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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



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Cyprian, Letters, 75
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

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1. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 6.41.4-6.41.5, 8.19, 10.25-10.26 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.25. But certain others, introducing as it were some novel tenet, appropriated parts of their system from all heresies, and procured a strange volume, which bore on the title page the name of one Elchasai. These, in like manner, acknowledge that the principles of the universe were originated by the Deity. They do not, however, confess that there is but one Christ, but that there is one that is superior to the rest, and that He is transfused into many bodies frequently, and was now in Jesus. And, in like manner, these heretics maintain that at one time Christ was begotten of God, and at another time became the Spirit, and at another time was born of a virgin, and at another time not so. And they affirm that likewise this Jesus afterwards was continually being transfused into bodies, and was manifested in many (different bodies) at different times. And they resort to incantations and baptisms in their confession of elements. And they occupy themselves with bustling activity in regard of astrological and mathematical science, and of the arts of sorcery. But also they allege themselves to have powers of prescience. 10.26. ... From Haran, a city of Mesopotamia, (Abraham, by the command) of God, transfers his residence into the country which is now called Palestine and Judea, but then the region of Canaan. Now, concerning this territory, we have in part, but still not negligently, rendered an account in other discourses. From the circumstance, then, (of this migration) is traceable the beginning of an increase (of population) in Judea, which obtained its name from Judah, fourth son of Jacob, whose name was also called Israel, from the fact that a race of kings would be descended from him. Abraham removes from Mesopotamia (when 75 years, and) when 100 years old he begot Isaac. But Isaac, when 60 years of age, begot Jacob. And Jacob, when 86 years old, begot Levi; and Levi, at 40 years of age, begot; and Caath was four years of age when he went down with Jacob into Egypt. Therefore the entire period during which Abraham sojourned, and the entire family descended from him by Isaac, in the country then called Canaanitis, was 215 years. But the father of this Abraham is Thare, and of this Thare the father is Nachor, and of this Nachor the father is Serag, and of this Serag the father is Reu, and of this Reu the father is Peleg, and of this Peleg Genesis 11:16 the father is Heber. And so it comes to pass that the Jews are denominated by the name of Hebrews. In the time of Phaleg, however, arose the dispersion of nations. Now these nations were 72, corresponding with the number of Abraham's children. And the names of these nations we have likewise set down in other books, not even omitting this point in its own proper place. And the reason of our particularity is our desire to manifest to those who are of a studious disposition the love which we cherish towards the Divinity, and the indubitable knowledge respecting the Truth, which in the course of our labours we have acquired possession of. But of this Heber the father is Salah; and of this Salah the father is Caï; and of this Caï the father is Arphaxad, whose father is Shem; and of this Shem the father is Noah. And in Noah's time there occurred a flood throughout the entire world, which neither Egyptians, nor Chaldeans, nor Greeks recollect; for the inundations which took place in the age of Ogyges and Deucalion prevailed only in the localities where these dwelt. There are, then, in the case of these (patriarchs - that is, from Noah to Heber inclusive)- 5 generations, and 495 years. This Noah, inasmuch as he was a most religious and God-loving man, alone, with wife and children, and the three wives of these, escaped the flood that ensued. And he owed his preservation to an ark; and both the dimensions and relics of this ark are, as we have explained, shown to this day in the mountains called Ararat, which are situated in the direction of the country of the Adiabeni. It is then possible for those who are disposed to investigate the subject industriously, to perceive how clearly has been demonstrated the existence of a nation of worshippers of the true God, more ancient than all the Chaldeans, Egyptians, and Greeks. What necessity, however, is there at present to specify those who, anterior to Noah, were both devout men, and permitted to hold converse with the true God, inasmuch as, so far as the subject taken in hand is concerned, this testimony in regard of the antiquity of the people of God is sufficient?
3. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.6.4, 4.26.1, 8.19, 10.26 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.26. ... From Haran, a city of Mesopotamia, (Abraham, by the command) of God, transfers his residence into the country which is now called Palestine and Judea, but then the region of Canaan. Now, concerning this territory, we have in part, but still not negligently, rendered an account in other discourses. From the circumstance, then, (of this migration) is traceable the beginning of an increase (of population) in Judea, which obtained its name from Judah, fourth son of Jacob, whose name was also called Israel, from the fact that a race of kings would be descended from him. Abraham removes from Mesopotamia (when 75 years, and) when 100 years old he begot Isaac. But Isaac, when 60 years of age, begot Jacob. And Jacob, when 86 years old, begot Levi; and Levi, at 40 years of age, begot; and Caath was four years of age when he went down with Jacob into Egypt. Therefore the entire period during which Abraham sojourned, and the entire family descended from him by Isaac, in the country then called Canaanitis, was 215 years. But the father of this Abraham is Thare, and of this Thare the father is Nachor, and of this Nachor the father is Serag, and of this Serag the father is Reu, and of this Reu the father is Peleg, and of this Peleg Genesis 11:16 the father is Heber. And so it comes to pass that the Jews are denominated by the name of Hebrews. In the time of Phaleg, however, arose the dispersion of nations. Now these nations were 72, corresponding with the number of Abraham's children. And the names of these nations we have likewise set down in other books, not even omitting this point in its own proper place. And the reason of our particularity is our desire to manifest to those who are of a studious disposition the love which we cherish towards the Divinity, and the indubitable knowledge respecting the Truth, which in the course of our labours we have acquired possession of. But of this Heber the father is Salah; and of this Salah the father is Caï; and of this Caï the father is Arphaxad, whose father is Shem; and of this Shem the father is Noah. And in Noah's time there occurred a flood throughout the entire world, which neither Egyptians, nor Chaldeans, nor Greeks recollect; for the inundations which took place in the age of Ogyges and Deucalion prevailed only in the localities where these dwelt. There are, then, in the case of these (patriarchs - that is, from Noah to Heber inclusive)- 5 generations, and 495 years. This Noah, inasmuch as he was a most religious and God-loving man, alone, with wife and children, and the three wives of these, escaped the flood that ensued. And he owed his preservation to an ark; and both the dimensions and relics of this ark are, as we have explained, shown to this day in the mountains called Ararat, which are situated in the direction of the country of the Adiabeni. It is then possible for those who are disposed to investigate the subject industriously, to perceive how clearly has been demonstrated the existence of a nation of worshippers of the true God, more ancient than all the Chaldeans, Egyptians, and Greeks. What necessity, however, is there at present to specify those who, anterior to Noah, were both devout men, and permitted to hold converse with the true God, inasmuch as, so far as the subject taken in hand is concerned, this testimony in regard of the antiquity of the people of God is sufficient?
4. Tertullian, To Scapula, 3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3. However, as we have already remarked, it cannot but distress us that no state shall bear unpunished the guilt of shedding Christian blood; as you see, indeed, in what took place during the presidency of Hilarian, for when there had been some agitation about places of sepulture for our dead, and the cry arose, No are - no burial-grounds for the Christians, it came that their own are, their threshing-floors, were a-wanting, for they gathered in no harvests. As to the rains of the bygone year, it is abundantly plain of what they were intended to remind men - of the deluge, no doubt, which in ancient times overtook human unbelief and wickedness; and as to the fires which lately hung all night over the walls of Carthage, they who saw them know what they threatened; and what the preceding thunders pealed, they who were hardened by them can tell. All these things are signs of God's impending wrath, which we must needs publish and proclaim in every possible way; and in the meanwhile we must pray it may be only local. Sure are they to experience it one day in its universal and final form, who interpret otherwise these samples of it. That sun, too, in the metropolis of Utica, with light all but extinguished, was a portent which could not have occurred from an ordinary eclipse, situated as the lord of day was in his height and house. You have the astrologers, consult them about it. We can point you also to the deaths of some provincial rulers, who in their last hours had painful memories of their sin in persecuting the followers of Christ. Vigellius Saturninus, who first here used the sword against us, lost his eyesight. Claudius Lucius Herminianus in Cappadocia, enraged that his wife had become a Christian, had treated the Christians with great cruelty: well, left alone in his palace, suffering under a contagious malady, he boiled out in living worms, and was heard exclaiming, Let nobody know of it, lest the Christians rejoice, and Christian wives take encouragement. Afterwards he came to see his error in having tempted so many from their steadfastness by the tortures he inflicted, and died almost a Christian himself. In that doom which overtook Byzantium, C cilius Capella could not help crying out, Christians, rejoice! Yes, and the persecutors who seem to themselves to have acted with impunity shall not escape the day of judgment. For you we sincerely wish it may prove to have been a warning only, that, immediately after you had condemned Mavilus of Adrumetum to the wild beasts, you were overtaken by those troubles, and that even now for the same reason you are called to a blood-reckoning. But do not forget the future.
5. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 1.5, 3.24.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.5. But on what principle did Marcion confine his supreme powers to two? I would first ask, If there be two, why not more? Because if number be compatible with the substance of Deity, the richer you make it in number the better. Valentinus was more consistent and more liberal; for he, having once imagined two deities, Bythos and Sige, poured forth a swarm of divine essences, a brood of no less than thirty Æons, like the sow of Æneas. Now, whatever principle refuses to admit several supreme beings, the same must reject even two, for there is plurality in the very lowest number after one. After unity, number commences. So, again, the same principle which could admit two could admit more. After two, multitude begins, now that one is exceeded. In short, we feel that reason herself expressly forbids the belief in more gods than one, because the self-same rule lays down one God and not two, which declares that God must be a Being to which, as the great Supreme, nothing is equal; and that Being to which nothing is equal must, moreover, be unique. But further, what can be the use or advantage in supposing two supreme beings, two co-ordinate powers? What numerical difference could there be when two equals differ not from one? For that thing which is the same in two is one. Even if there were several equals, all would be just as much one, because, as equals, they would not differ one from another. So, if of two beings neither differs from the other, since both of them are on the supposition supreme, both being gods, neither of them is more excellent than the other; and so, having no pre-eminence, their numerical distinction has no reason in it. Number, moreover, in the Deity ought to be consistent with the highest reason, or else His worship would be brought into doubt. For consider now, if, when I saw two Gods before me (who, being both Supreme Beings, were equal to each other), I were to worship them both, what should I be doing? I should be much afraid that the abundance of my homage would be deemed superstition rather than piety. Because, as both of them are so equal and are both included in either of the two, I might serve them both acceptably in only one; and by this very means I should attest their equality and unity, provided that I worshipped them mutually the one in the other, because in the one both are present to me. If I were to worship one of the two, I should be equally conscious of seeming to pour contempt on the uselessness of a numerical distinction, which was superfluous, because it indicated no difference; in other words, I should think it the safer course to worship neither of these two Gods than one of them with some scruple of conscience, or both of them to none effect.
6. Tertullian, On The Soul, 55.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7. Tertullian, On Baptism, 15 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

15. I know not whether any further point is mooted to bring baptism into controversy. Permit me to call to mind what I have omitted above, lest I seem to break off the train of impending thoughts in the middle. There is to us one, and but one, baptism; as well according to the Lord's gospel as according to the apostle's letters, inasmuch as he says, One God, and one baptism, and one church in the heavens. But it must be admitted that the question, What rules are to be observed with regard to heretics? is worthy of being treated. For it is to us that that assertion refers. Heretics, however, have no fellowship in our discipline, whom the mere fact of their excommunication testifies to be outsiders. I am not bound to recognize in them a thing which is enjoined on me, because they and we have not the same God, nor one - that is, the same- Christ. And therefore their baptism is not one with ours either, because it is not the same; a baptism which, since they have it not duly, doubtless they have not at all; nor is that capable of being counted which is not had. Ecclesiastes 1:15 Thus they cannot receive it either, because they have it not. But this point has already received a fuller discussion from us in Greek. We enter, then, the font once: once are sins washed away, because they ought never to be repeated. But the Jewish Israel bathes daily, because he is daily being defiled: and, for fear that defilement should be practised among us also, therefore was the definition touching the one bathing made. Happy water, which once washes away; which does not mock sinners (with vain hopes); which does not, by being infected with the repetition of impurities, again defile them whom it has washed!
8. Tertullian, On Flight In Persecution, 9.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9. Tertullian, On Modesty, 21.7 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10. Cyprian, Letters To Jovian, 75 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

11. Cyprian, Letters, 73, 70 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

12. Cyprian, Letters, 73, 75, 70 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

13. Cyprian, Letters, 73, 75, 70 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

14. Cyprian, Letters, 73, 75, 70 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

15. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 4.15, 5.13, 5.16.7, 5.16.13, 5.18.1, 5.18.3-5.18.4, 5.18.13, 5.19.3, 5.23, 5.24.14-5.24.17, 6.30, 7.5.1-7.5.2, 7.5.4 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

5.16.7. There is said to be a certain village called Ardabau in that part of Mysia, which borders upon Phrygia. There first, they say, when Gratus was proconsul of Asia, a recent convert, Montanus by name, through his unquenchable desire for leadership, gave the adversary opportunity against him. And he became beside himself, and being suddenly in a sort of frenzy and ecstasy, he raved, and began to babble and utter strange things, prophesying in a manner contrary to the constant custom of the Church handed down by tradition from the beginning. 5.16.13. But by another kind of death Montanus and Maximilla are said to have died. For the report is that, incited by the spirit of frenzy, they both hung themselves; not at the same time, but at the time which common report gives for the death of each. And thus they died, and ended their lives like the traitor Judas. 5.18.1. As the so-called Phrygian heresy was still flourishing in Phrygia in his time, Apollonius also, an ecclesiastical writer, undertook its refutation, and wrote a special work against it, correcting in detail the false prophecies current among them and reproving the life of the founders of the heresy. But hear his own words respecting Montanus: 5.18.3. He writes thus concerning Montanus; and a little farther on he writes as follows concerning his prophetesses: We show that these first prophetesses themselves, as soon as they were filled with the Spirit, abandoned their husbands. How falsely therefore they speak who call Prisca a virgin. 5.18.4. Afterwards he says: Does not all Scripture seem to you to forbid a prophet to receive gifts and money? When therefore I see the prophetess receiving gold and silver and costly garments, how can I avoid reproving her? 5.18.13. And he says also that Zoticus, who was mentioned by the former writer, when Maximilla was pretending to prophesy in Pepuza, resisted her and endeavored to refute the spirit that was working in her; but was prevented by those who agreed with her. He mentions also a certain Thraseas among the martyrs of that time.He speaks, moreover, of a tradition that the Saviour commanded his apostles not to depart from Jerusalem for twelve years. He uses testimonies also from the Revelation of John, and he relates that a dead man had, through the Divine power, been raised by John himself in Ephesus. He also adds other things by which he fully and abundantly exposes the error of the heresy of which we have been speaking. These are the matters recorded by Apollonius. 5.19.3. In the same letter of Serapion the signatures of several bishops are found, one of whom subscribes himself as follows:I, Aurelius Cyrenius, a witness, pray for your health.And another in this manner:Aelius Publius Julius, bishop of Debeltum, a colony in Thrace. As God lives in the heavens, the blessed Sotas in Anchialus desired to cast the demon out of Priscilla, but the hypocrites did not permit him. And the autograph signatures of many other bishops who agreed with them are contained in the same letter.So much for these persons. 5.24.14. He adds to this the following account, which I may properly insert:Among these were the presbyters before Soter, who presided over the church which you now rule. We mean Anicetus, and Pius, and Hyginus, and Telesphorus, and Xystus. They neither observed it themselves, nor did they permit those after them to do so. And yet though not observing it, they were none the less at peace with those who came to them from the parishes in which it was observed; although this observance was more opposed to those who did not observe it. 5.24.15. But none were ever cast out on account of this form; but the presbyters before you who did not observe it, sent the eucharist to those of other parishes who observed it. 5.24.16. And when the blessed Polycarp was at Rome in the time of Anicetus, and they disagreed a little about certain other things, they immediately made peace with one another, not caring to quarrel over this matter. For neither could Anicetus persuade Polycarp not to observe what he had always observed with John the disciple of our Lord, and the other apostles with whom he had associated; neither could Polycarp persuade Anicetus to observe it as he said that he ought to follow the customs of the presbyters that had preceded him. 5.24.17. But though matters were in this shape, they communed together, and Anicetus conceded the administration of the eucharist in the church to Polycarp, manifestly as a mark of respect. And they parted from each other in peace, both those who observed, and those who did not, maintaining the peace of the whole church. 7.5.1. But know now, my brethren, that all the churches throughout the East and beyond, which formerly were divided, have become united. And all the bishops everywhere are of one mind, and rejoice greatly in the peace which has come beyond expectation. Thus Demetrianus in Antioch, Theoctistus in Caesarea, Mazabanes in Aelia, Marinus in Tyre (Alexander having fallen asleep), Heliodorus in Laodicea (Thelymidres being dead), Helenus in Tarsus, and all the churches of Cilicia, Firmilianus, and all Cappadocia. I have named only the more illustrious bishops, that I may not make my epistle too long and my words too burdensome. 7.5.2. And all Syria, and Arabia to which you send help when needed, and whither you have just written, Mesopotamia, Pontus, Bithynia, and in short all everywhere are rejoicing and glorifying God for the uimity and brotherly love. Thus far Dionysius. 7.5.4. He therefore had written previously concerning Helenus and Firmilianus, and all those in Cilicia and Cappadocia and Galatia and the neighboring nations, saying that he would not commune with them for this same cause; namely, that they re-baptized heretics. But consider the importance of the matter.
16. Origen, On First Principles, 2.7.3 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.7.3. And as there are many ways of apprehending Christ, who, although He is wisdom, does not act the part or possess the power of wisdom in all men, but only in those who give themselves to the study of wisdom in Him; and who, although called a physician, does not act as one towards all, but only towards those who understand their feeble and sickly condition, and flee to His compassion that they may obtain health; so also I think is it with the Holy Spirit, in whom is contained every kind of gifts. For on some is bestowed by the Spirit the word of wisdom, on others the word of knowledge, on others faith; and so to each individual of those who are capable of receiving Him, is the Spirit Himself made to be that quality, or understood to be that which is needed by the individual who has deserved to participate. These divisions and differences not being perceived by those who hear Him called Paraclete in the Gospel, and not duly considering in consequence of what work or act He is named the Paraclete, they have compared Him to some common spirits or other, and by this means have tried to disturb the Churches of Christ, and so excite dissensions of no small extent among brethren; whereas the Gospel shows Him to be of such power and majesty, that it says the apostles could not yet receive those things which the Saviour wished to teach them until the advent of the Holy Spirit, who, pouring Himself into their souls, might enlighten them regarding the nature and faith of the Trinity. But these persons, because of the ignorance of their understandings, are not only unable themselves logically to state the truth, but cannot even give their attention to what is advanced by us; and entertaining unworthy ideas of His divinity, have delivered themselves over to errors and deceits, being depraved by a spirit of error, rather than instructed by the teaching of the Holy Spirit, according to the declaration of the apostle, Following the doctrine of devils, forbidding to marry, to the destruction and ruin of many, and to abstain from meats, that by an ostentatious exhibition of stricter observance they may seduce the souls of the innocent.
17. Augustine, The City of God, 18.52 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

18.52. I do not think, indeed, that what some have thought or may think is rashly said or believed, that until the time of Antichrist the Church of Christ is not to suffer any persecutions besides those she has already suffered - that is, ten - and that the eleventh and last shall be inflicted by Antichrist. They reckon as the first that made by Nero, the second by Domitian, the third by Trajan, the fourth by Antoninus, the fifth by Severus, the sixth by Maximin, the seventh by Decius, the eighth by Valerian, the ninth by Aurelian, the tenth by Diocletian and Maximian. For as there were ten plagues in Egypt before the people of God could begin to go out, they think this is to be referred to as showing that the last persecution by Antichrist must be like the eleventh plague, in which the Egyptians, while following the Hebrews with hostility, perished in the Red Sea when the people of God passed through on dry land. Yet I do not think persecutions were prophetically signified by what was done in Egypt, however nicely and ingeniously those who think so may seem to have compared the two in detail, not by the prophetic Spirit, but by the conjecture of the human mind, which sometimes hits the truth, and sometimes is deceived. But what can those who think this say of the persecution in which the Lord Himself was crucified? In which number will they put it? And if they think the reckoning is to be made exclusive of this one, as if those must be counted which pertain to the body, and not that in which the Head Himself was set upon and slain, what can they make of that one which, after Christ ascended into heaven, took place in Jerusalem, when the blessed Stephen was stoned; when James the brother of John was slaughtered with the sword; when the Apostle Peter was imprisoned to be killed, and was set free by the angel; when the brethren were driven away and scattered from Jerusalem; when Saul, who afterward became the Apostle Paul, wasted the Church; and when he himself, publishing the glad tidings of the faith he had persecuted, suffered such things as he had inflicted, either from the Jews or from other nations, where he most fervently preached Christ everywhere? Why, then, do they think fit to start with Nero, when the Church in her growth had reached the times of Nero amid the most cruel persecutions; about which it would be too long to say anything? But if they think that only the persecutions made by kings ought to be reckoned, it was king Herod who also made a most grievous one after the ascension of the Lord. And what account do they give of Julian, whom they do not number in the ten? Did not he persecute the Church, who forbade the Christians to teach or learn liberal letters? Under him the elder Valentinian, who was the third emperor after him, stood forth as a confessor of the Christian faith, and was dismissed from his command in the army. I shall say nothing of what he did at Antioch, except to mention his being struck with wonder at the freedom and cheerfulness of one most faithful and steadfast young man, who, when many were seized to be tortured, was tortured during a whole day, and sang under the instrument of torture, until the emperor feared lest he should succumb under the continued cruelties and put him to shame at last, which made him dread and fear that he would be yet more dishonorably put to the blush by the rest. Lastly, within our own recollection, did not Valens the Arian, brother of the foresaid Valentinian, waste the Catholic Church by great persecution throughout the East? But how unreasonable it is not to consider that the Church, which bears fruit and grows through the whole world, may suffer persecution from kings in some nations even when she does not suffer it in others! Perhaps, however, it was not to be reckoned a persecution when the king of the Goths, in Gothia itself, persecuted the Christians with wonderful cruelty, when there were none but Catholics there, of whom very many were crowned with martyrdom, as we have heard from certain brethren who had been there at that time as boys, and unhesitatingly called to mind that they had seen these things? And what took place in Persia of late? Was not persecution so hot against the Christians (if even yet it is allayed) that some of the fugitives from it came even to Roman towns? When I think of these and the like things, it does not seem to me that the number of persecutions with which the Church is to be tried can be definitely stated. But, on the other hand, it is no less rash to affirm that there will be some persecutions by kings besides that last one, about which no Christian is in doubt. Therefore we leave this undecided, supporting or refuting neither side of this question, but only restraining men from the audacious presumption of affirming either of them.
18. Basil of Caesarea, Letters, 199.47 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

19. Basil of Caesarea, Letters, 199.47 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

20. Cyril of Jerusalem, Catechetical Lectures, 16.8 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

21. Epiphanius, Panarion, 48.1, 48.3-48.5, 48.12-48.13 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

22. Socrates Scholasticus, Ecclesiastical History, 4.28 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

4.28. About this time the Novatians inhabiting Phrygia changed the day for celebrating the Feast of Easter. How this happened I shall state, after first explaining the reason of the strict discipline which is maintained in their church, even to the present day, in the provinces of Phrygia and Paphlagonia. Novatus, a presbyter of the Roman Church, separated from it, because Cornelius the bishop received into communion believers who had sacrificed during the persecution which the Emperor Decius had raised against the Church. Having seceded on this account, on being afterwards elevated to the episcopacy by such bishops as entertained similar sentiments, he wrote to all the churches that 'they should not admit to the sacred mysteries those who had sacrificed; but exhorting them to repentance, leave the pardoning of their offense to God, who has the power to forgive all sin.' Receiving such letters, the parties in the various provinces, to whom they were addressed, acted according to their several dispositions and judgments. As he asked that they should not receive to the sacraments those who after baptism had committed any deadly sin 1 John 5:16-17 this appeared to some a cruel and merciless course: but others received the rule as just and conducive to the maintece of discipline, and the promotion of greater devotedness of life. In the midst of the agitation of this question, letters arrived from Cornelius the bishop, promising indulgence to delinquents after baptism. Thus as these two persons wrote contrary to one another, and each confirmed his own procedure by the testimony of the Divine word, as it usually happens, every one identified himself with that view which favored his previous habits and inclinations. Those who had pleasure in sin, encouraged by the license then granted them, took occasion from it to revel in every species of criminality. Now the Phrygians appear to be more temperate than other nations, and are seldom guilty of swearing. The Scythians, on the other hand, and the Thracians, are naturally of a very irritable disposition: while the inhabitants of the East are addicted to sensual pleasures. But the Paphlagonians and Phrygians are prone to neither of these vices; nor are the sports of the circus and theatrical exhibitions in much estimation among them even to the present day. And for this reason, it seems to me, these people, as well as others of the same character, so readily assented to the letters then written by Novatus. Fornication and adultery are regarded among them as the grossest enormities: and it is well known that there is no race of men on the face of the earth who more rigidly govern their passions in this respect than the Phrygians and Paphlagonians. The same reason I think had force with those who dwelt in the West and followed Novatus. Yet although for the sake of stricter discipline Novatus became a separatist, he made no change in the time of keeping Easter, but invariably observed the practice that obtained in the Western churches. For they celebrate this feast after the equinox, according to the usage which had of old been delivered to them when first they embraced Christianity. He himself indeed afterwards suffered martyrdom in the reign of Valerian, during the persecution which was then raised against the Christians. But those in Phrygia who are named after him Novatians, about this period changed the day of celebrating Easter, being averse to communion with other Christians even on this occasion. This was effected by means of a few obscure bishops of that sect convening a Synod at the village of Pazum, which is situated near the sources of the river Sangarius; for there they framed a canon appointing its observance on the same day as that on which the Jews annually keep the feast of Unleavened Bread. An aged man, who was the son of a presbyter, and had been present with his father at this Synod, gave us our information on this matter. But both Agelius, bishop of the Novatians at Constantinople, and Maximus of Nic a, as also the bishops of Nicomedia and Coty um, were absent, although the ecclesiastical affairs of the Novatians were for the most part under the control of these bishops. How the church of the Novatians soon after was divided into two parties in consequence of this Synod, shall be related in its proper course: but we must now notice what took place about the same time in the Western parts.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abgar, the black, dynast Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
abgar, the great, dynast Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
aelius aristeides, sophist Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 543
agathonike, martyr Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 539
apoktaktitai, sect Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 543
apollo Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 543
ares, god Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
asklepiades, martyr Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 539
baptism Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 233; Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 468; Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 79
bardaiṣan, christian philosopher Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
basileios of caesarea, church father Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
cappadocia/cappadocians, christianity Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 539, 543, 547
caves/caverns Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
christianity/christians, majority church Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
christianity/christians, martyrdom Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 543
christianity/christians, persecution Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 539
christianity/christians, synods Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
church Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 468
church councils/gatherings(anti-montanist), at iconium Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 79
decius, emperor Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 539
earthquakes Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 539
edessa (today urfa), christianity Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
enkratitai, sect Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 543
enthusiasm, christian spiritual mentality Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 543
eusebius of caesarea, church father Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 539
firmilianus, bishop Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 539, 543, 547
glykon, prophesying serpent, oracle of Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 543
gnosticism/gnostics Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 543
goths Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
gregory of nazianzus, church father Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
gregory of nyssa, church father Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
gregory the wonder worker (thaumaturgos) Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 543, 547
heresy, heretics Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 468
heresy/heretics Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 543; Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 79
heresy named after founder Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 543
ikonion (now konya) Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
initiation, iniatory rite Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 468
jesus christ, correspondence with abgar Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
juliana, christian lady Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
kaisareia below mt. argaios (mazaka) Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
karpos, martyr Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 539
laodikeia katakekaumene Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 543
licinius serenianus, governor Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 539
magic/magicians (magoi/maguš) Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 543
marcion of sinope, heretic Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 543
marcosians Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 468
marcus aurelius, emperor Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 539
martyrs/martyrdom Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 539
meliton of sardeis, christian writer and bishop Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 539
montanism Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 233
neokaisareia (kabeira/diospolis, today niksar) Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
neolithic/chalcolithic age (ca. Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 539, 543, 547
oracles, glykon in abonuteichos Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 543
origen, christian writer Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
palmyra/palmyrenes Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
papylos, martyr Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 539
pergamon, christianity Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 539
pergamon, martyrs Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 539
persecutions of christians Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 539
phrygia/phrygians, montanism Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 543
phrygia Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 79
phrygian galatia Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 79
pionius, martyr Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 539
pseudo-tertullian Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 79
ritual Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 468
rome (roma), montanism at xxx Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 79
sabina, martyr Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 539
sagaris, bishop and martyr Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 539
sakkophoroi, sect Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 543
sasanids Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
sect named after founder Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 543
sokrates, church historian Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 543
synnada Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
teachers Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
tertullian Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 233; Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 79
thecla Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 233
thraseas, bishop Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 539
valentinian(ism) Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 468
victorinus of pettau Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 79
women, church leadership Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 233
women, households Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 233
women, priesthood' Cadwallader, Stones, Bones and the Sacred: Essays on Material Culture and Religion in Honor of Dennis E (2016) 233
worker Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
wulfila Marek, In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World (2019) 547
zephyrinus of rome Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 79