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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



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Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 9.2-9.23
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

25 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 4.19 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.19. Bless the Lord God on every occasion; ask him that your ways may be made straight and that all your paths and plans may prosper. For none of the nations has understanding; but the Lord himself gives all good things, and according to his will he humbles whomever he wishes. "So, my son, remember my commands, and do not let them be blotted out of your mind.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.12, 6.5, 17.6, 19.16, 22.1-22.3, 23.24, 29.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.12. שָׁמוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ 6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 17.6. עַל־פִּי שְׁנַיִם עֵדִים אוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה עֵדִים יוּמַת הַמֵּת לֹא יוּמַת עַל־פִּי עֵד אֶחָד׃ 19.16. כִּי־יָקוּם עֵד־חָמָס בְּאִישׁ לַעֲנוֹת בּוֹ סָרָה׃ 22.1. לֹא־תִרְאֶה אֶת־שׁוֹר אָחִיךָ אוֹ אֶת־שֵׂיוֹ נִדָּחִים וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ מֵהֶם הָשֵׁב תְּשִׁיבֵם לְאָחִיךָ׃ 22.1. לֹא־תַחֲרֹשׁ בְּשׁוֹר־וּבַחֲמֹר יַחְדָּו׃ 22.2. וְאִם־לֹא קָרוֹב אָחִיךָ אֵלֶיךָ וְלֹא יְדַעְתּוֹ וַאֲסַפְתּוֹ אֶל־תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ וְהָיָה עִמְּךָ עַד דְּרֹשׁ אָחִיךָ אֹתוֹ וַהֲשֵׁבֹתוֹ לוֹ׃ 22.2. וְאִם־אֱמֶת הָיָה הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לֹא־נִמְצְאוּ בְתוּלִים לנער [לַנַּעֲרָה׃] 22.3. וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְשִׂמְלָתוֹ וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְכָל־אֲבֵדַת אָחִיךָ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאבַד מִמֶּנּוּ וּמְצָאתָהּ לֹא תוּכַל לְהִתְעַלֵּם׃ 23.24. מוֹצָא שְׂפָתֶיךָ תִּשְׁמֹר וְעָשִׂיתָ כַּאֲשֶׁר נָדַרְתָּ לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נְדָבָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ בְּפִיךָ׃ 29.19. לֹא־יֹאבֶה יְהוָה סְלֹחַ לוֹ כִּי אָז יֶעְשַׁן אַף־יְהוָה וְקִנְאָתוֹ בָּאִישׁ הַהוּא וְרָבְצָה בּוֹ כָּל־הָאָלָה הַכְּתוּבָה בַּסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה וּמָחָה יְהוָה אֶת־שְׁמוֹ מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 5.12. Observe the sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the LORD thy God commanded thee." 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." 17.6. At the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses, shall he that is to die be put to death; at the mouth of one witness he shall not be put to death." 19.16. If an unrighteous witness rise up against any man to bear perverted witness against him;" 22.1. Thou shalt not see thy brother’s ox or his sheep driven away, and hide thyself from them; thou shalt surely bring them back unto thy brother." 22.2. And if thy brother be not nigh unto thee, and thou know him not, then thou shalt bring it home to thy house, and it shall be with thee until thy brother require it, and thou shalt restore it to him." 22.3. And so shalt thou do with his ass; and so shalt thou do with his garment; and so shalt thou do with every lost thing of thy brother’s, which he hath lost, and thou hast found; thou mayest not hide thyself." 23.24. That which is gone out of thy lips thou shalt observe and do; according as thou hast vowed freely unto the LORD thy God, even that which thou hast promised with thy mouth." 29.19. the LORD will not be willing to pardon him, but then the anger of the LORD and His jealousy shall be kindled against that man, and all the curse that is written in this book shall lie upon him, and the LORD shall blot out his name from under heaven;"
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.9, 21.29, 23.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.9. שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ 21.29. וְאִם שׁוֹר נַגָּח הוּא מִתְּמֹל שִׁלְשֹׁם וְהוּעַד בִּבְעָלָיו וְלֹא יִשְׁמְרֶנּוּ וְהֵמִית אִישׁ אוֹ אִשָּׁה הַשּׁוֹר יִסָּקֵל וְגַם־בְּעָלָיו יוּמָת׃ 23.3. מְעַט מְעַט אֲגָרְשֶׁנּוּ מִפָּנֶיךָ עַד אֲשֶׁר תִּפְרֶה וְנָחַלְתָּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 23.3. וְדָל לֹא תֶהְדַּר בְּרִיבוֹ׃ 20.9. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;" 21.29. But if the ox was wont to gore in time past, and warning hath been given to its owner, and he hath not kept it in, but it hath killed a man or a woman; the ox shall be stoned, and its owner also shall be put to death." 23.3. neither shalt thou favour a poor man in his cause."
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 5.1, 5.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.1. וְנֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תֶחֱטָא וְשָׁמְעָה קוֹל אָלָה וְהוּא עֵד אוֹ רָאָה אוֹ יָדָע אִם־לוֹא יַגִּיד וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 5.1. וְאֶת־הַשֵּׁנִי יַעֲשֶׂה עֹלָה כַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 5.21. נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וּמָעֲלָה מַעַל בַּיהוָה וְכִחֵשׁ בַּעֲמִיתוֹ בְּפִקָּדוֹן אוֹ־בִתְשׂוּמֶת יָד אוֹ בְגָזֵל אוֹ עָשַׁק אֶת־עֲמִיתוֹ׃ 5.1. And if any one sin, in that he heareth the voice of adjuration, he being a witness, whether he hath seen or known, if he do not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity;" 5.21. If any one sin, and commit a trespass against the LORD, and deal falsely with his neighbour in a matter of deposit, or of pledge, or of robbery, or have oppressed his neighbour;"
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.6-5.8, 30.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.6. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אִישׁ אוֹ־אִשָּׁה כִּי יַעֲשׂוּ מִכָּל־חַטֹּאת הָאָדָם לִמְעֹל מַעַל בַּיהוָה וְאָשְׁמָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא׃ 5.7. וְהִתְוַדּוּ אֶת־חַטָּאתָם אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַחֲמִישִׁתוֹ יֹסֵף עָלָיו וְנָתַן לַאֲשֶׁר אָשַׁם לוֹ׃ 5.8. וְאִם־אֵין לָאִישׁ גֹּאֵל לְהָשִׁיב הָאָשָׁם אֵלָיו הָאָשָׁם הַמּוּשָׁב לַיהוָה לַכֹּהֵן מִלְּבַד אֵיל הַכִּפֻּרִים אֲשֶׁר יְכַפֶּר־בּוֹ עָלָיו׃ 30.9. וְאִם בְּיוֹם שְׁמֹעַ אִישָׁהּ יָנִיא אוֹתָהּ וְהֵפֵר אֶת־נִדְרָהּ אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ וְאֵת מִבְטָא שְׂפָתֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר אָסְרָה עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ וַיהוָה יִסְלַח־לָהּ׃ 5.6. Speak unto the children of Israel: When a man or woman shall commit any sin that men commit, to commit a trespass against the LORD, and that soul be guilty;" 5.7. then they shall confess their sin which they have done; and he shall make restitution for his guilt in full, and add unto it the fifth part thereof, and give it unto him in respect of whom he hath been guilty." 5.8. But if the man have no kinsman to whom restitution may be made for the guilt, the restitution for guilt which is made shall be the LORD’S, even the priest’s; besides the ram of the atonement, whereby atonement shall be made for him." 30.9. But if her husband disallow her in the day that he heareth it, then he shall make void her vow which is upon her, and the clear utterance of her lips, wherewith she hath bound her soul; and the LORD will forgive her."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 74.8, 119.176 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

74.8. אָמְרוּ בְלִבָּם נִינָם יָחַד שָׂרְפוּ כָל־מוֹעֲדֵי־אֵל בָּאָרֶץ׃ 119.176. תָּעִיתִי כְּשֶׂה אֹבֵד בַּקֵּשׁ עַבְדֶּךָ כִּי מִצְוֺתֶיךָ לֹא שָׁכָחְתִּי׃ 74.8. They said in their heart: 'Let us make havoc of them altogether'; They have burned up all the meeting-places of God in the land." 119.176. I have gone astray like a lost sheep; seek Thy servant; For I have not forgotten Thy commandments."
7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 9.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.3. וַתֹּאבַדְנָה הָאֲתֹנוֹת לְקִישׁ אֲבִי שָׁאוּל וַיֹּאמֶר קִישׁ אֶל־שָׁאוּל בְּנוֹ קַח־נָא אִתְּךָ אֶת־אַחַד מֵהַנְּעָרִים וְקוּם לֵךְ בַּקֵּשׁ אֶת־הָאֲתֹנֹת׃ 9.3. And the asses of Qish Sha᾽ul’s father were lost. And Qish said to Sha᾽ul his son, Take now one of the servants with thee, and arise, go seek the asses."
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 23.25 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23.25. וְכָמֹהוּ לֹא־הָיָה לְפָנָיו מֶלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־שָׁב אֶל־יְהוָה בְּכָל־לְבָבוֹ וּבְכָל־נַפְשׁוֹ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדוֹ כְּכֹל תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה וְאַחֲרָיו לֹא־קָם כָּמֹהוּ׃ 23.25. And like unto him was there no king before him, that turned to the LORD with all his heart, and with all his soul, and with all his might, according to all the law of Moses; neither after him arose there any like him."
9. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 7.24, 9.14, 18.12, 50.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.24. וְלֹא שָׁמְעוּ וְלֹא־הִטּוּ אֶת־אָזְנָם וַיֵּלְכוּ בְּמֹעֵצוֹת בִּשְׁרִרוּת לִבָּם הָרָע וַיִּהְיוּ לְאָחוֹר וְלֹא לְפָנִים׃ 9.14. לָכֵן כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הִנְנִי מַאֲכִילָם אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה לַעֲנָה וְהִשְׁקִיתִים מֵי־רֹאשׁ׃ 18.12. וְאָמְרוּ נוֹאָשׁ כִּי־אַחֲרֵי מַחְשְׁבוֹתֵינוּ נֵלֵךְ וְאִישׁ שְׁרִרוּת לִבּוֹ־הָרָע נַעֲשֶׂה׃ 50.6. צֹאן אֹבְדוֹת היה [הָיוּ] עַמִּי רֹעֵיהֶם הִתְעוּם הָרִים שובבים [שׁוֹבְבוּם] מֵהַר אֶל־גִּבְעָה הָלָכוּ שָׁכְחוּ רִבְצָם׃ 7.24. But they hearkened not, nor inclined their ear, but walked in their own counsels, even in the stubbornness of their evil heart, and went backward and not forward," 9.14. Therefore thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: Behold, I will feed them, even this people, with wormwood, and give them water of gall to drink." 18.12. But they say: There is no hope; but we will walk after our own devices, and we will do every one after the stubbornness of his evil heart.’" 50.6. My people hath been lost sheep; Their shepherds have caused them to go astray, They have turned them away on the mountains; They have gone from mountain to hill, They have forgotten their resting-place."
10. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 34.4, 34.16 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

34.4. אֶת־הַנַּחְלוֹת לֹא חִזַּקְתֶּם וְאֶת־הַחוֹלָה לֹא־רִפֵּאתֶם וְלַנִּשְׁבֶּרֶת לֹא חֲבַשְׁתֶּם וְאֶת־הַנִּדַּחַת לֹא הֲשֵׁבֹתֶם וְאֶת־הָאֹבֶדֶת לֹא בִקַּשְׁתֶּם וּבְחָזְקָה רְדִיתֶם אֹתָם וּבְפָרֶךְ׃ 34.16. אֶת־הָאֹבֶדֶת אֲבַקֵּשׁ וְאֶת־הַנִּדַּחַת אָשִׁיב וְלַנִּשְׁבֶּרֶת אֶחֱבֹשׁ וְאֶת־הַחוֹלָה אֲחַזֵּק וְאֶת־הַשְּׁמֵנָה וְאֶת־הַחֲזָקָה אַשְׁמִיד אֶרְעֶנָּה בְמִשְׁפָּט׃ 34.4. The weak have ye not strengthened, neither have ye healed that which was sick, neither have ye bound up that which was broken, neither have ye brought back that which was driven away, neither have ye sought that which was lost; but with force have ye ruled over them and with rigour." 34.16. I will seek that which was lost, and will bring back that which was driven away, and will bind up that which was broken, and will strengthen that which was sick; and the fat and the strong I will destroy, I will feed them in justice."
11. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.15, 10.31 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.15. וַאֲשֶׁר יַשְׁמִיעוּ וְיַעֲבִירוּ קוֹל בְּכָל־עָרֵיהֶם וּבִירוּשָׁלִַם לֵאמֹר צְאוּ הָהָר וְהָבִיאוּ עֲלֵי־זַיִת וַעֲלֵי־עֵץ שֶׁמֶן וַעֲלֵי הֲדַס וַעֲלֵי תְמָרִים וַעֲלֵי עֵץ עָבֹת לַעֲשֹׂת סֻכֹּת כַּכָּתוּב׃ 10.31. וַאֲשֶׁר לֹא־נִתֵּן בְּנֹתֵינוּ לְעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֵיהֶם לֹא נִקַּח לְבָנֵינוּ׃ 8.15. and that they should publish and proclaim in all their cities, and in Jerusalem, saying: ‘Go forth unto the mount, and fetch olive branches, and branches of wild olive, and myrtle branches, and palm branches, and branches of thick trees, to make booths, as it is written.’" 10.31. and that we would not give our daughters unto the peoples of the land, nor take their daughters for our sons;"
12. Septuagint, Tobit, 4.19 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.19. Bless the Lord God on every occasion; ask him that your ways may be made straight and that all your paths and plans may prosper. For none of the nations has understanding; but the Lord himself gives all good things, and according to his will he humbles whomever he wishes. "So, my son, remember my commands, and do not let them be blotted out of your mind.
13. Anon., Jubilees, 50.6-50.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

50.6. and there are yet forty years to come (lit. "distant for learning the commandments of the Lord, until they pass over into the land of Canaan, crossing the Jordan to the west. 50.7. And the jubilees will pass by, until Israel is cleansed from all guilt of fornication, and uncleanness, and pollution, and sin, and error, and dwelleth with confidence in all the land, and there will be no more a Satan or any evil one, and the land will be clean from that time for evermore. 50.8. And behold the commandment regarding the Sabbaths--I have written (them) down for thee and all the judgments of its laws. brSix days wilt thou labour, but on the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God. 50.9. In it ye shall do no manner of work, ye and your sons, and your men-servants and your maid-servants, and all your cattle and the sojourner also who is with you. brAnd the man that doeth any work on it shall die: 50.10. whoever desecrateth that day, whoever lieth with (his) wife or whoever saith he will do something on it, that he will set out on a journey thereon in regard to any buying or selling: and whoever draweth water thereon which he had not prepared for himself on the sixth day, and whoever taketh up any burden to carry it out of his tent or out of his house shall die. 50.11. Ye shall do no work whatever on the Sabbath day save that ye have prepared for yourselves on the sixth day, so as to eat, and drink, and rest, and keep Sabbath from all work on that day, and to bless the Lord your God, who has given you a day of festival 50.12. and a holy day: and a day of the holy kingdom for all Israel is this day among their days for ever. 50.13. For great is the honour which the Lord hath given to Israel that they should eat and drink and be satisfied on this festival day, and rest thereon from all labour which belongeth to the labour of the children of men, save burning frankincense and bringing oblations and sacrifices before the Lord for days and for Sabbaths.
14. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 7.19-7.21, 8.8, 8.19, 9.1-9.23, 10.4-10.10, 10.14-10.17, 11.17-11.18, 12.10, 13.6-13.13, 14.3, 14.21, 16.6-16.12, 19.33, 20.28-20.30 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Habakkuk, 5.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 7.19-7.21, 8.8, 8.19, 9.1-9.9, 9.11-9.23, 10.4-10.10, 10.14-10.17, 11.17-11.18, 12.10, 13.6-13.13, 14.3, 14.21, 16.6-16.12, 19.33, 20.28-20.30 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 4.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 9.24, 10.11, 12.15, 13.9, 13.12, 13.15-13.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 9.24, 10.11, 12.15, 13.9, 13.12, 13.15-13.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 1.28, 3.29, 4.3, 6.37, 7.30, 8.19, 12.16, 14.21, 16.20, 16.24, 23.2, 27.6, 34.5, 36.19, 40.2, 40.6, 43.18, 51.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.28. Do not disobey the fear of the Lord;do not approach him with a divided mind. 3.29. The mind of the intelligent man will ponder a parable,and an attentive ear is the wise mans desire. 4.3. Do not add to the troubles of an angry mind,nor delay your gift to a beggar. 4.3. Do not be like a lion in your home,nor be a faultfinder with your servants. 8.19. Do not reveal your thoughts to every one,lest you drive away your good luck. 12.16. An enemy will speak sweetly with his lips,but in his mind he will plan to throw you into a pit;an enemy will weep with his eyes,but if he finds an opportunity his thirst for blood will be insatiable. 14.21. He who reflects in his mind on her ways will also ponder her secrets. 16.24. Listen to me, my son, and acquire knowledge,and pay close attention to my words. 27.6. The fruit discloses the cultivation of a tree;so the expression of a thought discloses the cultivation of a mans mind. 34.5. Divinations and omens and dreams are folly,and like a woman in travail the mind has fancies. 36.19. As the palate tastes the kinds of game,so an intelligent mind detects false words. 40.2. Their perplexities and fear of heart -- their anxious thought is the day of death 40.2. Wine and music gladden the heart,but the love of wisdom is better than both. 40.6. He gets little or no rest,and afterward in his sleep, as though he were on watch,he is troubled by the visions of his mind like one who has escaped from the battle-front;
21. Mishnah, Avot, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.4. Yose ben Yoezer (a man) of Zeredah and Yose ben Yoha [a man] of Jerusalem received [the oral tradition] from them [i.e. Shimon the Righteous and Antigonus]. Yose ben Yoezer used to say: let thy house be a house of meeting for the Sages and sit in the very dust of their feet, and drink in their words with thirst."
22. Mishnah, Berachot, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.5. One must bless [God] for the evil in the same way as one blesses for the good, as it says, “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). “With all your heart,” with your two impulses, the evil impulse as well as the good impulse. “With all your soul” even though he takes your soul [life] away from you. “With all your might” with all your money. Another explanation, “With all your might” whatever treatment he metes out to you. One should not show disrespect to the Eastern Gate, because it is in a direct line with the Holy of Holies. One should not enter the Temple Mount with a staff, or with shoes on, or with a wallet, or with dusty feet; nor should one make it a short cut, all the more spitting [is forbidden]. All the conclusions of blessings that were in the Temple they would say, “forever [lit. as long as the world is].” When the sectarians perverted their ways and said that there was only one world, they decreed that they should say, “for ever and ever [lit. from the end of the world to the end of the world]. They also decreed that a person should greet his fellow in God’s name, as it says, “And behold Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, ‘May the Lord be with you.’ And they answered him, “May the Lord bless you’” (Ruth 2:. And it also says, “The Lord is with your, you valiant warrior” (Judges 6:12). And it also says, “And do not despise your mother when she grows old” (Proverbs 23:22). And it also says, “It is time to act on behalf of the Lord, for they have violated Your teaching” (Psalms 119:126). Rabbi Natan says: [this means] “They have violated your teaching It is time to act on behalf of the Lord.”"
23. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.4. Cases concerning offenses punishable by death [are decided] by twenty three. A beast that has sexual relations with a woman or with a man is [judged] by twenty three, as it says, “You shall execute the woman and the beast” (Lev. 20:16) and it says, “You shall execute the beast”. The ox that is stoned [is judged] by twenty three., as it says, “The ox shall be stoned and also its owner shall be put to death” (Exodus 21:29), as is the death of the owner, so too is the death of the ox. The wolf, the lion, the bear, the leopard, the panther, or serpent [that have killed a human being] their death is [adjudicated] by twenty three. Rabbi Eliezer says: “Anyone who kills them before they come to court merits.” But Rabbi Akiva says: “Their death must be [adjudicated] by twenty three."
24. Mishnah, Sotah, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.15. When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students [of Torah] ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”"
25. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

27b. קמ"ל דאין הולכין בממון אחר הרוב:,ובא אחר ונתקל בה ושברה פטור: אמאי פטור איבעי ליה לעיוני ומיזל,אמרי דבי רב משמיה דרב בממלא רה"ר כולה חביות שמואל אמר באפילה שנו רבי יוחנן אמר בקרן זוית,אמר רב פפא לא דיקא מתניתין אלא או כשמואל או כרבי יוחנן דאי כרב מאי אריא נתקל אפילו שבר נמי,אמר רב זביד משמיה דרבא הוא הדין דאפי' שבר והאי דקתני נתקל איידי דבעי למתני סיפא ואם הוזק בה בעל חבית חייב בנזקו דדוקא נתקל אבל שבר לא מאי טעמא הוא דאזיק אנפשיה קתני רישא נתקל,אמר ליה ר' אבא לרב אשי הכי אמרי במערבא משמיה דר' עולא לפי שאין דרכן של בני אדם להתבונן בדרכים,הוה עובדא בנהרדעא וחייב שמואל בפומבדיתא וחייב רבא,בשלמא שמואל כשמעתיה אלא רבא לימא כשמואל ס"ל,אמר רב פפא קרנא דעצרא הוי דכיון דברשות קעבדי איבעי ליה לעיוני ומיזל,שלח ליה רב חסדא לר"נ הרי אמרו לרכובה שלש ולבעיטה חמש ולסנוקרת שלש עשרה לפנדא דמרא ולקופינא דמרא מאי,שלח ליה חסדא חסדא קנסא קא מגבית בבבל אימא לי גופא דעובדא היכי הוה,שלח ליה דההוא גרגותא דבי תרי דכל יומא הוה דלי חד מנייהו אתא חד קא דלי ביומא דלא דיליה א"ל יומא דידי הוא לא אשגח ביה שקל פנדא דמרא מחייה,א"ל מאה פנדי בפנדא למחייה אפילו למ"ד לא עביד איניש דינא לנפשיה במקום פסידא עביד איניש דינא לנפשיה,דאתמר רב יהודה אמר לא עביד איניש דינא לנפשיה רב נחמן אמר עביד איניש דינא לנפשיה,היכא דאיכא פסידא כ"ע לא פליגי דעביד איניש דינא לנפשיה כי פליגי היכא דליכא פסידא רב יהודה אמר לא עביד איניש דינא לנפשיה דכיון דליכא פסידא ליזיל קמיה דיינא ר"נ אמר עביד איניש דינא לנפשיה דכיון דבדין עביד לא טרח,מתיב רב כהנא בן בג בג אומר אל תיכנס לחצר חברך ליטול את שלך שלא ברשות שמא תראה עליו כגנב אלא שבור את שיניו ואמור לו שלי אני נוטל,א"ל 27b. the mishna bteaches us thatthe court bdoes not follow the majority with regard to monetary matters,and in cases of uncertainty the burden of proof rests upon the claimant.,§ The mishna teaches concerning the vessel placed in the public domain: If banotherperson bcame and stumbled on it and broke it,he is bexempt.The Gemara asks: bWhyis he bexempt?Although this happened in the public domain, bhe should examinethe road bandthen continue bwalking. /b,The Sages of the bschool of Rav said in the name of Rav:The ruling of the mishna is taught bwith regard toone who placed not just one barrel in the road, but rather bfilled the entire public domain with barrels,blocking the path. Since the public domain belongs to everyone, a pedestrian is entitled to traverse the road even if it necessitates breaking the vessels. bShmuel says:The ruling of the mishna is btaught with regard toa case where he broke it in bthe dark.Therefore, he could not have avoided breaking the barrel by examining the road in front of him. bRabbi Yoḥa says:The ruling of the mishna is btaught with regard toa case where the barrel was placed at bthe cornerof the road, and so the pedestrian could not have seen it, as he rounded the corner, before stumbling on it., bRav Pappa said: The mishna is precise only according to eitherthe explanation of bShmuel orthat of bRabbi Yoḥa,but not that of Rav. bAs, ifthe mishna is explained bin accordance withthe explanation of bRav, whatis the reason it refers bspecificallyto a case where one bstumbledon the barrel? bEven if he brokethe barrel intentionally he should not be liable to pay, as the owner of the barrel had no right to block the public road., bRav Zevid said in the name of Ravain defense of Rav’s explanation: bThe same is true even if he brokethe barrel intentionally. bAndas for bthisfact, bthatthe itannaof the mishna bteachesa case where bhe stumbled,it is bbecause he wants to teachin bthe last clause: And if he incurred damage due tothe vessel, bthe owner of the iḥavitis liableto pay bfor his damage. Asthis ruling applies bspecifically when he stumbled, butif bhe brokethe barrel intentionally and incurred damage in the process, the owner of the barrel is bnotrequired to compensate him. bWhat is the reasonfor this? Although the pedestrian had the right to break the barrel, bit is he who damaged himself,by not being careful while breaking it. Therefore, in bthe first clausethe mishna bteachesa case where bhe stumbled.Accordingly, the mishna’s wording is precise according to Rav’s explanation as well., bRabbi Abba said to Rav Ashithat bthis is what they say in the West,Eretz Yisrael, bin the name of Rabbi Ulla,in explanation of the mishna: Even if the barrel is clearly visible, one who stumbles on it is exempt from liability bbecause thetypical bmanner of people is not to examine the roads,as they assume that the road is unobstructed. Therefore, one who breaks an item placed in the road as a result of not watching is not liable to pay restitution.,The Gemara relates: bThere was an incident in Neharde’awhere a pedestrian stumbled on a jug in an open area and broke it, band Shmuel deemed him liableto pay for the damage. A similar incident took place bin Pumbedita, and Rava deemedthe person bliableto pay.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, Shmuelruled bin accordance with his halakhicopinion that the exemption stated in the mishna refers specifically to a case where one stumbles in the dark, as otherwise he is liable for breaking the barrel, since he should have examined the road. bButwith regard to bRava, shall we say that he holds in accordance with Shmuel’sopinion that one who breaks an item in the public domain is exempt from paying for it only if it was dark?, bRav Pappa said:That inference is not necessary, as this incident bwasat bthe corner wherethere was an olive bpress [ ide’atzera /i],where it is known that people put their jugs down while waiting for oil. Consequently, bsince they were acting with permission,a pedestrian bshould examinethe road bandthen continue bwalking. /b,§ bRav Ḥisda sentthe following question bto Rav Naḥman:The Sages bsaidthat when one strikes another, humiliating him, the judges determine liability according to the following formula: bFor kneeing [ irekhuva /i]him, he must pay bthree isela /i; bfor kicking, five; and for punching [ ivelisnokeret /i]him, bthirteen.The Gemara asks: If so bforhitting him with bthe handle of a hoe [ idemara /i] and forhitting him with bthe top [ iulkofina /i] of a hoe, whatamount is one liable to pay him?,Rav Naḥman bsent himthe following response: bḤisda, Ḥisda, are you collecting a finefor humiliation bin Babylonia,where judges are not authorized to collect fines? bTell me how the incident itselftranspired.,Rav Ḥisda bsent himin response: There is ba certain cistern belonging to twopeople whose arrangement was to alternate its use so bthat every day one of them would drawfrom it in turn. It happened that bone of them came and was drawingwater bon a day that was not histurn. His co-owner bsaid to him: This is my dayto draw, not yours. His colleague bdid not pay attention to him.The person whose turn it was therefore btook the handle of a hoeand bstruckthe person who was stealing his water, who then sued for damages.,Rav Naḥman bsaid to him:In that case, he was right to do so, and he bshouldhave bhit himeven ba hundred times with the hoe. Even according to the one who saysthat ba person may not take justice into his ownhands but should go to court, in a case bwherethere would be ba lossinvolved if no immediate action is taken, ba person may take justice into his ownhands.,This is bas it was stated,that bRav Yehuda says: A person may not take justice into his ownhands, whereas bRav Naḥman says: A person may take justice into his ownhands., bWhere there isan imminent blossthat will be suffered if the injured party does not take action, beveryone agrees that a person may take justice into his ownhands. bThey disagreeonly bwhen there is noimminent blossthat will be suffered. bRav Yehuda saysthat ba person may not take justice into his ownhands, bbecause since there is no loss, he should go before the judgeto have him enforce the law. bRav Naḥman saysthat ba person may take justice into his ownhands. bSince he is acting lawfully,as he is clearly in the right, bhe need not troublehimself to go before the judge to have him enforce the law., bRav Kahana raises an objectionto Rav Yehuda’s opinion based on a ibaraita /i: bBen Bag Bag says: Do not enter anotherperson’s bcourtyardsecretly bto take what isrightfully byours without permission, lest you appear to him as a thieftrying to steal his property. bRather, break his teeth,i.e., take it by force, band say to him: I am taking what is mine.Evidently one may take justice into his own hands.,Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron ben elijah of nicomedia Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 86
accusation Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 95
adjuration Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111
amoraim, amoraic period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 38
apocrypha Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11
archive Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 95
bailees (shomerin) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
bar kokhba caves Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 95
belial Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 170
ben bag bag Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 38
bible Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11, 51, 95, 111
body-soul Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 170
cairo genizah Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 51
capital matters Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 86
conversion Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 118
court Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 38
courts, jewish babylonian Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 38
day of atonement Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 118
dead sea scrolls Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 38
dead sea sectarians Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 38
deposit Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 118
doxology Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 118
dualism Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 170
end of days, enoch, book of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11
essenes Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 38
evidence Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 95
examiner Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 38, 95
exegesis, sectarian Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 86, 95, 111, 124
expiation Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 118
finder of lost object Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 118
god Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 51
guilt Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111
hakhamim Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 38
halakhah/halakhot, and aggadah; law and narrative Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
hebrew, biblical Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11, 51, 86, 124
hebrew, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 51, 111, 118, 124
hebrew, rabbinic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
heirs Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 118
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also, interpretation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
high priest Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 118
idols Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 170
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
investment Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 118
jerusalem Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
jewish christians Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 38
josephus Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 38
josiah, jubilees, book of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11
judges, duties of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 38
judges Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 38, 51, 86
karaites Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 86
law, apodictic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
law, biblical Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11
law, casuistic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11
law, derivation of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111
law, sectarian Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111, 118
law, taking into ones own hands Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 38, 51
law Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 170
light, sons of Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 170
lot Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 170
manual of discipline' "267.0_118.0@midrash tadshe'" Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11
masoretic text Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
moshav ha-rabbim Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 95
near east, ancient Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111
oath, false (shevu'at sheqer)" Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 118
oath, violation of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111
oath Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 38, 51, 111, 124
offender Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 95
offenses, recording of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 95
offenses, repetition of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 86
owner, lost property, not located Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111, 118, 124
owner, lost property, unidentified Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111
owner, lost property Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111, 124
ownership, private Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111
peace Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 170
penal code of the manual of discipline Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 51
penal code of the zadokite fragments, literary organization Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11
pharisees, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
pharisees Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 38
philo Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 38, 86
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
priests, aaronide Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 118, 124
property, communal use of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111
property, disposition of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
property, distrained or withheld Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 118
property, guardian of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
property, lost or missing Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111, 118, 124
property, restitution of lost or stolen Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111, 118, 124
property, seizing of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 38
property, stolen Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 111, 118, 124
pseudepigrapha Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11
qumran, headquarters of sect, library Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11
qumran/qumran community Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
rabbis, rabbinic literature Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 38, 86, 118
rabbis, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
records, written Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 95
relative, redeemer Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 118
repentance Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
reproof Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 95
sabbath, code of zadokite fragments Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11
sabbath Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
sacrifice Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 118
sadducees Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 38
scribal error Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 86
second commonwealth period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 86
sectarian settlements, archaeology of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 95
sectarian settlements Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
sin and atonement Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 118
slander Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 95
social welfare system Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 38
sons of light Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 170
soul Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 170
synagogue Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
tannaim, tannaitic law, judaism, period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11, 38, 95, 118
testimony, combination of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 86
testimony, law of, (zadokite fragments) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 86, 95
testimony Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 86, 95
theft Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 158
violation of the law Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 95, 111, 118
witnesses, three Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 86
witnesses, two Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 86
witnesses Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 86, 95
zadokite fragments Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 11, 111
zealots' Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 38