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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



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Clement Of Rome, 1 Clement, 5.4-5.6
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

38 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Job, 25.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.2. הַמְשֵׁל וָפַחַד עִמּוֹ עֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם בִּמְרוֹמָיו׃ 25.2. Dominion and fear are with Him; He maketh peace in His high places."
2. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 24.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.16. נְאֻם שֹׁמֵעַ אִמְרֵי־אֵל וְיֹדֵעַ דַּעַת עֶלְיוֹן מַחֲזֵה שַׁדַּי יֶחֱזֶה נֹפֵל וּגְלוּי עֵינָיִם׃ 24.16. The saying of him who heareth the words of God, And knoweth the knowledge of the Most High, Who seeth the vision of the Almighty, Fallen down, yet with opened eyes:"
3. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 54.1, 60.17 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

54.1. רָנִּי עֲקָרָה לֹא יָלָדָה פִּצְחִי רִנָּה וְצַהֲלִי לֹא־חָלָה כִּי־רַבִּים בְּנֵי־שׁוֹמֵמָה מִבְּנֵי בְעוּלָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃ 54.1. כִּי הֶהָרִים יָמוּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָעוֹת תְּמוּטֶנָה וְחַסְדִּי מֵאִתֵּךְ לֹא־יָמוּשׁ וּבְרִית שְׁלוֹמִי לֹא תָמוּט אָמַר מְרַחֲמֵךְ יְהוָה׃ 60.17. תַּחַת הַנְּחֹשֶׁת אָבִיא זָהָב וְתַחַת הַבַּרְזֶל אָבִיא כֶסֶף וְתַחַת הָעֵצִים נְחֹשֶׁת וְתַחַת הָאֲבָנִים בַּרְזֶל וְשַׂמְתִּי פְקֻדָּתֵךְ שָׁלוֹם וְנֹגְשַׂיִךְ צְדָקָה׃ 54.1. Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear, Break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail; For more are the children of the desolate Than the children of the married wife, saith the LORD." 60.17. For brass I will bring gold, And for iron I will bring silver, And for wood brass, And for stones iron; I will also make thy officers peace, And righteousness thy magistrates."
4. Anon., 1 Enoch, 9.3, 71.5 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.3. And now to you, the holy ones of heaven, the souls of men make their suit, saying, 'Bring our cause 71.5. And he translated my spirit into the heaven of heavens, And I saw there as it were a structure built of crystals, And between those crystals tongues of living fire.
5. Anon., Testament of Isaac, 2.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 278 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

278. And I am, as you know, a Jew; and Jerusalem is my country, in which there is erected the holy temple of the most high God. And I have kings for my grandfathers and for my ancestors, the greater part of whom have been called high priests, looking upon their royal power as inferior to their office as priests; and thinking that the high priesthood is as much superior to the power of a king, as God is superior to man; for that the one is occupied in rendering service to God, and the other has only the care of governing them.
7. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 3.2, 5.1-5.3, 5.5-5.7, 6.2, 30.7, 44.3, 46.5, 46.7, 47.1, 47.7, 51.1, 54.2, 55.2, 57.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.2. ἐκ τούτου ζῆλος καὶ φθόνος, καὶ ἔρις, καὶ στάσις, διωγμὸς καὶ ἀκαταστασία, πόλεμος καὶ αἰχμαλωσία. 5.1. Ἀλλ̓ ἵνα τῶν ἀρχαίων ὑποδειγμάτων παυσώμεθα, ἔλθωμεν ἐπὶ τοὺς ἔγγιστα γενομένους ἀθλητάς: λάβωμεν τῆς γενεᾶς ἡμῶν τὰ γενναῖα ὑποδείγματα. 5.2. διὰ ζῆλον καὶ φθόνον οἱ μέγιστοι καὶ δικαιότατοι στύλοι ἐδιώχθησαν καὶ ἕως θανάτου ἤθλησαν. 5.3. λάβωμεν πρὸ ὀφθαλμῶν ἡμῶν τοὺς ἀγαθοὺς ἀποστόλους: 5.5. διὰ ζῆλον καὶ ἔριν Παῦλος ὑπομονῆς βραβεῖον ὑπέδειξεν 5.6. ἑπτάκις δεσμὰ φορέσας, φυγαδευθείς, λιθασθείς, κήρυξ γενόμενος ἔν τε τῇ ἀνατολῇ καὶ ἐν τῇ δύσει, τὸ γενναῖον τῆς πίστεως αὐτοῦ κλέος ἔλαβεν 5.7. δικαιοσύνην διδάξας ὅλον τὸν κόσμον, καὶ ἐπὶ τὸ τέρμα τῆς δύσεως ἐλθὼν καὶ μαρτυρήσας ἐπὶ τῶν ἡγουμένων, οὕτως ἀπηλλάγη τοῦ κόσμου καὶ εἰς τὸν ἅγιον τόπον ἀνελήμφθη, So SLK, e)poreu/qh AC probably from v. 4. ὑπομονῆς γενόμενος μέγιστος ὑπογραμμός. 6.2. διὰ ζῆλος διωχθεῖσαι γυναῖκες Δαναΐδες καὶ Δίρκαι, This is perhaps corrupt: but no ssatisfactory emendation is known. αἰκίσματα δεινὰ καὶ ἀνόσια παθοῦσαι, ἐπὶ τὸν τῆς πίστεως βέβαιον δρόμον κατήντησαν καὶ ἔλαβον γέρας γενναῖον αἱ ἀσθενεῖς τῷ σώματι. 30.7. ἡ μαρτυρία τῆς ἀγαθῆς πράξεως ἡμῶν διδόσθω ὑπ̓ ἄλλων, καθὼς ἐδόθη τοῖς πατράσιν ἡμῶν τοῖς δικαίοις. 44.3. τοὺς οὖν κατασταθέντας ὑπ̓ ἐκείνων ἢ μεταξὺ ὑφ̓ ἑτέρων ἐλλογίμων ἀνδρῶν συνενδοκησάσης τῆς ἐκκλησίας πάσης, καὶ λειτουργήσαντας ἀμέμπτως τῷ ποιμνίῳ τοῦ Χριστοῦ μετὰ ταπεινοφροσύνης, ἡσύχως καὶ ἀβαναύσως, μεμαρτυρημένους τε πολλοῖς χρόνοις ὑπὸ πάντων, τούτους οὐ δικαίως νομίζομεν ἀποβάλλεσθαι τῆς λειτουργίας. 46.5. ἱνατί ἔρεις καὶ θυμοὶ καὶ διχοστασίαι καὶ σχίσματα πόλεμός τε Eph. 4, 4-6 ἐν ὑμῖν; 46.7. ἱνατί διέλκομεν καὶ διασπῶμεν τὰ μέλη τοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ στασιάζομεν πρὸς τὸ σῶμα τὸ ἴδιον, καὶ εἰς τοσαύτην ἀπόνοιαν ἐρχόμεθα, ὥστε ἐπιλαθέσθαι ἡμᾶς, ὅτι μέλη ἐσμὲν ἀλλήλων; μνήσθητε τῶν λόγων τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ. *)ihsou= tou= kuri/ou h(mw=n *a, tou= kuri/ou h(mw=n *)ihsou= *xrittou= CSK, domini Them (tou= kuri/ou *)ihsou=) L. The other readings appear to be serni liturgical expansions of the simple form found in L. 47.1. Ἀναλάβετε τὴν ἐπιστολὴν τοῦ μακαρίου Παύλου τοῦ ἀποστόλου. 47.7. καὶ αὕτη ἡ ἀκοὴ οὐ μόνον εἰς ἡμᾶς ἐχώρησεν, ἀλλὰ καὶ εἰς τοὺς ἑτεροκλινεῖς ὑπάρχοντας ἀφ̓ ἡμῶν, ὥστε καὶ βλασφημίας ἐπιφέρεσθαι τῷ ὀνόματι κυρίου διὰ τὴν ὑμετέραν ἀφροσύνην, ἑαυτοῖς δὲ κίνδυνον ἐπεξεργάζεσθαι. 51.1. Ὅσα οὖν παρεπέσαμεν καὶ ἐποιήσαμεν δια τινας παρεμπτώσεις The text is doubtful: dia\ ta\s paremptw/seis Clem., propler #3uaedant incuraiones L, the e#3uivalent of dia\ ta\s paremptw/seis tinw=n (ta\s) *k, dia\ tino\s tw=n ACS. τοῦ ἀντικειμένου, ἀξιώσωμεν ἀφεθῆναι ἡμῖν. καὶ ἐκεῖνοι δέ, οἵτινες ἀρχηγοὶ στάσεως καὶ διχοστασίας ἐγενήθησαν, ὀφείλουσιν τὸ κοινὸν τῆς ἐλπίδος σκοπεῖν. 54.2. εἰπάτω: Εἰ δἰ ἐμὲ στάσις καὶ ἔρις καὶ σχίσματα, ἐκχωρῶ, ἄπειμι, οὗ ἐὰν βούλησθε, καὶ ποιῶ τὰ προστασσόμενα ὑπὸ τοῦ πλήθους: μόνον τὸ ποίμνιον τοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰρηνευέτω μετὰ τῶν καθεσταμένων πρεσβυτέρων. 55.2. ἐπιστάμεθα πολλοὺς ἐν ἡμῖν παραδεδωκότας ἑαυτοὺς εἰς δεσμά, ὅπως ἑτέρους λυτρώσονται: πολλοὶ ἑαυτοὺς παρέδωκαν εἰς δουλείαν. καὶ λαβόντες τὰς τιμὰς αὐτῶν ἑτέρους ἐψώμισαν. 57.1. Ὑμεῖς οὖν οἱ τὴν καταβολὴν τῆς στάσεως ποιήσαντες ὑποτάγητε τοῖς πρεσβυτέροις καὶ παιδεύθητε εἰς μετάνοιαν, κάμψαντες τὰ γόνατα τῆς καρδίας ὑμῶν.
8. Clement of Rome, 2 Clement, 17.3, 19.1-19.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

17.3. καὶ μὴ μόνον ἄρτι δοκῶμεν πιστεύειν καὶ προσέχειν ἐν τῷ νουθετεῖσθαι ἡμᾶς ὑπὸ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων, ἀλλὰ καὶ ὅταν εἰς οἶκον ἀπαλλαγῶμεν, S adds "and have ceased from all." μνημονεύωμεν τῶν τοῦ κυρίου ἐνταλμάτων καὶ μὴ ἀντιπαρελκώμεθα ἀπὸ τῶν κοσμικῶν ἐπιθυμιῶν, ἀλλὰ πυκνότερον προσερχόμενοι πειρώμεθα προκόπτειν ἐν ταῖς ἐντολαῖς τοῦ κυρίον. ἵνα Rom. 12, 10; cf. Phil. 2, 3 πάντες τὸ αὐτὸ φρονοῦντες συνηγμένοι ὦμεν ἐπὶ Is. 66, 16 τὴν ζωήν: 19.1. Ὥστε, ἀδελφοὶ καὶ ἀδελφαί, μετὰ τὸν θεὸν τῆς ἀληθείας ἀναγινώσκω ὑμῖν ἔντευξιν εἰς τὸ προσέχειν τοῖς γεγραμμένοις, ἵνα καὶ ἑαυτοὺς σώσητε καὶ τὸν ἀναγινώσκοντα ἐν ὑμῖν. μισθὸν γὰρ αἰτῶ ὑμᾶς τὸ μετανοῆσαι ἐξ ὅλης καρδίας, σωτηρίαν ἑαυτοῖς καὶ ζωὴν διδόντας. τοῦτο γὰρ ποιήσαντες σκοπὸν πᾶσιν τοῖς νέοις θήσομεν, τοῖς βουλομένοις περὶ τὴν εὐσέβειαν καὶ τὴν χρηστότητα τοῦ θεοῦ φιλοπονεῖν. 19.2. καὶ μὴ ἀηδῶς ἔχωμεν καὶ ἀγανακτῶμεν οἱ ἄσοφοι, ὅταν τις ἡμᾶς νουθετῇ καὶ ἐπιστρέφῃ ἀπὸ τῆς ἀδικίας εἰς τὴν δικαιοσύνην. ἐνίοτε γὰρ πονηρὰ πράσσοντες οὐ γινώσκομεν διὰ τὴν διψυχίαν καὶ ἀπιστίαν τὴν ἐνοῦσαν ἐν τοῖς Eph. 4, 18 στήθεσιν ἡμῶν, καὶ ἐσκοτίσμεθα τὴν διάνοιαν ὑπὸ τῶν ἐπιθυμιῶν τῶν ματαίων.
9. Ignatius, To Polycarp, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.2. Let meetings be held more frequently. Seek out all men by name. 4.2. For if these things were done by our Lord in semblance, then am I also a prisoner in semblance. And why then have I delivered myself over to death, unto fire, unto sword, unto wild beasts? But near to the sword, near to God; in company with wild beasts, in company with God. Only let it be in the name of Jesus Christ, so that we may suffer together with Him. I endure all things, seeing that He Himself enableth me, who is perfect Man.
10. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 2.1, 3.2, 6.2, 7.2, 9.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.2. For as many as are of God and of Jesus Christ, they are with the bishop; and as many as shall repent and enter into the unity of the Church, these also shall be of God, that they may be living after Jesus Christ. 6.2. Shun ye therefore the wicked arts and plottings of the prince of this world, lest haply ye be crushed by his devices, and wax weak in your love. But assemble yourselves all together with undivided heart. 7.2. Howbeit there were those who suspected me of saying this, because I knew beforehand of the division of certain persons. But He in whom I am bound is my witness that I learned it not from flesh of man; it was the preaching of the Spirit who spake on this wise; Do nothing without the bishop; keep your flesh as a temple of God; cherish union; shun divisions; be imitators of Jesus Christ, as He Himself also was of His Father. 9.2. But the Gospel hath a singular preeminence in the advent of the Saviour, even our Lord Jesus Christ, and His passion and resurrection. For the beloved Prophets in their preaching pointed to Him; but the Gospel is the completion of immortality. All things together are good, if ye believe through love.
11. Ignatius, To The Ephesians, 13.1, 15.1, 20.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

13.1. Do your diligence therefore to meet together more frequently for thanksgiving to God and for His glory. For when ye meet together frequently, the powers of Satan are cast down; and his mischief cometh to nought in the concord of your faith. 15.1. It is better to keep silence and to be, than to talk and not to be. It is a fine thing to teach, if the speaker practise. Now there is one teacher, who spake and it came to pass: yea and even the things which He hath done in silence are worthy of the Father. 20.2. especially if the Lord should reveal aught to me. Assemble yourselves together in common, every one of you severally, man by man, in grace, in one faith and one Jesus Christ, who after the flesh was of David's race, who is Son of Man and Son of God, to the end that ye may obey the bishop and presbytery without distraction of mind; breaking one bread, which is the medicine of immortality and the antidote that we should not die but live for ever in Jesus Christ.
12. Ignatius, To The Magnesians, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.1. Therefore as the Lord did nothing without the Father, [being united with Him], either by Himself or by the Apostles, so neither do ye anything without the bishop and the presbyters. And attempt not to think anything right for yourselves apart from others: but let there be one prayer in common, one supplication, one mind, one hope, in love and in joy unblameable, which is Jesus Christ, than whom there is nothing better.
13. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 2.1, 3.2, 6.2, 7.2, 9.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.1. As children therefore [of the light] of the truth, shun division and wrong doctrines; and where the shepherd is, there follow ye as sheep. 3.2. For as many as are of God and of Jesus Christ, they are with the bishop; and as many as shall repent and enter into the unity of the Church, these also shall be of God, that they may be living after Jesus Christ. 6.2. Shun ye therefore the wicked arts and plottings of the prince of this world, lest haply ye be crushed by his devices, and wax weak in your love. But assemble yourselves all together with undivided heart. 7.2. Howbeit there were those who suspected me of saying this, because I knew beforehand of the division of certain persons. But He in whom I am bound is my witness that I learned it not from flesh of man; it was the preaching of the Spirit who spake on this wise; Do nothing without the bishop; keep your flesh as a temple of God; cherish union; shun divisions; be imitators of Jesus Christ, as He Himself also was of His Father. 9.2. But the Gospel hath a singular preeminence in the advent of the Saviour, even our Lord Jesus Christ, and His passion and resurrection. For the beloved Prophets in their preaching pointed to Him; but the Gospel is the completion of immortality. All things together are good, if ye believe through love.
14. Ignatius, To The Romans, 5.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.2. May I have joy of the beasts that have been prepared for me; and I pray that I may find them prompt; nay I will entice them that they may devour me promptly, not as they have done to some, refusing to touch them through fear. Yea though of themselves they should not be willing while I am ready, I myself will force them to it.
15. Ignatius, To The Smyrnaeans, 7.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Ignatius, To The Trallians, 10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 20.136 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20.136. whereupon Claudius was so well disposed beforehand, that when he had heard the cause, and found that the Samaritans had been the ringleaders in those mischievous doings, he gave order that those who came up to him should be slain, and that Cureanus should be banished. He also gave order that Celer the tribune should be carried back to Jerusalem, and should be drawn through the city in the sight of all the people, and then should be slain.
18. New Testament, 1 Peter, 2.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.17. Honor all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honor the king.
19. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.10-1.12, 1.16-1.17, 3.3, 3.5-3.9, 3.21-3.23, 4.6, 11.18-11.19, 15.58 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. Now Ibeg you, brothers, through the name of our Lord, Jesus Christ, that youall speak the same thing and that there be no divisions among you, butthat you be perfected together in the same mind and in the samejudgment. 1.11. For it has been reported to me concerning you, mybrothers, by those who are from Chloe's household, that there arecontentions among you. 1.12. Now I mean this, that each one of yousays, "I follow Paul," "I follow Apollos," "I follow Cephas," and, "Ifollow Christ. 1.16. (I alsobaptized the household of Stephanas; besides them, I don't know whetherI baptized any other.) 1.17. For Christ sent me not to baptize, but topreach the gospel -- not in wisdom of words, so that the cross ofChrist wouldn't be made void. 3.3. for you are still fleshly. For insofar as there is jealousy,strife, and factions among you, aren't you fleshly, and don't you walkin the ways of men? 3.5. Who then isApollos, and who is Paul, but servants through whom you believed; andeach as the Lord gave to him? 3.6. I planted. Apollos watered. But Godgave the increase. 3.7. So then neither he who plants is anything, norhe who waters, but God who gives the increase. 3.8. Now he who plantsand he who waters are the same, but each will receive his own rewardaccording to his own labor. 3.9. For we are God's fellow workers. Youare God's farming, God's building. 3.21. Therefore let no one boast in men. For all things are yours 3.22. whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death,or things present, or things to come. All are yours 3.23. and you areChrist's, and Christ is God's. 4.6. Now these things, brothers, I have in a figure transferred tomyself and Apollos for your sakes, that in us you might learn not tothink beyond the things which are written, that none of you be puffedup against one another. 11.18. For firstof all, when you come together in the assembly, I hear that divisionsexist among you, and I partly believe it. 11.19. For there also mustbe factions among you, that those who are approved may be revealedamong you. 15.58. Therefore, my beloved brothers, be steadfast,immovable, always abounding in the Lord's work, because you know thatyour labor is not in vain in the Lord.
20. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 13.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21. New Testament, Acts, 16.17, 22.20 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16.17. The same, following after Paul and us, cried out, "These men are servants of the Most High God, who proclaim to us the way of salvation! 22.20. When the blood of Stephen, your witness, was shed, I also was standing by, and consenting to his death, and guarding the cloaks of those who killed him.'
22. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.13. I know your works and where you dwell, where Satan's throne is. You hold firmly to my name, and didn't deny my faith in the days of Antipas my witness, my faithful one, who was killed among you, where Satan dwells.
23. New Testament, Philemon, 3.8-3.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24. New Testament, Colossians, 1.23, 4.7-4.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.23. if it is so that you continue in the faith, grounded and steadfast, and not moved away from the hope of the gospel which you heard, which is being proclaimed in all creation under heaven; of which I, Paul, was made a servant. 4.7. All my affairs will be made known to you by Tychicus, the beloved brother, faithful servant, and fellow bondservant in the Lord. 4.8. I am sending him to you for this very purpose, that he may know your circumstances and comfort your hearts
25. New Testament, Galatians, 5.20-5.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.20. idolatry, sorcery, hatred, strife, jealousies,outbursts of anger, rivalries, divisions, heresies 5.21. envyings,murders, drunkenness, orgies, and things like these; of which Iforewarn you, even as I also forewarned you, that those who practicesuch things will not inherit the Kingdom of God.
26. New Testament, Philippians, 1.1, 1.27, 2.4-2.5, 3.8-3.14, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul and Timothy, servants of Jesus Christ; To all the saints in Christ Jesus who are at Philippi, with the overseers and deacons: 1.27. Only let your manner of life be worthy of the gospel of Christ, that, whether I come and see you or am absent, I may hear of your state, that you stand firm in one spirit, with one soul striving for the faith of the gospel; 2.4. each of you not just looking to his own things, but each of you also to the things of others. 2.5. Have this in your mind, which was also in Christ Jesus 3.8. Yes most assuredly, and I count all things to be loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus, my Lord, for whom I suffered the loss of all things, and count them nothing but refuse, that I may gain Christ 3.9. and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own, that which is of the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God by faith; 3.10. that I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, becoming conformed to his death; 3.11. if by any means I may attain to the resurrection from the dead. 3.12. Not that I have already obtained, or am already made perfect; but I press on, if it is so that I may take hold of that for which also I was taken hold of by Christ Jesus. 3.13. Brothers, I don't regard myself as yet having taken hold, but one thing I do. Forgetting the things which are behind, and stretching forward to the things which are before 3.14. I press on toward the goal for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. 4.3. Yes, I beg you also, true yoke-fellow, help these women, for they labored with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life.
27. New Testament, Romans, 1.1-1.5, 16.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God 1.2. which he promised before through his prophets in the holy Scriptures 1.3. concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh 1.4. who was declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord 1.5. through whom we received grace and apostleship, for obedience of faith among all the nations, for his name's sake; 16.17. Now I beg you, brothers, look out for those who are causing the divisions and occasions of stumbling, contrary to the doctrine which you learned, and turn away from them.
28. New Testament, John, 4.21-4.23, 14.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.21. Jesus said to her, "Woman, believe me, the hour comes, when neither in this mountain, nor in Jerusalem, will you worship the Father. 4.22. You worship that which you don't know. We worship that which we know; for salvation is from the Jews. 4.23. But the hour comes, and now is, when the true worshippers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father seeks such to be his worshippers. 14.3. If I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and will receive you to myself; that where I am, you may be there also.
29. New Testament, Luke, 2.14, 16.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. Glory to God in the highest, On earth peace, good will toward men. 16.22. It happened that the beggar died, and that he was carried away by the angels to Abraham's bosom. The rich man also died, and was buried.
30. Anon., Marytrdom of Polycarp, 1.2, 3.2, 5.1-5.2, 6.1, 7.1, 19.1-19.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.2. 2 For he waited to be betrayed as also the Lord had done, that we too might become his imitators, "not thinking of ourselves alone, but also of our neighbours." For it is the mark of true and steadfast love, not to wish that oneself may be saved alone, but all the brethren also. 3.2. 2 So after this all the crowd, wondering at the nobility of the God-loving and God-fearing people of the Christians, cried out: "Away with the Atheists; let Polycarp be searched for. 5.1. 1 But the most wonderful Polycarp, when he first heard it, was not disturbed, but wished to remain in the city; but the majority persuaded him to go away quietly, and he went out quietly to a farm, not far distant from the city, and stayed with a few friends, doing nothing but pray night and day for all, and for the Churches throughout the world, as was his custom. 5.2. 2 And while he was praying he fell into a trance three days before he was arrested, and saw the pillow under his head burning with fire, and he turned and said to those who were with him: "I must be burnt alive. 6.1. 1 And when the searching for him persisted he went to another farm; and those who were searching for him came up at once, and when they did not find him, they arrested young slaves, and one of them confessed under torture. 7.1. 1 Taking the slave then police and cavalry went out on Friday about supper-time, with their usual arms, as if they were advancing against a robber. And late in the evening they came up together against him and found him lying in an upper room. And he might have departed to another place, but would not, saying, "the will of God be done. 19.1. 1 Such was the lot of the blessed Polycarp, who though he was, together with those from Philadelphia, the twelfth martyr in Smyrna, is alone especially remembered by all, so that he is spoken of in every place, even by the heathen. He was not only a famous teacher, but also a notable martyr, whose martyrdom all desire to imitate, for it followed the Gospel of Christ. 19.2. 2 By his endurance he overcame the unrighteous ruler, and thus gained the crown of immortality, and he is glorifying God and the Almighty Father, rejoicing with the Apostles and all the righteous, and he is blessing our Lord Jesus Christ, the Saviour of our souls, and Governor of our bodies, and the Shepherd of the Catholic Church throughout the world.
31. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

104a. דמדליא ובסים אוירא,ההוא יומא דנח נפשיה דרבי גזרו רבנן תעניתא ובעו רחמי ואמרי כל מאן דאמר נח נפשיה דר' ידקר בחרב,סליקא אמתיה דרבי לאיגרא אמרה עליוני' מבקשין את רבי והתחתוני' מבקשין את רבי יהי רצון שיכופו תחתונים את העליונים כיון דחזאי כמה זימני דעייל לבית הכסא וחלץ תפילין ומנח להו וקמצטער אמרה יהי רצון שיכופו עליונים את התחתונים,ולא הוו שתקי רבנן מלמיבעי רחמי שקלה כוזא שדייא מאיגרא [לארעא] אישתיקו מרחמי ונח נפשיה דרבי,אמרו ליה רבנן לבר קפרא זיל עיין אזל אשכחיה דנח נפשיה קרעיה ללבושיה ואהדריה לקרעיה לאחוריה פתח ואמר אראלים ומצוקים אחזו בארון הקדש נצחו אראלים את המצוקים ונשבה ארון הקדש אמרו ליה נח נפשיה אמר להו אתון קאמריתו ואנא לא קאמינא,בשעת פטירתו של רבי זקף עשר אצבעותיו כלפי מעלה אמר רבש"ע גלוי וידוע לפניך שיגעתי בעשר אצבעותי בתורה ולא נהניתי אפילו באצבע קטנה יהי רצון מלפניך שיהא שלום במנוחתי יצתה ב"ק ואמרה (ישעיהו נז, ב) יבא שלום ינוחו על משכבותם,על משכבך מיבעי ליה מסייע ליה לר' חייא בר גמדא דאמר רבי חייא בר גמדא אמר ר' יוסי בן שאול בשעה שהצדיק נפטר מן העולם אומרים מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע צדיק פלוני בא אומר להם יבואו צדיקים ויצאו לקראתו ואומרים לו יבא בשלום ינוחו על משכבותם,אמר ר' אלעזר בשעה שהצדיק נפטר מן העולם שלש כיתות של מלאכי השרת יוצאות לקראתו אחת אומרת לו בא בשלום ואחת אומרת הולך נכחו ואחת אומרת לו יבא שלום ינוחו על משכבותם בשעה שהרשע נאבד מן העולם שלש כיתות של מלאכי חבלה יוצאות לקראתו אחת אומרת (ישעיהו מח, כב) אין שלום אמר ה' לרשעים ואחת אומרת לו (ישעיהו נ, יא) למעצבה ישכב ואחת אומרת לו (יחזקאל לב, יט) רדה והשכבה את ערלים:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big כל זמן שהיא בבית אביה גובה כתובתה לעולם כל זמן שהיא בבית בעלה גובה כתובתה עד עשרים וחמש שנים שיש בכ"ה שנים שתעשה טובה כנגד כתובתה דברי ר' מאיר שאמר משום רשב"ג,וחכ"א כל זמן שהיא בבית בעלה גובה כתובתה לעולם כל זמן שהיא בבית אביה גובה כתובתה עד עשרים וחמש שנים,מתה יורשיה מזכירין כתובתה עד עשרים וחמש שנים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר ליה אביי לרב יוסף ענייה שבישראל עד עשרים וחמש שנים ומרתא בת בייתוס עד עשרים וחמש שנים,אמר ליה לפום גמלא שיחנא,איבעיא להו לרבי מאיר מהו שתשלש תיקו:,וחכמים אומרים כל זמן: אמר ליה אביי לרב יוסף אתאי קודם שקיעת החמה גובה כתובתה לאחר שקיעת החמה לא גביא בההיא פורתא אחילתא,אמר ליה אין כל מדת חכמים כן היא בארבעים סאה טובל בארבעים סאה חסר קורטוב אינו יכול לטבול בהן,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב העיד רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי לפני רבי שאמר משום אביו לא שנו אלא שאין שטר כתובה יוצא מתחת ידיה אבל שטר כתובה יוצא מתחת ידיה גובה כתובתה לעולם ורבי אלעזר אמר אפילו שטר כתובה יוצא מתחת ידיה אינה גובה אלא עד עשרים וחמש שנים,מתיב רב ששת ב"ח גובה שלא בהזכרה היכי דמי אי דלא נקט שטרא במאי גבי אלא דנקיט שטרא וב"ח הוא דלאו בר אחולי הוא הא אלמנה אחילתא,הוא מותיב לה והוא מפרק לה לעולם דלא נקיט שטרא והכא במאי עסקינן כשחייב מודה,והאמר ר' אלעא שונין גרושה הרי היא כבעל חוב היכי דמי אי דלא נקיטא כתובה במאי גביא אלא לאו דנקיטא כתובה וגרושה היא דלאו בת אחולי היא הא אלמנה אחילתא,הכא נמי כשחייב מודה,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק תני רב יהודה בר קזא במתניתא דבי בר קזא תבעה כתובתה 104a. bwhich issituated at a bhighaltitude bandwhose bair is scented. /b,§ It is related that bon the day that RabbiYehuda HaNasi bdied, the Sages decreed a fast, and begged fordivine bmercyso that he would not die. bAnd they said: Anyone who says that RabbiYehuda HaNasi bhas died will be stabbed with a sword. /b, bThe maidservant of RabbiYehuda HaNasi bascended to the roofand bsaid: The upperrealms bare requestingthe presence of bRabbiYehuda HaNasi, band the lowerrealms bare requestingthe presence of bRabbiYehuda HaNasi. bMay it bethe bwillof God bthat the lowerworlds bshould imposetheir will bupon the upperworlds. However, bwhen she saw how many times he would enter the bathroom and removehis bphylacteries,and then exit band put themback bon, andhow bhe was sufferingwith his intestinal disease, bshe said: May it bethe bwillof God bthat the upperworlds bshould imposetheir will bupon the lowerworlds., bAnd the Sages,meanwhile, bwould not be silent,i.e., they would not refrain, bfrom begging for mercyso that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would not die. So bshe took a jug [ ikuza /i]and bthrew it from the roof to the ground.Due to the sudden noise, the Sages bweremomentarily bsilentand refrained bfrombegging for bmercy, and RabbiYehuda HaNasi bdied. /b, bThe Sages said to bar Kappara: Go and ascertainthe condition of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. bHe wentand bfound thatRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bhad died. He tore his clothing and reversedthem so that bthe tearwould be bbehind himand not be noticed. When he returned to the Sages bhe openedhis remarks band said:The bangels [ ierelim /i] and righteousmortals [ imetzukim /i] both bclutched the sacred ark. The angels triumphedover bthe righteous, and the sacred ark was captured. They said to him:Has bhe died? He said to them: You have said it and I did not say it,as it had been decided that no one should say that he died.,It is further related: bAt the time of the death of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bhe raised his ten fingers toward Heavenand bsaidin prayer: bMaster of the Universe, it is revealed and known before You that I toiled with my ten fingers in the Torah, and I have not derived any benefitfrom the world beven withmy bsmall finger. May it be Your will that there be peace in my repose. A Divine Voice emerged and said: “He enters in peace, they rest in their beds”(Isaiah 57:2).,The Gemara asks: Why does it say: “They rest in their beds,” in the plural? bIt should havesaid: bIn your bed,in the singular, as the beginning of the verse is phrased in the singular. The Gemara notes: This bsupportsthe opinion of bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Gamda. As Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Gamda saidthat bRabbi Yosei ben Shaul said: At the time when a righteous individual departs from the world, the ministering angels say before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, the righteousindividual bso-and-so is coming.The Holy One, Blessed be He, then bsays to them: The righteous should comeforth band they should go out toward him. Andthe righteous bsay tothe newly deceased individual: bHe enters in peace,and subsequently, the righteous brest in their beds. /b, bRabbi Elazar said: At the time when a righteous individual departs from the world, three contingents of ministering angels go out toward him. One says to him: Enter in peace; and one saysto him: Each one bthat walks in his uprightness; and one says to him: He enters in peace, they rest in their beds. At the time when a wicked person perishes from the world, three contingents of angels of destruction go out toward him. One saysto him: b“There is no peace, says the Lord concerning the wicked”(Isaiah 48:22); band one says to him: “You shall lie down in sorrow”(Isaiah 50:11); band one says to him: “Go down, and be laid with the uncircumcised”(Ezekiel 32:19)., strongMISHNA: /strong bAs long asa widow bisliving bin the house of her fatherand is being supported by her husband’s heirs, bshe may always collectpayment of bher marriage contract,even after many years. bAs long as she isliving bin the house of her husband, she may collectpayment of bher marriage contract until twenty-five yearslater, at which point she may no longer collect the payment. This is bbecause there isenough time bin twenty-five years for her to do favorsand give to others, thereby spending the resources of the orphans, until what she has spent bequalsthe value of bher marriage contract.This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir, who saidit bin the name of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. /b, bAnd the Rabbis saythe opposite: bAs long as she isresiding bin the house of her husband she may always collectpayment of bher marriage contract,since during this time the heirs are caring for her and she is therefore embarrassed to sue them for payment of her marriage contract. However, bas long as she is in the house of her father she may collectpayment of bher marriage contract until twenty-five yearslater, and if by then she has not sued for it, it is assumed that she has waived her rights to it.,If bshe died, her heirs mention her marriage contractup buntil twenty-five yearslater., strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna stated that according to Rabbi Meir, over a period of twenty-five years a woman will spend a sum equal to her marriage contract from the resources of the orphans. bAbaye said to Rav Yosef:Is it true that bthe poorestwoman bamong the Jewish people,whose marriage contract is of minimal value, will not spend this amount buntil twenty-five yearshave passed, band Marta bat Baitos,who was very wealthy and whose marriage contract was worth a huge sum, will also spend a sum equal to her marriage contract bwithin twenty-five years? /b, bHe said to him: According to the camel is the load,i.e., a wealthy woman, whose marriage contract is of greater value, will spend more money over a particular period of time than a poor woman, whose marriage contract is of lesser value., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bAccording to Rabbi Meir,the amount of benefit she gains is determined by the years that have passed. If so, bwhat isthe ihalakhawith regard to whether bshe dividesthe value of her marriage contract in accordance with the number of years that have gone by, such that if some of the twenty-five years passed, she forfeits the proportionate value of her marriage contract? No answer was found for this dilemma, and the Gemara concludes: The dilemma bshall standunresolved.,§ We learned in the mishna: bAnd the Rabbis say: As long asshe is in her husband’s house she may collect payment of her marriage contract at any time, but while she is in her father’s house she may collect it only within twenty-five years. bAbaye said to Rav Yosef:If bshe came before the setting of the sunat the end of the twenty-five-year period, bshe collectspayment of bher marriage contract,but if she came bafter the setting of the sun she may not collectit? bIn that slightperiod of time bdid she waiveher rights to the payment of her marriage contract?, bHe said to him: Yes. All the measures of the Sagesthat prescribe specific parameters or sizes bare suchthat if one oversteps the fixed limits, he has not accomplished anything as far as the ihalakhais considered. Consequently, bina ritual bath containing bforty ise’a /iof water, bone may immerseand become ritually pure. However, bina ritual bath containing bforty ise’alessone ikortov /i,a small amount, bhe is unable to immerse thereinand become ritually pure., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, testified before RabbiYehuda HaNasi and bsaid in the name of his father,Rabbi Yosei: bThey taughtall of the above bonlyin a case where bshe does not have a marriage contract in her possession,such as in a locale where the custom is not to write a marriage contract, bbutin a situation bwhere she does have a marriage contract in her possession, she may collectpayment of bher marriage contract forever. And Rabbi Elazar said: Even if she has a marriage contract in her possession, shestill bcollectspayment of her marriage contract bonly within twenty-five yearsafter the death of her husband., bRav Sheshet raised an objectionagainst the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, based upon the iTosefta( iKetubot12:3): bA creditor may collectthe money he is owed even after a long time has passed bwithouthis having bmentionedthe debt. The Gemara clarifies: bWhat are the circumstances? If he does not hold the documentthat records the debt, bwith what is he collectingthe debt? bRather,it must be that bhe does hold the document.It can be inferred that even so, it is specifically ba creditor, whoit could be assumed bis not oneto have bforgivenhis debt, who may continue to collect the debt after a long period of time. bBut a widowis presumed to have bwaivedher rights to the payment of her marriage contract even if she has the marriage contract in her possession. This conclusion contradicts the statement of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei.,The Gemara states that Rav Sheshet braised the objection and he resolved it: Actually,the case in the iToseftais where the creditor bdoes not hold a documentthat records the debt, bandthe reason he may collect the debt is because bhere we are dealing witha case bwhere the debtor admitsthat he owes the creditor money. Consequently, it cannot be proven from this case that a widow who has a marriage contract in her possession is unable to collect its payment.,The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t Rabbi Ela say:The Sages bteachin a ibaraita /i: bA divorcée is like a creditorand may collect her marriage contract after a long period of time even if she has not made mention of it during the course of that time? The Gemara clarifies: bWhat are the circumstances? If she does not hold a marriage contractin her possession, bwith what is she collectingpayment? bRather, is it notthat bshe holds a marriage contractin her possession, band it is a divorcéewho may collect under these circumstances, bas she is not onewho could be assumed to have bwaivedthe rights to the payment owed to her, as she does not maintain a relationship with the family that would prompt her to waive the rights to her claims? bBut a widowis likely to bwaivethe rights to her claim, even though she is in possession of a contract.,The Gemara answers: bHere too,the case is one bwhere the debtor,i.e., the husband, badmitsto owing the divorcée payment for her marriage contract, although she does not have the marriage contract in her possession., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Rav Yehuda bar Kaza teaches in a ibaraitaof the schoolof bbar Kaza:If the widow bdemandedpayment of bher marriage contract, /b
32. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 6.2.3-6.2.6 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

6.2.3. As the flame of persecution had been kindled greatly, and multitudes had gained the crown of martyrdom, such desire for martyrdom seized the soul of Origen, although yet a boy, that he went close to danger, springing forward and rushing to the conflict in his eagerness. 6.2.4. And truly the termination of his life had been very near had not the divine and heavenly Providence, for the benefit of many, prevented his desire through the agency of his mother. 6.2.5. For, at first, entreating him, she begged him to have compassion on her motherly feelings toward him; but finding, that when he had learned that his father had been seized and imprisoned, he was set the more resolutely, and completely carried away with his zeal for martyrdom, she hid all his clothing, and thus compelled him to remain at home. 6.2.6. But, as there was nothing else that he could do, and his zeal beyond his age would not suffer him to be quiet, he sent to his father an encouraging letter on martyrdom, in which he exhorted him, saying, Take heed not to change your mind on our account. This may be recorded as the first evidence of Origen's youthful wisdom and of his genuine love for piety.
33. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Thomas, 13 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

34. Anon., 4 Baruch, 8

35. Anon., Gospel of Thomas, 13

36. Anon., History of The Rechabites, 14.4

37. Anon., Ijo, 2.241

38. Pseudo-Tertullian, Martyrdom of Perpetua And Felicitas, 11



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
apostolic fathers, generally Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 508, 522
archangel, righteous/righteousness of Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 391
authority Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
birth Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
blood Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
bread Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
clement, first Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 508
community Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
covenant Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
creation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
creator Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
cross Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
dead, death Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 243
deity, myths of Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 243
deity, visual depictions of Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 243
descent Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
encounter Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
eschatology Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
first clement, reception of paul Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 128
first clement, reception of peter Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 128
frescoes Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 243
identity construction Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 243
ignatios of antioch Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 199
incarnation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
interrelationship of christian and jewish martyrdom discourse, christian heroic narrative vs. jewish theological reflection Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 411
josephus Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 243
just Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
kingdom Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
law Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
life after death Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 391
martyrdom/martyrs Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 202
mary Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
new testament Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 199
paul Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 243
paul (apostle) Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 202
peter Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
peter (figure) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 243
polycarp, testimony to ignatian letters Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 228
polycarp of smyrna ix Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 202
polykarpos of smyrna Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 199
pompeii Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 243
power Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
prophets Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
rabbis Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
roman/byzantine empire Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 202
roman church Stanton, Unity and Disunity in Greek and Christian Thought under the Roman Peace (2021) 196
roman empire Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 243
rome Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
rome (city) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 243
salvation Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
samaria/samaritans Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 391
samaritan Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 243
second clement, and church identity Bird and Harrower, The Cambridge Companion to the Apostolic Fathers (2021) 160
shepherd of hermas, sections Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 508
shepherd of hermas Esler, The Early Christian World (2000) 508
smyrna, montanism at Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 202
spectacle Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 243
tertullian Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 243
theodicy, not a focus of christian narratives Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 411
twelve Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
valentinians Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67
violence Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 243
voluntary martyrdom ix, xxxvi Tabbernee, Fake Prophecy and Polluted Sacraments: Ecclesiastical and Imperial Reactions to Montanism (2007) 202
woman, women Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 243
women' Vinzent, Christ's Resurrection in Early Christianity and the Making of the New Testament (2013) 67