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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



2789
Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 14.21
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1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.13. אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ תִּירָא וְאֹתוֹ תַעֲבֹד וּבִשְׁמוֹ תִּשָּׁבֵעַ׃ 6.13. Thou shalt fear the LORD thy God; and Him shalt thou serve, and by His name shalt thou swear."
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 5.1, 5.20-5.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.1. וְנֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תֶחֱטָא וְשָׁמְעָה קוֹל אָלָה וְהוּא עֵד אוֹ רָאָה אוֹ יָדָע אִם־לוֹא יַגִּיד וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 5.1. וְאֶת־הַשֵּׁנִי יַעֲשֶׂה עֹלָה כַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃ 5.21. נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וּמָעֲלָה מַעַל בַּיהוָה וְכִחֵשׁ בַּעֲמִיתוֹ בְּפִקָּדוֹן אוֹ־בִתְשׂוּמֶת יָד אוֹ בְגָזֵל אוֹ עָשַׁק אֶת־עֲמִיתוֹ׃ 5.22. אוֹ־מָצָא אֲבֵדָה וְכִחֶשׁ בָּהּ וְנִשְׁבַּע עַל־שָׁקֶר עַל־אַחַת מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה הָאָדָם לַחֲטֹא בָהֵנָּה׃ 5.23. וְהָיָה כִּי־יֶחֱטָא וְאָשֵׁם וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת־הַגְּזֵלָה אֲשֶׁר גָּזָל אוֹ אֶת־הָעֹשֶׁק אֲשֶׁר עָשָׁק אוֹ אֶת־הַפִּקָּדוֹן אֲשֶׁר הָפְקַד אִתּוֹ אוֹ אֶת־הָאֲבֵדָה אֲשֶׁר מָצָא׃ 5.24. אוֹ מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׁבַע עָלָיו לַשֶּׁקֶר וְשִׁלַּם אֹתוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַחֲמִשִׁתָיו יֹסֵף עָלָיו לַאֲשֶׁר הוּא לוֹ יִתְּנֶנּוּ בְּיוֹם אַשְׁמָתוֹ׃ 5.25. וְאֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ יָבִיא לַיהוָה אַיִל תָּמִים מִן־הַצֹּאן בְּעֶרְכְּךָ לְאָשָׁם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃ 5.26. וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְנִסְלַח לוֹ עַל־אַחַת מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה לְאַשְׁמָה בָהּ׃ 5.1. And if any one sin, in that he heareth the voice of adjuration, he being a witness, whether he hath seen or known, if he do not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity;" 5.20. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.21. If any one sin, and commit a trespass against the LORD, and deal falsely with his neighbour in a matter of deposit, or of pledge, or of robbery, or have oppressed his neighbour;" 5.22. or have found that which was lost, and deal falsely therein, and swear to a lie; in any of all these that a man doeth, sinning therein;" 5.23. then it shall be, if he hath sinned, and is guilty, that he shall restore that which he took by robbery, or the thing which he hath gotten by oppression, or the deposit which was deposited with him, or the lost thing which he found," 5.24. or any thing about which he hath sworn falsely, he shall even restore it in full, and shall add the fifth part more thereto; unto him to whom it appertaineth shall he give it, in the day of his being guilty." 5.25. And he shall bring his forfeit unto the LORD, a ram without blemish out of the flock, according to thy valuation, for a guilt-offering, unto the priest." 5.26. And the priest shall make atonement for him before the LORD, and he shall be forgiven, concerning whatsoever he doeth so as to be guilty thereby."
3. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.15, 10.31 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.15. וַאֲשֶׁר יַשְׁמִיעוּ וְיַעֲבִירוּ קוֹל בְּכָל־עָרֵיהֶם וּבִירוּשָׁלִַם לֵאמֹר צְאוּ הָהָר וְהָבִיאוּ עֲלֵי־זַיִת וַעֲלֵי־עֵץ שֶׁמֶן וַעֲלֵי הֲדַס וַעֲלֵי תְמָרִים וַעֲלֵי עֵץ עָבֹת לַעֲשֹׂת סֻכֹּת כַּכָּתוּב׃ 10.31. וַאֲשֶׁר לֹא־נִתֵּן בְּנֹתֵינוּ לְעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֵיהֶם לֹא נִקַּח לְבָנֵינוּ׃ 8.15. and that they should publish and proclaim in all their cities, and in Jerusalem, saying: ‘Go forth unto the mount, and fetch olive branches, and branches of wild olive, and myrtle branches, and palm branches, and branches of thick trees, to make booths, as it is written.’" 10.31. and that we would not give our daughters unto the peoples of the land, nor take their daughters for our sons;"
4. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 9.8-9.10, 14.17-14.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

5. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 9.8-9.10, 14.17-14.20, 14.22-14.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 6.24-7.25, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23, 8.24, 8.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Mishnah, Shevuot, 4.13 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.13. [If he said]: \"I adjure you\"; \"I command you\"; \"I bind you\"; they are liable. \"By heaven and earth!\", they are exempt. \"By Alef Daleth\"; \"By Yod He\"; \"By God Almighty\"; \"By The Lord of Hosts; \"By the Merciful and Gracious one\"; \"By the Long Suffering One\"; \"By the One Abounding in Kindness\"; or by any of the substitutes [for the name], they are liable. He who blasphemes by any of them is liable, according to the words of Rabbi Meir. And the Sages exempt him. He who curses his father or mother by any of them is liable according to the words of Rabbi Meir. And the Sages exempt him. He who curses himself or his neighbor by any of them transgresses a negative precept. [If he said,] \"May God smite you\"; or \"Yea, may God smite you\"; this is the curse written in the Torah. \"May [God] not smite you\"; or \"May he bless you\"; Or \"May he do good unto you [if you bear testimony for me]\": Rabbi Meir makes [them] liable, and the Sages exempt [them]."
8. Mishnah, Yoma, 3.8, 4.2, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.8. He came to his bull and his bull was standing between the Ulam and the altar, its head to the south and its face to the west. And the priest stands on the eastside facing the west. And he lays both his hands upon it and confesses. And thus he would say: “Please, ‘Hashem’! I have done wrong, I have transgressed, I have sinned before You, I and my house. Please, ‘Hashem’! Forgive the wrongdoings, the transgressions, the sins which I have committed and transgressed and sinned before You, I and my house, as it is written in the torah of Moses Your servant: “For on this day shall atonement be made for you [to cleanse you of all your sins; you shall be clean before the Lord”] (Leviticus 16:30). And they answered after him: “Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever!”" 4.2. He bound a thread of crimson wool on the head of the goat which was to be sent away, and he placed it at the gate where it was later to be sent away, and on the goat that was to be slaughtered [he placed a thread of crimson wool on its neck] at the place of the slaughtering. He came to his bull a second time, pressed his two hands upon it and made confession. And thus he would say: “Please, ‘Hashem’! I have done wrong, I have transgressed, I have sinned before You, I and my house and the sons of Aaron Your holy people. Please, ‘Hashem’! Forgive the wrongdoings, the transgressions, the sins which I have committed and transgressed and sinned before You, I and my house and the sons of Aaron Your holy people, as it is written in the torah of Moses Your servant: “For on this day shall atonement be made for you [to cleanse you of all your sins; you shall be clean before the Lord”] (Leviticus 16:30). And they answered after him: “Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever!”" 6.2. He then came to the scapegoat and laid his two hands upon it and he made confession. And thus he would say: “Please, ‘Hashem’! They have done wrong, they have transgressed, they have sinned before You, Your people the House of Israel. Please, in the name of Hashem (Bashem)! Forgive the wrongdoings, the transgressions, the sins which your people, the House of Israel, have committed and transgressed and sinned before You, as it is written in the torah of Moses Your servant: “For on this day shall atonement be made for you [to cleanse you of all your sins; you shall be clean before the Lord”] (Leviticus 16:30). And the priests and the people standing in the courtyard, when they would hear God’s name explicated coming out of the high priest’s mouth, would bend their knees, bow down and fall on their faces and say “Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever!”"
9. Mishnah, Zevahim, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. The shelamim of the public and the ashams: These are the[different types of] ashams: The asham for robbery; The asham or illegal use of holy property; The asham for a betrothed maidservant; A nazirite's asham; A leper's asham; And the suspended asham. These are slaughtered in the north, and their blood is received in a service vessel in the north, and their blood requires two sprinklings, which constitute four. And they are eaten within the curtains [of the Tabernacle], by male priests, prepared in any manner, the same day and night, until midnight."
10. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.5-4.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. The Aramaic sections in Ezra and Daniel defile the hands. If an Aramaic section was written in Hebrew, or a Hebrew section was written in Aramaic, or [Hebrew which was written with] Hebrew script, it does not defile the hands. It never defiles the hands until it is written in the Assyrian script, on parchment, and in ink." 4.6. The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, because you say that the Holy Scriptures defile the hands, but the books of Homer do not defile the hands. Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai said: Have we nothing against the Pharisees but this? Behold they say that the bones of a donkey are clean, yet the bones of Yoha the high priest are unclean. They said to him: according to the affection for them, so is their impurity, so that nobody should make spoons out of the bones of his father or mother. He said to them: so also are the Holy Scriptures according to the affection for them, so is their uncleanness. The books of Homer which are not precious do not defile the hands."
11. New Testament, Acts, 5.1-5.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.1. But a certain man named Aias, with Sapphira, his wife, sold a possession 5.2. and kept back part of the price, his wife also being aware of it, and brought a certain part, and laid it at the apostles' feet. 5.3. But Peter said, "Aias, why has Satan filled your heart to lie to the Holy Spirit, and to keep back part of the price of the land? 5.4. While you kept it, didn't it remain your own? After it was sold, wasn't it in your power? How is it that you have conceived this thing in your heart? You haven't lied to men, but to God. 5.5. Aias, hearing these words, fell down and died. Great fear came on all who heard these things. 5.6. The young men arose and wrapped him up, and they carried him out and buried him. 5.7. About three hours later, his wife, not knowing what had happened, came in. 5.8. Peter answered her, "Tell me whether you sold the land for so much."She said, "Yes, for so much. 5.9. But Peter asked her, "How is it that you have agreed together to tempt the Spirit of the Lord? Behold, the feet of those who have buried your husband are at the door, and they will carry you out. 5.10. She fell down immediately at his feet, and died. The young men came in and found her dead, and they carried her out and buried her by her husband. 5.11. Great fear came on the whole assembly, and on all who heard these things.
12. Tosefta, Nedarim, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Tosefta, Kippurim, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.1. Why do they separate the Kohen Gadol from his household to Lishkat Parhedrin. The explanation of Rabbi Yehuda Ben Betira is that he may be with his wife, and there is a doubt as to whether she is a Niddah and he would become impure in the seven days before Yom Kippur. There was another reading that he was taken to Lishkat Barvatan."
14. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.13-2.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

18a. הוגה את השם באותיותיו והיכי עביד הכי והתנן אלו שאין להם חלק לעולם הבא האומר אין תורה מן השמים ואין תחיית המתים מן התורה אבא שאול אומר אף ההוגה את השם באותיותיו,להתלמד עבד כדתניא (דברים יח, ט) לא תלמד לעשות אבל אתה למד להבין ולהורות,אלא מאי טעמא אענש משום הוגה את השם בפרהסיא דהוי ועל אשתו להריגה דלא מיחה ביה מכאן אמרו כל מי שיש בידו למחות ואינו מוחה נענש עליו,ועל בתו לישב בקובה של זונות דאמר ר' יוחנן פעם אחת היתה בתו מהלכת לפני גדולי רומי אמרו כמה נאות פסיעותיה של ריבה זו מיד דקדקה בפסיעותיה והיינו דאמר ר' שמעון בן לקיש מאי דכתיב (תהלים מט, ו) עון עקבי יסבני עונות שאדם דש בעקביו בעולם הזה מסובין לו ליום הדין,בשעה שיצאו שלשתן צדקו עליהם את הדין הוא אמר (דברים לב, ד) הצור תמים פעלו [וגו'] ואשתו אמרה (דברים לב, ד) אל אמונה ואין עול בתו אמרה (ירמיהו לב, יט) גדול העצה ורב העליליה אשר עיניך פקוחות על כל דרכי וגו' אמר רבי [כמה] גדולים צדיקים הללו שנזדמנו להן שלש מקראות של צדוק הדין בשעת צדוק הדין,תנו רבנן כשחלה רבי יוסי בן קיסמא הלך רבי חנינא בן תרדיון לבקרו אמר לו חנינא אחי (אחי) אי אתה יודע שאומה זו מן השמים המליכוה שהחריבה את ביתו ושרפה את היכלו והרגה את חסידיו ואבדה את טוביו ועדיין היא קיימת ואני שמעתי עליך שאתה יושב ועוסק בתורה [ומקהיל קהלות ברבים] וספר מונח לך בחיקך,אמר לו מן השמים ירחמו אמר לו אני אומר לך דברים של טעם ואתה אומר לי מן השמים ירחמו תמה אני אם לא ישרפו אותך ואת ספר תורה באש אמר לו רבי מה אני לחיי העולם הבא,אמר לו כלום מעשה בא לידך אמר לו מעות של פורים נתחלפו לי במעות של צדקה וחלקתים לעניים אמר לו אם כן מחלקך יהי חלקי ומגורלך יהי גורלי,אמרו לא היו ימים מועטים עד שנפטר רבי יוסי בן קיסמא והלכו כל גדולי רומי לקברו והספידוהו הספד גדול ובחזרתן מצאוהו לרבי חנינא בן תרדיון שהיה יושב ועוסק בתורה ומקהיל קהלות ברבים וס"ת מונח לו בחיקו,הביאוהו וכרכוהו בס"ת והקיפוהו בחבילי זמורות והציתו בהן את האור והביאו ספוגין של צמר ושראום במים והניחום על לבו כדי שלא תצא נשמתו מהרה אמרה לו בתו אבא אראך בכך אמר לה אילמלי אני נשרפתי לבדי היה הדבר קשה לי עכשיו שאני נשרף וס"ת עמי מי שמבקש עלבונה של ס"ת הוא יבקש עלבוני,אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי מה אתה רואה אמר להן גליון נשרפין ואותיות פורחות אף אתה פתח פיך ותכנס בך האש אמר להן מוטב שיטלנה מי שנתנה ואל יחבל הוא בעצמו,אמר לו קלצטונירי רבי אם אני מרבה בשלהבת ונוטל ספוגין של צמר מעל לבך אתה מביאני לחיי העולם הבא אמר לו הן השבע לי נשבע לו מיד הרבה בשלהבת ונטל ספוגין של צמר מעל לבו יצאה נשמתו במהרה אף הוא קפץ ונפל לתוך האור,יצאה בת קול ואמרה רבי חנינא בן תרדיון וקלצטונירי מזומנין הן לחיי העולם הבא בכה רבי ואמר יש קונה עולמו בשעה אחת ויש קונה עולמו בכמה שנים,ברוריא דביתהו דר' מאיר ברתיה דר' חנינא בן תרדיון הואי אמרה לו זילא בי מלתא דיתבא אחתאי בקובה של זונות שקל תרקבא דדינרי ואזל אמר אי לא איתעביד בה איסורא מיתעביד ניסא אי עבדה איסורא לא איתעביד לה ניסא,אזל נקט נפשיה כחד פרשא אמר לה השמיעני לי אמרה ליה דשתנא אנא אמר לה מתרחנא מרתח אמרה לו נפישין טובא (ואיכא טובא הכא) דשפירן מינאי אמר ש"מ לא עבדה איסורא כל דאתי אמרה ליה הכי,אזל לגבי שומר דידה א"ל הבה ניהלה אמר ליה מיסתפינא ממלכותא אמר ליה שקול תרקבא דדינרא פלגא פלח ופלגא להוי לך א"ל וכי שלמי מאי איעביד א"ל אימא אלהא דמאיר ענני ומתצלת א"ל 18a. bpronounce theineffable bnameof God bwithall of bits letters,i.e., as it is spelled. The Gemara asks: bAnd how could he do that? But didn’t we learnin the mishna ( iSanhedrin90a): bTheseare the people bwho have no share in the World-to-Come: One who saysthat bthe Torah is not from Heaven orthat bthere is nosource bfrom the Torahfor bthe resurrection of the dead. Abba Shaul says: Also one who pronounces theineffable bnameas it is written, bwithall of bits letters,has no share in the World-to-Come.,The Gemara answers: Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bdid it to teach himself, as it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the prohibition against sorcery: b“You shall not learn to do”(Deuteronomy 18:9); this indicates: bBut you may learn to understand and to teach.In other words, certain prohibitions do not apply when one is acting only in order to acquire knowledge of the subject.,The Gemara asks: bRather, what is the reasonthat bhe was punished?The Gemara answers: He was punished bbecause he would pronounce theineffable bnameof God bin public,instead of privately. bAnd his wifewas condemned bto executionby decapitation bbecause she did not protest hisdoing so. bFrom herethe Sages bstated: Anyone who has the capability to protesteffectively the sinful conduct of another band does not protest is punished forthat person’s sin.,The Gemara asks: bAndwhy was bhis daughtercondemned bto sit in a brothel? As Rabbi Yoḥa says: Once, the daughter ofRabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bwas walking before the nobles of Rome,and they bsaidto each other: bHow pleasant are the steps of this young woman.Upon hearing this, bshe immediately took careto keep walking in such a fashion that bher stepswould continue to be pleasing to them. bAnd this isthe same as that bwhich Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “The iniquity of my heel encircles me”(Psalms 49:6)? It means that bthe sins that a person tramples with one’s heel in this world,i.e., dismisses and pays no attention to them as they seem to lack importance, e.g., the way that one walks, come and bencircle him on the Day of Judgment. /b,The Gemara relates: bWhen the three of them went outafter being sentenced, bthey accepted thejustice of God’s bjudgment.Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid: “The Rock, His work is perfect;for all His ways are justice” (Deuteronomy 32:4). bAnd his wife saidthe continuation of the verse: b“A God of faithfulness and without iniquity.” His daughter said: “Great in counsel, and mighty in work; whose eyes are open upon all the waysof the sons of men, to give every one according to his ways” (Jeremiah 32:19). bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: How great are these righteous people, thatthese bthree verses,which speak bofthe bacceptance ofGod’s bjudgment, occurred to them at the time of accepting therighteousness of His bjudgment. /b,§ bThe Sages taught: When Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma fell ill, Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon went to visit him.Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma bsaid to him: Ḥanina my brother, do you not know that this nation has been given reign bya decree from bHeaven?The proof is bthatRome has bdestroyedGod’s bTemple, and burned His Sanctuary, and killed His pious ones, and destroyed His best ones, and it still exists.Evidently, all of this is by Divine decree. bAndyet bI heard about you that you sit and engage in Torahstudy, band convene assemblies in public, and havea Torah bscroll placed in your lap,thereby demonstrating complete disregard for the decrees issued by the Romans.,Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid to him: Heaven will have mercyand protect me. Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma bsaid to him: I am saying reasonable matters to you, and you say to me: Heaven will have mercy? I wonder ifthe Romans bwill not burnboth byou andyour bTorah scroll by fire.Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid to him: My teacher, whatwill become of bme?Am I destined bfor life in the World-to-Come? /b,Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma bsaid to him: Did anyspecial bincident occur to youwhich might serve as an indication? Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid to him: I confusedmy own bcoinsthat I needed bforthe festivities of bPurim with coins of charity, and I distributed themall bto the poorat my own expense. Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma bsaid to him: Ifthat is bso, may my portion be of your portion, and may my lot be of your lot. /b,The Sages bsaid: Noteven ba few dayspassed bbefore Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma diedof his illness, band all of the Roman notables went to bury him, andthey beulogized himwith ba great eulogy. And upon their return, they found Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon, who was sitting and engaging in Torahstudy band convening assemblies in public, with a Torah scroll placed in his lap. /b, bThey brought himto be sentenced, band wrapped him in the Torah scroll, and encircled him with bundles of branches, and they set fire to it. And they brought tufts of wool and soaked them in water, and placed them on his heart, so that his soul should not leavehis body bquickly,but he would die slowly and painfully. bHis daughter said to him: Father, must I see you like this?Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid to her: If I alone were being burned, it would be difficult for me,but bnow that I am burning along with a Torah scroll, He who will seekretribution for bthe insultaccorded bto the Torah scroll will also seekretribution for bthe insultaccorded bto me. /b, bHis students said to him:Our bteacher, what do you see?Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid to them:I see the bparchment burning, butits bletters are flyingto the heavens. They said to him: bYou too should open your mouth and the fire will enter you,and you will die quickly. Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid to them: It is preferable that He who gaveme my soul bshould take it away, and one should not harm oneselfto speed his death., bThe executioner [ ikaltzatoniri /i] said to him: My teacher, if I increase the flame and take off the tufts of wool from your heart,so that you will die sooner and suffer less, bwill you bring me to the life of the World-to-Come?Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon bsaid tothe executioner: bYes.The executioner said: bTake an oath for me,that what you say is true. Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon btookthe boath for him,and the executioner bimmediately increased the flame and took off the tufts of wool from his heart,causing bhis soulto bleavehis body bquickly.The executioner btoo leaped and fell into the fireand died., bA Divine Voice emerged and said: Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon and the executioner are destined for the life of the World-to-Come.Upon hearing this, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bwept and said: There isone who bacquires hisshare in the bWorld /b-to-Come bin one moment,such as the executioner, band there isone who bacquires hisshare in the bWorld /b-to-Come only bafter many yearsof toil, such as Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon.,§ The Gemara relates: bBerurya, the wife of Rabbi Meir, was a daughter of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Teradyon. She said toRabbi Meir: bIt is a disrespectful matter for me that my sister is sitting in a brothel;you must do something to save her. Rabbi Meir btook a vessel [ itarkeva /i]full bof dinars and went. He saidto himself: bIf no transgression was committed with her, a miracle will be performedfor her; bif she committed a transgression, no miracle will be performed for her. /b,Rabbi Meir bwent and dressed asa Roman bknight,and bsaid to her: Accede to mywishes, i.e., engage in intercourse with me. bShe said to him: I am menstruating [ idashtana /i]and cannot. bHe said to her: I will wait. She said to him: There are manywomen in the brothel, band there are manywomen bhere who are more beautiful than I. He saidto himself: I can bconclude fromher responses that bshe did not commit a transgression,as bshepresumably bsaid this to all who come. /b, bRabbi Meir went over to her guard,and bsaid to him: Give herto me. The guard bsaid to him: I fearthat if I do so, I will be punished bby the government.Rabbi Meir bsaid to him: Takethis bvesselfull bof dinars; give half to the government as a bribe, band half will be for you.The guard bsaid to him: But whenthe money bis finished, what shall I do?Rabbi Meir bsaid to him: Say: God of Meir answer me! And you will be saved.The guard bsaid to him: /b
16. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

27b. קמ"ל דאין הולכין בממון אחר הרוב:,ובא אחר ונתקל בה ושברה פטור: אמאי פטור איבעי ליה לעיוני ומיזל,אמרי דבי רב משמיה דרב בממלא רה"ר כולה חביות שמואל אמר באפילה שנו רבי יוחנן אמר בקרן זוית,אמר רב פפא לא דיקא מתניתין אלא או כשמואל או כרבי יוחנן דאי כרב מאי אריא נתקל אפילו שבר נמי,אמר רב זביד משמיה דרבא הוא הדין דאפי' שבר והאי דקתני נתקל איידי דבעי למתני סיפא ואם הוזק בה בעל חבית חייב בנזקו דדוקא נתקל אבל שבר לא מאי טעמא הוא דאזיק אנפשיה קתני רישא נתקל,אמר ליה ר' אבא לרב אשי הכי אמרי במערבא משמיה דר' עולא לפי שאין דרכן של בני אדם להתבונן בדרכים,הוה עובדא בנהרדעא וחייב שמואל בפומבדיתא וחייב רבא,בשלמא שמואל כשמעתיה אלא רבא לימא כשמואל ס"ל,אמר רב פפא קרנא דעצרא הוי דכיון דברשות קעבדי איבעי ליה לעיוני ומיזל,שלח ליה רב חסדא לר"נ הרי אמרו לרכובה שלש ולבעיטה חמש ולסנוקרת שלש עשרה לפנדא דמרא ולקופינא דמרא מאי,שלח ליה חסדא חסדא קנסא קא מגבית בבבל אימא לי גופא דעובדא היכי הוה,שלח ליה דההוא גרגותא דבי תרי דכל יומא הוה דלי חד מנייהו אתא חד קא דלי ביומא דלא דיליה א"ל יומא דידי הוא לא אשגח ביה שקל פנדא דמרא מחייה,א"ל מאה פנדי בפנדא למחייה אפילו למ"ד לא עביד איניש דינא לנפשיה במקום פסידא עביד איניש דינא לנפשיה,דאתמר רב יהודה אמר לא עביד איניש דינא לנפשיה רב נחמן אמר עביד איניש דינא לנפשיה,היכא דאיכא פסידא כ"ע לא פליגי דעביד איניש דינא לנפשיה כי פליגי היכא דליכא פסידא רב יהודה אמר לא עביד איניש דינא לנפשיה דכיון דליכא פסידא ליזיל קמיה דיינא ר"נ אמר עביד איניש דינא לנפשיה דכיון דבדין עביד לא טרח,מתיב רב כהנא בן בג בג אומר אל תיכנס לחצר חברך ליטול את שלך שלא ברשות שמא תראה עליו כגנב אלא שבור את שיניו ואמור לו שלי אני נוטל,א"ל 27b. the mishna bteaches us thatthe court bdoes not follow the majority with regard to monetary matters,and in cases of uncertainty the burden of proof rests upon the claimant.,§ The mishna teaches concerning the vessel placed in the public domain: If banotherperson bcame and stumbled on it and broke it,he is bexempt.The Gemara asks: bWhyis he bexempt?Although this happened in the public domain, bhe should examinethe road bandthen continue bwalking. /b,The Sages of the bschool of Rav said in the name of Rav:The ruling of the mishna is taught bwith regard toone who placed not just one barrel in the road, but rather bfilled the entire public domain with barrels,blocking the path. Since the public domain belongs to everyone, a pedestrian is entitled to traverse the road even if it necessitates breaking the vessels. bShmuel says:The ruling of the mishna is btaught with regard toa case where he broke it in bthe dark.Therefore, he could not have avoided breaking the barrel by examining the road in front of him. bRabbi Yoḥa says:The ruling of the mishna is btaught with regard toa case where the barrel was placed at bthe cornerof the road, and so the pedestrian could not have seen it, as he rounded the corner, before stumbling on it., bRav Pappa said: The mishna is precise only according to eitherthe explanation of bShmuel orthat of bRabbi Yoḥa,but not that of Rav. bAs, ifthe mishna is explained bin accordance withthe explanation of bRav, whatis the reason it refers bspecificallyto a case where one bstumbledon the barrel? bEven if he brokethe barrel intentionally he should not be liable to pay, as the owner of the barrel had no right to block the public road., bRav Zevid said in the name of Ravain defense of Rav’s explanation: bThe same is true even if he brokethe barrel intentionally. bAndas for bthisfact, bthatthe itannaof the mishna bteachesa case where bhe stumbled,it is bbecause he wants to teachin bthe last clause: And if he incurred damage due tothe vessel, bthe owner of the iḥavitis liableto pay bfor his damage. Asthis ruling applies bspecifically when he stumbled, butif bhe brokethe barrel intentionally and incurred damage in the process, the owner of the barrel is bnotrequired to compensate him. bWhat is the reasonfor this? Although the pedestrian had the right to break the barrel, bit is he who damaged himself,by not being careful while breaking it. Therefore, in bthe first clausethe mishna bteachesa case where bhe stumbled.Accordingly, the mishna’s wording is precise according to Rav’s explanation as well., bRabbi Abba said to Rav Ashithat bthis is what they say in the West,Eretz Yisrael, bin the name of Rabbi Ulla,in explanation of the mishna: Even if the barrel is clearly visible, one who stumbles on it is exempt from liability bbecause thetypical bmanner of people is not to examine the roads,as they assume that the road is unobstructed. Therefore, one who breaks an item placed in the road as a result of not watching is not liable to pay restitution.,The Gemara relates: bThere was an incident in Neharde’awhere a pedestrian stumbled on a jug in an open area and broke it, band Shmuel deemed him liableto pay for the damage. A similar incident took place bin Pumbedita, and Rava deemedthe person bliableto pay.,The Gemara asks: bGranted, Shmuelruled bin accordance with his halakhicopinion that the exemption stated in the mishna refers specifically to a case where one stumbles in the dark, as otherwise he is liable for breaking the barrel, since he should have examined the road. bButwith regard to bRava, shall we say that he holds in accordance with Shmuel’sopinion that one who breaks an item in the public domain is exempt from paying for it only if it was dark?, bRav Pappa said:That inference is not necessary, as this incident bwasat bthe corner wherethere was an olive bpress [ ide’atzera /i],where it is known that people put their jugs down while waiting for oil. Consequently, bsince they were acting with permission,a pedestrian bshould examinethe road bandthen continue bwalking. /b,§ bRav Ḥisda sentthe following question bto Rav Naḥman:The Sages bsaidthat when one strikes another, humiliating him, the judges determine liability according to the following formula: bFor kneeing [ irekhuva /i]him, he must pay bthree isela /i; bfor kicking, five; and for punching [ ivelisnokeret /i]him, bthirteen.The Gemara asks: If so bforhitting him with bthe handle of a hoe [ idemara /i] and forhitting him with bthe top [ iulkofina /i] of a hoe, whatamount is one liable to pay him?,Rav Naḥman bsent himthe following response: bḤisda, Ḥisda, are you collecting a finefor humiliation bin Babylonia,where judges are not authorized to collect fines? bTell me how the incident itselftranspired.,Rav Ḥisda bsent himin response: There is ba certain cistern belonging to twopeople whose arrangement was to alternate its use so bthat every day one of them would drawfrom it in turn. It happened that bone of them came and was drawingwater bon a day that was not histurn. His co-owner bsaid to him: This is my dayto draw, not yours. His colleague bdid not pay attention to him.The person whose turn it was therefore btook the handle of a hoeand bstruckthe person who was stealing his water, who then sued for damages.,Rav Naḥman bsaid to him:In that case, he was right to do so, and he bshouldhave bhit himeven ba hundred times with the hoe. Even according to the one who saysthat ba person may not take justice into his ownhands but should go to court, in a case bwherethere would be ba lossinvolved if no immediate action is taken, ba person may take justice into his ownhands.,This is bas it was stated,that bRav Yehuda says: A person may not take justice into his ownhands, whereas bRav Naḥman says: A person may take justice into his ownhands., bWhere there isan imminent blossthat will be suffered if the injured party does not take action, beveryone agrees that a person may take justice into his ownhands. bThey disagreeonly bwhen there is noimminent blossthat will be suffered. bRav Yehuda saysthat ba person may not take justice into his ownhands, bbecause since there is no loss, he should go before the judgeto have him enforce the law. bRav Naḥman saysthat ba person may take justice into his ownhands. bSince he is acting lawfully,as he is clearly in the right, bhe need not troublehimself to go before the judge to have him enforce the law., bRav Kahana raises an objectionto Rav Yehuda’s opinion based on a ibaraita /i: bBen Bag Bag says: Do not enter anotherperson’s bcourtyardsecretly bto take what isrightfully byours without permission, lest you appear to him as a thieftrying to steal his property. bRather, break his teeth,i.e., take it by force, band say to him: I am taking what is mine.Evidently one may take justice into his own hands.,Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
ananias and sapphira Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 174
atonement Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 167
bible Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 51
cairo genizah Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 51, 148
christianity Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 174
divine presence Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 167
essenes Eckhardt, Benedict, Private Associations and Jewish Communities in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities (2019) 61
examination Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 175
exclusion (of members) Eckhardt, Benedict, Private Associations and Jewish Communities in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities (2019) 61
financial contact, matters Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 175
fines Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 175
god Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 51
greek, magical papyri Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 148
hebrew, biblical Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 51
hebrew, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 51, 148
hellenism, hellenistic period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 174, 175
income tax Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 175
judges Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 51
law, taking into ones own hands Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 51
manual of discipline Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 175
miracle Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 174
moshav ha-rabbim Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 175
oath Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 51, 148
offenses, lying about property Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 174
ownership, private Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 174, 175
penal code of the manual of discipline Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 51, 148, 174, 175
perjury Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 175
pharisees Eckhardt, Benedict, Private Associations and Jewish Communities in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities (2019) 61
priests (jewish) Eckhardt, Benedict, Private Associations and Jewish Communities in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities (2019) 61
property, communal use of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 175
property, personal Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 174
property, registration of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 175
punishment, penalty Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 174, 175
qumran Eckhardt, Benedict, Private Associations and Jewish Communities in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities (2019) 61
scribal error Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 148
sect, full status in Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 174
sect, new member of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 175
sectarian settlements Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 175
tannaim, tannaitic law, judaism, period Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 148
temple, as community, at qumran' Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 167
testimony Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 175
tetragrammaton Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 148
zadokite fragments Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 148, 175