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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



3095
Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

27 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 11.2-11.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.2. וּכְתַבְתָּם עַל־מְזוּזוֹת בֵּיתֶךָ וּבִשְׁעָרֶיךָ׃ 11.2. וִידַעְתֶּם הַיּוֹם כִּי לֹא אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדְעוּ וַאֲשֶׁר לֹא־רָאוּ אֶת־מוּסַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֶת־גָּדְלוֹ אֶת־יָדוֹ הַחֲזָקָה וּזְרֹעוֹ הַנְּטוּיָה׃ 11.3. וְאֶת־אֹתֹתָיו וְאֶת־מַעֲשָׂיו אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה בְּתוֹךְ מִצְרָיִם לְפַרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם וּלְכָל־אַרְצוֹ׃ 11.3. הֲלֹא־הֵמָּה בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן אַחֲרֵי דֶּרֶךְ מְבוֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בְּאֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי הַיֹּשֵׁב בָּעֲרָבָה מוּל הַגִּלְגָּל אֵצֶל אֵלוֹנֵי מֹרֶה׃ 11.4. וַאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְחֵיל מִצְרַיִם לְסוּסָיו וּלְרִכְבּוֹ אֲשֶׁר הֵצִיף אֶת־מֵי יַם־סוּף עַל־פְּנֵיהֶם בְּרָדְפָם אַחֲרֵיכֶם וַיְאַבְּדֵם יְהוָה עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 11.5. וַאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לָכֶם בַּמִּדְבָּר עַד־בֹּאֲכֶם עַד־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 11.2. And know ye this day; for I speak not with your children that have not known, and that have not seen the chastisement of the LORD your God, His greatness, His mighty hand, and His outstretched arm," 11.3. and His signs, and His works, which He did in the midst of Egypt unto Pharaoh the king of Egypt, and unto all his land;" 11.4. and what He did unto the army of Egypt, unto their horses, and to their chariots; how He made the water of the Red Sea to overflow them as they pursued after you, and how the LORD hath destroyed them unto this day;" 11.5. and what He did unto you in the wilderness, until ye came unto this place;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 16.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.29. רְאוּ כִּי־יְהוָה נָתַן לָכֶם הַשַּׁבָּת עַל־כֵּן הוּא נֹתֵן לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי לֶחֶם יוֹמָיִם שְׁבוּ אִישׁ תַּחְתָּיו אַל־יֵצֵא אִישׁ מִמְּקֹמוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃ 16.29. See that the LORD hath given you the sabbath; therefore He giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days; abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 9.25, 37.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.25. וַיֹּאמֶר אָרוּר כְּנָעַן עֶבֶד עֲבָדִים יִהְיֶה לְאֶחָיו׃ 37.25. וַיֵּשְׁבוּ לֶאֱכָל־לֶחֶם וַיִּשְׂאוּ עֵינֵיהֶם וַיִּרְאוּ וְהִנֵּה אֹרְחַת יִשְׁמְעֵאלִים בָּאָה מִגִּלְעָד וּגְמַלֵּיהֶם נֹשְׂאִים נְכֹאת וּצְרִי וָלֹט הוֹלְכִים לְהוֹרִיד מִצְרָיְמָה׃ 9.25. And he said: Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren." 37.25. And they sat down to eat bread; and they lifted up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a caravan of Ishmaelites came from Gilead, with their camels bearing spicery and balm and ladanum, going to carry it down to Egypt."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 21.7, 22.16, 23.38 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.7. אִשָּׁה זֹנָה וַחֲלָלָה לֹא יִקָּחוּ וְאִשָּׁה גְּרוּשָׁה מֵאִישָׁהּ לֹא יִקָּחוּ כִּי־קָדֹשׁ הוּא לֵאלֹהָיו׃ 22.16. וְהִשִּׂיאוּ אוֹתָם עֲוֺן אַשְׁמָה בְּאָכְלָם אֶת־קָדְשֵׁיהֶם כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדְּשָׁם׃ 23.38. מִלְּבַד שַׁבְּתֹת יְּהוָה וּמִלְּבַד מַתְּנוֹתֵיכֶם וּמִלְּבַד כָּל־נִדְרֵיכֶם וּמִלְּבַד כָּל־נִדְבוֹתֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר תִּתְּנוּ לַיהוָה׃ 21.7. They shall not take a woman that is a harlot, or profaned; neither shall they take a woman put away from her husband; for he is holy unto his God." 22.16. and so cause them to bear the iniquity that bringeth guilt, when they eat their holy things; for I am the LORD who sanctify them." 23.38. beside the sabbaths of the LORD, and beside your gifts, and beside all your vows, and beside all your freewill-offerings, which ye give unto the LORD."
5. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 9.7-9.8, 9.12, 31.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.7. יֹסֵר לֵץ לֹקֵחַ לוֹ קָלוֹן וּמוֹכִיחַ לְרָשָׁע מוּמוֹ׃ 9.8. אַל־תּוֹכַח לֵץ פֶּן־יִשְׂנָאֶךָּ הוֹכַח לְחָכָם וְיֶאֱהָבֶךָּ׃ 9.12. אִם־חָכַמְתָּ חָכַמְתָּ לָּךְ וְלַצְתָּ לְבַדְּךָ תִשָּׂא׃ 31.13. דָּרְשָׁה צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים וַתַּעַשׂ בְּחֵפֶץ כַּפֶּיהָ׃ 9.7. He that correcteth a scorner getteth to himself shame, and he that reproveth a wicked man, it becometh unto him a blot." 9.8. Reprove not a scorner, lest he hate thee; reprove a wise man, and he will love thee." 9.12. If thou art wise, thou art wise for thyself; And if thou scornest, thou alone shalt bear it.’" 31.13. She seeketh wool and flax, and worketh willingly with her hands."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 106, 105 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 66.1, 66.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

66.1. שִׂמְחוּ אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַם וְגִילוּ בָהּ כָּל־אֹהֲבֶיהָ שִׂישׂוּ אִתָּהּ מָשׂוֹשׂ כָּל־הַמִּתְאַבְּלִים עָלֶיהָ׃ 66.1. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הַשָּׁמַיִם כִּסְאִי וְהָאָרֶץ הֲדֹם רַגְלָי אֵי־זֶה בַיִת אֲשֶׁר תִּבְנוּ־לִי וְאֵי־זֶה מָקוֹם מְנוּחָתִי׃ 66.14. וּרְאִיתֶם וְשָׂשׂ לִבְּכֶם וְעַצְמוֹתֵיכֶם כַּדֶּשֶׁא תִפְרַחְנָה וְנוֹדְעָה יַד־יְהוָה אֶת־עֲבָדָיו וְזָעַם אֶת־אֹיְבָיו׃ 66.1. Thus saith the LORD: The heaven is My throne, and the earth is My footstool; where is the house that ye may build unto Me? And where is the place that may be My resting-place?" 66.14. And when ye see this, your heart shall rejoice, and your bones shall flourish like young grass; and the hand of the LORD shall be known toward His servants, and He will have indignation against His enemies."
8. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.3. לַשָּׁוְא הִכֵּיתִי אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם מוּסָר לֹא לָקָחוּ אָכְלָה חַרְבְּכֶם נְבִיאֵיכֶם כְּאַרְיֵה מַשְׁחִית׃ 2.3. קֹדֶשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל לַיהוָה רֵאשִׁית תְּבוּאָתֹה כָּל־אֹכְלָיו יֶאְשָׁמוּ רָעָה תָּבֹא אֲלֵיהֶם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 2.3. Israel is the LORD’S hallowed portion, His first-fruits of the increase; all that devour him shall be held guilty, evil shall come upon them, saith the LORD."
9. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 3.1, 5.7 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.1. רָאִיתִי אֶת־הָעִנְיָן אֲשֶׁר נָתַן אֱלֹהִים לִבְנֵי הָאָדָם לַעֲנוֹת בּוֹ׃ 3.1. לַכֹּל זְמָן וְעֵת לְכָל־חֵפֶץ תַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 5.7. אִם־עֹשֶׁק רָשׁ וְגֵזֶל מִשְׁפָּט וָצֶדֶק תִּרְאֶה בַמְּדִינָה אַל־תִּתְמַהּ עַל־הַחֵפֶץ כִּי גָבֹהַּ מֵעַל גָּבֹהַ שֹׁמֵר וּגְבֹהִים עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 3.1. To every thing there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heaven:" 5.7. If thou seest the oppression of the poor, and the violent perverting of justice and righteousness in the state, marvel not at the matter; for one higher than the high watcheth, and there are higher than they."
10. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 9.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.2. כִּי־נָשְׂאוּ מִבְּנֹתֵיהֶם לָהֶם וְלִבְנֵיהֶם וְהִתְעָרְבוּ זֶרַע הַקֹּדֶשׁ בְּעַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת וְיַד הַשָּׂרִים וְהַסְּגָנִים הָיְתָה בַּמַּעַל הַזֶּה רִאשׁוֹנָה׃ 9.2. For they have taken of their daughters for themselves and for their sons; so that the holy seed have mingled themselves with the peoples of the lands; yea, the hand of the princes and rulers hath been first in this faithlessness.’"
11. Anon., Jubilees, 1.1, 6.17-6.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. THIS is the history of the division of the days of the law and of the testimony, of the events of the years, of their (year) weeks, of their jubilees throughout all the years of the world, as the Lord spake to Moses on Mount Sinai when he went up to receive the tables of the law and of the commandment, according to the voice of God as He said unto him, "Go up to the top of the Mount." br) And it came to pass in the first year of the A.M. (A.M. = Anno Mundi) exodus of the children of Israel out of Egypt, in the third month, on the sixteenth day of the month, that God spake to Moses, saying: 6.17. And this testimony is written concerning you that you should observe it continually, so that you should not eat on any day any blood of beasts or birds or cattle during all the days of the earth 6.18. and the man who eateth the blood of beast or of cattle or of birds during all the days of the earth, he and his seed shall be rooted out of the land. 6.19. And do thou command the children of Israel to eat no blood, so that their names and their seed may be before the Lord our God continually. 6.20. And for this law there is no limit of days, for it is for ever. They shall observe it throughout their generations, so that they may continue supplicating on your behalf with blood before the altar; 6.21. every day and at the time of morning and evening they shall seek forgiveness on your behalf perpetually before the Lord that they may keep it and not be rooted out. 6.22. And He gave to Noah and his sons a sign that there should not again be a flood on the earth.
12. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 1, 2, 4, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20-5.11, 5, 6, 6.19, 7, 8, 9, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 10.17, 10.18, 10.19, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 13.4-13.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q186, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q286, 1-2, 4, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1.1-1.4, 1.6-1.18, 1.20-1.24, 2.10-2.22, 2.25, 3.1-3.12, 4.2-4.8, 5.7-5.12, 5.14, 5.16-5.18, 6.6-6.8, 6.16-6.22, 8.12-8.16, 9.12-9.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 2.13-2.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.13. The same things are reported in the records and in the memoirs of Nehemiah, and also that he founded a library and collected the books about the kings and prophets, and the writings of David, and letters of kings about votive offerings.' 2.14. In the same way Judas also collected all the books that had been lost on account of the war which had come upon us, and they are in our possession.'
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 25, 5, 2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2. but the deliberate intention of the philosopher is at once displayed from the appellation given to them; for with strict regard to etymology, they are called therapeutae and therapeutrides, either because they process an art of medicine more excellent than that in general use in cities (for that only heals bodies, but the other heals souls which are under the mastery of terrible and almost incurable diseases, which pleasures and appetites, fears and griefs, and covetousness, and follies, and injustice, and all the rest of the innumerable multitude of other passions and vices, have inflicted upon them), or else because they have been instructed by nature and the sacred laws to serve the living God, who is superior to the good, and more simple than the one, and more ancient than the unit;
19. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13.291 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.291. a man of an ill temper, and delighting in seditious practices. This man said, “Since thou desirest to know the truth, if thou wilt be righteous in earnest, lay down the high priesthood, and content thyself with the civil government of the people,”
20. Mishnah, Avot, 5.22 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.22. Ben Bag Bag said:Turn it over, and [again] turn it over, for all is therein. And look into it; And become gray and old therein; And do not move away from it, for you have no better portion than it."
21. New Testament, Acts, 2.1-2.13, 2.38-2.39 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.1. Now when the day of Pentecost had come, they were all with one accord in one place. 2.2. Suddenly there came from the sky a sound like the rushing of a mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. 2.3. Tongues like fire appeared and were distributed to them, and it sat on each one of them. 2.4. They were all filled with the Holy Spirit, and began to speak with other languages, as the Spirit gave them the ability to speak. 2.5. Now there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout men, from every nation under the sky. 2.6. When this sound was heard, the multitude came together, and were bewildered, because everyone heard them speaking in his own language. 2.7. They were all amazed and marveled, saying to one another, "Behold, aren't all these who speak Galileans? 2.8. How do we hear, everyone in our own native language? 2.9. Parthians, Medes, Elamites, and people from Mesopotamia, Judea, Cappadocia, Pontus, Asia 2.10. Phrygia, Pamphylia, Egypt, the parts of Libya around Cyrene, visitors from Rome, both Jews and proselytes 2.11. Cretans and Arabians: we hear them speaking in our languages the mighty works of God! 2.12. They were all amazed, and were perplexed, saying one to another, "What does this mean? 2.13. Others, mocking, said, "They are filled with new wine. 2.38. Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized, everyone of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 2.39. For to you is the promise, and to your children, and to all who are far off, even as many as the Lord our God will call to himself.
22. New Testament, Luke, 4.1-4.13, 24.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness 4.2. for forty days, being tempted by the devil. He ate nothing in those days. Afterward, when they were completed, he was hungry. 4.3. The devil said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command this stone to become bread. 4.4. Jesus answered him, saying, "It is written, 'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.' 4.5. The devil, leading him up on a high mountain, showed him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. 4.6. The devil said to him, "I will give you all this authority, and their glory, for it has been delivered to me; and I give it to whomever I want. 4.7. If you therefore will worship before me, it will all be yours. 4.8. Jesus answered him, "Get behind me Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.' 4.9. He led him to Jerusalem, and set him on the pinnacle of the temple, and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, cast yourself down from here 4.10. for it is written, 'He will give his angels charge concerning you, to guard you;' 4.11. and, 'On their hands they will bear you up, Lest perhaps you dash your foot against a stone.' 4.12. Jesus answering, said to him, "It has been said, 'You shall not tempt the Lord your God.' 4.13. When the devil had completed every temptation, he departed from him until another time. 24.44. He said to them, "This is what I told you, while I was still with you, that all things which are written in the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me must be fulfilled.
23. New Testament, Mark, 1.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.12. Immediately the Spirit drove him out into the wilderness.
24. New Testament, Matthew, 4.1, 4.3-4.11, 5.17, 5.21-5.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1. Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. 4.3. The tempter came and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread. 4.4. But he answered, "It is written, 'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.' 4.5. Then the devil took him into the holy city. He set him on the pinnacle of the temple 4.6. and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down, for it is written, 'He will give his angels charge concerning you.' and, 'On their hands they will bear you up, So that you don't dash your foot against a stone.' 4.7. Jesus said to him, "Again, it is written, 'You shall not test the Lord, your God.' 4.8. Again, the devil took him to an exceedingly high mountain, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world, and their glory. 4.9. He said to him, "I will give you all of these things, if you will fall down and worship me. 4.10. Then Jesus said to him, "Get behind me, Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.' 4.11. Then the devil left him, and behold, angels came and ministered to him. 5.17. Don't think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn't come to destroy, but to fulfill. 5.21. You have heard that it was said to the ancient ones, 'You shall not murder;' and 'Whoever shall murder shall be in danger of the judgment.' 5.22. But I tell you, that everyone who is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment; and whoever shall say to his brother, 'Raca!' shall be in danger of the council; and whoever shall say, 'You fool!' shall be in danger of the fire of Gehenna.
25. Tertullian, On Baptism, 5.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

26. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14b. שברי לוחות שמונחים בארון ואי ס"ד ס"ת הקיפו ו' טפחים מכדי כל שיש בהקיפו שלשה טפחים יש בו רוחב טפח וכיון דלאמצעיתו נגלל נפיש ליה מתרי טפחא רווחא דביני ביני בתרי פושכי היכי יתיב,אמר רב אחא בר יעקב ספר עזרה לתחלתו הוא נגלל ואכתי תרי בתרי היכי יתיב אמר רב אשי דכריך ביה פורתא וכרכיה לעיל,ור' יהודה מקמי דליתי ארגז ספר תורה היכי הוה יתיב דפא הוה נפיק מיניה ויתיב עילוה ספר תורה ור"מ האי מצד ארון מאי עביד ליה ההוא מיבעי ליה דמתנח ליה מצד ולא מתנח ביני לוחי ולעולם בגויה מן הצד,ור"מ עמודין היכא הוו קיימי מבראי ור"מ שברי לוחות דמונחין בארון מנא ליה נפקא ליה מדרב הונא דאמר רב הונא מאי דכתיב (שמואל ב ו, ב) אשר נקרא שם שם ה' צבאות יושב הכרובים עליו מלמד שלוחות ושברי לוחות מונחים בארון,ואידך ההוא מבעי ליה לכדרבי יוחנן ד"ר יוחנן א"ר שמעון בן יוחאי מלמד שהשם וכל כינויו מונחין בארון,ואידך נמי מיבעי ליה להכי אין הכי נמי אלא שברי לוחות דמונחין בארון מנא ליה נפקא ליה מדתני רב יוסף דתני רב יוסף (דברים י, ב) אשר שברת ושמתם מלמד שהלוחות ושברי לוחות מונחין בארון,ואידך ההוא מיבעי ליה לכדריש לקיש דאמר ר"ל אשר שברת אמר לו הקב"ה למשה יישר כחך ששברת:,תנו רבנן סדרן של נביאים יהושע ושופטים שמואל ומלכים ירמיה ויחזקאל ישעיה ושנים עשר מכדי הושע קדים דכתיב (הושע א, ב) תחלת דבר ה' בהושע וכי עם הושע דבר תחלה והלא ממשה ועד הושע כמה נביאים היו וא"ר יוחנן שהיה תחלה לארבעה נביאים שנתנבאו באותו הפרק ואלו הן הושע וישעיה עמוס ומיכה וליקדמיה להושע ברישא,כיון דכתיב נבואתיה גבי חגי זכריה ומלאכי וחגי זכריה ומלאכי סוף נביאים הוו חשיב ליה בהדייהו וליכתביה לחודיה וליקדמיה איידי דזוטר מירכס,מכדי ישעיה קדים מירמיה ויחזקאל ליקדמיה לישעיה ברישא כיון דמלכים סופיה חורבנא וירמיה כוליה חורבנא ויחזקאל רישיה חורבנא וסיפיה נחמתא וישעיה כוליה נחמתא סמכינן חורבנא לחורבנא ונחמתא לנחמתא:,סידרן של כתובים רות וספר תהלים ואיוב ומשלי קהלת שיר השירים וקינות דניאל ומגילת אסתר עזרא ודברי הימים ולמאן דאמר איוב בימי משה היה ליקדמיה לאיוב ברישא אתחולי בפורענותא לא מתחלינן רות נמי פורענות היא פורענות דאית ליה אחרית דאמר רבי יוחנן למה נקרא שמה רות שיצא ממנה דוד שריוהו להקב"ה בשירות ותושבחות,ומי כתבן משה כתב ספרו ופרשת בלעם ואיוב יהושע כתב ספרו ושמונה פסוקים שבתורה שמואל כתב ספרו ושופטים ורות דוד כתב ספר תהלים על ידי עשרה זקנים ע"י אדם הראשון על ידי מלכי צדק ועל ידי אברהם וע"י משה ועל ידי הימן וע"י ידותון ועל ידי אסף 14b. bthe broken pieces of thefirst set of btablets, which were placed in the Ark.Having cited the ibaraita /i, the Gemara now presents its objection to what was taught earlier with regard to the dimensions of a Torah scroll: bAnd if it should enter your mindto say, as Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi held, that bthe circumference of a Torah scroll is six handbreadths, now since anycylindrical object bhaving a circumference of three handbreadths has a diameter of one handbreadth,a Torah scroll with a circumference of six handbreadths has a diameter of two handbreadths. bAnd sincea Torah scroll bis wound to the middle,since it is rolled from both sides, bitmust take up bmore than two handbreadthsdue to bthe space betweenthe sheets of parchment and the double rolling. According to Rabbi Meir, who says that the Torah scroll was placed inside the ark, bhow didthe scroll bfit inthe remaining btwo handbreadths [ ipushkei /i]of space in the Ark?, bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: The scroll of theTemple bcourtyard,which was kept in the Ark, bwas wound to its beginning,i.e., it had only a single pole, so that its circumference was only two handbreadths. The Gemara asks: bBut still, how doesan item bthat is twohandbreadths wide bfit intoa space that is precisely btwohandbreadths? It would be impossible to fit it in. bRav Ashi said: A small sectionof the scroll bwas woundseparately bandthen bplaced on topof the scroll.,Having concluded its current discussion, the Gemara now addresses the details of the aforementioned ibaraitaand asks: bAndaccording to bRabbi Yehuda,who says that the Torah scroll rested on the chest that came from the Philistines, bwhere was the Torah scroll placed before the chest arrived?The Gemara answers: bA shelf protruded fromthe Ark band the Torah scroll rested on it.The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bRabbi Meir,who says that the Torah scroll rested inside the Ark, bwhat does he do with thisverse: “Take this Torah scroll and put it bat the side of the Ark”(Deuteronomy 31:26)? The Gemara answers: bHe requiresthat verse to teach bthatthe Torah scroll bwas placed at the sideof the tablets, band that it was not placed betweenthe two btablets, butit was bactuallyplaced binsidethe Ark bat the sideof the tablets.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bRabbi Meir, where were thesilver bcolumns placed?The Gemara answers: bOutsidethe Ark. The Gemara further asks: bAnd from where does Rabbi Meirderive that bthe broken pieces of thefirst set of btablets were placed in the Ark,as the verse from which Rabbi Yehuda learns this: “There was nothing in the Ark except” (I Kings 8:9), is needed by Rabbi Meir to teach that the Torah scroll was placed there? The Gemara answers: bHe derivesthis point bfrom what Rav Hunaexpounded, bas Rav Huna says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“The Ark of God, bwhereupon is called the Name, the name of the Lord of hosts that sits upon the cherubs”(II Samuel 6:2)? The phrase “the name, the name of the Lord” bteaches thatboth bthesecond btablets and the broken pieces of thefirst set of btablets were placed in the Ark. /b,The Gemara asks: bAndwhat does bthe otherSage, i.e., Rabbi Yehuda, derive from this verse? The Gemara responds: bHe requiresthat text bforthat bwhich Rabbi Yoḥasays, bas Rabbi Yoḥa saysthat bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says:This bteaches that theineffable bnameof God band all of His appellations were placed in the Ark. /b,The Gemara inquires: bAnddoesn’t bthe otherSage, Rabbi Meir, balso require it for that?The Gemara answers: bYes,it bis indeed so. Rather, from where does hederive that bthe broken pieces of thefirst set of btablets were placed in the Ark?The Gemara expounds: bHe derivesthis bfromthat bwhich Rav Yosef taught, as Rav Yosef taughta ibaraita /i: The verses state: “At that time the Lord said to me: Hew for yourself two tablets of stone like the first…and I will write on the tablets the words that were on the first tablets, bwhich you broke, and you shall put themin the Ark” (Deuteronomy 10:1–2). bThis teaches thatboth bthesecond set of btablets and the broken pieces of thefirst set of btablets were placed in the Ark. /b,The Gemara asks: bAndwhat does bthe otherone, Rabbi Yehuda, learn from this verse? The Gemara answers: bHe requires it forthat bwhich Reish Lakishteaches, bas Reish Lakish says:What is the meaning of that which is stated: “The first tablets, bwhich you broke [ iasher shibbarta /i]”?These words allude to the fact that God approved of Moses’ action, as if bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: May your strength be straight [ iyishar koḥakha /i] because you brokethem.,§ bThe Sages taught: The order of thebooks of the bProphetswhen they are attached together is as follows: bJoshua and Judges, Samuel and Kings, Jeremiah and Ezekiel,and bIsaiah and the TwelveProphets. The Gemara asks: bConsider: Hosea precededsome of the other prophets whose books are included in the Bible, bas it is written: “The Lord spoke first to Hosea”(Hosea 1:2). At first glance this verse is difficult: bBut did God speak first with Hosea,and not with any other prophet before him? bWeren’t there many prophets between Moses and Hosea? And Rabbi Yoḥa says: He was the first of four prophets who prophesied in that period, and they were: Hosea and Isaiah, Amos and Micah.Accordingly, Hosea preceded those three prophets; bandthe book of bHoseaas well bshould precedethe books of those prophets.,The Gemara answers: bSince his prophecy is written together withthose of bHaggai, Zechariah, and Malachiin one book of the Twelve Prophets, band Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi were the last of the prophets, he is counted with them.The Gemara inquires: bBut letthe book of Hosea bbe written separately and let it precedethe others. The Gemara answers: Were it written separately, bsince it is small it would be lost. /b,The Gemara further asks: bConsider: Isaiah preceded Jeremiah and Ezekiel; letthe book of bIsaiah precedethe books of those other prophets. The Gemara answers: bSincethe book of bKings ends with the destructionof the Temple, bandthe book of bJeremiahdeals bentirely withprophecies of bthe destruction, andthe book of bEzekiel begins with the destructionof the Temple bbut ends with consolationand the rebuilding of the Temple, band Isaiahdeals bentirely with consolation,as most of his prophecies refer to the redemption, bwe juxtapose destruction to destruction and consolation to consolation.This accounts for the order: Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Isaiah.,The ibaraitacontinues: bThe order of the Writingsis: bRuth and the book of Psalms, and Job and Proverbs; Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Lamentations; Daniel and the Scroll of Esther;and bEzra and Chronicles.The Gemara asks: bAnd according to the one who saysthat bJoblived bin the time of Moses, letthe book of bJob precedethe others. The Gemara answers: bWe do not begin with suffering,i.e., it is inappropriate to start the Writings with a book that deals so extensively with suffering. The Gemara asks: But the book of bRuth,with which the Writings opens, bis alsoabout bsuffering,since it describes the tragedies that befell the family of Elimelech. The Gemara answers: This is bsuffering which has a futureof hope and redemption. bAs Rabbi Yoḥa says: Why was she named Ruth,spelled ireish /i, ivav /i, itav /i? Because there bdescended from her David who sated,a word with the root ireish /i, ivav /i, iheh /i, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, with songs and praises. /b,The ibaraitanow considers the authors of the biblical books: bAnd who wrotethe books of the Bible? bMoses wrote his own book,i.e., the Torah, band the portion of Balaamin the Torah, bandthe book of bJob. Joshua wrote his own book and eight verses in the Torah,which describe the death of Moses. bSamuel wrote his own book,the book of bJudges, andthe book of bRuth. David wrote the book of Psalms by means of ten eldersof previous generations, assembling a collection that included compositions of others along with his own. He included psalms authored bby Adam the firstman, bby Melchizedekking of Salem, band by Abraham, and by Moses, and by Heman, and by Jeduthun, and by Asaph, /b
27. Anon., 4 Ezra, 14.22-14.48

14.22. If then I have found favor before thee, send the Holy Spirit into me, and I will write everything that has happened in the world from the beginning, the things which were written in thy law, that men may be able to find the path, and that those who wish to live in the last days may live. 14.23. He answered me and said, "Go and gather the people, and tell them not to seek you for forty days. 14.24. But prepare for yourself many writing tablets, and take with you Sarea, Dabria, Selemia, Ethanus, and Asiel -- these five, because they are trained to write rapidly; 14.25. and you shall come here, and I will light in your heart the lamp of understanding, which shall not be put out until what you are about to write is finished. 14.26. And when you have finished, some things you shall make public, and some you shall deliver in secret to the wise; tomorrow at this hour you shall begin to write. 14.27. Then I went as he commanded me, and I gathered all the people together, and said 14.28. Hear these words, O Israel 14.29. At first our fathers dwelt as aliens in Egypt, and they were delivered from there 14.30. and received the law of life, which they did not keep, which you also have transgressed after them. 14.31. Then land was given to you for a possession in the land of Zion; but you and your fathers committed iniquity and did not keep the ways which the Most High commanded you. 14.32. And because he is a righteous judge, in due time he took from you what he had given. 14.33. And now you are here, and your brethren are farther in the interior. 14.34. If you, then, will rule over your minds and discipline your hearts, you shall be kept alive, and after death you shall obtain mercy. 14.35. For after death the judgment will come, when we shall live again; and then the names of the righteous will become manifest, and the deeds of the ungodly will be disclosed. 14.36. But let no one come to me now, and let no one seek me for forty days. 14.37. So I took the five men, as he commanded me, and we proceeded to the field, and remained there. 14.38. And on the next day, behold, a voice called me, saying, "Ezra, open your mouth and drink what I give you to drink. 14.39. Then I opened my mouth, and behold, a full cup was offered to me; it was full of something like water, but its color was like fire. 14.40. And I took it and drank; and when I had drunk it, my heart poured forth understanding, and wisdom increased in my breast, for my spirit retained its memory; 14.41. and my mouth was opened, and was no longer closed. 14.42. And the Most High gave understanding to the five men, and by turns they wrote what was dictated, in characters which they did not know. They sat forty days, and wrote during the daytime, and ate their bread at night. 14.43. As for me, I spoke in the daytime and was not silent at night. 14.44. So during the forty days ninety-four books were written. 14.45. And when the forty days were ended, the Most High spoke to me, saying, "Make public the twenty-four books that you wrote first and let the worthy and the unworthy read them; 14.46. but keep the seventy that were written last, in order to give them to the wise among your people. 14.47. For in them is the spring of understanding, the fountain of wisdom, and the river of knowledge. 14.48. And I did so.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 29
angels Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 197
apodictic law Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 229
aristotle, pain as an emotion Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228
belial Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 27, 29
biblical referents, canonization Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 48, 51
biblical referents, in dead dea scrolls Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 83
biblical referents Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 70
bipartite vs. tripartite canon., of the pentateuch Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 51
bipartite vs. tripartite canon Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 51
blessing Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 27, 29
church, early Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 71
clement of alexandria, on the catechumenate, ancient analogues for catechumenate Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 116
clement of alexandria, on the catechumenate, qumran sect compared Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 116
clement of alexandria, on the catechumenate Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 116
communal Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 27
community rule Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 27
community rule (qumran text) Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 116
covenant Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 27, 29
creation Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 27, 29
curse, cursing Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 197
curses Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 27, 29
dead sea scrolls Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 58; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 71
dead sea scrolls (dss) Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 107
diversity, canonical and textual, eating and drinking on sabbath Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 229
education, judaism/jewish education Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 58
eleusinian mysteries Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 116
emotion, in the classical world Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228
emotion, in the hebrew bible Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228
ethical education, judaism Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 58
exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of scripture Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 28
exile Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 29
exodus Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 71
extant Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 27
festival of unleavened bread Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 71
halakhah/halakhot, and aggadah; law and narrative Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 238
hebrew, qumran (qh) Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 107
hermeneutical method, dead sea scrolls Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 13
hyrcanus i Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 107
immortal(ity) Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 71
isaiah Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 28
israel, nan Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 238
israel x Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 29
jesus, as a prophetic anointed of the spirit Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 28
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 28
jubilees Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 71
judaism Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 58; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 71
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 238
law, dead sea scrolls Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 1, 13
law Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 71
legal-exegetical method Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 13
levites Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 29
light and darknessdead sea scrolls Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 192
light and darknesspersian dualism of Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 192
liturgy Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 27, 29
luke, gospel writer Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 71
mandel, paul Flatto, The Crown and the Courts (2021) 278
manuscripts, instruction on the two spirits Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 192
manuscripts, light and darkness Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 192
marriage Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 238
midrash halakhah Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 13
mithras cult Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 116
moses Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 1, 48, 51
non-pentateuchal scripture, appeal to Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 229, 230, 231, 238
pain, emotion and Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228
parallels (literary technique) Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 27
paraphrase Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 48
pentecost Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 71
pharisees, torah-sages, pharisaic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 28
philo judeas, de decalogo Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 71
physical labor, prohibited on sabbath Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 83
place and place studies, importance to judaism Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 58
praiseworthy acts Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 71
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 238; Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 229
priest Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 29
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 238
priests Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 238
prooftexts, non-pentateuchal Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 229, 230, 231, 238
prophets, gods messengers Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 28
prophets, prophecy Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 51
prophets (nebi'im, canonical division)" Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 51
qumran, relationships in Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 58
qumran Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 58; Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 71
qumran sect and texts Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 116
religion within a cultural system, space and Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 58
revenge Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 238
rubric Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 27
sabbath code Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 83, 229
sacrifice Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 229
sacrospace' Damm, Religions and Education in Antiquity (2018) 58
satan, belial/beliar Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 192
satan, devil, belial, melkhiresha, evil one, angel of darkness Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 28
scholarship, qumran Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 71
second temple judaism Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 71
septuagint(al) Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 71
septuagint Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 230
sermon on the mount Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 28
sinai Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 71
sons of god, sons of heaven Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 28
sophrosyne, among women Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228
spirit, characterizations as, truth Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 197
spirit, effects of, likeness Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 197
spirit, effects of, ψυχή (soul, life) Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 71
spirit (of god), holy spirit, gift of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 28
tertullian, on mithras cult Ayres and Ward, The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual (2021) 116
textual authority, in dead sea scrolls Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 48
theology Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 27
torah Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 71; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 28
translation Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 29
travel on sabbath Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 70, 83
trinity, trinitarian Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 71
two spirits (qumran) Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 192
virtue Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 197
wilderness Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 28
yaḥad Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 27
zeal for the law Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 228
zoroastrian Frey and Levison, The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives (2014) 197