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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



2449
Cleomedes, On The Circular Motions Of The Celestial Bodies, 2.1.91
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

13 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 9.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.29. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו מֹשֶׁה כְּצֵאתִי אֶת־הָעִיר אֶפְרֹשׂ אֶת־כַּפַּי אֶל־יְהוָה הַקֹּלוֹת יֶחְדָּלוּן וְהַבָּרָד לֹא יִהְיֶה־עוֹד לְמַעַן תֵּדַע כִּי לַיהוָה הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.29. And Moses said unto him: ‘As soon as I am gone out of the city, I will spread forth my hands unto the LORD; the thunders shall cease, neither shall there be any more hail; that thou mayest know that the earth is the LORD’s."
2. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 7.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.78 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.78. And since the nation is the most numerous of all peoples, it follows naturally that the first fruits contributed by them must also be most abundant. Accordingly there is in almost every city a storehouse for the sacred things to which it is customary for the people to come and there to deposit their first fruits, and at certain seasons there are sacred ambassadors selected on account of their virtue, who convey the offerings to the temple. And the most eminent men of each tribe are elected to this office, that they may conduct the hopes of each individual safe to their destination; for in the lawful offering of the first fruits are the hopes of the pious.XV.
4. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 31-33, 30 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Therefore, during six days, each of these individuals, retiring into solitude by himself, philosophises by himself in one of the places called monasteries, never going outside the threshold of the outer court, and indeed never even looking out. But on the seventh day they all come together as if to meet in a sacred assembly, and they sit down in order according to their ages with all becoming gravity, keeping their hands inside their garments, having their right hand between their chest and their dress, and the left hand down by their side, close to their flank;
5. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 156-157, 312, 315, 155 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

155. How then did he look upon the great division of Rome which is on the other side of the river Tiber, which he was well aware was occupied and inhabited by the Jews? And they were mostly Roman citizens, having been emancipated; for, having been brought as captives into Italy, they were manumitted by those who had bought them for slaves, without ever having been compelled to alter any of their hereditary or national observances.
6. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 14.258 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.258. we have decreed, that as many men and women of the Jews as are willing so to do, may celebrate their Sabbaths, and perform their holy offices, according to the Jewish laws; and may make their proseuchae at the sea-side, according to the customs of their forefathers; and if any one, whether he be a magistrate or private person, hindereth them from so doing, he shall be liable to a fine, to be applied to the uses of the city.”
7. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 7.44-7.45 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.44. for though Antiochus, who was called Epiphanes, laid Jerusalem waste, and spoiled the temple, yet did those that succeeded him in the kingdom restore all the donations that were made of brass to the Jews of Antioch, and dedicated them to their synagogue, and granted them the enjoyment of equal privileges of citizens with the Greeks themselves; 7.44. So he sent out after him both horsemen and footmen, and easily overcame them, because they were unarmed men; of these many were slain in the fight, but some were taken alive, and brought to Catullus. 7.45. and as the succeeding kings treated them after the same manner, they both multiplied to a great number, and adorned their temple gloriously by fine ornaments, and with great magnificence, in the use of what had been given them. They also made proselytes of a great many of the Greeks perpetually, and thereby, after a sort, brought them to be a portion of their own body. 7.45. yet did Vespasian suspect the matter, and made an inquiry how far it was true. And when he understood that the accusation laid against the Jews was an unjust one, he cleared them of the crimes charged upon them, and this on account of Titus’s concern about the matter, and brought a deserved punishment upon Jonathan; for he was first tormented, and then burnt alive.
8. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Juvenal, Satires, 3.10-3.16, 8.160 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. New Testament, Acts, 16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. Tacitus, Histories, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.5.  Whatever their origin, these rites are maintained by their antiquity: the other customs of the Jews are base and abominable, and owe their persistence to their depravity. For the worst rascals among other peoples, renouncing their ancestral religions, always kept sending tribute and contributions to Jerusalem, thereby increasing the wealth of the Jews; again, the Jews are extremely loyal toward one another, and always ready to show compassion, but toward every other people they feel only hate and enmity. They sit apart at meals, and they sleep apart, and although as a race, they are prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; yet among themselves nothing is unlawful. They adopted circumcision to distinguish themselves from other peoples by this difference. Those who are converted to their ways follow the same practice, and the earliest lesson they receive is to despise the gods, to disown their country, and to regard their parents, children, and brothers as of little account. However, they take thought to increase their numbers; for they regard it as a crime to kill any late-born child, and they believe that the souls of those who are killed in battle or by the executioner are immortal: hence comes their passion for begetting children, and their scorn of death. They bury the body rather than burn it, thus following the Egyptians' custom; they likewise bestow the same care on the dead, and hold the same belief about the world below; but their ideas of heavenly things are quite the opposite. The Egyptians worship many animals and monstrous images; the Jews conceive of one god only, and that with the mind alone: they regard as impious those who make from perishable materials representations of gods in man's image; that supreme and eternal being is to them incapable of representation and without end. Therefore they set up no statues in their cities, still less in their temples; this flattery is not paid their kings, nor this honour given to the Caesars. But since their priests used to chant to the accompaniment of pipes and cymbals and to wear garlands of ivy, and because a golden vine was found in their temple, some have thought that they were devotees of Father Liber, the conqueror of the East, in spite of the incongruity of their customs. For Liber established festive rites of a joyous nature, while the ways of the Jews are preposterous and mean.
12. Tertullian, To The Heathen, 13 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

13. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11a. כ"ו דכתיב (בראשית יד, ד) שתים עשרה שנה עבדו את כדרלעומר ושלש עשרה שנה מרדו ובארבע עשרה שנה וגו':,ואמר רבא בר מחסיא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב כל עיר שגגותיה גבוהין מבית הכנסת לסוף חרבה שנאמר (עזרא ט, ט) לרומם את בית אלהינו ולהעמיד את חרבותיו וה"מ בבתים אבל בקשקושי ואברורי לית לן בה אמר רב אשי אנא עבדי למתא מחסיא דלא חרבה והא חרבה מאותו עון לא חרבה:,ואמר רבא בר מחסיא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב תחת ישמעאל ולא תחת נכרי תחת נכרי ולא תחת חבר תחת חבר ולא תחת תלמיד חכם תחת ת"ח ולא תחת יתום ואלמנה:,ואמר רבא בר מחסיא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב כל חולי ולא חולי מעים כל כאב ולא כאב לב כל מיחוש ולא מיחוש ראש כל רעה ולא אשה רעה:,ואמר רבא בר מחסיא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב אם יהיו כל הימים דיו ואגמים קולמוסים ושמים יריעות וכל בני אדם לבלרין אין מספיקים לכתוב חללה של רשות מאי קראה אמר רב משרשיא (משלי כה, ג) שמים לרום וארץ לעומק ולב מלכים אין חקר:,ואמר רבא בר מחסיא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב יפה תענית לחלום כאש לנעורת אמר רב חסדא ובו ביום ואמר רב יוסף אפי' בשבת,רבי יהושע בריה דרב אידי איקלע לבי רב אשי עבדי ליה עיגלא תילתא אמרו ליה לטעום מר מידי אמר להו בתענית יתיבנא אמרו ליה ולא סבר ליה מר להא דרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה לוה אדם תעניתו ופורע א"ל תענית חלום הוא ואמר רבא בר מחסיא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב יפה תענית לחלום כאש לנעורת ואמר רב חסדא ובו ביום ואמר רב יוסף אפי' בשבת:,ואם התחילו אין מפסיקין מפסיקין לק"ש: הא תנא ליה רישא אין מפסיקין סיפא אתאן לדברי תורה דתניא חברים שהיו עוסקין בתורה מפסיקין לק"ש ואין מפסיקין לתפלה א"ר יוחנן לא שנו אלא כגון ר"ש בן יוחי וחביריו שתורתן אומנותן אבל כגון אנו מפסיקין לק"ש ולתפלה,והתניא כשם שאין מפסיקין לתפלה כך אין מפסיקין לק"ש כי תני ההיא בעיבור שנה דאמר רב אדא בר אהבה וכן תנו סבי דהגרוניא אמר רבי אלעזר בר צדוק כשהיינו עוסקין בעיבור השנה ביבנה לא היינו מפסיקין לא לקריאת שמע ולא לתפלה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big לא יצא החייט במחטו סמוך לחשכה שמא ישכח ויצא ולא הלבלר בקולמוסו ולא יפלה את כליו ולא יקרא לאור הנר באמת אמרו החזן רואה היכן תינוקות קוראין אבל הוא לא יקרא כיוצא בו לא יאכל הזב עם הזבה מפני הרגל עבירה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנן התם לא יעמוד אדם ברה"י וישתה ברה"ר בר"ה וישתה ברה"י אבל אם הכניס ראשו ורובו למקום שהוא שותה מותר 11a. during which they committed their sins was altogether btwenty-sixyears, as it is written: b“Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer and thirteen years they rebelled, and in the fourteenth yearChedorlaomer came” (Genesis 14:4–5). The twelve years plus the fourteen years during which they were enslaved were not years of tranquility, leaving only twenty-six tranquil years when they were sinful., bAnd Rava bar Meḥasseya saidthat bRav Ḥama bar Gurya saidthat bRav said /b: bAny city whose roofs are higher than the synagoguewill bultimately be destroyedbecause of the contempt shown the synagogue. Allusion to this is from that bwhich is stated: “To uplift the house of our God and restore its ruins”(Ezra 9:9). The house that is devoted to God needs to be elevated above the other houses of the city. The Gemara adds: bAnd this applies only to the height of the housesthemselves. bHowever,if bthe poles [ ikashkushei /i] and the towers [ iabrurei /i]that extend from the house are higher than the synagogue, bwe have noproblem bwith it. Rav Ashi said: I causedthe city of bMata Meḥasseya to not be destroyedby building the synagogue higher than the other houses. The Gemara asks: bWasn’tMata Meḥasseya ultimately bdestroyed?The Gemara answers: bIt was not destroyed because of that sin;other sins caused its destruction., bAnd Rava bar Meḥasseya saidthat bRav Ḥama bar Gurya saidthat bRav said:It is preferable to be bunderthe yoke of bIshmael and not underthe yoke of ba stranger,the Romans; bunder a stranger and not under a iḤabar /i,a Persian Zoroastrian fire priest; bunder a iḤabarand not under a Torah scholar,as if one offends a Torah scholar who is greater than he, the scholar will be exacting with him and he will be punished at the hand of Heaven; bunder a Torah scholar and not under an orphan or a widow,as they are easily insulted and God promised to hear their cries and punish those who offend them., bAnd Rava bar Meḥasseya saidthat bRav Ḥama bar Gurya saidthat bRav said:It is preferable to suffer from banyextended billness and notfrom an bintestinal illness.Similarly, it is preferable to suffer bany pain,even if it is sharp and excruciating, band not heart pain; anyslight bache and not a headache; any evil and not an evil wife. /b, bAnd Rava bar Meḥasseya saidthat bRav Ḥama bar Gurya saidthat bRav said:Even bif all the seas would be ink, andthe reeds that grow near bswampswould be bquills, andthe bheavenswould be bparchmentupon which the words would be written, band all the peoplewould be bscribes;all of these bare insufficient to write theunquantifiable bspace ofgovernmental bauthority,i.e., all the considerations with which a government must concern itself and deal. bRav Mesharshiya said: What is the versethat alludes to this? b“The Heavens on High and the land to the depth and the heart of kings are unsearchable”(Proverbs 25:3)., bAnd Rava bar Meḥasseya saidthat bRav Ḥama bar Gurya saidthat bRav said: A fast is effective toneutralize babad bdream like fireburns bchaff. Rav Ḥisda said: Anda fast is effective specifically bon that daythat he dreamed. bAnd Rav Yosef said:One suffering from a bad dream that he dreamed is permitted to fast beven on Shabbat. /b,The Gemara relates: bRav Yehoshua, son of Rav Idi, happenedto come bto the house of Rav Ashi. They prepared a third-born calf,whose meat is high quality, bfor him. They said to him: Let the Master taste something. He said to them: I am sittingin the midst of ba fast. They said to him: And does the Master not holdin accordance with bthis ihalakhaof bRav Yehuda, as Rav Yehuda said: A person can borrow his fastand not fast on the day that he originally designated, band repay itby fasting on another day? You can postpone your fast to another day. bHe said to them: It is a fast for a dream. And Rava bar Meḥasseya saidthat bRav Ḥama bar Gurya saidthat bRav said: A fast is effective toneutralize babad bdream like fireburns bchaff. And Rav Ḥisda saidthat the fast is effective specifically bon that daythat he dreamed. bAnd Rav Yosef saidthat a person suffering due to a bad dream is permitted to fast beven on Shabbat. /b,We learned in the mishna that bif theyalready bbeganany one of the activities mentioned in the mishna bthey need not stopto recite the iAmidaprayer; however, bthey stop to recite iShema /i.The Gemara asks: bDidn’tthe bfirst clauseof the mishna already bteachthat they need not stop? Why does the mishna repeat it? The Gemara answers: In bthe latter clauseof the mishna, bwe came todiscuss bmatters of Torah.With regard to those engaged in Torah study, they need not stop for prayer, but they are required to stop to recite iShema /i. bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bTorah scholars, who were engaged in thestudy of bTorah, stoptheir Torah study bfor iShema /i, and they do not stop for prayer. Rabbi Yoḥa saida caveat to this statement: bThey only taughtthat they need not stop for prayer with regard bto the likes of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai and his colleagues, whose Torah is their vocationand they never interrupt their Torah study. bHowever,for bthe likes of us,who also engage in other activities, bwe stopboth bfor iShema /iand bfor prayer. /b,With regard to the essence of the statement the Gemara asks: bDidn’t we learnin a different ibaraita /i: bJust as they do not stop for prayer, they do not stop for iShema /i?The Gemara answers: bWhen that ibaraita bwas taught,it was taught with regard to those engaged bin the intercalation of the year.Since their activity is crucial and all the Festivals of the year are determined through that activity, the Sages allowed them to continue and not stop to recite iShema /i. bAs Rav Adda bar Ahava said, and the Elders ofthe city of bHagronya also taughtthat bRabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, said: When we were engaged in the intercalation of the year in Yavne, we would stop neither for iShemanor for prayer. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong This mishna deals with various decrees, especially with regard to the ihalakhotof Shabbat, which were issued in order to distance a person from transgressions that he is liable to commit through habit and routine. The mishna said: bThe tailor may not go outwith bhis needle adjacent to nightfallon Shabbat eve, blest he forgetthat he is carrying the needle band go outwith it to the public domain even after Shabbat begins. bAnd,similarly, bthe scribe[ilavlar/b] may bnotgo out bwith his quill /b[ikulmos /i]for the same reason. bAndone bmay not shake his clotheson Shabbat to rid them of lice; bandone bmay not reada book bby candlelight,so that he will not come to adjust the wick of the lamp. However, bin truth they saidan established ihalakha /i: The battendant sees wherein the book the bchildrenunder his supervision are breadingin the Torah, even by candlelight on Shabbat. bHowever, hehimself bmay not read. Similarly,the Sages issued a similar decree with regard to other ihalakhot /i, as they said: bThe izavmay not eateven bwithhis wife bthe izava, /idespite the fact that they are both ritually impure, bbecause,by eating together, they will come to excessive intimacy and become baccustomed to sin. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong Among the ihalakhotconcerning decrees that were issued lest one come to commit a transgression, bwe learnedin a mishna bthere: A person may not stand in the private domain and drinkwater located bin the public domain,or vice versa, stand bin the public domain and drinkwater located in the bprivate domain,lest he transfer the vessel from which he is drinking the water to the place where he is standing and become liable to bring a sin-offering. bHowever, if he introduced his head and most of hisbody binto the placewhere the water bthat he is drinkingis located, there is no longer room for concern, and bit is permitted, /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
anderson, gary Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 5
architectural decorative elements and iconography Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 282
begging, at sacred spaces Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 5
begging, shame of Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 5
begging Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 5
bolkestein, h. Bremmer, Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays (2017) 16
caligula gaius casaer Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 266
christian/ity, and charity Bremmer, Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays (2017) 16
christian/ity, as collegia/thiasoi Bremmer, Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays (2017) 16
christian/ity, social capital Bremmer, Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays (2017) 16
collection, problem of Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 5
custom Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 262
decree Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 262
dignity Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 5
egypt Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 262
food Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 5
gamla Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 282
gentile Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 262
gift exchange Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 5
iconography of Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 266, 282
jerusalem Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 282
josephus Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 266, 282
juvenal Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 262
land of israel Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 262
latin Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 262
lysimachus Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 5
philo, of alexandria Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 266, 282
porta capena Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 262
purpose-built communal structures Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 266, 282
sabbath Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 262
shame' Gardner, The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (2015) 5
spatial theory Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 282
synagogue Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 262
synagogues Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 266, 282
temple of Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 266, 282
water Katzoff, On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies (2019) 262