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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



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Clement Of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 2.20
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1. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2. Plato, Philebus, 46 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4. Aristotle, Rhetoric, 2.3, 2.8 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

5. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 3.20, 4.12-4.13, 4.16, 4.18, 4.56 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.20. Etenim si sapiens in aegritudinem aegritudinem -ne G incidere posset, posset semel R 1 posset etiam in misericordiam, posset in invidentiam (non dixi invidiam, quae tum tum (cum G) etiam Bouh., alii aliter, Ciceronem corrigentes est, cum invidetur; ab invidendo autem invidentia recte dici potest, ut effugiamus ut et fug. Non. ambiguum nomen invidiae. posset (posse codd. ) etiam... 12 invidiae Non. 443,15 (10 in invidiam. non dixi in invidentia 11 invidia) quod verbum ductum dictum G 1 K 1 ( cf. Isidor. 10,134 ) est a nimis intuendo fortunam alterius, ut est in Melanippo: quisnam florem Acc. fr. 424 (unde aut quis mortalis fl. Non. 500, 13 num quis non mortalis fl. Ri. num quisnam poetae sit, dubium ) quasnam G 1 liberum invidit meum? male Latine videtur, sed praeclare Accius; ut enim videre, sic invidere florem flore X florē K 2 R c? rectius quam flori . nos consuetudine prohibemur; 4.12. laetitia autem et libido in bonorum opinione versantur, cum libido ad id, quod videtur bonum, inlecta inlecta s iniecta X et sqq. cf. Barlaami eth. sec. Stoicos 2, 11 qui hinc haud pauca adsumpsit. inflammata rapiatur, laetitia ut adepta iam aliquid concupitum ecferatur et gestiat. natura natura s V rec naturae X (-re K) enim omnes ea, Stoic. fr. 3, 438 quae bona videntur, secuntur fugiuntque contraria; quam ob rem simul obiecta species est speciei est H speci est KR ( add. c ) speciest GV cuiuspiam, quod bonum videatur, ad id adipiscendum impellit ipsa natura. id cum constanter prudenterque fit, eius modi adpetitionem Stoici bou/lhsin BO gL AHClN KR bo gL HC in G bo ga HCin V appellant, nos appellemus appellemus We. appellamus X (apell G) cf. v. 26, fin. 3, 20 voluntatem, eam eam iam V illi putant in solo esse sapiente; quam sic definiunt: voluntas est, quae quid cum ratione desiderat. quae autem ratione adversante adversante Po. ( cf. p.368, 6; 326, 3; St. fr. 3, 462 a)peiqw=s tw=| lo/gw| w)qou/menon e)pi\ plei=on adversa X (d del. H 1 ) a ratione aversa Or. incitata est vehementius, ea libido est vel cupiditas effrenata, quae in omnibus stultis invenitur. 4.13. itemque cum ita ita om. H movemur, ut in bono simus aliquo, dupliciter id contingit. nam cum ratione curatione K 1 (ũ 2 ) animus movetur placide atque constanter, tum illud gaudium dicitur; cum autem iiter et effuse animus exultat, tum illa laetitia gestiens vel nimia dici potest, quam ita definiunt: sine ratione animi elationem. quoniamque, quoniam quae X praeter K 1 (quae del. V rec ) ut bona natura adpetimus, app. KR 2? (H 367, 24) sic a malis natura declinamus, quae declinatio si cum del. Bentl. ratione fiet, cautio appelletur, appellatur K 1 V rec s eaque intellegatur in solo esse sapiente; quae autem sine ratione et cum exanimatione humili atque fracta, nominetur metus; est igitur metus a a Gr.(?) s om. X ratione aversa cautio. cautio Cic. dicere debebat: declinatio 4.16. Sed singulis in singulis G ( exp. 2 ) perturbationibus partes eiusdem generis plures subiciuntur, ut aegritudini invidentia— utendum est enim docendi dicendi V 1 causa verbo minus usitato, quoniam invidia non in eo qui invidet solum dicitur, sed etiam in eo cui invidetur ut... 369, 3 invidetur Non. 443, 19 —, aemulatio, obtrectatio, misericordia, angor, luctus, maeror, aerumna, dolor, lamentatio, sollicitudo, molestia, adflictatio, adflectatio K 1 R 1 desperatio, et si quae sunt de genere eodem. sub metum autem subiecta sunt pigritia, pudor, terror, timor, pavor, exanimatio, examinatio GK 1 conturbatio, formido, voluptati voluptatis X -ti s vol uptatis V ( ss. rec ) malivolentia... 9 similia Non. 16, 24 s. l. lactare ( sed in textu laetans) malev. hic 370, 21 et 395, 6 X maliv. hic Non. ( 370, 21 R 2 ) malivolentia laetans laetari H malo alieno, laet. m. al. addit C., ut appareat cur mal. voluptati subiciatur delectatio, iactatio et similia, lubidini libidinis V rec inimicitiae Non. ira, excandescentia, odium, inimicitia, discordia, ludisne ira... inimicitiae discordia Non. 103, 12 indigentia, desiderium et cetera eius modi. Haec St. fr. 3, 415. 410. 403. 398 cf. om- nino fr. 391–416, quae graecas harum definitionum formas exhibent. autem definiunt hoc modo: invidentiam esse dicunt aegritudinem susceptam propter alterius res secundas, quae nihil noceant invidenti. 4.18. misericordia est aegritudo ex miseria alterius iniuria iniuria K laborantis (nemo enim parricidae patricidae G 1 V aut proditoris supplicio subpl. KH misericordia commovetur); angor aegritudo premens, luctus aegritudo ex eius qui carus fuerit interitu acerbo, maeror aegritudo flebilis, aerumna aegritudo laboriosa, dolor aegritudo crucians, lamentatio aegritudo cum eiulatu, sollicitudo aegritudo cum cogitatione, molestia aegritudo permanens, adflictatio adflictio V (G 1 in lemmate mg. ) aegritudo cum vexatione corporis, desperatio aegritudo sine ulla rerum expectatione meliorum. Quae autem subiecta sunt sub metum, ea sic definiunt: pigritiam metum consequentis laboris,. 4.56. At etiam etiam enim Sey. sed cf. p. 383, 14 aemulari utile est, obtrectare, obtrectari X misereri. cur misereare potius quam feras opem, si id facere possis? an sine misericordia liberales esse non possumus? non enim suscipere ipsi aegritudines propter alios debemus, sed alios, si possumus, levare aegritudine. obtrectare vero alteri aut illa vitiosa aemulatione, quae rivalitati similis est, aemulari quid habet utilitatis, cum sit aemulantis angi alieno bono quod ipse non habeat, obtrectantis opt. G autem angi alieno bono, quod id etiam alius habeat? qui qui s quis GKCRV quid K 1 (quis id M) app. V c id adprobari possit, aegritudinem suscipere pro experientia, si quid habere velis? nam nam B s non X solum habere velle summa dementia est. Mediocritates autem malorum quis laudare recte possit?
6. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 4.1058-4.1072, 4.1190-4.1191, 4.1209-4.1287 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.24. but to thosewho are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ is the power of God andthe wisdom of God.
8. Seneca The Younger, On Anger, 1.9.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Clement of Alexandria, Christ The Educator, 1.2.4, 1.6, 1.6.25, 1.12, 2.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 2.18-2.19, 2.21-2.22, 4.4, 4.26, 5.11.67, 6.3, 6.5-6.9, 6.14, 7.10 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

11. Justin, First Apology, 21 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. And when we say also that the Word, who is the first-birth of God, was produced without sexual union, and that He, Jesus Christ, our Teacher, was crucified and died, and rose again, and ascended into heaven, we propound nothing different from what you believe regarding those whom you esteem sons of Jupiter. For you know how many sons your esteemed writers ascribed to Jupiter: Mercury, the interpreting word and teacher of all; Æsculapius, who, though he was a great physician, was struck by a thunderbolt, and so ascended to heaven; and Bacchus too, after he had been torn limb from limb; and Hercules, when he had committed himself to the flames to escape his toils; and the sons of Leda, and Dioscuri; and Perseus, son of Danae; and Bellerophon, who, though sprung from mortals, rose to heaven on the horse Pegasus. For what shall I say of Ariadne, and those who, like her, have been declared to be set among the stars? And what of the emperors who die among yourselves, whom you deem worthy of deification, and in whose behalf you produce some one who swears he has seen the burning C sar rise to heaven from the funeral pyre? And what kind of deeds are recorded of each of these reputed sons of Jupiter, it is needless to tell to those who already know. This only shall be said, that they are written for the advantage and encouragement of youthful scholars; for all reckon it an honourable thing to imitate the gods. But far be such a thought concerning the gods from every well-conditioned soul, as to believe that Jupiter himself, the governor and creator of all things, was both a parricide and the son of a parricide, and that being overcome by the love of base and shameful pleasures, he came in to Ganymede and those many women whom he had violated and that his sons did like actions. But, as we said above, wicked devils perpetrated these things. And we have learned that those only are deified who have lived near to God in holiness and virtue; and we believe that those who live wickedly and do not repent are punished in everlasting fire.
12. Theophilus, To Autolycus, 2.27 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.27. But some one will say to us, Was man made by nature mortal? Certainly not. Was he, then, immortal? Neither do we affirm this. But one will say, Was he, then, nothing? Not even this hits the mark. He was by nature neither mortal nor immortal. For if He had made him immortal from the beginning, He would have made him God. Again, if He had made him mortal, God would seem to be the cause of his death. Neither, then, immortal nor yet mortal did He make him, but, as we have said above, capable of both; so that if he should incline to the things of immortality, keeping the commandment of God, he should receive as reward from Him immortality, and should become God; but if, on the other hand, he should turn to the things of death, disobeying God, he should himself be the cause of death to himself. For God made man free, and with power over himself. That, then, which man brought upon himself through carelessness and disobedience, this God now vouchsafes to him as a gift through His own philanthropy and pity, when men obey Him. For as man, disobeying, drew death upon himself; so, obeying the will of God, he who desires is able to procure for himself life everlasting. For God has given us a law and holy commandments; and every one who keeps these can be saved, and, obtaining the resurrection, can inherit incorruption.
13. Athanasius, Life of Anthony, 55 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

14. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 6.3, 6.11, 7.33, 7.111, 7.116, 7.131 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.3. He was the first to define statement (or assertion) by saying that a statement is that which sets forth what a thing was or is. He used repeatedly to say, I'd rather be mad than feel pleasure, and We ought to make love to such women as will feel a proper gratitude. When a lad from Pontus was about to attend his lectures, and asked him what he required, the answer was, Come with a new book, a new pen, and new tablets, if you have a mind to (implying the need of brains as well). When someone inquired what sort of wife he ought to marry, he said, If she's beautiful, you'll not have her to yourself; if she's ugly, you'll pay for it dearly. Being told that Plato was abusing him, he remarked, It is a royal privilege to do good and be ill spoken of. 6.11. And he held virtue to be sufficient in itself to ensure happiness, since it needed nothing else except the strength of a Socrates. And he maintained that virtue is an affair of deeds and does not need a store of words or learning; that the wise man is self-sufficing, for all the goods of others are his; that ill repute is a good thing and much the same as pain; that the wise man will be guided in his public acts not by the established laws but by the law of virtue; that he will also marry in order to have children from union with the handsomest women; furthermore that he will not disdain to love, for only the wise man knows who are worthy to be loved. 7.33. Again, in the Republic, making an invidious contrast, he declares the good alone to be true citizens or friends or kindred or free men; and accordingly in the view of the Stoics parents and children are enemies, not being wise. Again, it is objected, in the Republic he lays down community of wives, and at line 200 prohibits the building of sanctuaries, law-courts and gymnasia in cities; while as regards a currency he writes that we should not think it need be introduced either for purposes of exchange or for travelling abroad. Further, he bids men and women wear the same dress and keep no part of the body entirely covered. 7.111. They hold the emotions to be judgements, as is stated by Chrysippus in his treatise On the Passions: avarice being a supposition that money is a good, while the case is similar with drunkenness and profligacy and all the other emotions.And grief or pain they hold to be an irrational mental contraction. Its species are pity, envy, jealousy, rivalry, heaviness, annoyance, distress, anguish, distraction. Pity is grief felt at undeserved suffering; envy, grief at others' prosperity; jealousy, grief at the possession by another of that which one desires for oneself; rivalry, pain at the possession by another of what one has oneself. 7.116. Also they say that there are three emotional states which are good, namely, joy, caution, and wishing. Joy, the counterpart of pleasure, is rational elation; caution, the counterpart of fear, rational avoidance; for though the wise man will never feel fear, he will yet use caution. And they make wishing the counterpart of desire (or craving), inasmuch as it is rational appetency. And accordingly, as under the primary passions are classed certain others subordinate to them, so too is it with the primary eupathies or good emotional states. Thus under wishing they bring well-wishing or benevolence, friendliness, respect, affection; under caution, reverence and modesty; under joy, delight, mirth, cheerfulness. 7.131. It is also their doctrine that amongst the wise there should be a community of wives with free choice of partners, as Zeno says in his Republic and Chrysippus in his treatise On Government [and not only they, but also Diogenes the Cynic and Plato]. Under such circumstances we shall feel paternal affection for all the children alike, and there will be an end of the jealousies arising from adultery. The best form of government they hold to be a mixture of democracy, kingship, and aristocracy (or the rule of the best).Such, then, are the statements they make in their ethical doctrines, with much more besides, together with their proper proofs: let this, however, suffice for a statement of them in a summary and elementary form.
15. Nag Hammadi, The Tripartite Tractate, 77.11-77.25 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

16. Origen, On First Principles, 3.1.4 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.1.4. If any one now were to say that those things which happen to us from an external cause, and call forth our movements, are of such a nature that it is impossible to resist them, whether they incite us to good or evil, let the holder of this opinion turn his attention for a little upon himself, and carefully inspect the movements of his own mind, unless he has discovered already, that when an enticement to any desire arises, nothing is accomplished until the assent of the soul is gained, and the authority of the mind has granted indulgence to the wicked suggestion; so that a claim might seem to be made by two parties on certain probable grounds as to a judge residing within the tribunals of our heart, in order that, after the statement of reasons, the decree of execution may proceed from the judgment of reason. For, to take an illustration: if, to a man who has determined to live continently and chastely, and to keep himself free from all pollution with women, a woman should happen to present herself, inciting and alluring him to act contrary to his purpose, that woman is not a complete and absolute cause or necessity of his transgressing, since it is in his power, by remembering his resolution, to bridle the incitements to lust, and by the stern admonitions of virtue to restrain the pleasure of the allurement that solicits him; so that, all feeling of indulgence being driven away, his determination may remain firm and enduring. Finally, if to any men of learning, strengthened by divine training, allurements of that kind present themselves, remembering immediately what they are, and calling to mind what has long been the subject of their meditation and instruction, and fortifying themselves by the support of a holier doctrine, they reject and repel all incitement to pleasure, and drive away opposing lusts by the interposition of the reason implanted within them. 3.1.4. But if any one maintain that this very external cause is of such a nature that it is impossible to resist it when it comes in such a way, let him turn his attention to his own feelings and movements, (and see) whether there is not an approval, and assent, and inclination of the controlling principle towards some object on account of some specious arguments. For, to take an instance, a woman who has appeared before a man that has determined to be chaste, and to refrain from carnal intercourse, and who has incited him to act contrary to his purpose, is not a perfect cause of annulling his determination. For, being altogether pleased with the luxury and allurement of the pleasure, and not wishing to resist it, or to keep his purpose, he commits an act of licentiousness. Another man, again (when the same things have happened to him who has received more instruction, and has disciplined himself ), encounters, indeed, allurements and enticements; but his reason, as being strengthened to a higher point, and carefully trained, and confirmed in its views towards a virtuous course, or being near to confirmation, repels the incitement, and extinguishes the desire.
17. Origen, Fragments On Psalms 1-150, 4, 38 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

18. Papyri, Papyri Graecae Magicae, 4.220 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

19. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 1.32, 2.39.3 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

1.32. 32.But this departure [from sense, imagination, and irrationality,] may be effected by violence, and also by persuasion and by reason, through the wasting away, and, as it may be said, oblivion and death of the passions; which, indeed, is the best kind of departure, since it is accomplished without oppressing that from which we are divulsed. For, in sensibles, a divulsion by force is not effected without either a laceration of a part, or a vestige of avulsion. But this separation is introduced by a continual negligence of the passions. And this negligence is produced by an abstinence from those sensible perceptions which excite the passions, and by a persevering attention to intelligibles. And among these passions or perturbations, those which arise from food are to be enumerated. SPAN
20. Augustine, Against Julian, 4.19, 6.22 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

21. Augustine, Commentary On Genesis, 9.4.8, 9.10.18 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

22. Augustine, Enchiridion, 28.105 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

23. Augustine, The City of God, 2.4-2.5, 2.26, 14.21, 14.23-14.24 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

2.4. First of all, we would ask why their gods took no steps to improve the morals of their worshippers. That the true God should neglect those who did not seek His help, that was but justice; but why did those gods, from whose worship ungrateful men are now complaining that they are prohibited, issue no laws which might have guided their devotees to a virtuous life? Surely it was but just, that such care as men showed to the worship of the gods, the gods on their part should have to the conduct of men. But, it is replied, it is by his own will a man goes astray. Who denies it? But none the less was it incumbent on these gods, who were men's guardians, to publish in plain terms the laws of a good life, and not to conceal them from their worshippers. It was their part to send prophets to reach and convict such as broke these laws, and publicly to proclaim the punishments which await evil-doers, and the rewards which may be looked for by those that do well. Did ever the walls of any of their temples echo to any such warning voice? I myself, when I was a young man, used sometimes to go to the sacrilegious entertainments and spectacles; I saw the priests raving in religious excitement, and heard the choristers; I took pleasure in the shameful games which were celebrated in honor of gods and goddesses, of the virgin Cœlestis, and Berecynthia, the mother of all the gods. And on the holy day consecrated to her purification, there were sung before her couch productions so obscene and filthy for the ear - I do not say of the mother of the gods, but of the mother of any senator or honest man - nay, so impure, that not even the mother of the foul-mouthed players themselves could have formed one of the audience. For natural reverence for parents is a bond which the most abandoned cannot ignore. And, accordingly, the lewd actions and filthy words with which these players honored the mother of the gods, in presence of a vast assemblage and audience of both sexes, they could not for very shame have rehearsed at home in presence of their own mothers. And the crowds that were gathered from all quarters by curiosity, offended modesty must, I should suppose, have scattered in the confusion of shame. If these are sacred rites, what is sacrilege? If this is purification, what is pollution? This festivity was called the Tables, as if a banquet were being given at which unclean devils might find suitable refreshment. For it is not difficult to see what kind of spirits they must be who are delighted with such obscenities, unless, indeed, a man be blinded by these evil spirits passing themselves off under the name of gods, and either disbelieves in their existence, or leads such a life as prompts him rather to propitiate and fear them than the true God. 2.5. In this matter I would prefer to have as my assessors in judgment, not those men who rather take pleasure in these infamous customs than take pains to put an end to them, but that same Scipio Nasica who was chosen by the senate as the citizen most worthy to receive in his hands the image of that demon Cybele, and convey it into the city. He would tell us whether he would be proud to see his own mother so highly esteemed by the state as to have divine honors adjudged to her; as the Greeks and Romans and other nations have decreed divine honors to men who had been of material service to them, and have believed that their mortal benefactors were thus made immortal, and enrolled among the gods. Surely he would desire that his mother should enjoy such felicity were it possible. But if we proceeded to ask him whether, among the honors paid to her, he would wish such shameful rites as these to be celebrated, would he not at once exclaim that he would rather his mother lay stone-dead, than survive as a goddess to lend her ear to these obscenities? Is it possible that he who was of so severe a morality, that he used his influence as a Roman senator to prevent the building of a theatre in that city dedicated to the manly virtues, would wish his mother to be propitiated as a goddess with words which would have brought the blush to her cheek when a Roman matron? Could he possibly believe that the modesty of an estimable woman would be so transformed by her promotion to divinity, that she would suffer herself to be invoked and celebrated in terms so gross and immodest, that if she had heard the like while alive upon earth, and had listened without stopping her ears and hurrying from the spot, her relatives, her husband, and her children would have blushed for her? Therefore, the mother of the gods being such a character as the most profligate man would be ashamed to have for his mother, and meaning to enthral the minds of the Romans, demanded for her service their best citizen, not to ripen him still more in virtue by her helpful counsel, but to entangle him by her deceit, like her of whom it is written, The adulteress will hunt for the precious soul. Proverbs 6:26 Her intent was to puff up this high-souled man by an apparently divine testimony to his excellence, in order that he might rely upon his own eminence in virtue, and make no further efforts after true piety and religion, without which natural genius, however brilliant, vapors into pride and comes to nothing. For what but a guileful purpose could that goddess demand the best man seeing that in her own sacred festivals she requires such obscenities as the best men would be covered with shame to hear at their own tables? 2.26. Seeing that this is so - seeing that the filthy and cruel deeds, the disgraceful and criminal actions of the gods, whether real or feigned, were at their own request published, and were consecrated, and dedicated in their honor as sacred and stated solemnities; seeing they vowed vengeance on those who refused to exhibit them to the eyes of all, that they might be proposed as deeds worthy of imitation, why is it that these same demons, who by taking pleasure in such obscenities, acknowledge themselves to be unclean spirits, and by delighting in their own villanies and iniquities, real or imaginary, and by requesting from the immodest, and extorting from the modest, the celebration of these licentious acts, proclaim themselves instigators to a criminal and lewd life - why, I ask, are they represented as giving some good moral precepts to a few of their own elect, initiated in the secrecy of their shrines? If it be so, this very thing only serves further to demonstrate the malicious craft of these pestilent spirits. For so great is the influence of probity and chastity, that all men, or almost all men, are moved by the praise of these virtues; nor is any man so depraved by vice, but he has some feeling of honor left in him. So that, unless the devil sometimes transformed himself, as Scripture says, into an angel of light, 2 Corinthians 11:14 he could not compass his deceitful purpose. Accordingly, in public, a bold impurity fills the ear of the people with noisy clamor; in private, a feigned chastity speaks in scarce audible whispers to a few: an open stage is provided for shameful things, but on the praiseworthy the curtain falls: grace hides disgrace flaunts: a wicked deed draws an overflowing house, a virtuous speech finds scarce a hearer, as though purity were to be blushed at, impurity boasted of. Where else can such confusion reign, but in devils' temples? Where, but in the haunts of deceit? For the secret precepts are given as a sop to the virtuous, who are few in number; the wicked examples are exhibited to encourage the vicious, who are countless. Where and when those initiated in the mysteries of Cœlestis received any good instructions, we know not. What we do know is, that before her shrine, in which her image is set, and amidst a vast crowd gathering from all quarters, and standing closely packed together, we were intensely interested spectators of the games which were going on, and saw, as we pleased to turn the eye, on this side a grand display of harlots, on the other the virgin goddess; we saw this virgin worshipped with prayer and with obscene rites. There we saw no shame-faced mimes, no actress over-burdened with modesty; all that the obscene rites demanded was fully complied with. We were plainly shown what was pleasing to the virgin deity, and the matron who witnessed the spectacle returned home from the temple a wiser woman. Some, indeed, of the more prudent women turned their faces from the immodest movements of the players, and learned the art of wickedness by a furtive regard. For they were restrained, by the modest demeanor due to men, from looking boldly at the immodest gestures; but much more were they restrained from condemning with chaste heart the sacred rites of her whom they adored. And yet this licentiousness - which, if practised in one's home, could only be done there in secret - was practised as a public lesson in the temple; and if any modesty remained in men, it was occupied in marvelling that wickedness which men could not unrestrainedly commit should be part of the religious teaching of the gods, and that to omit its exhibition should incur the anger of the gods. What spirit can that be, which by a hidden inspiration stirs men's corruption, and goads them to adultery, and feeds on the full-fledged iniquity, unless it be the same that finds pleasure in such religious ceremonies, sets in the temples images of devils, and loves to see in play the images of vices; that whispers in secret some righteous sayings to deceive the few who are good, and scatters in public invitations to profligacy, to gain possession of the millions who are wicked? 14.21. Far be it, then, from us to suppose that our first parents in Paradise felt that lust which caused them afterwards to blush and hide their nakedness, or that by its means they should have fulfilled the benediction of God, Increase and multiply and replenish the earth; Genesis 1:28 for it was after sin that lust began. It was after sin that our nature, having lost the power it had over the whole body, but not having lost all shame, perceived, noticed, blushed at, and covered it. But that blessing upon marriage, which encouraged them to increase and multiply and replenish the earth, though it continued even after they had sinned, was yet given before they sinned, in order that the procreation of children might be recognized as part of the glory of marriage, and not of the punishment of sin. But now, men being ignorant of the blessedness of Paradise, suppose that children could not have been begotten there in any other way than they know them to be begotten now, i.e., by lust, at which even honorable marriage blushes; some not simply rejecting, but sceptically deriding the divine Scriptures, in which we read that our first parents, after they sinned, were ashamed of their nakedness, and covered it; while others, though they accept and honor Scripture, yet conceive that this expression, Increase and multiply, refers not to carnal fecundity, because a similar expression is used of the soul in the words, You will multiply me with strength in my soul; and so, too, in the words which follow in Genesis, And replenish the earth, and subdue it, they understand by the earth the body which the soul fills with its presence, and which it rules over when it is multiplied in strength. And they hold that children could no more then than now be begotten without lust, which, after sin, was kindled, observed, blushed for, and covered; and even that children would not have been born in Paradise, but only outside of it, as in fact it turned out. For it was after they were expelled from it that they came together to beget children, and begot them. 14.23. But he who says that there should have been neither copulation nor generation but for sin, virtually says that man's sin was necessary to complete the number of the saints. For if these two by not sinning should have continued to live alone, because, as is supposed, they could not have begotten children had they not sinned, then certainly sin was necessary in order that there might be not only two but many righteous men. And if this cannot be maintained without absurdity, we must rather believe that the number of the saints fit to complete this most blessed city would have been as great though no one had sinned, as it is now that the grace of God gathers its citizens out of the multitude of sinners, so long as the children of this world generate and are generated. Luke 20:34 And therefore that marriage, worthy of the happiness of Paradise, should have had desirable fruit without the shame of lust, had there been no sin. But how that could be, there is now no example to teach us. Nevertheless, it ought not to seem incredible that one member might serve the will without lust then, since so many serve it now. Do we now move our feet and hands when we will to do the things we would by means of these members? Do we meet with no resistance in them, but perceive that they are ready servants of the will, both in our own case and in that of others, and especially of artisans employed in mechanical operations, by which the weakness and clumsiness of nature become, through industrious exercise, wonderfully dexterous? And shall we not believe that, like as all those members obediently serve the will, so also should the members have discharged the function of generation, though lust, the award of disobedience, had been awanting? Did not Cicero, in discussing the difference of governments in his De Republica, adopt a simile from human nature, and say that we command our bodily members as children, they are so obedient; but that the vicious parts of the soul must be treated as slaves, and be coerced with a more stringent authority? And no doubt, in the order of nature, the soul is more excellent than the body; and yet the soul commands the body more easily than itself. Nevertheless this lust, of which we at present speak, is the more shameful on this account, because the soul is therein neither master of itself, so as not to lust at all, nor of the body, so as to keep the members under the control of the will; for if they were thus ruled, there should be no shame. But now the soul is ashamed that the body, which by nature is inferior and subject to it, should resist its authority. For in the resistance experienced by the soul in the other emotions there is less shame, because the resistance is from itself, and thus, when it is conquered by itself, itself is the conqueror, although the conquest is inordinate and vicious, because accomplished by those parts of the soul which ought to be subject to reason, yet, being accomplished by its own parts and energies, the conquest is, as I say, its own. For when the soul conquers itself to a due subordination, so that its unreasonable motions are controlled by reason, while it again is subject to God, this is a conquest virtuous and praiseworthy. Yet there is less shame when the soul is resisted by its own vicious parts than when its will and order are resisted by the body, which is distinct from and inferior to it, and dependent on it for life itself. But so long as the will retains under its authority the other members, without which the members excited by lust to resist the will cannot accomplish what they seek, chastity is preserved, and the delight of sin foregone. And certainly, had not culpable disobedience been visited with penal disobedience, the marriage of Paradise should have been ignorant of this struggle and rebellion, this quarrel between will and lust, that the will may be satisfied and lust restrained, but those members, like all the rest, should have obeyed the will. The field of generation should have been sown by the organ created for this purpose, as the earth is sown by the hand. And whereas now, as we essay to investigate this subject more exactly, modesty hinders us, and compels us to ask pardon of chaste ears, there would have been no cause to do so, but we could have discoursed freely, and without fear of seeming obscene, upon all those points which occur to one who meditates on the subject. There would not have been even words which could be called obscene, but all that might be said of these members would have been as pure as what is said of the other parts of the body. Whoever, then, comes to the perusal of these pages with unchaste mind, let him blame his disposition, not his nature; let him brand the actings of his own impurity, not the words which necessity forces us to use, and for which every pure and pious reader or hearer will very readily pardon me, while I expose the folly of that scepticism which argues solely on the ground of its own experience, and has no faith in anything beyond. He who is not scandalized at the apostle's censure of the horrible wickedness of the women who changed the natural use into that which is against nature, Romans 1:26 will read all this without being shocked, especially as we are not, like Paul, citing and censuring a damnable uncleanness, but are explaining, so far as we can, human generation, while with Paul we avoid all obscenity of language. 14.24. The man, then, would have sown the seed, and the woman received it, as need required, the generative organs being moved by the will, not excited by lust. For we move at will not only those members which are furnished with joints of solid bone, as the hands, feet, and fingers, but we move also at will those which are composed of slack and soft nerves: we can put them in motion, or stretch them out, or bend and twist them, or contract and stiffen them, as we do with the muscles of the mouth and face. The lungs, which are the very tenderest of the viscera except the brain, and are therefore carefully sheltered in the cavity of the chest, yet for all purposes of inhaling and exhaling the breath, and of uttering and modulating the voice, are obedient to the will when we breathe, exhale, speak, shout, or sing, just as the bellows obey the smith or the organist. I will not press the fact that some animals have a natural power to move a single spot of the skin with which their whole body is covered, if they have felt on it anything they wish to drive off - a power so great, that by this shivering tremor of the skin they can not only shake off flies that have settled on them, but even spears that have fixed in their flesh. Man, it is true, has not this power; but is this any reason for supposing that God could not give it to such creatures as He wished to possess it? And therefore man himself also might very well have enjoyed absolute power over his members had he not forfeited it by his disobedience; for it was not difficult for God to form him so that what is now moved in his body only by lust should have been moved only at will. We know, too, that some men are differently constituted from others, and have some rare and remarkable faculty of doing with their body what other men can by no effort do, and, indeed, scarcely believe when they hear of others doing. There are persons who can move their ears, either one at a time, or both together. There are some who, without moving the head, can bring the hair down upon the forehead, and move the whole scalp backwards and forwards at pleasure. Some, by lightly pressing their stomach, bring up an incredible quantity and variety of things they have swallowed, and produce whatever they please, quite whole, as if out of a bag. Some so accurately mimic the voices of birds and beasts and other men, that, unless they are seen, the difference cannot be told. Some have such command of their bowels, that they can break wind continuously at pleasure, so as to produce the effect of singing. I myself have known a man who was accustomed to sweat whenever he wished. It is well known that some weep when they please, and shed a flood of tears. But far more incredible is that which some of our brethren saw quite recently. There was a presbyter called Restitutus, in the parish of the Calamensian Church, who, as often as he pleased (and he was asked to do this by those who desired to witness so remarkable a phenomenon), on some one imitating the wailings of mourners, became so insensible, and lay in a state so like death, that not only had he no feeling when they pinched and pricked him, but even when fire was applied to him, and he was burned by it, he had no sense of pain except afterwards from the wound. And that his body remained motionless, not by reason of his self-command, but because he was insensible, was proved by the fact that he breathed no more than a dead man; and yet he said that, when any one spoke with more than ordinary distinctness, he heard the voice, but as if it were a long way off. Seeing, then, that even in this mortal and miserable life the body serves some men by many remarkable movements and moods beyond the ordinary course of nature, what reason is there for doubting that, before man was involved by his sin in this weak and corruptible condition, his members might have served his will for the propagation of offspring without lust? Man has been given over to himself because he abandoned God, while he sought to be self-satisfying; and disobeying God, he could not obey even himself. Hence it is that he is involved in the obvious misery of being unable to live as he wishes. For if he lived as he wished, he would think himself blessed; but he could not be so if he lived wickedly.
24. Evagrius Ponticus, Praktikos, 38, 81, 84, 35 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

25. Augustine, Letters, None (7th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aeons Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 96
alexander as name of honour Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 152
alimentary Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 76
alimony Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 110
allegorical interpretation, stoic allegoresis of theological myths Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
allegorical interpretation Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of scripture Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
angels Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 79
anger Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 192
antisthenes, socratic, against pleasure Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
antisthenes, socratic, marriage is for procreation, love is destructive except to the wise, sex should be with those who are grateful for it Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
antony, st, hermit, demons stir upemotions Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 348
aokhlēsia, freedom from disturbance Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
apatheia, freedom from, eradication of, emotion (; accepted (but note different senses) by speusippus Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
apatheia, freedom from, eradication of, emotion (; apatheia already rejected by aristotle in opposition to speusippus Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
apatheia, freedom from, eradication of, emotion (; but only in special senses in zeno, panaetius, posidonius Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
apatheia, freedom from, eradication of, emotion (; did christ exhibit apatheia? Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 348
apatheia, freedom from, eradication of, emotion (; does punishment require anger? Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 192
apatheia, freedom from, eradication of, emotion (; does sex require pleasure? Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 407
apatheia, freedom from, eradication of, emotion (; for christians, esp. pity and love Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 389
apatheia, freedom from, eradication of, emotion (; for philo, repentance and pity Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 389
apatheia, freedom from, eradication of, emotion (; mercy substituted for pity Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 192
apatheia, freedom from, eradication of, emotion (; reasons for and against apatheia Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 192
apatheia, freedom from, eradication of, emotion (; stoics Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
apatheia Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
apostle/apostles, paul the apostle Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
apostle/apostles Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
aristippus, cyrenaic, only present pleasure to be sought Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 298
aristo of ceos, aristotelian, therapy for opposites Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 298
aristo of ceos, aristotelian, therapy for pride Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 298
aristotle, catharsis Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 298
aristotle, mean a substantive doctrine Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 298
aristotle, metriopatheia in opposition to speusippus Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
aristotle, schadenfreude Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
aristotle, therapy by opposites, pleasure excludes anger, fear excludes pity Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 298
ascesis, ascetism Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
asceticism Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 209
assimilation to god/affinity with god/, exhomoiōsis Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
attention, prosokhē, prosekhein, attention to own thoughts and actions in stoic self-interrogation Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 389
augustine, anti-pelagianism Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 407
augustine, approves appetite for legitimate offspring Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 407
augustine, bad thoughts and suggestions Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 348
augustine, before the fall, no conflict of lust with will, first view, adam and eve had only spiritual bodies Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 407
augustine, lust Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 407
augustine, obscenity in pagan ritual Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 287
augustine, second view, bodies usable for sex without lust or pleasure but unused Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 407
augustine, similarly before fall Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 407
augustine, third view, if there was lust and pleasure, it did not oppose will Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 407
aune, david e. Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 152
babylonian talmud, anonymous layer of, terminology Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 110
balaam Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 152
baptism Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 79; Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
blood Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 76
body Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 209
bonhöffer, adolf Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 389
burnet, john Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
cassian, john, founder of monastery at monte cassino, bad thoughts Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 348
catharsis, iamblichus, alternative to aversion therapy Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 287
catharsis, olympiodorus' 5 types of catharsis, giving a taste reassigned to pythagoreans, opposites to hippocrates, aristotle, stoics, similars to socrates, instruction, criticism" Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 298
catharsis Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 298
cerinthus Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 209
charles, r. h. Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 152
christ, did christ have emotions? Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 348
christ Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
christians, christianity Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
circumcision Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 209
clement of alexandria, church father, but is oikeiōsis sterktikē Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 389
clement of alexandria, church father, demons play a role in producing emotion Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 348
clement of alexandria, church father, hope and love for god compatible with apatheia Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 389
clement of alexandria, church father, pleasure merely auxiliary to sex and to natural needs, not necessary Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 407
clement of alexandria, church father, this love makes apatheia possible Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 389
clement of alexandria Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 79
climacus, christian ascetic, first movements as bad thoughts Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 348
climacus, christian ascetic, love for god bestows or is apatheia Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 389
cognitive theory Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 96
community, borders of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 76
conquering Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 152
continence (enkrateia) Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 209
creation, creator Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
crucified, gods/divine logos Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
deification Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 79; Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
demons, source of bad thoughts and emotions Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 348
demons and food Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 76
demons in second- and third-century texts Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 76
desire, distinguished p leasure and love, desire involves a lack Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 389
desires, attitude towards Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
diadochus, bishopof photice, bad thoughts Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 348
diadochus, bishopof photice, love for god makes apatheia possible Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 389
dietary laws in the second-and third-century texts Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 76
drama Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 287, 298
education, agonistic model Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
emotions passions Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 96
epicurus, chose to simulate anger Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 192
epimenides Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
eschatology Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
eupatheiai, equanimous states, aspasmos, agapēsis are eupatheiai in stoics Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 389
evagrius, desert father, apatheia produces, and is produced by, love (agapē) Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 389
exegesis, allegorical Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
exegesis Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
family, divinity as father Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
father, the Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 96
fear Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 76
first movements, bad thoughts, antony Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 348
first movements, because distinct from assent and judgement Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 348
first movements, first movements as bad thoughts Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 348
first movements, origen Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 348
food, impurity of and demonology Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 76
food, impurity of in second- and third-century sources Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 76
food, impurity of offered to idols Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 76
gauthier, r.-a Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
gaze Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 110
gender Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 209
gnostic, gnosticism Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 209
gnostic, gnostics Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
gnōsis Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
grant, a. Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
greek (language), philosophy/philosophers Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
greeks Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
hedonism Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 298
hippocrates Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 298
immortality Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 79
impulses, attitude towards Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
incarnation/incarnate Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
indifferents, preferred and dispreferred Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 389
individual, options Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
individual, religious actions Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
irrationality Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 76
jealousy (phthonos), bad Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
jerome, st, church father, connects pre-passion with bad thoughts Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 348
jesus Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 79
justin martyr Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 79
knowledge, of god Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
logos Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
love, against erotic love, antisthenes, democritus, epicurus, lucretius, aristippus, cynics, epictetus Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
love, love, sex, marriage, and procreation, independent of each other Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
love, love for god compatible with apatheia in clement and many christians, with various causal relations between the two Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 389
love, parental love Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 389
love Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275, 287
lucretius, epicurean, erotic love discouraged Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
lucretius, epicurean, marriage is only for procreation Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
lust, lust and pleasure not necessary for sex in clement of alexandria and augustine Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 407
lust, relation to will Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 407
lust Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275, 287
masturbation Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 110
material humans/powers Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 96
men Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 110
metriopatheia, moderate, moderation of, emotion; but not for schadenfreude Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
metriopatheia, moderate, moderation of, emotion; does punishment require anger? Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 192
metriopatheia, moderate, moderation of, emotion; does sex require pleasure? Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 192, 407
metriopatheia, moderate, moderation of, emotion; iamblichus, phallic festivals may produce metriopatheia by catharsis Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 287
metriopatheia, moderate, moderation of, emotion; implies not medium quantity, but appropriate emotion Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
metriopatheia, moderate, moderation of, emotion; lactantius Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
metriopatheia, moderate, moderation of, emotion; not all emotions acceptable Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
metriopatheia, moderate, moderation of, emotion; utility of emotion Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 192
musonius some level of equality required, marriage only for procreation, antisthenes, lucretius Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
mystery/mysteries, of scripture Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
natorp, p. Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
nature, metaphysics Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
nature Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
nicolaitans, the Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 152
nicolaus Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 152
obscenity in ritual Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 287
oikeiōsis, unity of mankind, oikeiōsis borrowed by clement of alexandria to describe love for god Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 389
olympiodorus, neoplatonist, classification of therapies—5 types of catharsis, giving a taste, opposites, similars, also instruction, criticism Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 298
ontology Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
origen, church father, connects first movements with bad thoughts, thus blurring distinction from emotion Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 348
pantaenus/pantainos Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
paradise Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
passion/passions Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
passions, attitude towards Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
passions emotions Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 96
paul, the apostle/st. paul, apostle divine apostle) Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
philo, adaptation of plato Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 168
philo, clement of alexandria, basil Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 389
philo Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 79; Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
philo of alexandria, jewish philosopher, pity valued and compatible with apatheia Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 389
philodemus, epicurean, anger can be simulated Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 192
philodemus, epicurean, pride Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 298
philosophy/philosophers, greek Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
philosophy/philosophers Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
philosophy Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
pindar Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
pity, distinguished mercy, which accepted Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 192
pity, in catharsis Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 389
pity, pity rejected by stoics as pathos Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 389
plato, discusses opponents of pleasure Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
plato, learning how to handle lust and fear rather than avoiding them Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 287
plato Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
platonic tradition Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 76
platonism/platonic philosophy, christian platonism Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
platonism/platonic philosophy Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
pleasure, clement and augustine, does sex require pleasure? Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 407
pleasure, opponents of pleasure Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
pleasure, schadenfreude Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
pleroma Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 96
plested, marcus Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 348
pneumatic humans/powers Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 96
pohlenz, max Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
porphyry, neoplatonist, avoiding temptation rather than learning how to handle it Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 287
porphyry, neoplatonist, demons stir upemotions Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 348
pride, aristo of ceos on pride Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 298
procreation, relation to marriage, sole purpose, required, not required Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
procreation Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
prophets Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
ps.-makarios (makarios, desert father, mentor of evagrius) , bad thoughts Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 348
ps.-makarios (makarios, desert father, mentor of evagrius) , love for god makes apatheia possible Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 389
public and private Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 209
punishment, capital Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 110
punishment, corrective purpose in stoics Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 192
punishment, not served by ordinary anger Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 192
pythagoras, presocratic, therapy by giving a taste Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 298
pythagoras Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
pythagoreans Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 298
pythagoreans (giving a taste); socrates (similars) Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 298
rais ¨ anen, h. Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 152
reason, faculty, rationality/irrationality Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
reason, faculty Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
rome, cultural tradition Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
rufinus, christian, translator into latin Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 348
sacrifice to idols/pagan gods' Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 76
salvation Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
schesis, hidden/spiritual meaning of Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
schofield, malcolm Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
self-care Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
self-image, gods image/humans Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
self-perfection Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
seneca, the younger, stoic, apatheia, mercy substituted for pity Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 192
sex, best avoided Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 287
sex, not depend on lust and pleasure? Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 407
sex, random sex advocated Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
sex, sex debunked Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 275
signs (sēmeia) Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
simulation of anger Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 192
sin Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
sobriquet Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 152
socrates Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 79
son jesus, christ, and savior Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 96
soul Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
speusippus, platonist, against pleasure Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
speusippus, platonist, aokhlēsia Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
speusippus, platonist, virtue as apatheia Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
stocker, michael Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 192
stoicism, stoic views Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
stoicism/stoics viif Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
stoicism Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 96
stoics, see under individual stoics, esp. chrysippus, whose views came to be seen already in antiquity as stoic orthodoxy, so that, conversely, views seen as orthodox tended to be ascribed to him, therapy by opposites Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 298
teachers, rival Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 152
telos Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
temptation Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 407
theology Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
theophilus of antioch Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 79
trinity, trinitarian Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
truth Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
utility of emotion Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 192
virtue, aristotle, virtue aims at the mean, a substantive doctrine Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
virtue, speusippus, virtue is apatheia Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
virtue Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
visions Rüpke and Woolf, Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE (2013) 78
ware, kallistos Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 389
widow Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 110
wisdom) Černušková, Kovacs and Plátová, Clement’s Biblical Exegesis: Proceedings of the Second Colloquium on Clement of Alexandria (2016) 97
women Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 209; Rosen-Zvi, Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity (2011). 110
zeller, e. Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 195
zeno of citium, stoic, hence different conception of freedom from emotion(apatheia) Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 192, 195, 275, 287, 298, 348, 389, 407