Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



2789
Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 6.3
NaN


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

25 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 9.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.5. לֹא בְצִדְקָתְךָ וּבְיֹשֶׁר לְבָבְךָ אַתָּה בָא לָרֶשֶׁת אֶת־אַרְצָם כִּי בְּרִשְׁעַת הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מוֹרִישָׁם מִפָּנֶיךָ וּלְמַעַן הָקִים אֶת־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב׃ 9.5. Not for thy righteousness, or for the uprightness of thy heart, dost thou go in to possess their land; but for the wickedness of these nations the LORD thy God doth drive them out from before thee, and that He may establish the word which the LORD swore unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob."
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 18.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.13. עֶרְוַת אֲחוֹת־אִמְּךָ לֹא תְגַלֵּה כִּי־שְׁאֵר אִמְּךָ הִוא׃ 18.13. Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy mother’s sister; for she is thy mother’s near kinswoman."
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 21.17-21.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.17. אָז יָשִׁיר יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת עֲלִי בְאֵר עֱנוּ־לָהּ׃ 21.18. בְּאֵר חֲפָרוּהָ שָׂרִים כָּרוּהָ נְדִיבֵי הָעָם בִּמְחֹקֵק בְּמִשְׁעֲנֹתָם וּמִמִּדְבָּר מַתָּנָה׃ 21.19. וּמִמַּתָּנָה נַחֲלִיאֵל וּמִנַּחֲלִיאֵל בָּמוֹת׃ 21.17. Then sang Israel this song: Spring up, O well—sing ye unto it—" 21.18. The well, which the princes digged, Which the nobles of the people delved, With the sceptre, and with their staves. And from the wilderness to Mattanah;" 21.19. and from Mattanah to Nahaliel; and from Nahaliel to Bamoth;" 21.20. and from Bamoth to the valley that is in the field of Moab, by the top of Pisgah, which looketh down upon the desert."
4. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 54.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

54.16. הן [הִנֵּה] אָנֹכִי בָּרָאתִי חָרָשׁ נֹפֵחַ בְּאֵשׁ פֶּחָם וּמוֹצִיא כְלִי לְמַעֲשֵׂהוּ וְאָנֹכִי בָּרָאתִי מַשְׁחִית לְחַבֵּל׃ 54.16. Behold, I have created the smith That bloweth the fire of coals, And bringeth forth a weapon for his work; And I have created the waster to destroy."
5. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.20-4.4, 4.8, 4.14, 4.15, 4.20-5.1, 5.8, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.14, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.16, 8.17, 8.19, 10.5, 10.6, 13.6, 14.18, 14.19, 19.7, 19.8, 19.9, 19.10, 19.11, 19.12, 19.13, 19.14, 20.1, 20.6, 20.31, 20.32, 20.33 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 3.13, 5.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 1.7, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.20-4.4, 4.8, 4.14, 4.15, 4.20-5.1, 5.8, 6.2, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.14, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.16, 8.17, 8.19, 10.5, 10.6, 13.6, 14.18, 14.19, 19.7, 19.8, 19.9, 19.10, 19.11, 19.12, 19.13, 19.14, 20.1, 20.6, 20.31, 20.32, 20.33 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q174 (The Florilegium) 195, 199, 339, 1.11, 1.14, 1.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1.6, 1.11, 5.7-5.12, 6.6, 7.1, 8.11-8.12, 8.15, 9.6, 9.10-9.13, 10.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 14.27-14.45, 14.47 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

14.27. So they made a record on bronze tablets and put it upon pillars on Mount Zion. This is a copy of what they wrote: "On the eighteenth day of Elul, in the one hundred and seventy-second year, which is the third year of Simon the great high priest 14.28. in Asaramel, in the great assembly of the priests and the people and the rulers of the nation and the elders of the country, the following was proclaimed to us: 14.29. Since wars often occurred in the country, Simon the son of Mattathias, a priest of the sons of Joarib, and his brothers, exposed themselves to danger and resisted the enemies of their nation, in order that their sanctuary and the law might be perserved; and they brought great glory to their nation. 14.30. Jonathan rallied the nation, and became their high priest, and was gathered to his people. 14.31. And when their enemies decided to invade their country and lay hands on their sanctuary 14.33. He fortified the cities of Judea, and Beth-zur on the borders of Judea, where formerly the arms of the enemy had been stored, and he placed there a garrison of Jews. 14.34. He also fortified Joppa, which is by the sea, and Gazara, which is on the borders of Azotus, where the enemy formerly dwelt. He settled Jews there, and provided in those cities whatever was necessary for their restoration. 14.35. The people saw Simons faithfulness and the glory which he had resolved to win for his nation, and they made him their leader and high priest, because he had done all these things and because of the justice and loyalty which he had maintained toward his nation. He sought in every way to exalt his people. 14.36. And in his days things prospered in his hands, so that the Gentiles were put out of the country, as were also the men in the city of David in Jerusalem, who had built themselves a citadel from which they used to sally forth and defile the environs of the sanctuary and do great damage to its purity. 14.37. He settled Jews in it, and fortified it for the safety of the country and of the city, and built the walls of Jerusalem higher. 14.38. In view of these things King Demetrius confirmed him in the high priesthood 14.39. and he made him one of the kings friends and paid him high honors. 14.40. For he had heard that the Jews were addressed by the Romans as friends and allies and brethren, and that the Romans had received the envoys of Simon with honor. 14.41. And the Jews and their priests decided that Simon should be their leader and high priest for ever, until a trustworthy prophet should arise 14.42. and that he should be governor over them and that he should take charge of the sanctuary and appoint men over its tasks and over the country and the weapons and the strongholds, and that he should take charge of the sanctuary 14.43. and that he should be obeyed by all, and that all contracts in the country should be written in his name, and that he should be clothed in purple and wear gold. 14.44. And none of the people or priests shall be permitted to nullify any of these decisions or to oppose what he says, or to convene an assembly in the country without his permission, or to be clothed in purple or put on a gold buckle. 14.45. Whoever acts contrary to these decisions or nullifies any of them shall be liable to punishment. 14.47. So Simon accepted and agreed to be high priest, to be commander and ethnarch of the Jews and priests, and to be protector of them all.
11. Septuagint, Judith, 4.8, 15.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

4.8. So the Israelites did as Joakim the high priest and the senate of the whole people of Israel, in session at Jerusalem, had given order. 15.8. Then Joakim the high priest, and the senate of the people of Israel who lived at Jerusalem, came to witness the good things which the Lord had done for Israel, and to see Judith and to greet her.
12. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 113 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

113. But it is not entrusted to any person who is not initiated in wisdom to dig this well, but only to kings, on which account it is said, "Kings hewed it out of Stone." For it is the office of mighty rulers to investigate and to establish wisdom, not meaning those who with their arms have subdued sea and land, but those who with the powers of the soul have fought against and subdued its diversified, and mingled, and confused multitude. XXX.
13. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 2.271 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.271. for then, says the scripture, "Israel sang this song at the Well;" that is to say, in triumph for the fact that knowledge, which had long been hidden but which was sought for, had at length been found by all men, though lying deep by nature; the duty of which was to irrigate the rational fields existing in the souls of those men who are fond of contemplation.
14. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13.297, 17.41 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.297. but of these matters we shall speak hereafter. What I would now explain is this, that the Pharisees have delivered to the people a great many observances by succession from their fathers, which are not written in the laws of Moses; and for that reason it is that the Sadducees reject them, and say that we are to esteem those observances to be obligatory which are in the written word, but are not to observe what are derived from the tradition of our forefathers. 17.41. For there was a certain sect of men that were Jews, who valued themselves highly upon the exact skill they had in the law of their fathers, and made men believe they were highly favored by God, by whom this set of women were inveigled. These are those that are called the sect of the Pharisees, who were in a capacity of greatly opposing kings. A cunning sect they were, and soon elevated to a pitch of open fighting and doing mischief.
15. Mishnah, Sukkah, 4.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.9. How was the water libation [performed]? A golden flask holding three logs was filled from the Shiloah. When they arrived at the water gate, they sounded a teki'ah [long blast], a teru'ah [a staccato note] and again a teki'ah. [The priest then] went up the ascent [of the altar] and turned to his left where there were two silver bowls. Rabbi Judah says: they were of plaster [but they looked silver] because their surfaces were darkened from the wine. They had each a hole like a slender snout, one being wide and the other narrow so that both emptied at the same time. The one on the west was for water and the one on the east for wine. If he poured the flask of water into the bowl for wine, or that of wine into that for water, he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Judah says: with one log he performed the ceremony of the water-libation all eight days. To [the priest] who performed the libation they used to say, “Raise your hand”, for one time, a certain man poured out the water over his feet, and all the people pelted him with their etrogs."
16. Mishnah, Tamid, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. The superintendent said to them: Bless one blessing! And they blessed. They then read the Ten Commandments, the Shema, the “And it will be if you hearken” (the second paragraph of Shema) and Vayomer (the third paragraph of Shema), and they blessed the people with three blessings: Emet veYatziv, and Avodah, and the priestly benediction. On Shabbat they added a blessing to be said by the watch which was leaving."
17. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 10.1-10.4, 10.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.1. Now I would not have you ignorant, brothers, that our fatherswere all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; 10.2. andwere all baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea; 10.3. andall ate the same spiritual food; 10.4. and all drank the samespiritual drink. For they drank of a spiritual rock that followed them,and the rock was Christ. 10.24. Let no one seek his own, but each one his neighbor's good.
18. New Testament, John, 1.17, 1.45, 5.46-5.47, 7.19, 7.22-7.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.17. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 1.45. Philip found Nathanael, and said to him, "We have found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, wrote: Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph. 5.46. For if you believed Moses, you would believe me; for he wrote about me. 5.47. But if you don't believe his writings, how will you believe my words? 7.19. Didn't Moses give you the law, and yet none of you keeps the law? Why do you seek to kill me? 7.22. Moses has given you circumcision (not that it is of Moses, but of the fathers), and on the Sabbath you circumcise a boy. 7.23. If a boy receives circumcision on the Sabbath, that the law of Moses may not be broken, are you angry with me, because I made a man every bit whole on the Sabbath?
19. New Testament, Luke, 16.29-16.30, 20.37 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

16.29. But Abraham said to him, 'They have Moses and the prophets. Let them listen to them.' 16.30. He said, 'No, father Abraham, but if one goes to them from the dead, they will repent.' 20.37. But that the dead are raised, even Moses showed at the bush, when he called the Lord 'The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.'
20. New Testament, Mark, 7.1-7.13, 12.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.1. Then the Pharisees, and some of the scribes gathered together to him, having come from Jerusalem. 7.2. Now when they saw some of his disciples eating bread with defiled, that is, unwashed, hands, they found fault. 7.3. (For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, don't eat unless they wash their hands and forearms, holding to the tradition of the elders. 7.4. They don't eat when they come from the marketplace, unless they bathe themselves, and there are many other things, which they have received to hold to: washings of cups, pitchers, bronze vessels, and couches.) 7.5. The Pharisees and the scribes asked him, "Why don't your disciples walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their bread with unwashed hands? 7.6. He answered them, "Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, 'This people honors me with their lips, But their heart is far from me. 7.7. But in vain do they worship me, Teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.' 7.8. For you set aside the commandment of God, and hold tightly to the tradition of men -- the washing of pitchers and cups, and you do many other such things. 7.9. He said to them, "Full well do you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition. 7.10. For Moses said, 'Honor your father and your mother;' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 7.11. But you say, 'If a man tells his father or his mother, "Whatever profit you might have received from me is Corban, that is to say, given to God;"' 7.12. then you no longer allow him to do anything for his father or his mother 7.13. making void the word of God by your tradition, which you have handed down. You do many things like this. 12.26. But about the dead, that they are raised; haven't you read in the book of Moses, about the Bush, how God spoke to him, saying, 'I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?'
21. New Testament, Matthew, 15.1-15.9, 19.3-19.9, 22.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.1. Then Pharisees and scribes came to Jesus from Jerusalem, saying 15.2. Why do your disciples disobey the tradition of the elders? For they don't wash their hands when they eat bread. 15.3. He answered them, "Why do you also disobey the commandment of God because of your tradition? 15.4. For God commanded, 'Honor your father and your mother,' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 15.5. But you say, 'Whoever may tell his father or his mother, "Whatever help you might otherwise have gotten from me is a gift devoted to God 15.6. he shall not honor his father or mother.' You have made the commandment of God void because of your tradition. 15.7. You hypocrites! Well did Isaiah prophesy of you, saying 15.8. 'These people draw near to me with their mouth, And honor me with their lips; But their heart is far from me. 15.9. And in vain do they worship me, Teaching as doctrine rules made by men.' 19.3. Pharisees came to him, testing him, and saying, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife for any reason? 19.4. He answered, "Haven't you read that he who made them from the beginning made them male and female 19.5. and said, 'For this cause a man shall leave his father and mother, and shall join to his wife; and the two shall become one flesh?' 19.6. So that they are no more two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, don't let man tear apart. 19.7. They asked him, "Why then did Moses command us to give her a bill of divorce, and divorce her? 19.8. He said to them, "Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, allowed you to divorce your wives, but from the beginning it has not been so. 19.9. I tell you that whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adultery; and he who marries her when she is divorced commits adultery. 22.31. But concerning the resurrection of the dead, haven't you read that which was spoken to you by God, saying
22. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 10.7, 11.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. Tosefta, Sukkah, 3.3, 3.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.3. Why is the name \"Water Gate\"? It is so called because through it they take the flask of water used for the libation at the Feast. R. Eliezer b. Jacob says of it, \"The waters are dripping, intimating that water oozing out and rising, as if from this flask, will in future days come forth from under the threshold of the Temple, and so it says, ‘When the man went forth eastward with the line in his hand, he measured a thousand cubits, and caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the ankles, intimating that a man can pass through waters up to his ankles ; and again he measured a thousand, and caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the knees, intimating that a man can pass through waters up to his knees.’”Another interpretation of waters that were to the knees, \"intimating that after they have been blessed, they flow out. Again, he measured a thousand, and caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the loins, intimating that a man can pass through waters up to his loins. Afterwards he measured a thousand, and it was a river that I could not pass through. Though one cannot cross it on foot, yet one may be able to do so by swimming; though one cannot cross it in a small boat, as we learn from the Scripture, For the waters were risen, waters to swim in they were risen too high for swimming. Though one cannot cross it in a small boat, yet one may be able to do so in a large boat, as we learn from the Scripture, There shall not go thereon any rowing ship. Though one cannot cross it in a large boat, yet one may be able to do so in a fast sailing vessel, as we learn from the Scripture, And gallant ship shall not pass over it. 2 And so it is said, And it shall come to pass in that day, that living waters shall go out from Jerusalem, half of them toward the eastern sea, and half of them toward the western sea ; in summer and in winter shall it be. It may be other fountains will be mixed with them, as we learn from the Scripture, In that day shall there be a fountain opened to the house of David, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for uncleanness. Whither do the waters go ? To the Mediterranean, and to the sea of Tiberias, and to the Dead Sea, that their waters may be healed, as it is said : And he said to me, These waters issue forth towards the eastern region that is the Dead Sea ; and shall go down into the Arabah that is the Sea of Tiberias ; and they shall go towards the other sea that is the Mediterranean Sea ; and the waters shall be healed ; and it shall come to pass that every living creature that swarms, in every place whither the river comes, shall live ; and there shall be a very great multitude of fish; for these waters are come hither, that all things may be healed and live, whithersoever the river cometh. And it also says : And it shall come to pass that fishers shall stand by it ; from Engedi even unto Englaim shall be a place for the spreading of nets ; their fish shall be after their kinds, as the fish of the Great Sea, exceeding many. And it also says : But the miry places thereof and the marishes thereof, shall not be healed ; they shall be given for salt. And also : By the river, upon the bank thereof, on this side and on that side, shall grow every tree for meat, whose leaf shall not wither, neither shall the fruit thereof fail ; it shall bring forth first-fruits every month, because the waters thereof issue out of the sanctuary ; and the fruit thereof shall be for meat, and the leaf thereof for healing intimating that all \"the waters of creation\" will come forth as from the mouth of this flask. So the well, which was with Israel in the wilderness, was like a rock of the size of a k'bara, 6 and was oozing out and rising as from the mouth of this flask, travelling with them up the mountains and going down with them to the valleys. Wherever Israel encamped it encamped opposite them before the door of the Tabernacle. The princes of Israel with their slaves surrounded it, and said over it this song, Spring up, O well, sing ye unto it. Then the waters bubbled forth, and rose on high like a pillar; and every one drew out the staff of his tribe and family, as it is said, The well which the princes digged, Which the nobles of the people delved, With the sceptre and with their staves. And from Mattanah to Nahaliel ; and from Nahaliel to Bamoth ; and from Bamoth to the valley, etc. going round every camp of the Lord, and watering all Jeshimon ; and it made mighty streams, as it is said, And streams overflowed. 3 And they were sitting in skiffs, going from place to place, as it is written, They ran in the dry places like a river. If Israel went up on the right, it would come down on the right ; if on the left, it would come down on the left. The waters which emptied themselves from it became a great river, pouring themselves into the Mediterranean, and bringing thence all the precious things of the world, as it is said, These forty years the Lord thy God hath been with thee ; thou hast lacked nothing."
24. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11b. (ישעיהו מה, ז) יוצר אור ובורא חשך,לימא יוצר אור ובורא נוגה,כדכתיב קאמרינן,אלא מעתה (ישעיהו מה, ז) עושה שלום ובורא רע מי קא אמרינן כדכתיב אלא כתיב רע וקרינן הכל לישנא מעליא הכא נמי לימא נוגה לישנא מעליא,אלא אמר רבא כדי להזכיר מדת יום בלילה ומדת לילה ביום,בשלמא מדת לילה ביום כדאמרינן יוצר אור ובורא חשך אלא מדת יום בלילה היכי משכחת לה,אמר אביי גולל אור מפני חשך וחשך מפני אור,ואידך מאי היא אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל אהבה רבה וכן אורי ליה רבי אלעזר לר' פדת בריה אהבה רבה,תניא נמי הכי אין אומרים אהבת עולם אלא אהבה רבה ורבנן אמרי אהבת עולם וכן הוא אומר (ירמיהו לא, ג) ואהבת עולם אהבתיך על כן משכתיך חסד,א"ר יהודה אמר שמואל השכים לשנות עד שלא קרא ק"ש צריך לברך משקרא ק"ש א"צ לברך שכבר נפטר באהבה רבה,אמר רב הונא למקרא צריך לברך ולמדרש א"צ לברך,ור' אלעזר אמר למקרא ולמדרש צריך לברך למשנה א"צ לברך,ור' יוחנן אמר אף למשנה נמי צריך לברך [אבל לתלמוד א"צ לברך],ורבא אמר אף לתלמוד צריך (לחזור ו) לברך,דאמר רב חייא בר אשי זימנין סגיאין הוה קאימנא קמיה דרב לתנויי פרקין בספרא דבי רב הוה מקדים וקא משי ידיה ובריך ומתני לן פרקין.,מאי מברך א"ר יהודה אמר שמואל אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו לעסוק בדברי תורה,ור' יוחנן מסיים בה הכי הערב נא ה' אלהינו את דברי תורתך בפינו ובפיפיות עמך בית ישראל ונהיה אנחנו וצאצאינו וצאצאי עמך בית ישראל כלנו יודעי שמך ועוסקי תורתך ברוך אתה ה' המלמד תורה לעמו ישראל,ורב המנונא אמר אשר בחר בנו מכל העמים ונתן לנו את תורתו ברוך אתה ה' נותן התורה אמר רב המנונא זו היא מעולה שבברכות,הלכך לימרינהו לכולהו:,תנן התם אמר להם הממונה ברכו ברכה אחת והם ברכו וקראו עשרת הדברות שמע והיה אם שמוע ויאמר וברכו את העם ג' ברכות אמת ויציב ועבודה וברכת כהנים ובשבת מוסיפין ברכה אחת למשמר היוצא,מאי ברכה אחת כי הא דרבי אבא ור' יוסי בר אבא אקלעו לההוא אתרא בעו מנייהו מאי ברכה אחת לא הוה בידייהו ואתו שיילוהו לרב מתנה לא הוה בידיה אתו שיילוהו לרב יהודה אמר להו הכי אמר שמואל אהבה רבה,ואמר רבי זריקא אמר רבי אמי א"ר שמעון בן לקיש יוצר אור כי אתא רב יצחק בר יוסף אמר הא דרבי זריקא לאו בפירוש אתמר אלא מכללא אתמר דאמר ר' זריקא א"ר אמי אמר ר' שמעון בן לקיש זאת אומרת ברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו,אי אמרת בשלמא יוצר אור הוו אמרי היינו דברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו דלא קא אמרי אהבה רבה 11b. b“Who forms light and creates darkness,Who makes peace and creates evil, I am the Lord Who does all these things” (Isaiah 45:7).,With regard to this formula of the blessing, the Gemara asks: bLet him saythe following formula instead: bWho forms light and creates brightness,so as not to mention darkness, which has negative connotations.,The Gemara answers: bWe saythe blessing basthe verse bis writtenin the Bible and do not alter the formula that appears in the verse.,The Gemara strongly objects: bBut if so,what about the continuation of the verse: b“Who makes peace and creates evil”? Do we saythis blessing bas it is writtenin the Bible? bRather, it is written evil and we euphemistically recitethe blessing ball thingsto avoid mention of evil. bHere, too, let us euphemistically say brightnessinstead of darkness., bRather, Rava said:The reason we recite: “Who creates darkness” is bin order to mention the attribute of day at night and the attribute of night during the day,and thereby unify day and night as different parts of a single entity.,The Gemara continues and asks: bGranted, the attribute of nightis mentioned bduring the day, as we say: Who forms light and creates darkness, but where do you find the attribute of daymentioned bat night?In the blessing over the radiant lights recited at night there is no mention of “Who forms light.”, bAbaye said:Nevertheless, the attribute of day is mentioned at night in the words: bRolling away light before the darkness and darkness before the light. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd what isthe formula of bthe otherblessing recited before iShema /i? bRav Yehuda said in the name of Shmuel: An abounding love [ iahava rabba /i]. And Rabbi Elazar instructed his son, Rabbi Pedat,to balsosay: bAn abounding love. /b, bThat was also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne does not recite: An eternal love [ iahavat olam /i]; rather,one recites: bAn abounding love. And the Rabbis saythat one recites: bAn eternal love, and so it says: “And an eternal love I have loved you, therefore I have drawn you with kindness”(Jeremiah 31:2).,The blessing: An abounding love, is about God’s love for us and includes praise for His giving us the Torah. Therefore, bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: One who arose to study, until he recites iShemahe must recite aspecial bblessingover the Torah. bIf healready brecited iShemahe need not recitethat bblessing, as he has exemptedhimself bbyreciting the blessing of: bAn abounding love,which includes the components of the blessing over the Torah.,Having mentioned the blessing recited over Torah, the Gemara focuses on a dispute over what constitutes Torah in terms of requiring a blessing. bRav Huna said: Forthe study of bBible, one must recite a blessing,as it is the word of God, band forhalakhic bmidrash,the derivation of ihalakhotfrom verses, bone need not recite a blessing. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: For Bible and midrash,which includes ihalakhotderived from verses themselves, bone must recite a blessing; for Mishna,which is only comprised of halakhic rulings issued by the Sages, bone need not recite a blessing. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: Even for Mishna,which includes final, binding halakhic rulings, bone must recite a blessing as well, but for Talmud,which comprises a study of the Mishna and the rationales for its rulings, bone need not recite a blessing. /b, bAnd Rava said: Even for Talmud,which is the means to analyze the significance of the ihalakhot /i, and is the only form of Torah study that leads one to its true meaning, bone must recite a blessing. /b,This statement is supported by the practical ihalakhaderived from observation of Rav’s practice. His student, bRav Ḥiyya bar Ashi, said: Many times I stood before Rav to study our chapter in the iSifra /i,also known as iTorat Kohanim /i, the halakhic midrash on Leviticus, bof the school of Rav,and I saw that Rav bwould first wash his hands,then brecite a blessing,and only then bhe would teach us our chapter.This demonstrates that even before their study of iTorat Kohanim /i, which, due to Rav’s explanation of the reasons behind the ihalakhot /i, was the equivalent of studying Talmud, one must recite a blessing.,The Gemara clarifies: bWhatformula of bblessings does he recite?There is a dispute over the formula of the blessings as well. bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:The formula of this blessing is like the standard formula for blessings recited over other mitzvot: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, bWho sanctified us with his mitzvot and commanded us to engage in matters of Torah. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa concludesthe blessing by adding bthe following: Lord our God, make the words of Your Torah sweet in our mouths and in the mouths of Your people, the house of Israel, so that we and our descendants and the descendants of Your people, the house of Israel, may be those who know Your name and engage in Your Torah. Blessed are You, Lord, Who teaches Torah to His people Israel. /b, bAnd Rav Hamnuna saidan additional formula: bWho has chosen us from all the peoples and given us His Torah. Blessed are You, Lord, Giver of the Torah.With regard to this formula, bRav Hamnuna said: Thisconcise blessing bis the most outstanding of all the blessingsover the Torah, as it combines thanks to God for giving us the Torah as well as acclaim for the Torah and for Israel.,Since several formulas for the blessing over Torah were suggested, each with its own distinct advantage, the Gemara concludes: bTherefore, let us recite them allas blessings over the Torah.,The Gemara returns to dealing with the blessings that accompany iShema /i, and describes the practice in the Temple. bWe learned there,in a mishna in tractate iTamid /i: In the morning bthedeputy High Priest bappointedto oversee activity in the Temple, bsaid tothe priests who were members of the priestly watch [ imishmar /i] on duty that week: bRecite a single blessing.The members of the priestly watch brecited a blessing, and read the Ten Commandments, iShema /i, iVeHaya im Shamoaand iVaYomer /i,the standard recitation of iShema /i. Additionally, bthey blessed the peoplewith bthree blessings.These blessings were: bTrue and Firm,the blessing of redemption recited after iShema /i; iAvoda /i,service, the special blessing recited over God’s acceptance of the sacrifices with favor, similar to the blessing of Temple Service recited in the iAmidaprayer; band the priestly benediction,recited in the form of a prayer without the outstretched hands that usually accompany that blessing ( iTosafot /i). bAnd on Shabbat one blessing is added tobless bthe outgoing priestly watch,as the watch serving in the Temple was replaced on Shabbat.,Certain details in this mishna are not sufficiently clear. First, bwhat is the single blessingthat the deputy High Priest instructed the guards to recite? The Gemara relates: It is blikethe incident bwhere Rabbi Abba and Rabbi Yosei bar Abba happened tovisit ba certainunnamed bplace,and the people there basked them: What is the single blessingmentioned in the mishna? They bdid not havean answer breadily available.So bthey came and asked Rav Mattana, and hetoo bdid not havean answer breadily available. They came and asked Rav Yehuda,and bhe told them: Shmuel said as follows: An abounding loveis the single blessing recited by the priestly watch., bRabbi Zerika saidthat bRabbi Ami saidthat bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish saida different answer: This single blessing is: bWho creates light.That was how Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish’s statement was received in Babylonia, yet bwhen Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe saidthat this ihalakhawas not a direct quote of a statement by Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish. bThat which Rabbi Zerika said was not stated explicitlyby Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, but brather it was inferred fromanother statement. bAs Rabbi Zerika saidthat bRabbi Ami saidthat bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:From the expression: Recite a single blessing, in the mishna in tractate iTamid /i, bit followsthat failure to recite one of the bblessingsrecited before iShema bdoes not preventone from reciting the bother.This means that if only one of the blessings was recited, the obligation to recite that blessing was fulfilled, as the two blessings are not mutually dependent.,The conclusion was drawn from Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish’s statement that he held that the single blessing recited was: Who creates light. The considerations that led the Sages to that conclusion were: bGranted, if you say that they would recite: Who creates light,then the conclusion of Reish Lakish, that failure to recite one of the bblessingsrecited before iShema bdoes not prevent onefrom reciting the bother,is understandable, as they recited: Who creates light, band did not recite: An abounding love,and they nonetheless fulfilled their obligation.
25. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

110a. band swear to the Lord of hosts;one shall be called the city of destruction” (Isaiah 19:18). bThey went to Alexandria in Egypt and built an altar and sacrificedofferings bupon it for the sake of Heaven, as it is statedin the following verse: b“In that day shall there be an altar to the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt,and a pillar at its border, to the Lord” (Isaiah 19:19).,The verse states: b“One shall be called the city of destruction”(Isaiah 19:18). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the verse: b“One shall be called the city of destruction”?The Gemara answers: bAs Rav Yosef translatesinto Aramaic: Concerning bthe City of the Sun, which will be destroyed in the future, it will be said that it is one of them. And from whereis it derived bthatin the phrase: b“The city of destruction [ iheres /i],” the term iheres bisreferring bto the sun? As it is written: “Who commands the sun [ iḥeres /i], and it does not rise;and seals up the stars” (Job 9:7).,§ After mentioning the Jewish community in Egypt, the Gemara discusses Jewish communities in other locations. The verse states: “Fear not, for I am with you; I will bring your seed from the east and gather you from the west; I will say to the north: Give up, and to the south: Keep not back, bbring My sons from far, and My daughters from the end of the earth”(Isaiah 43:5–6). What is the meaning of b“bring My sons from far”? Rav Huna says: These are the exiles of Babylonia, whose minds are calm, like sons,and who can therefore focus properly on Torah study and mitzvot. What is the meaning of b“and My daughters from the end of the earth”? These are the exiles of other countries, whose minds are unsettled, like daughters. /b,§ bRabbi Abba bar Rav Yitzḥak saysthat bRav Ḥisda says, and some saythat bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:The gentiles living bfrom Tyre to Carthage recognize the Jewish people,their religion, band their Father in Heaven. Butthose living bto the west of Tyre and to the east of Carthage recognize neither the Jewish people nor their Father in Heaven. /b, bRav Shimi bar Ḥiyya raised an objection tothe statement of bRavfrom the verse: b“From the rising of the sun until it sets, My name is great among the nations; and in every place offerings are presented to My name, and a pure meal offering;for My name is great among the nations, says the Lord of hosts” (Malachi 1:11). This indicates that God’s name is known across the entire world, even to the west of Tyre and the east of Carthage. Rav bsaid to him: Shimi,is it byouwho is raising such an objection? The verse does not mean that they recognize God and worship him. Rather, it means bthatalthough they worship idols, bthey call Him the God of gods. /b,§ The verse states: “And bin every place offerings are presented to My name,and a pure meal offering; for My name is great among the nations, says the Lord of hosts.” Does it benter your mindto say that it is permitted to sacrifice offerings bin every place?Rather, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: These are Torah scholars, who engage in Torahstudy bin every place.God says: bI ascribe themcredit bas though they burn and presentofferings bto My name. /b,Furthermore, when the verse states: b“And a pure meal offering,” thisis referring to bone who studies Torah in purity,i.e., one who first bmarries a woman and afterward studies Torah.Since he is married, he is not disturbed by sinful thoughts.,The Gemara cites another verse that praises Torah scholars. b“A Song of Ascents, Behold, bless the Lord, all you servants of the Lord, who stand in the House of the Lord at night”(Psalms 134:1). bWhatis the meaning of b“at night,”given that the Temple service is not performed at night and all the offerings must be sacrificed during the daytime? bRabbi Yoḥa says: These are Torah scholars, who engage in Torahstudy bat night. The verse ascribes themcredit bas though they engage in theTemple bservice. /b,§ The Gemara cites another verse that is interpreted in a similar vein. King Solomon said to Hiram of Tyre: “Behold, I am about to build a house for the name of the Lord my God, to dedicate it to Him, and to burn before Him incense of sweet spices, and for the continual shewbread, and for the burnt offerings morning and evening, on the iShabbatot /i, and on the New Moons, and on the Festivals of the Lord our God. bThis is an ordice forever for Israel”(II Chronicles 2:3). Since the Temple was eventually destroyed, what did Solomon mean when he said that it is “an ordice forever”? bRav Giddel saysthat bRav says: Thisis referring to the baltarthat remains bbuiltin Heaven even after the earthly Temple was destroyed, bandthe angel bMichael, the great minister, stands and sacrifices an offering upon it. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa saysthat there is an alternative explanation of the verse: bThese are Torah scholars, who engage instudying bthe ihalakhotofthe Temple bservice. The verse ascribes themcredit bas though the Temple was built in their daysand they are serving in it.,§ The Gemara cites similar interpretations of verses: bReish Lakish said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “This is the law [ itorah /i] of the burnt offering, of the meal offering, and of the sin offering, and of the guilt offering,and of the consecration offering, and of the sacrifice of peace offerings” (Leviticus 7:37)? This teaches that banyone who engages in Torahstudy is considered bas though he sacrificed a burnt offering, a meal offering, a sin offering, and a guilt offering. /b, bRava saidan objection to this interpretation: bThisverse states: b“of the burnt offering, of the meal offering.”If the interpretation of Reish Lakish is correct, the verse bshould havewritten: b“Burnt offering and meal offering.” Rather, Rava saysthat the correct interpretation of this verse is: bAnyone who engages in Torahstudy bneed notbring ba burnt offering, nor a sin offering, nor a meal offering, nor a guilt offering. /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “This is the law of the sin offering”(Leviticus 6:18), band: “This is the law of the guilt offering”(Leviticus 7:1)? These verses teach that banyone who engages instudying bthe law of the sin offeringis ascribed credit bas though he sacrificed a sin offering, and anyone who engages instudying bthe law of a guilt offeringis ascribed credit bas though he sacrificed a guilt offering. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bIt is stated with regard to an animal burnt offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:9), band with regard to a bird burnt offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:17), band with regard to a meal offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 2:2). The repetitive language employed concerning all of these different offerings is bto say to youthat bone who brings a substantialoffering band one who brings a meageroffering have equal merit, bprovided that he directs his heart toward Heaven. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bRabbi Zeira said: What is the versefrom which this principle is derived? b“Sweet is the sleep of a laboring man, whether he consumes little or much” /b(Ecclesiastes 5:11).The verse is interpreted as referring to one who brings an offering, and teaches that one who brings a substantial offering and one who brings a meager offering can be equally assured that their offering will be accepted., bRav Adda bar Ahava saidthat the source is bfrom here: “When goods increase, those who consume them increase; and what advantage is there to the owner,except seeing them with his eyes?” (Ecclesiastes 5:10). One who brings a substantial offering, who thereby increases the number of priests who partake of it, does not have more merit than one who brings a meager offering. Rather, the offering that God desires is one where He recognizes, i.e., “seeing them with His eyes,” that its owner has the proper intent.,The Gemara addresses the expression “an aroma pleasing to the Lord” stated in the verses mentioned in the mishna. bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Azzai says: Come and see what is written in the portion of offerings: Asin these verses, the divine names iEland iElohimare not stated, butonly b“the Lord.”This is bsoas bnot to give a claim to a litigant to argue.Only one name of God is used in conjunction with all the various offerings, to prevent heretics from claiming that different offerings are brought to different gods., bAnd it is stated with regard to a large bulloffering: b“A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:9), band with regard to a small birdoffering: b“A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:17), band with regard to a meal offering: “A fire offering, an aroma pleasingto the Lord” (Leviticus 1:9). The repetitive language employed concerning all of these different offerings is bto say to youthat bone who brings a substantialoffering band one who brings a meageroffering have equal merit, bprovided that he directs his heart toward Heaven. /b, bAnd lest you saythat God bneedsthese offerings bfor consumption,in which case a larger offering would be preferable to a smaller one, bthe verse states: “If I were hungry, I would not tell you; for the world is Mine, and everything within it”(Psalms 50:12). bAnd it is stated: “For every beast of the forest is Mine, and the cattle upon a thousand hills. I know all the fowls of the mountains; and the wild beasts of the field are Mine”(Psalms 50:10–11). Similarly, it is stated in the following verse: b“Do I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats?”(Psalms 50:13)., bI did not say to you: Sacrificeofferings to me, bso that you will say: I will do His will,i.e., fulfill His needs, band He will do my will. You are not sacrificing tofulfill bMy will,i.e., My needs, bbut you are sacrificing tofulfill byour will,i.e., your needs, in order to achieve atonement for your sins by observing My mitzvot, bas it is stated:“And when you sacrifice an offering of peace offerings to the Lord, byou shall sacrifice it so that you may be accepted”(Leviticus 19:5)., bAlternatively,the verse: “And when you sacrifice an offering of peace offerings to the Lord, byou shall sacrifice it so that you may be accepted [ ilirtzonkhem /i]”(Leviticus 19:5), can be interpreted differently: bSacrifice willingly [ ilirtzonkhem /i]; sacrifice intentionally. /b,This is bas Shmuel asked Rav Huna: From whereis it derived with regard bto one who acts unawaresin the case bof consecrateditems, i.e., if one slaughtered an offering without intending to perform the act of slaughter at all, but rather appeared like one occupied with other matters, bthatthe offering bis disqualified?Rav Huna said to Shmuel: It is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “And he shall slaughter the young bullbefore the Lord” (Leviticus 1:5), teaching that the mitzva is not performed properly bunless the slaughter is for the sake of a young bull,i.e., with the knowledge that he is performing an act of slaughter.,Shmuel bsaid toRav Huna: bWe have thisas an established ihalakhaalready, that it is a mitzva to slaughter the offering for the sake of a bull, but bfrom whereis it derived that this requirement is bindispensable?Rav Huna bsaid to himthat the verse states: b“With your will you shall slaughter it”(Leviticus 19:5), i.e., bsacrifice intentionally,in the form of a purposeful action.,...Y


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 21; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 595
abraham, sons of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119, 120
abraham, two wives of Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119, 120
abraham Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119, 120
actualization Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119
admonition Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
aggada Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 595
alexander janneus Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 21
allegory, allegorical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 595
allegory/allegorical, allegorical text or interpretation Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 120
allegory/allegorical, and pesher Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119, 120
allegory/allegorical, in the dead sea scrolls Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119, 120
allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119, 120
allegory/allegorical, of law Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 120
apostates/apostasy Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 495
audience Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 163
cairo genizah Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
churches/tradition of paul pauline Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 595
coins Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 21
commandment/commandments Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 151, 495
contemporization Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 40, 119
dead sea scrolls, divine inspiration as source of halakhah Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 42
decalogue, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 495
derveni papyrus Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 120
divine origins of halakhic law Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 42
divine revelation, as source of authority Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 42
endtime Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119
eschatology/eschatological Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 176
eschatology Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 120
essenes Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
exegesis, pesher Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
figure Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119
fragmentation Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 41
hagar Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119, 120
halakhah, divine versus human authority in Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 42
halakhah/halakhot, and aggadah; law and narrative Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 149, 151, 163, 164
hasmonean conquests Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 21
hebrew (language) Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 21
hermeneutics, and making communities Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 40
hermeneutics/hermeneutical—see also, interpretation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 149, 163, 164, 495
hidden commandments, revelation of Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 42
hyponoia Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 120
implicit/explicit interpretation Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 41, 120
initiation ceremony, process Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52, 149, 151, 163, 164, 176
intertextuality and intertext, literal Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119, 120
intertextuality and intertext Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 120
jerusalem Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52
jesus—see also christianity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 495
judah (patriarch, tribe, biblical region, kingdom) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 595
judges Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52
laity, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52
law, biblical/rabbinic—see also, halakhah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52, 149, 151, 163, 164
law, jewish Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
lemma Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 41
literal sense Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119, 120
manual of discipline Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
metaphor Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119, 120
midrash-pesher Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 39, 40, 41, 119
midrash/midrashim Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 149, 151, 163, 164, 176, 495
moses Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 495; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 595
mysticism, mystical Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 595
narrative Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 40
new testament—see also, christianity Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 495
novitiate, novice Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
orphic poem Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 120
patriarchs, texts Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52
paul (saul) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 595
pesher Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 39, 40, 41, 119, 120
pharisees, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 495
philo Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 595
prayer Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52, 149, 151, 163, 164, 176, 495
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52, 151
pronominal pesharim Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 39, 40, 41
prophets Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 151, 163, 176
qumran, headquarters of sect Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
qumran/qumran community Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52, 149, 151, 163, 164, 176
qumran Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 39, 40, 41, 119, 120
rabbinic literature, human exegetical activity in Shemesh, Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis (2009) 42
rabbis Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 595
revelation Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 164
rhetoric Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 39, 40, 41
righteousness by pistis/deeds Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 39
sacrifices/sacrificial offerings Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52
sadducees, the Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 495
sect, admittance to Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
sect, history of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
sect, replacement temple Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
sectarian/sectarianism Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52, 149, 163, 164, 176
sectarian settlements, texts, composition and redaction Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
sectarian settlements Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8
shemitah Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 119
sinai, mount Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 495
song of the well Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 40, 41, 119, 120
sukkot (tabernacles) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 595
teacher of righteousness Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 164
tora (see also pentateuch) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 595
torah, as a well Fisch,, Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash (2023) 40, 41, 119, 120
torah Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 52, 149, 151, 163, 164, 176, 495
wilderness' Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 151
zadokite fragments Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 8