ביכורים וחליצה כו' עד מקרא ביכורים כיצד (דברים כו, ה) וענית ואמרת לפני ה' אלהיך ולהלן הוא אומר (דברים כז, יד) וענו הלוים ואמרו אל כל איש ישראל מה ענייה האמורה להלן בלשון הקודש אף כאן בלה"ק,ולוים גופייהו מנלן אתיא קול קול ממשה כתיב הכא קול רם וכתיב התם (שמות יט, יט) משה ידבר והאלהים יעננו בקול מה להלן בלשון הקודש אף כאן בלשון הקודש,חליצה כיצד וכו' ורבנן האי ככה מאי עבדי ליה מיבעי להו לדבר שהוא מעשה מעכב,ור' יהודה מכה ככה ורבנן כה ככה לא משמע להו 33a. that bthe entire Torah may be recited in any language, as, if it should enter your mindto say bthatthe entire Torah bmay be recitedonly bin the sacred tongueand not in any other language, bwhy do Ineed bthat which the Merciful One writes: “Andthese words, which I command you this day, bwill be”?If in fact it is prohibited for one to recite any portion of the Torah in a language other than Hebrew, then prohibiting the recitation of iShemain a language other than Hebrew is superfluous. Since the Torah specifically requires iShemato be recited in Hebrew, it must be because the rest of the Torah may be recited in any language.,The Gemara rejects this suggestion: This is not unquestionably so, as the phrase “and these words, which I command you this day, will be” bis necessaryin this case bbecause “hear” isalso bwritten.Had it not said “and these words, which I command you this day, will be,” it would have been derived from the word “hear” that iShemamay be recited in any language, in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis. Therefore, the phrase “and these words, which I command you this day, will be” is necessary.,The Gemara asks: bShall we saythat bthe Rabbis holdthat bthe entire Torah may be recitedonly bin the sacred tongueand not in any other language? bAs, if it should enter your mindto say bthatthe Torah bmay be recited in any language, why do Ineed bthat which the Merciful One writes: “Hear”?It is permitted for one to recite the entire Torah in any language, rendering a specific requirement with regard to iShemasuperfluous.,The Gemara rejects this: The word “hear” bis necessaryin any case, bbecause “andthese words, which I command you this day, bwill be” isalso bwritten.Had it not been for the word “hear,” the Rabbis would have understood that it is prohibited to recite iShemain any other language, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Therefore, the word “hear” is necessary.,§ It is stated in the mishna that the iAmida bprayermay be recited in any language. The reason for this is that since prayer bisa request for divine bmercy, one may pray in any way that one desires. /b,The Gemara asks: bButmay bprayerreally be recited bin any language? But didn’t Rav Yehuda say: A person should never request in the Aramaic languagethat bhis needsbe met, bas Rabbi Yoḥa saidthat with regard to banyone who requests in the Aramaic languagethat bhis needsbe met, bthe ministering angels do not attend to him, as the ministering angels are not familiar [ imakkirin /i] with the Aramaic language? /b,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult,as bthatstatement of Rabbi Yoḥa is referring btothe prayer of ban individual,who needs the support of the angels, whereas bthisstatement of the mishna is referring bto communalprayer.,The Gemara asks: bAnd are the ministering angels not familiar with the Aramaic language? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta13:5): bYoḥa the High Priest heard a Divine Voiceemerging bfrom the House of the Holy of Holies that was saying: The youth who went to wage war in Antokhya have been victorious. Andthere was banother incident involving Shimon HaTzaddik, who heard a Divine Voiceemerging bfrom the House of the Holy of Holies that was saying: The decree that the enemy intended to bring against the Temple is annulled, and Gaskalgas,Caligula, bhas been killed and his decrees have been voided. Andpeople bwrotedown bthat timethat the Divine Voice was heard, bandlater found that it bmatchedexactly the moment that Caligula was killed. The Gemara concludes: bAndthis Divine Voice bwas speaking in the Aramaic language. /b,The Gemara answers: bIf you wish, saythat the bDivine Voice is different, as its purpose is to communicatea message, and therefore it also communicates in Aramaic. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that bit wasthe angel bGabriel, as the Master saidwith regard to Joseph: bGabriel came and taught him seventy languages,as he knows all of the languages, as opposed to the other angels, who do not.,§ It is stated in the mishna that bGrace after Mealsmay be recited in any language. bAs it is written: “And you shall eat, and be satisfied, and bless the Lord your God”(Deuteronomy 8:10). The word “bless” is homiletically interpreted to mean: bIn any language that you bless. /b,It is stated in the mishna that ban oath of testimonymay be said in any language, bas it is written: “And if anyone sins, in that he heard the voice of adjuration”(Leviticus 5:1). The emphasis on hearing in the verse is interpreted to mean that it can be recited bin any language that a person hears,i.e., understands.,It is stated in the mishna that ban oath on a depositmay be taken in any language. This bis derivedby means of a verbal analogy bfromthe word b“sins”(Leviticus 5:21) that appears in the portion of an oath on a deposit, and the word b“sins”(Leviticus 5:1) that is mentioned in the portion of ban oath of testimony. /b,§ It is stated in the mishna: bAnd these are recitedonly bin the sacred tongue: The recitation ofthe verses that one recounts when bringing the bfirst fruitsto the Temple; band iḥalitza /i…howis it derived that the brecitationwhen bringing the bfirst fruitsis recited specifically in Hebrew? When the Torah discusses this mitzva it states: b“And you shall speak and say before the Lord your God”(Deuteronomy 26:5), band below,in the discussion of the blessings and curses, bit states: “And the Levites shall speak and say to all the men of Israel”(Deuteronomy 27:14). bJust as there,in the portion of the Levites, they speak bin the sacred tongue, so too here,in the portion of the first fruits, the recitation is bin the sacred tongue. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive that bthe Levites themselvesanswered in Hebrew? The Gemara answers: It is bderived froma verbal analogy between the word b“voice”that appears here, in the portion of the blessings and curses, and the word b“voice”in the verse that relates to bMoses. It is written here: “With a loud voice”(Deuteronomy 27:14), band it is written there: “Moses spoke, and God answered him by a voice”(Exodus 19:19). bJust as there,the Ten Commandments were stated bin the sacred tongue, so too here,the Levites spoke bin the sacred tongue. /b,It is stated in the mishna: bHowis it derived that the recitation at ba iḥalitza /iceremony must be in Hebrew? The verse states: “And she shall speak and say: So shall it be done to the man that doth not build up his brother’s house” (Deuteronomy 25:9). Rabbi Yehuda derives this ihalakhafrom the phrase: “And she shall speak and say: So” (Deuteronomy 25:9). The Gemara asks: bAnd what do the Rabbis do with,i.e., how do they interpret, bthisword b“so”? They requireit btoteach that any bmatterdetailed in the portion bthat is an action is indispensableto the iḥalitzaceremony, as the verse states: “So shall it be done.” However, the other aspects of the ritual, e.g., the recitations, are not indispensable, and in their absence the ritual is valid after the fact., bAnd Rabbi Yehudaderives this ihalakha bfromthe fact that the verse could have used the shorter form of the word bso [ iko /i],and instead uses the longer form of the word bso [ ikakha /i].He therefore derives both ihalakhotfrom this word. bAnd the Rabbis do not learn anything fromthe difference between iko /iand ikakha /i. /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
admission procedure Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
adversary eschatological Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
amoraim, amoraic period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 206
aristotle, pain as an emotion Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228, 237, 238
audience Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 82
authority(ies) Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 133
battle Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
belial Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
belial traditions Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 194
belial—see also angels Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 82, 99, 101
birth of noah Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
bread, wine, food Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
bread, wine Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198
bread Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198
community Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
community rule Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
d/demonisation Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 133
damascus document Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
dead sea scrolls Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 65
death Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
dinner, formal Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 206
dinner, informal Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
disciples/discipleship Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 133
domination, emotion and Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 237, 238
domination, in ritual Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 237, 238
dualism, dualist(ic) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 420
eating Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
education, judaism/jewish education Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 65
emotion, in the classical world Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228, 237, 238
emotion, in the hebrew bible Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228, 237, 238
emulation Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
encampment and march Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 198
end of days Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198
epistle of enoch Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
eschatological admonition Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
eschatology, sectarian Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198
eschatology/eschatological Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 98
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 420
ethical education, judaism Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 65
evans, craig a. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 108
exorcisms/exorcise/exorcists/exorcistic Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 133
grace before and after meals, invitation to say (zimmun) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
grace before and after meals, recited by one for all Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 206
grace before and after meals, recited individually Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198, 206
grace before and after meals Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198, 206
hasmonean period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
hate, power and Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 237
hazon gabriel Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 108
heal/healers/healings Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 133
heaven Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also, interpretation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 98, 99, 101
herodian period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
hierarchy Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
holiness Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47
hostility Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47, 98
jesus, name of Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 133
josephus Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 420
judaism Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 65
judean (geographical-political) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 420
kings, biblical Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 98
laity, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47
love, among the dead sea sect Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 237, 238
love, power and Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 237
mandel, paul Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 278
maśkîl Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
meals, communal Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198, 206
meals, cultic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
meals, reclining at Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
meals, sacral/sacred Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198
meals, sitting at Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 198, 206
messiah, davidic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 198
messiah, of israel Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198
messiah, priestly Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 198
messiahs, two Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 198
messianic banquet, era Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198
messianic banquet Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198, 206
moshav ha-rabbim Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
newsom, carol a. Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 108
observance of law Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 420
pain, emotion and Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228, 237, 238
palestinian talmud Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
passover seder Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 420
pedagogy Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
place and place studies, importance to judaism Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 65
place and place studies, materiality and fluidity Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 65
poor, the Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 420
pray/prayers Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman, Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity (2019) 133
prayer, liturgy Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 82, 98, 99, 101
priests, aaronide Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198, 206
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47, 101
purity/ritual purity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47
purity (see also food laws) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 420
purity and impurity, ritual purity Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 206
qumran/qumran community Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47, 98
qumran Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 65
qumran halakha Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 420
quorum, ten, ritual quorum, three Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
quorum, ten, ritual quorum Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197, 198, 206
rabbi akiva Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
rabbi yose the galilean Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
rabbis, rabbinic literature Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 198
rank (status in sect), ranking system Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 198
rava Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 206
religion within a cultural system, space and Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 65
repentance Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
ritual, as emotional practice Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 237, 238
ritual, embodiment in Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 237, 238
sabbath, and festival meals Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
sacrifices/sacrificial offerings Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 98
sacrospace' Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 65
satan Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
sect, members of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
sectarian/sectarianism Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 98
sects, sectarianism' "267.0_197.0@serekh ha-'edah" Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
separation Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
social movement theory Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 65
sophrosyne, among women Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228, 237, 238
spirit, evil spirits Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
study practices Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 48
suffering, voluntary Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
tannaim, tannaitic law, judaism, period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 197
temple, cult Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 198
temple ~ Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 420
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 47, 98
tov, emanuel Klawans, Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism (2019) 108
wealth, material Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 221
wine, grape juice Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 198
zeal for the law Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228, 237, 238