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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



3095
Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1.9-1.11
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

26 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.18, 25.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD." 25.30. And if it be not redeemed within the space of a full year, then the house that is in the walled city shall be made sure in perpetuity to him that bought it, throughout his generations; it shall not go out in the jubilee."
2. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 6.24-6.26, 19.9, 19.13, 19.20-19.21, 31.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.24. יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה וְיִשְׁמְרֶךָ׃ 6.25. יָאֵר יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וִיחֻנֶּךָּ׃ 6.26. יִשָּׂא יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וְיָשֵׂם לְךָ שָׁלוֹם׃ 19.9. וְאָסַף אִישׁ טָהוֹר אֵת אֵפֶר הַפָּרָה וְהִנִּיחַ מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה בְּמָקוֹם טָהוֹר וְהָיְתָה לַעֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת לְמֵי נִדָּה חַטָּאת הִוא׃ 19.13. כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵת בְּנֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר־יָמוּת וְלֹא יִתְחַטָּא אֶת־מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה טִמֵּא וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל כִּי מֵי נִדָּה לֹא־זֹרַק עָלָיו טָמֵא יִהְיֶה עוֹד טֻמְאָתוֹ בוֹ׃ 19.21. וְהָיְתָה לָּהֶם לְחֻקַּת עוֹלָם וּמַזֵּה מֵי־הַנִּדָּה יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְהַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵי הַנִּדָּה יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 31.23. כָּל־דָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־יָבֹא בָאֵשׁ תַּעֲבִירוּ בָאֵשׁ וְטָהֵר אַךְ בְּמֵי נִדָּה יִתְחַטָּא וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָבֹא בָּאֵשׁ תַּעֲבִירוּ בַמָּיִם׃ 6.24. The LORD bless thee, and keep thee;" 6.25. The LORD make His face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee;" 6.26. The LORD lift up His countece upon thee, and give thee peace." 19.9. And a man that is clean shall gather up the ashes of the heifer, and lay them up without the camp in a clean place, and it shall be kept for the congregation of the children of Israel for a water of sprinkling; it is a purification from sin." 19.13. Whosoever toucheth the dead, even the body of any man that is dead, and purifieth not himself—he hath defiled the tabernacle of the LORD—that soul shall be cut off from Israel; because the water of sprinkling was not dashed against him, he shall be unclean; his uncleanness is yet upon him." 19.20. But the man that shall be unclean, and shall not purify himself, that soul shall be cut off from the midst of the assembly, because he hath defiled the sanctuary of the LORD; the water of sprinkling hath not been dashed against him: he is unclean." 19.21. And it shall be a perpetual statute unto them; and he that sprinkleth the water of sprinkling shall wash his clothes; and he that toucheth the water of sprinkling shall be unclean until even." 31.23. every thing that may abide the fire, ye shall make to go through the fire, and it shall be clean; nevertheless it shall be purified with the water of sprinkling; and all that abideth not the fire ye shall make to go through the water."
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 60.10, 108.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

60.10. Moab is my washpot; Upon Edom do I cast my shoe; Philistia, cry aloud because of me!" 108.10. Moab is my washpot; Upon Edom do I cast my shoe; Over Philistia do I cry aloud."
4. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 2.14-2.15, 14.6-14.9, 15.5-15.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

5. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 2.14-2.15, 14.6-14.9, 15.5-15.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 6.13-6.16, 6.29-6.30, 7.21, 12.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 6.13-6.16, 6.29-6.30, 7.21, 12.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Dead Sea Scrolls, Papsa, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Dead Sea Scrolls, Rule of The Community, 1.8-1.9, 1.13-1.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Dead Sea Scrolls, Rule of The Community, 1.8-1.9, 1.13-1.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.10-7.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.10. After him, the third was the victim of their sport. When it was demanded, he quickly put out his tongue and courageously stretched forth his hands,' 7.11. and said nobly, 'I got these from Heaven, and because of his laws I disdain them, and from him I hope to get them back again.' 7.12. As a result the king himself and those with him were astonished at the young man's spirit, for he regarded his sufferings as nothing.' 7.13. When he too had died, they maltreated and tortured the fourth in the same way.' 7.14. And when he was near death, he said, 'One cannot but choose to die at the hands of men and to cherish the hope that God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life!'
13. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 25.7-25.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

25.7. With nine thoughts I have gladdened my heart,and a tenth I shall tell with my tongue:a man rejoicing in his children;a man who lives to see the downfall of his foes; 25.8. happy is he who lives with an intelligent wife,and he who has not made a slip with his tongue,and he who has not served a man inferior to himself; 25.9. happy is he who has gained good sense,and he who speaks to attentive listeners. 25.11. The fear of the Lord surpasses everything;to whom shall be likened the one who holds it fast?
14. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.139-2.142 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.139. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous; 2.141. that he will be perpetually a lover of truth, and propose to himself to reprove those that tell lies; that he will keep his hands clear from theft, and his soul from unlawful gains; and that he will neither conceal anything from those of his own sect, nor discover any of their doctrines to others, no, not though anyone should compel him so to do at the hazard of his life. 2.142. Moreover, he swears to communicate their doctrines to no one any otherwise than as he received them himself; that he will abstain from robbery, and will equally preserve the books belonging to their sect, and the names of the angels [or messengers]. These are the oaths by which they secure their proselytes to themselves.
15. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.4. And there were three rows of disciples of the Sages who sat before them, and each knew his proper place. If they needed to appoint [another as a judge] they appointed him from the first row, and one from the second row came into the first row, and one from the third row came into the second row, and they chose another from the congregation and set him in the third row. He did not sit in the place of the former, but he sat in the place that was proper for him."
16. New Testament, 1 John, 1.5, 1.7, 2.8-2.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.5. This is the message which we have heard from him and announce to you, that God is light, and in him is no darkness at all. 1.7. But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus Christ, his Son, cleanses us from all sin. 2.8. Again, I write a new commandment to you, which is true in him and in you; because the darkness is passing away, and the true light already shines. 2.9. He who says he is in the light and hates his brother, is in the darkness even until now. 2.10. He who loves his brother remains in the light, and there is no occasion for stumbling in him.
17. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 4.4, 6.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.1-2.10, 4.27, 5.1-5.14, 6.10-6.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. You were made alive when you were dead in transgressions and sins 2.2. in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience; 2.3. among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. 2.4. But God, being rich in mercy, for his great love with which he loved us 2.5. even when we were dead through our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved) 2.6. and raised us up with him, and made us to sit with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus 2.7. that in the ages to come he might show the exceeding riches of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus; 2.8. for by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God 2.9. not of works, that no one would boast. 2.10. For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared before that we would walk in them. 4.27. neither give place to the devil. 5.1. Be therefore imitators of God, as beloved children. 5.2. Walk in love, even as Christ also loved you, and gave himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling fragrance. 5.3. But sexual immorality, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not even be mentioned among you, as becomes saints; 5.4. nor filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not appropriate; but rather giving of thanks. 5.5. Know this for sure, that no sexually immoral person, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the Kingdom of Christ and God. 5.6. Let no one deceive you with empty words. For because of these things, the wrath of God comes on the sons of disobedience. 5.7. Therefore don't be partakers with them. 5.8. For you were once darkness, but are now light in the Lord. Walk as children of light 5.9. for the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth 5.10. proving what is well-pleasing to the Lord. 5.11. Have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather even reprove them. 5.12. For the things which are done by them in secret, it is a shame even to speak of. 5.13. But all things, when they are reproved, are revealed by the light, for everything that is revealed is light. 5.14. Therefore he says, "Awake, you who sleep, and arise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you. 6.10. Finally, be strong in the Lord, and in the strength of his might. 6.11. Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. 6.12. For our wrestling is not against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, against the powers, against the world's rulers of the darkness of this age, and against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places. 6.13. Therefore, put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to withstand in the evil day, and, having done all, to stand. 6.14. Stand therefore, having the utility belt of truth buckled around your waist, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness 6.15. and having fitted your feet with the preparation of the gospel of peace; 6.16. above all, taking up the shield of faith, with which you will be able to quench all the fiery darts of the evil one. 6.17. And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God;
19. New Testament, Romans, 12.19-12.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.19. Don't seek revenge yourselves, beloved, but give place to God's wrath. For it is written, "Vengeance belongs to me; I will repay, says the Lord. 12.20. Therefore "If your enemy is hungry, feed him. If he is thirsty, give him a drink. For in doing so, you will heap coals of fire on his head.
20. New Testament, John, 1.4-1.9, 3.19-3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. 1.5. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness hasn't overcome it. 1.6. There came a man, sent from God, whose name was John. 1.7. The same came as a witness, that he might testify about the light, that all might believe through him. 1.8. He was not the light, but was sent that he might testify about the light. 1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. 3.19. This is the judgment, that the light has come into the world, and men loved the darkness rather than the light; for their works were evil. 3.20. For everyone who does evil hates the light, and doesn't come to the light, lest his works would be exposed. 3.21. But he who does the truth comes to the light, that his works may be revealed, that they have been done in God.
21. New Testament, Luke, 4.14-4.22, 6.21-6.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.14. Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit to Galilee, and news about him spread through all the surrounding area. 4.15. He taught in their synagogues, being glorified by all. 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.17. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written 4.18. The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. 4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing. 4.22. All testified about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, "Isn't this Joseph's son? 6.21. Blessed are you who hunger now, For you will be filled. Blessed are you who weep now, For you will laugh. 6.22. Blessed are you when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from them and reproach you, and throw out your name as evil, for the Son of Man's sake. 6.23. Rejoice in that day, and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven, for their fathers did the same thing to the prophets. 6.24. But woe to you who are rich! For you have received your consolation. 6.25. Woe to you, you who are full now! For you will be hungry. Woe to you who laugh now! For you will mourn and weep. 6.26. Woe, when men speak well of you! For their fathers did the same thing to the false prophets.
22. New Testament, Matthew, 5.3-5.12, 5.17, 5.43 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.3. Blessed are the poor in spirit, For theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.4. Blessed are those who mourn, For they shall be comforted. 5.5. Blessed are the gentle, For they shall inherit the earth. 5.6. Blessed are those who hunger and thirst after righteousness, For they shall be filled. 5.7. Blessed are the merciful, For they shall obtain mercy. 5.8. Blessed are the pure in heart, For they shall see God. 5.9. Blessed are the peacemakers, For they shall be called sons of God. 5.10. Blessed are those who have been persecuted for righteousness' sake, For theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.11. Blessed are you when people reproach you, persecute you, and say all kinds of evil against you falsely, for my sake. 5.12. Rejoice, and be exceedingly glad, for great is your reward in heaven. For that is how they persecuted the prophets who were before you. 5.17. Don't think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn't come to destroy, but to fulfill. 5.43. You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.'
23. Seneca The Younger, On Anger, 3.8.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Tosefta, Tevulyom, 1.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

61b. ריאה שואבת כל מיני משקין כבד כועס מרה זורקת בו טפה ומניחתו טחול שוחק קרקבן טוחן קיבה ישנה אף נעור נעור הישן ישן הנעור נמוק והולך לו תנא אם שניהם ישנים או שניהם נעורים מיד מת,תניא רבי יוסי הגלילי אומר צדיקים יצר טוב שופטן שנאמר (תהלים קט, כב) ולבי חלל בקרבי רשעים יצר רע שופטן שנאמר (תהלים לו, ב) נאם פשע לרשע בקרב לבי אין פחד אלהים לנגד עיניו בינונים זה וזה שופטן שנאמר (תהלים קט, לא) יעמוד לימין אביון להושיע משופטי נפשו,אמר רבא כגון אנו בינונים אמר ליה אביי לא שביק מר חיי לכל בריה,ואמר רבא לא איברי עלמא אלא לרשיעי גמורי או לצדיקי גמורי אמר רבא לידע אינש בנפשיה אם צדיק גמור הוא אם לאו אמר רב לא איברי עלמא אלא לאחאב בן עמרי ולר' חנינא בן דוסא לאחאב בן עמרי העולם הזה ולרבי חנינא בן דוסא העולם הבא:,ואהבת את י"י אלהיך: תניא ר' אליעזר אומר אם נאמר בכל נפשך למה נאמר בכל מאדך ואם נאמר בכל מאדך למה נאמר בכל נפשך אלא אם יש לך אדם שגופו חביב עליו מממונו לכך נאמר בכל נפשך ואם יש לך אדם שממונו חביב עליו מגופו לכך נאמר בכל מאדך רבי עקיבא אומר בכל נפשך אפילו נוטל את נפשך,תנו רבנן פעם אחת גזרה מלכות הרשעה שלא יעסקו ישראל בתורה בא פפוס בן יהודה ומצאו לרבי עקיבא שהיה מקהיל קהלות ברבים ועוסק בתורה אמר ליה עקיבא אי אתה מתירא מפני מלכות,אמר לו אמשול לך משל למה הדבר דומה לשועל שהיה מהלך על גב הנהר וראה דגים שהיו מתקבצים ממקום למקום אמר להם מפני מה אתם בורחים אמרו לו מפני רשתות שמביאין עלינו בני אדם אמר להם רצונכם שתעלו ליבשה ונדור אני ואתם כשם שדרו אבותי עם אבותיכם אמרו לו אתה הוא שאומרים עליך פקח שבחיות לא פקח אתה אלא טפש אתה ומה במקום חיותנו אנו מתיראין במקום מיתתנו על אחת כמה וכמה אף אנחנו עכשיו שאנו יושבים ועוסקים בתורה שכתוב בה (דברים ל, כ) כי הוא חייך ואורך ימיך כך אם אנו הולכים ומבטלים ממנה עאכ"ו,אמרו לא היו ימים מועטים עד שתפסוהו לר"ע וחבשוהו בבית האסורים ותפסו לפפוס בן יהודה וחבשוהו אצלו אמר לו פפוס מי הביאך לכאן אמר ליה אשריך רבי עקיבא שנתפסת על דברי תורה אוי לו לפפוס שנתפס על דברים בטלים,בשעה שהוציאו את ר' עקיבא להריגה זמן ק"ש היה והיו סורקים את בשרו במסרקות של ברזל והיה מקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים אמרו לו תלמידיו רבינו עד כאן אמר להם כל ימי הייתי מצטער על פסוק זה בכל נפשך אפילו נוטל את נשמתך אמרתי מתי יבא לידי ואקיימנו ועכשיו שבא לידי לא אקיימנו היה מאריך באחד עד שיצתה נשמתו באחד יצתה ב"ק ואמרה אשריך ר"ע שיצאה נשמתך באחד,אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה זו תורה וזו שכרה (תהלים יז, יד) ממתים ידך י"י ממתים וגו' אמר להם חלקם בחיים יצתה בת קול ואמרה אשריך ר"ע שאתה מזומן לחיי העוה"ב:,לא יקל אדם את ראשו כנגד שער המזרח שהוא מכוון כנגד בית קדשי הקדשים וכו': אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לא אמרו אלא מן הצופים ולפנים וברואה איתמר נמי א"ר אבא בריה דרבי חייא בר אבא הכי אמר רבי יוחנן לא אמרו אלא מן הצופים ולפנים וברואה ובשאין גדר ובזמן שהשכינה שורה,ת"ר הנפנה ביהודה לא יפנה מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ובגליל לא יפנה אלא מזרח ומערב ורבי יוסי מתיר שהיה ר' יוסי אומר לא אסרו אלא ברואה ובמקום שאין שם גדר ובזמן שהשכינה שורה וחכמים אוסרים,חכמים היינו ת"ק איכא בינייהו צדדין,תניא אידך הנפנה ביהודה לא יפנה מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ובגליל צפון ודרום אסור מזרח ומערב מותר ורבי יוסי מתיר שהיה רבי יוסי אומר לא אסרו אלא ברואה רבי יהודה אומר בזמן שבית המקדש קיים אסור בזמן שאין בית המקדש קיים מותר רבי עקיבא אוסר בכל מקום,רבי עקיבא היינו ת"ק איכא בינייהו חוץ לארץ,רבה הוו שדיין ליה לבני מזרח ומערב אזל אביי שדנהו צפון ודרום על רבה תרצנהו אמר מאן האי דקמצער לי אנא כר' עקיבא סבירא לי דאמר בכל מקום אסור: 61b. and the blungs draw all kinds of liquids,the bliver becomes angry,the bgallbladder binjects a dropof gall bintothe liver and ballaysanger, the bspleen laughs,the bmaw grindsthe food, and the bstomachbrings bsleep,the bnose awakens.If they reversed roles such that btheorgan which brings on bsleepwere to bawaken,or btheorgan which bawakenswere to bring on bsleep,the individual bwould gradually deteriorate. It was taught: If bothbring on bsleep or both awaken,the person bimmediately dies. /b,With regard to one’s inclinations, bit was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei HaGelili says: The good inclination rules the righteous, as it is stated: “And my heart is dead within me”(Psalms 109:22); the evil inclination has been completely banished from his heart. The bevil inclination rules the wicked, as it is stated: “Transgression speaks to the wicked, there is no fear of God before his eyes”(Psalms 36:2). bMiddling people are ruled by boththe good and evil inclinations, bas it is stated: “Because He stands at the right hand of the needy, to save him from them that rule his soul”(Psalms 109:31)., bRabba said:People blike usare bmiddling. Abaye,his student and nephew, bsaid to him:If bthe Masterclaims that he is merely middling, he bdoes not leaveroom for bany creature to live.If a person like you is middling, what of the rest of us?, bAnd Rava said: The world was created only forthe sake of bthe full-fledged wicked or the full-fledged righteous;others do not live complete lives in either world. bRava said: One should know of himself whether or not he is completely righteous,as if he is not completely righteous, he knows that his life will be a life of suffering. bRav said: The world was only created forthe wicked bAhab ben Omri and for Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa.The Gemara explains: For bAhab ben Omri, this worldwas created, as he has no place in the World-to-Come, bandfor bRabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa, the World-to-Comewas created.,We learned in our mishna the explanation of the verse: b“And you shall love the Lord your Godwith all your heart and all your soul and all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). This was elaborated upon when bit was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer says: If it is stated: “With all your soul,” why does it state: “With all your might”?Conversely, bif it stated: “With all your might,” why does it state: “With all your soul”? Rather,this means that bif one’s body is dearer to him than his property, therefore it is stated: “With all your soul”;one must give his soul in sanctification of God. bAnd if one’s money is dearer to him than his body, therefore it is stated: “With all your might”;with all your assets. bRabbi Akiva says: “With all your soul”means: bEven ifGod btakes your soul. /b,The Gemara relates at length how Rabbi Akiva fulfilled these directives. bThe Sages taught: One time,after the bar Kokheva rebellion, bthe evil empireof Rome bdecreed that Israel may not engage inthe study and practice of bTorah. Pappos ben Yehuda came and found Rabbi Akiva, who was convening assemblies in public and engaging in Torahstudy. Pappos bsaid to him: Akiva, are you not afraid of the empire? /b,Rabbi Akiva banswered him: I will relate a parable. To what can this be compared?It is like ba fox walking along a riverbank when he sees fish gatheringand fleeing bfrom place to place. brThe fox bsaid to them: From what are you fleeing? br bThey said to him:We are fleeing bfrom the nets that people cast upon us. br bHe said to them: Do you wish to come up onto dry land, and we will reside together just as my ancestors resided with your ancestors? brThe fish bsaid to him: You are the one of whom they say, he is the cleverest of animals? You are not clever; you are a fool. If we are afraid inthe water, bournatural bhabitatwhich gives us blife,then bin a habitatthat causes our bdeath, all the more so. brThe moral is: bSo too, weJews, bnow that we sit and engage in Torahstudy, babout which it is written: “For that is your life, and the length of your days”(Deuteronomy 30:20), we fear the empire bto this extent; if we proceed tosit bidle from itsstudy, as its abandonment is the habitat that causes our death, ball the more sowill we fear the empire.,The Sages bsaid: Not a few days passed until they seized Rabbi Akiva and incarcerated him in prison, and seized Pappos ben Yehuda and incarcerated him alongside him.Rabbi Akiva bsaid to him: Pappos, who brought you here?Pappos breplied: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, for you were arrested onthe charge of engaging in bTorahstudy. bWoe unto Pappos who was seized onthe charge of engaging in bidle matters. /b,The Gemara relates: bWhen they took Rabbi Akiva out to be executed, it was time for the recitation of iShema /i. And they were raking his flesh with iron combs, and he wasreciting iShema /i, thereby baccepting upon himself the yoke of Heaven. His students said to him: Our teacher, even now,as you suffer, you recite iShema /i? bHe said to them: All my days I have been troubled by the verse: With all your soul,meaning: bEven if God takes your soul. I saidto myself: bWhen will theopportunity bbe afforded me to fulfill thisverse? bNow that it has been afforded me, shall I not fulfill it? He prolongedhis uttering of the word: bOne, until his soul lefthis body as he uttered his final word: bOne. A voice descendedfrom heaven band said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, that your soul leftyour body basyou uttered: bOne. /b, bThe ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: This is Torah and this its reward?As it is stated: b“From death, by Your hand, O Lord, from deathof the world” (Psalms 17:14); Your hand, God, kills and does not save. God bsaidthe end of the verse btothe ministering angels: b“Whose portion is in this life.”And then ba Divine Voice emerged and said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, as you are destined for life in the World-to-Come,as your portion is already in eternal life.,We learned in the mishna that bone may not act irreverently opposite the Eastern Gate, which is aligned with the Holy of Holies.Limiting this ihalakha /i, bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: They only saidthis ihalakhawith regard to irreverent behavior bfromMount bScopus [ iTzofim /i] and within, andspecifically areas from where bone can seethe Temple. bIt is also stated: Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said: Rabbi Yoḥa said the following: They only saidthis ihalakhawith regard to Mount bScopus and within,when bone can see, and when there is no fenceobstructing his view, band when the Divine Presence is restingthere, i.e., when the Temple is standing.,In this context, bthe Sages taught: One who defecates in Judea should not defecatewhen facing beast and west,for then he is facing Jerusalem; bratherhe should do so bfacing north and south. But in the Galileewhich is north of Jerusalem, bone should only defecatefacing beast and west. Rabbi Yosei permitsdoing so, bas Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibiteddoing so when bone can seethe Temple, bwhere there is no fence, and when the Divine Presence is restingthere. bAnd the Rabbis prohibitdoing so.,The Gemara argues: But the opinion of the bRabbis,who prohibit this, bisidentical to that of the bfirstanonymous itanna, /iwho also prohibits doing so. The Gemara replies: The practical difference bbetween them iswith regard to bthe sides,i.e., a place in Judea that is not directly east or west of Jerusalem, or a place in the Galilee that is not directly north of Jerusalem. According to the first itanna /i, it is prohibited; according to the Rabbis, it is permitted., bIt was taughtin banother ibaraita /i: bOne who defecates in Judea should not defecatewhen facing beast and west; rather,he should only do so facing bnorth and south. And in the Galilee,defecating while facing bnorth and south is prohibited,while beast and west is permitted. And Rabbi Yosei permitteddoing so, bas Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibiteddoing so when bone can seethe Temple. bRabbi Yehuda says: When the Temple is standing, it is prohibited,but bwhen the Temple is not standing, it is permitted.The Gemara adds that bRabbi Akiva prohibitsdefecating banywherewhile facing east and west.,The Gemara challenges this: bRabbi Akiva’sposition bis identical tothat of bthe first,anonymous itanna /i,who also prohibits doing so. The Gemara responds: The practical difference bbetween themis with regard to places boutside of EretzYisrael b,as according to Rabbi Akiva, even outside of Eretz Yisrael, defecating while facing east and west is prohibited.,The Gemara relates that in bRabba’sbathroom, bthe bricks were placed east and westin order to ensure that he would defecate facing north and south. bAbaye wentand bplaced them north and south,to test if Rabba was particular about their direction or if they had simply been placed east and west incidentally. bRabba enteredand bfixed them. He said: Who is the one that is upsetting me? I hold in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Akiva,who bsaid: It is prohibited everywhere. /b
26. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

86a. חוץ (שמות כ, ו) מלא תשא לא תשא וכל דדמי ליה,ת"ש ר' יהודה אומר כל שהוא מלא תשא ולמטה תשובה מכפרת מלא תשא ולמעלה תשובה תולה ויוה"כ מכפר לא תשא וכל דדמי ליה,ת"ש לפי שנאמר בחורב תשובה ונקה יכול אף לא תשא עמהן ת"ל (שמות לד, ז) לא ינקה יכול אף שאר חייבי לאוין כן ת"ל את שמו שמו הוא דאינו מנקה אבל מנקה שאר חייבי לאוין,תנאי היא דתניא על מה תשובה מכפרת על עשה ועל לא תעשה שניתק לעשה ועל מה תשובה תולה ויוה"כ מכפר על כריתות ועל מיתות בית דין ועל לא תעשה גמור,אמר מר לפי שנאמר בחורב ונקה מנא לן דתניא ר' אלעזר אומר אי אפשר לומר נקה שכבר נאמר לא ינקה ואי אפשר לומר לא ינקה שכבר נאמר נקה הא כיצד מנקה הוא לשבין ואינו מנקה לשאינן שבין,שאל ר' מתיא בן חרש את ר' אלעזר בן עזריה ברומי שמעת ארבע' חלוקי כפרה שהיה רבי ישמעאל דורש אמר שלשה הן ותשובה עם כל אחד ואחד,עבר על עשה ושב אינו זז משם עד שמוחלין לו שנאמר (ירמיהו ג, יד) שובו בנים שובבים עבר על לא תעשה ועשה תשובה תשובה תולה ויוה"כ מכפר שנאמר (ויקרא טז, ל) כי ביום הזה יכפר עליכם מכל חטאתיכם עבר על כריתות ומיתות בית דין ועשה תשובה תשובה ויוה"כ תולין ויסורין ממרקין שנאמר (תהלים פט, לג) ופקדתי בשבט פשעם ובנגעים עונם,אבל מי שיש חילול השם בידו אין לו כח בתשובה לתלות ולא ביוה"כ לכפר ולא ביסורין למרק אלא כולן תולין ומיתה ממרקת שנאמר (ישעיהו כב, יד) ונגלה באזני ה' צבאות אם יכופר העון הזה לכם עד תמותון,היכי דמי חילול השם אמר רב כגון אנא אי שקילנא בישרא מטבחא ולא יהיבנא דמי לאלתר אמר אביי לא שנו אלא באתרא דלא תבעי אבל באתרא דתבעי לית לן בה,אמר רבינא ומתא מחסיא אתרא דתבעי הוא אביי כדשקיל בישרא מתרי שותפי יהיב זוזא להאי וזוזא להאי והדר מקרב להו גבי הדדי ועביד חושבנא,רבי יוחנן אמר כגון אנא דמסגינא ארבע אמות בלא תורה ובלא תפילין יצחק דבי ר' ינאי אמר כל שחביריו מתביישין מחמת שמועתו (היינו חילול השם) אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק כגון דקא אמרי אינשי שרא ליה מריה לפלניא,אביי אמר כדתניא (דברים ו, ה) ואהבת את ה' אלהיך שיהא שם שמים מתאהב על ידך שיהא קורא ושונה ומשמש ת"ח ויהא משאו ומתנו בנחת עם הבריות מה הבריות אומרות עליו אשרי אביו שלמדו תורה אשרי רבו שלמדו תורה אוי להם לבריות שלא למדו תורה פלוני שלמדו תורה ראו כמה נאים דרכיו כמה מתוקנים מעשיו עליו הכתוב אומר (ישעיהו מט, ג) ויאמר לי עבדי אתה ישראל אשר בך אתפאר,אבל מי שקורא ושונה ומשמש ת"ח ואין משאו ומתנו באמונה ואין דבורו בנחת עם הבריות מה הבריות אומרות עליו אוי לו לפלוני שלמד תורה אוי לו לאביו שלמדו תורה אוי לו לרבו שלמדו תורה פלוני שלמד תורה ראו כמה מקולקלין מעשיו וכמה מכוערין דרכיו ועליו הכתוב אומר (יחזקאל לו, כ) באמור להם עם ה' אלה ומארצו יצאו,א"ר חמא (בר) חנינא גדולה תשובה שמביאה רפאות לעולם שנא' (הושע יד, ה) ארפא משובתם אוהבם נדבה,ר' חמא (בר) חנינא רמי כתיב (ירמיהו ג, יד) שובו בנים שובבים דמעיקרא שובבים אתם וכתיב ארפא משובותיכם לא קשיא כאן מאהבה כאן מיראה,רב יהודה רמי כתיב שובו בנים שובבים ארפא משובותיכם וכתיב (ירמיהו ג, יד) (הנה) אנכי בעלתי בכם ולקחתי אתכם אחד מעיר ושנים ממשפחה ל"ק כאן מאהבה או מיראה כאן ע"י יסורין אמר רבי לוי גדולה תשובה שמגעת עד כסא הכבוד שנא' (הושע יד, ב) שובה ישראל עד ה' אלהיך 86a. bexcept for: “You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” (Exodus 20:7), about which the Torah states: “For God will not absolve him who takes His name in vain” (Exodus 20:7). The Gemara answers: It is not that this is the only negative mitzva that is not a minor transgression; rather, it is: b“You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” band anyprohibition bsimilar to it,meaning all severe prohibitions that carry punishment by a court.,The Gemara proposes: bComeand bhearfrom that which was taught: bRabbi Yehuda says:For banysin bfrom “You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” band below,i.e., prohibitions less severe than that, brepentance atones.For any sin bfrom “You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” band above, repentance suspendspunishment band Yom Kippur atones.The Gemara rejects this: This does not constitute proof either, since one could say that it is referring to: b“You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” band anything similar to it. /b, bComeand bhearfrom a different source that was taught: bSince it was stated at Horebwith regard to brepentance: “Absolve,”one bmighthave thought that beventhe transgression of: b“You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” is included bamong them;therefore, bthe verses states: “Will not absolve”(Exodus 20:6). One bmighthave thought this is balsotrue bfor those who are liablefor violating ball other prohibitions;therefore, bthe verse states: “His name.”God bdoes not absolve the onewho disrespects bHis name, but He absolves those who are liablefor violating ball other prohibitionsand repent. This is proof that those who violate all other prohibitions are not comparable to one who violates: “You shall not take the name of the Lord, your God, in vain.”,The Gemara answers: bThis isa dispute between itanna’im /i, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFor what does repentance atone?It atones bfor a positivemitzva band for a negativemitzva that can be rectified bthrough a positive mitzva. And for what does repentance suspendpunishment band Yom Kippur atone?It is bforsins punishable by ikaret /i, and forsins punishable by the bdeathpenalty from the earthly bcourt, and for full-fledged negativemitzvot. This indicates that there is a itannawho distinguishes between prohibitions that warrant lashes and those that do not. Therefore, there is a tannaitic dispute as to whether or not prohibitions that warrant punishment by the courts can be rectified by repentance alone.,§ Since the Gemara cited this ibaraita /i, it now clarifies part of it. bThe Master said: Since it was stated at Horebwith regard to repentance: b“Absolve.”The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this concept that repentance was mentioned there? The Gemara answers: bAs it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Elazar says: It is not possible to say “absolve”(Exodus 34:7) about all transgressions, since b“will not absolve” is already stated(Exodus 34:7). bAnd it is not possible to say “will not absolve,”since b“absolve” is already stated. How so?The Holy One, Blessed be He, babsolves those who repent and does not absolve those who do not repent.Therefore, both “repentance” and “absolve” were mentioned at Horeb.,Furthermore, with regard to the topic of repentance, bRabbi Matya ben Ḥarash asked Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryawhen Rabbi Elazar was bin Rome: Have you heardthe teaching that there are bfour distinctionsin the process bof atonement that Rabbi Yishmael would derive? He said to him: They arenot four but bthreedistinctions, band repentanceis necessary bwith each one. /b,These are the categories: If bone violates a positivemitzva band repents, he is forgiven even before he movesfrom his place, i.e. immediately, bas it is stated: “Return, you backsliding children,I will heal your backsliding” (Jeremiah 3:22), implying that when one repents he is immediately forgiven. If bone violates a prohibition and repents, repentance suspendshis punishment band Yom Kippur atonesfor his sin, bas it is stated: “For on this day shall atonement be made for you,to purify you bfrom all your sins”(Leviticus 16:30). If bone commitsa transgression that warrants ikaretora sin punishable by bdeathfrom the earthly bcourt andthen brepents, repentance and Yom Kippur suspendhis punishment, band suffering absolvesand completes the atonement, bas it is stated: “Then will I visit their transgression with the rod, and their iniquity with strokes”(Psalms 89:33)., bButin the case of bone who hascaused bdesecration ofGod’s bname, his repentance has no power to suspendpunishment, bnor does Yom Kippurhave power bto atonefor his sin, bnor does sufferingalone have power bto absolvehim. bRather, all these suspendpunishment, band death absolveshim, bas it is stated: “And the Lord of Hosts revealed Himself to my ears: This iniquity shall not be atoned for until you die”(Isaiah 22:14).,§ The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesthat cause bdesecration ofGod’s bname? Rav said: For example,in the case of someone like bme,since I am an important public figure, bif I take meat from a butcher and do not give him money immediately,people are likely to think that I did not mean to pay at all. They would consider me a thief and learn from my behavior that one is permitted to steal. bAbaye said: They taught thisstatement of Rav bonly in a place where they do not askfor the money, where it is not customary for the butcher himself to come and collect payment from the customer. When the customer does not pay immediately, people may suspect him of theft. bBut in a place where they askfor the money from the customer some time later, bwe have noproblem bwithdoing this. Since everyone understands he is buying on credit, he is not desecrating God’s name., bRavina said:My native bcityof bMeḥasya is a place where they askfor and collect the money. The Gemara relates that bwhen Abaye bought meat from two partners, he would give the money to this one and the money to this one,so that each would know that he had paid. bAnd afterward he would bring them together and perform the calculationto see whether he received his change., bRabbi Yoḥa said:What is an example of desecration of God’s name? bFor example,someone like bme, ifI would bwalk four cubits without Torah and without phylacteries,and the onlookers did not know that it is only on account of my body’s weakness, that would be a desecration of God’s name. bYitzḥak from the school of Rabbi Yannai said: Anycase when bone’s friends are embarrassed on account of his reputation,meaning his friends are embarrassed due to things they hear about him, bthis is a desecration ofGod’s bname. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:One creates a profanation of God’s name, bfor example, when people sayabout him: bMay his Master forgive so-and-sofor the sins he has done., bAbaye said: As it was taughtin a ibaraitathat it is stated: b“And you shall love the Lord your God”(Deuteronomy 6:5), which means bthat you shall make the name of Heaven beloved.How should one do so? One should do so bin that heshould breadTorah, band learnMishna, band serve Torah scholars, and he should be pleasant with people in his business transactions. What do people say aboutsuch a person? bFortunate is his father who taught him Torah, fortunate is his teacher who taught him Torah, woe to the people who have not studied Torah. So-and-so, who taught him Torah, see how pleasant are his ways, how proper are his deeds. The verse states about himand others like him: b“You are My servant, Israel, in whom I will be glorified”(Isaiah 49:3)., bBut one who readsTorah, band learnsMishna, band serves Torah scholars, but his business practices are notdone bfaithfully, and he does not speak pleasantly with other people, what do people say about him? Woe to so-and-so who studied Torah, woe to his father who taught him Torah, woe to his teacher who taught him Torah. So-and-so who studied Torah, see how destructive are his deeds, and how ugly are his ways. About himand others like him bthe verse statesthat the gentiles will say: b“Men said of them: These are the people of the Lord, yet they had to leave His land”(Ezekiel 36:20). Through their sins and subsequent exile, such people have desecrated the name of God.,§ Further on the topic of repentance, bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina said: Great is repentance, as it brings healing to the world, as it is stated: “I will heal their backsliding, I will love them freely”(Hosea 14:5), which teaches that repentance from sin brings healing., bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina raised a contradictionbetween two verses. bIt is writtenin one verse: b“Return, you backsliding children”(Jeremiah 3:14), implying that binitiallywhen you sinned, it was only because byou were backsliding,i.e., rebelling. It was merely an act of immaturity and foolishness and could be ignored as if it had never happened. bBut it is written: “I will heal your backsliding”(Jeremiah 3:22), implying that He will heal the sin from this point onward, and that they are still sinners. He resolved this contradiction, explaining that this is bnot difficult: Here,where everything is forgiven as if the Jewish people never sinned, it is referring to repentance bout of love; there,where the sin is still remembered despite the forgiveness and repentance, it is referring to repentance bout of fear. /b,Similarly, bRabbi Yehuda raised a contradictionbetween two verses. bIt is written: “Return, you backsliding children I will heal your backsliding”(Jeremiah 3:22), implying that anyone can achieve healing, which is dependent only on repentance. But it also states: “Return, O backsliding children, says the Lord, bfor I am a lord to you, and I will take you one from a city, and two from a family”(Jeremiah 3:14), implying that repentance is available only to certain individuals. He resolved the contradiction and explained that this is bnot difficult: Here,it is referring to repentance bout of love or fear,which few people achieve; bthere,it referring is repentance bthrough suffering,as everyone has thoughts of repentance when they suffer. bRabbi Levi said: Great is repentance, as it reaches the heavenly throne, as it is stated: “Return, Israel, to the Lord your God”(Hosea 14:2). This implies that repentance literally reaches to God.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
apocalypticism deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 114
aristotle, pain as an emotion Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228, 233, 235, 240, 241
bible Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 63, 178
children, minors Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 63
community, damascus Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 101
community Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 27
compassion, conversion, significance of deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 114
court, of seventy-one (great sanhedrin) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 63
court Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 63
courts, students at Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 63
covenant, covenantal Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 111
covenant Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 27; van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 153
darkness deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 256
dead sea scrolls vii Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29, 111
devil, the deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 114
dualism, dualist(ic) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 417
election (of israel) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 417
emotion, in the classical world Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228, 233, 235, 240, 241
emotion, in the hebrew bible Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228, 233, 235, 240, 241
end of days Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 30
eschatological prophet, not yet eschatology Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 111
eschatology, eschatological, belonging to the end-of-days, messianic age Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
eschatology, sectarian Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 30
essenes Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 62, 178
essenes (see also qumran) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 417
ethnic boundary making model, contraction van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 153
ethnicity (common features), proper name van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 153
evil Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
examiner Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 30, 63, 178
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture, jesus command of scriptural exegesis Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 111
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 111
exegesis, sectarian Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 30
fear, association with love Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 233
fear, impact of stress on Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 233
galilee, galilean Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
gamblers Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 62
group boundaries deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 256
hatred (of enemies, outsiders) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 111
hebrew, biblical Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 30, 178
hebrew, masoretic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 178
immersion, ritual Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 178
immersion Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
inheritance deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 256
initiation ceremony, process Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 178
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29, 111
jesus, historical jesus, authenticity of sayings, self-perception Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 111
jesus Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
josephus Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 63; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 417
judges, ages of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 30
judges, selection of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 30
judges, terms of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 30
judges Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 30
judgment deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 256
judicial authority (misuse of), service, age limits for Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 30
kingdom of god/heaven, sons of the kingdom Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29, 111
law, athenean Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 62
law, biblical Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 62, 178
law, jewish Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 62, 63
law, roman Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 62
law, sectarian Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 62, 63
levitical cities, service, age limits for Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 30
leviticus Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 178
liability Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 63
light deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 256
love, among the dead sea sect Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 235, 240, 241
love, association with fear Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 233
love Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29, 111
macarisms Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
majority, legal Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 63
mashqeh, liquid food Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 178
measurement Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 27
memory, of emotional situations Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 233
midrash tadshe', organization" Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 30
military conscription, age limits for Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 30
moses Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 63
non-sectarian, sectarian Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 27
novitiate, novice Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 178
oath, of initiation Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 63
oath Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 63
officers, military, officials, age limits for Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 30
orthography, masoretic, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 178
pain, emotion and Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228, 233, 235, 240, 241
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 417
penal code of the manual of discipline Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 178
penal system Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 63
pharisees, torah-sages, pharisaic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 111
poor in spirit Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
priest Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 106
pronunciation, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 178
prophet, prophecy, prophetic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
punishment, penalty Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 63
purification ritual, ritual bath Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 178
purity and impurity, ritual purity Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 178
qumran, qumranic, anti-qumranic, immersions at qumran Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
qumran, qumranic, anti-qumranic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29, 111
qumran covenanters Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 111
qumran documents Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 417
rabbinic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
rabbis, rabbinic literature Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 30
rank (status in sect), ranking system Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 178
repentance Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 62
ritual, as emotional practice Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 235, 240, 241
rosters (serakhim) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 178
sabbath Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
samaria ostraca Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 178
satan deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 114
scribal error, traditions and practices, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 178
sect, admittance to Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 63
sect, members of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 178
sect, new member of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 63
sect, non-members Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 63
sectarian, non-sectarian Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 27
serekh ha-'edah" '267.0_63.0@sexual life, relations Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 30
sermon on the mount Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
sexual life, relations Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 62
sin, sins deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 114
sons of darkness, sons of the evil one Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 111
sons of god, sons of heaven Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
sons of light, sons of darkness Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 30
sophrosyne, among women Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228, 233, 235, 240, 241
spirit (of god), holy spirit, gift of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
spiritual powers deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 114
stress, and emotion Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 233
testimony Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 62
torah and prophets, great principle of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
truth deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 256
two spirits treatise (tst) Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 27
urim Jacobus, de Hemmer Gudme, and Guillaume, Studies on Magic and Divination in the Biblical World (2013) 106
violation of the law Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 62, 63
war Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 417
war scroll Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 30
water Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 178
wealth Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 101
wisdom, texts from qumran' Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 27
witnesses, qualifications of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 62, 63
women, testimony of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 62, 63
wrath, of god deSilva, Ephesians (2022) 256
yahad Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 101
zadokite fragments Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 63
zeal for the law Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228, 233, 235, 240, 241