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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



2385
Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 3.12-3.21
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31 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 68.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

68.21. הָאֵל לָנוּ אֵל לְמוֹשָׁעוֹת וְלֵיהוִה אֲדֹנָי לַמָּוֶת תּוֹצָאוֹת׃ 68.21. God is unto us a God of deliverances; And unto GOD the Lord belong the issues of death."
3. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4. Cicero, Academica, 2.135 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 3.75 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.75. quam gravis vero, quam magnifica, quam constans conficitur persona sapientis! qui, cum ratio docuerit, quod honestum esset, id esse solum bonum, semper sit necesse est beatus vereque omnia ista nomina possideat, quae irrideri ab inperitis solent. rectius enim appellabitur rex quam Tarquinius, qui nec se nec suos regere potuit, rectius magister populi—is enim est dictator dictator est BE —quam Sulla, qui trium pestiferorum vitiorum, luxuriae, avaritiae, crudelitatis, magister fuit, rectius dives quam Crassus, qui nisi eguisset, numquam Euphraten nulla belli causa transire voluisset. recte eius omnia dicentur, qui scit uti solus omnibus, recte etiam pulcher appellabitur— animi enim liniamenta sunt pulchriora quam corporis quam corporis NV quam corporibus ABE corporibus ( om. quam) R —, recte solus liber nec dominationi cuiusquam parens nec oboediens cupiditati, recte invictus, cuius etiamsi corpus constringatur, animo tamen vincula inici nulla possint, nec expectet ullum tempus aetatis, uti tum uti tum Se. ut tum (ut in ras., sequente ras. 2 vel 3 litt. ) N virtutum ABE ututū R ubi tum V denique iudicetur beatusne fuerit, cum extremum vitae diem morte confecerit, quod ille unus e septem sapientibus non sapienter Croesum monuit; 3.75.  "Then, how dignified, how lofty, how consistent is the character of the Wise Man as they depict it! Since reason has proved that moral worth is the sole good, it follows that he must always be happy, and that all those titles which the ignorant are so fond of deriding do in very truth belong to him. For he will have a better claim to the title of King than Tarquin, who could not rule either himself or his subjects; a better right to the name of 'Master of the People' (for that is what a dictator is) than Sulla, who was a master of three pestilential vices, licentiousness, avarice and cruelty; a better right to be called rich than Crassus, who had he lacked nothing could never have been induced to cross the Euphrates with no pretext for war. Rightly will he be said to own all things, who alone knows how to use all things; rightly also will he be styled beautiful, for the features of the soul are fairer than those of the body; rightly the one and only free man, as subject to no man's authority, and slave of no appetite; rightly unconquerable, for though his body be thrown into fetters, no bondage can enchain his soul.
6. Cicero, On Duties, 3.75 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.75. Falso; nam eadem utilitatis, quae honestatis, est regula. Qui hoc non perviderit, ab hoc nulla fraus aberit, nullum facinus. Sic enim cogitans: Est istuc quidem honestum, verum hoc expedit, res a natura copulatas audebit errore divellere, qui fons est fraudium, maleficiorum, scelerum omnium. Itaque, si vir bonus habeat hanc vim, ut, si digitis concrepuerit, possit in locupletium testamenta nomen eius inrepere, hac vi non utatur, ne si exploratum quidem habeat id omnino neminem umquam suspicaturum. At dares hanc vim M. Crasso, ut digitorum percussione heres posset scriptus esse, qui re vera non esset heres, in foro, mihi crede, saltaret. Homo autem iustus isque, quem sentimus virum bonum, nihil cuiquam, quod in se transferat, detrahet. Hoc qui admiratur, is se, quid sit vir bonus, nescire fateatur. 3.75.  The appearance is deceptive; for our standard is the same for expediency and for moral rectitude. And the man who does not accept the truth of this will be capable of any sort of dishonesty, any sort of crime. For if he reasons, "That is, to be sure, the right course, but this course brings advantage," he will not hesitate in his mistaken judgment to divorce two conceptions that Nature has made one; and that spirit opens the door to all sorts of dishonesty, wrong-doing, and crime. Suppose, then, that a good man had such power that at a snap of his fingers his name could steal into rich men's wills, he would not avail himself of that power — no, not even though he could be perfectly sure that no one would ever suspect it. Suppose, on the other hand, that one were to offer a Marcus Crassus the power, by the mere snapping, of his fingers, to get himself named as heir, when he was not really an heir, he would, I warrant you, dance in the forum. But the righteous man, the one whom we feel to be a good man, would never rob anyone of anything to enrich himself. If anybody is astonished at this doctrine, let him confess that he does not know what a good man is.
7. Cicero, Letters, 12.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8. Cicero, Letters, 12.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

9. Cicero, Letters, 12.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

10. Cicero, Letters, 12.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 3.1-3.8, 3.10-3.11, 3.13-3.21, 3.58, 3.76, 3.82-3.84, 4.38-4.47, 4.63 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.1. Quidnam esse, Brute, Quidnam-Brute om. RK cf. praef. cur om. K causae putem, cur, cum constemus ex animo et corpore, corporis curandi tuendique causa quaesita sit ars atque eius ars eius atque X (areius atque K 1, cf. praef. ) corr. Man. utilitas deorum inmortalium de eorum inm. R 1 V 1 inventioni consecrata, animi autem medicina nec tam desiderata desidera GRV ( add. V 1? ) sit, ante quam inventa, nec tam culta, posteaquam cognita est, nec tam multis grata et probata, pluribus etiam suspecta et invisa? an quod corporis gravitatem et dolorem animo iudicamus, animi morbum corpore non sentimus? ita fit ut animus de se ipse tum tum ex cum corr. K 2 iudicet, cum id ipsum, quo iudicatur, aegrotet. 3.2. Quodsi talis nos natura genuisset, ut eam ipsam intueri et perspicere eademque optima duce cursum vitae conficere possemus, haut haut V 2 aut GK 1 RV 1 haud K 2 B s erat sane quod quisquam rationem ac doctrinam rationem ac doctrinam s ratione ac doctrina X rationedẽ V 2 hac pro ac G 1 et Gr.?) requireret. requiret G 1 nunc parvulos nobis dedit igniculos, quos celeriter malis moribus opinionibusque depravati depravati V 1? e corr. B s depravatis X sic restinguimus, ut nusquam naturae lumen appareat. sunt enim ingeniis nostris semina semita G innata virtutum, quae si adolescere adholescere G 1 adol. sed o in r. V 1 liceret, licet in liceret corr. R c licetret G 1 ipsa nos ad beatam vitam natura perduceret. nunc autem, simul atque editi in lucem et suscepti sumus, in omni continuo pravitate et in summa opinionum perversitate versamur, ut paene cum lacte nutricis errorem suxisse videamur. cum vero parentibus redditi, dein reddit idem G reddit idemr R ( et r = require al.m. ) redditidē V 1 (redditi dein V 2 sec. Str. ) redditi idem HK ( demŭ ss. 2 ) redditi demum Gr.(?)B magistris traditi sumus, tum tum ... 9 cedat Non. 416, 32 ita variis imbuimur inb. KR erroribus, ut vanitati veritas et opinioni opinio G 1 confirmatae confirmatae s Non. confirmata X natura naturae K ipsa cedat. 3.3. accedunt etiam poëtae, qui cum magnam speciem doctrinae sapientiaeque prae se tulerunt, audiuntur leguntur ediscuntur et inhaerescunt penitus in mentibus. cum vero eodem quasi maxumus quidam quidem K 1 R 1 H magister populus accessit accessit V c ( cf. rep. 4,9 ) om. X (accedit ante eodem add. multi s ) atque omnis undique ad vitia consentiens multitudo, tum plane inficimur opinionum pravitate a naturaque desciscimus, dessciscimus KR 1 ut nobis optime naturae vim vidisse naturae vim vidisse Mdv. ad fin. 3,62 naturam invidisse videantur, qui nihil melius homini, nihil magis expetendum, nihil praestantius honoribus, imperiis, populari gloria iudicaverunt. ad ad at K quam fertur optumus quisque veramque illam honestatem expetens, expe tens V quam unam natura maxime anquirit, unam s una anquirit Mos. inquirit in summa iitate versatur consectaturque nullam eminentem effigiem virtutis, virtutis del. Bentl. gloriae ( ex gloria V 2 ) del. Bai. sed adumbratam imaginem gloriae. est enim gloria solida quaedam res et expressa, non adumbrata; ea est consentiens laus bonorum, incorrupta et ante incorrupta add. V c vox bene iudicantium de excellenti excellenti ex -te V 1 excellente rell. ( ft. recte cf. de orat. 2, 85 fr. ap. Char. GL. I p. 138, 13 ) virtute, ea virtuti resonat tamquam imago; gloriae post imago add. X exp. V 1 quae quia recte factorum plerumque comes est, non est non est ea H est in r. V c bonis viris repudianda. repudienda in -anda corr. K 1 V 1 3.4. illa autem, quae se eius imitatricem esse volt, uult R e corr. H temeraria atque inconsiderata et plerumque peccatorum vitiorumque laudatrix, fama popularis, simulatione honestatis formam forme G 1 eius pulchritudinemque corrumpit. qua caecitate homines, cum quaedam etiam praeclara cuperent eaque que om. H nescirent nec ubi nec qualia essent, funditus alii everterunt everterent X corr. K 2 R c V 1? suas civitates, alii ipsi occiderunt. atque hi quidem optuma petentes non tam voluntate quam cursus errore falluntur. quid? qui quid qui K c R 2 V 1? e corr. quid- que GR 1 V 1 quiqui K 1 pecuniae cupiditate, qui voluptatum libidine feruntur, quid...12 feruntur om. H quorumque ita perturbantur animi, ut non multum absint ab insania, quod insipientibus contingit contigit G 1 omnibus, quod 14 omnibus del. Ba. is is H his rell. nullane ne om. G 1 est adhibenda curatio? utrum quod minus noceant animi aegrotationes quam corporis, an quod corpora curari possint, animorum medicina nulla sit? 3.5. at et morbi morbi ex moribus K 1 perniciosiores pluresque sunt animi quam corporis; an ... 18 corporis add. G 2 in mg. hi enim ipsi hi...19 ipsi hoc. . ipso Ba. male: 'ipsi corporis morbi animi morbos efficere possunt eorumque numerum augent' (plures!) cf. p. 405,14 odiosi sunt, quod ad animum pertinent pertine t V eumque sollicitant, solicitant G 1 R 1 V 1 animusque aeger, ut ait Ennius, Enn. sc. 392 semper errat neque pati pati poti Ribb. sed cf. Va. neque perpeti potest, cupere numquam desinit. quibus duobus morbis, ut omittam alios, aegritudine et cupiditate, cupidldatẽ R 1 qui tandem possunt in corpore esse graviores? qui vero probari potest ut sibi mederi animus non possit, cum ipsam medicinam corporis animus invenerit, cumque ad corporum sanationem multum ipsa corpora et natura valeat nec omnes, omnis X corr. V 2 sint Tregd. sunt qui curari se passi sint, continuo etiam convalescant, convalescunt G animi autem, qui se sanari voluerint praeceptisque sapientium paruerint, sine ulla dubitatione sanentur? 3.6. est profecto animi medicina, philosophia; Cur igitur cum constemus ... 319,4 philosophia H cuius auxilium non ut in corporis morbis petendum est foris, omnibusque opibus viribus, et ante viribus add. V c s viribus om. Gr. ut nosmet ipsi nobis mederi possimus, elaborandum est. Quamquam de universa philosophia, quanto opere et expetenda esset et colenda, satis, ut arbitror, dictum est in Hortensio. ortensio G de maxumis autem rebus nihil fere intermisimus postea nec disputare nec scribere. his autem libris exposita sunt ea quae eaque G 1 a a om. K 1 nobis cum familiaribus nostris in Tusculano erant disputata. sed quo niam duobus superioribus de morte et de dolore dictum est, tertius dies disputationis hoc tertium volumen efficiet. 3.7. ut enim in Academiam nostram descendimus inclinato iam in postmeridianum tempus die, poposci eorum aliquem, qui aderant, aliquid quid adherant G 1 causam disserendi. tum res acta sic est: Videtur mihi cadere in sapientem aegritudo. Num reliquae quoque perturbationes animi, formidines libidines libidines add. G 2 iracundiae? haec enim fere sunt eius modi, eiusmodi V ( ss. c ) quae Graeci pa/qh pathe X appellant; ego poteram morbos, et id verbum esset e verbo, sed in consuetudinem nostram non caderet. nam misereri, invidere, gestire, laetari, haec omnia morbos Graeci appellant, motus animi rationi non obtemperantis, nos autem hos eosdem motus concitati animi recte, ut opinor, perturbationes dixerimus, morbos autem non satis usitate, relique ... 29 usitate ( libere ) H uisit. G 1 ( sic etiam 322, 10; 325,16 ) nisi quid aliud tibi videtur. Mihi vero isto modo. 3.8. Haecine haeccine R 2 igitur cadere in sapientem putas? Prorsus existimo. Ne ista gloriosa sapientia non magno aestimanda est, siquidem non multum differt ab insania. Quid? tibi quid tibi in r. V 2 tibine G ( exp. 2 ) omnisne animi commotio videtur insania? Non mihi quidem soli, sed, id quod admirari amirari G 1 (āmirari 2 ) R 1 V saepe soleo, maioribus quoque nostris hoc ita visum intellego multis saeculis ante Socratem, socrantĕ G 1 (n del. 2 ) socraten KR a quo haec omnis, quae est de vita et de moribus, philosophia manavit. Quonam quoniam G (i del. 1? ) tandem modo? Quia nomen insaniae significat mentis aegrotationem et morbum, id est insanitatem et aegrotum animum, quam appellarunt insaniam. id est . . 14 insaniam ( quae C. addidit quia eius aequalibus nomen insaniae non insanum animi habitum sed furorem significabat) del. Bentl. 3.10. nec minus illud acute, quod animi adfectionem lumine mentis carentem nominaverunt amentiam eandemque dementiam. omnis... 25 dementiam H ex quo intellegendum est eos qui haec rebus nomina posuerunt sensisse senisse GR 1 V 1 hoc idem, quod a Socrate acceptum diligenter Stoici retinuerunt, omnis insipientes esse non sanos. qui est quis X (qus G 1 ) sed s in R fort. postea additum enim animus in aliquo morbo—morbos autem hos perturbatos motus, morbos ... 4 motus ( sine hos) ut modo dixi, philosophi appellant—, non magis est sanus quam id corpus quod corpus quod punctis not. G 2 in morbo est. ita fit ut sapientia sanitas sit animi, insipientia autem quasi insanitas quaedam, quae est insania eademque dementia; insipientia... 7 dementia ( sine quaedam) Non. 122,24 multoque melius haec notata sunt verbis Latinis quam Graecis. 3.11. quod aliis quoque multis locis reperietur; reperitur G 1 sed id alias, nunc, quod instat. totum igitur id alt. id om. H s quod quaerimus quid et quale sit, sit fit V verbi vis ipsa declarat. eos enim sanos quoniam intellegi necesse est, quorum mens motu quasi morbo perturbata nullo nulla X corr. V 1? sit, qui quia K 1 contra adfecti affecti GR 2 insani G 1 sint, hos insanos appellari necesse est. itaque nihil melius, quam quod est in consuetudine sermonis Latini, cum exisse ex potestate dicimus eos, qui ecfrenati hecfrenati G (h del. 2 ) hęc fr. V effr. R rec V rec feruntur aut libidine aut iracundia— quamquam ipsa iracundia libidinis est pars; sic enim definitur: iracundia ulciscendi libido ulciscendi libido cf. Aug. civ. 14,15 quis V 1 —; qui igitur exisse ex potestate dicimus ... 20 ex potestate om. H dicuntur, idcirco dicuntur, quia non sint in potestate mentis, cui regnum totius animi a natura tributum est. Graeci autem mani/an manian X (man in r. V 1 ) appellant X unde appellent, non facile dixerim; eam tamen ipsam ipsa KGH (ipsāR, sed vix m. 1 ) distinguimus nos melius quam illi. hanc enim insaniam, quae iuncta stultitiae stultitiae K 2 V c BGr.(?) stultitia X patet latius, nos post latius add. V c a furore disiungimus. distinguimus R Graeci volunt illi quidem, sed parum valent verbo: quem nos furorem, melagxoli/an melancholian GV -iam KRH illi vocant; quasi vero atra bili atribili V 1 K (-bi li) atra- bili GR solum mens ac non non add. R c saepe vel iracundia graviore vel timore vel timore add. G 2 vel dolore moveatur; totum . . 322, 3 moveatur H quo genere Athamantem Alcmaeonem alomeonem K 1 alc meonem V (on in r. V c ) Aiacem Orestem furere dicimus. qui ita sit adfectus, eum dominum esse rerum suarum vetant duodecim duodecem R 1 V tab. 5, 7. Ciceronis locus obversatur Horatio s. 2, 3, 217 tabulae; itaque non est scriptum si insanus, sed si furiosus insanus et fur. Non. escit Bouhier esse incipit W esset Non. escit . stultitiam stultiam V ( ss rec ) stultia K (- 2 ) stultitia GR 1 (-ă 2 ) H enim censuerunt constantia, inconstantiam KR ( etiam m a m. 1 ut. v. ) V 1 ( sed in et m exp. 1 ) H inconstantia G insaniam enim censuerunt constantiam, id est sanitatem, tamen posse tueri Non. id est sanitate, vacantem posse tamen tueri mediocritatem officiorum et vitae communem cultum atque usitatum; furorem autem autem om. Non. esse rati sunt mentis ad omnia caecitatem. quod cum maius magis R 1 esse videatur quam insania, tamen eius modi est, ut furor in sapientem cadere possit, non possit insania. itaque stultitia censuerunt ... 13 insania itaque ... 13 cadere possit, insania non Non. 443, 2 sed haec alia quaestio est; nos ad propositum revertamur. 3.13. sed videamus ne haec oratio sit hominum adsentantium nostrae inbecillitati et indulgentium mollitudini; nos autem audeamus non solum ramos amputare miseriarum, sed omnis radicum fibras fybras X evellere. tamen aliquid relinquetur fortasse; ita sunt altae alta GKV ( corr. 2? ) H stirpes stultitiae; sed relinquetur id solum quod erit necessarium. Illud quidem sic habeto, nisi sanatus animus sit, quod sine philosophia fieri non potest, finem miseriarum nullum fore. sed... 15 fore quam ob rem, quoniam coepimus, tradamus nos ei curandos: sanabimur, si volemus. et progrediar quidem longius: non enim de aegritudine solum, quamquam id quidem quidem in mg. add. R c primum, sed de omni animi, ut ego posui, perturbatione, morbo, ut Graeci volunt, explicabo. et primo, si placet, Stoicorum more agamus, qui breviter astringere solent argumenta; deinde nostro instituto vagabimur. 3.14. Qui fortis est, idem est fidens (quoniam confidens sqq. St. fr. 3, 570 mala consuetudine loquendi loquendum Non. L 1 in vitio ponitur, ductum verbum a a add. V 2 confidendo, quod laudis in ante laudis add. V 2 est). qui autem est fidens, is profecto non extimescit; discrepat enim a timendo qui... 4 a timendo fidens (fidere Quich. ) Non. 443, 9 confidere. confidens Non. atqui, atqui R 2 ( cf. We. ) atque in quem cadit aegritudo, in eundem timor; quarum enim rerum praesentia sumus in aegritudine, easdem inpendentes et venientes inpendentis..venientis e corr. V aut 2 timemus. ita fit ut fortitudini aegritudo repugnet. ita. ... repugnet del. Hei. veri simile est igitur, in quem cadat cadit G aegritudo, cadere in eundem eundem eum Non. timorem et infractionem infractionem V ( exp. rec ) quidem quidem quandam ut v. in mg. R rec animi in quem... 10 animi Non. 122,28 et demissionem. demisionem GKR 1 dimis ionem V 1 quae in quem cadunt, in eundem cadit, ut serviat, ut victum, si quando, si quando aliquando (ali in r. 2 ) V se esse fateatur. quae qui recipit, recipiat idem necesse est timiditatem et ignaviam. non cadunt autem haec in virum fortem: igitur ne aegritudo quidem. at nemo sapiens nisi fortis: non cadet cadit V 2 H cadat K ergo in sapientem aegritudo. 3.15. Praeterea necesse est, qui fortis sit, eundem esse magni animi; qui magni animi BK 2 om. X qui autem magni animi V c ( ft. rec- tius cf. 326,11 Str. Phil. 49 p. 60 ) qui magni animi sit, invictum; qui invictus sit, eum eum om. H res humanas despicere atque infra se positas arbitrari. despicere autem nemo potest eas res, eas res nemo potest H propter quas aegritudine adfici potest; post potest add. nisi fortis V c ex quo efficitur fortem virum aegritudine numquam adfici. omnes autem sapientes fortes: non cadit igitur in sapientem aegritudo. Et quem ad modum oculus conturbatus turbatus H non est probe adfectus ad suum munus fungendum, fugendum K 1 V 1 et reliquae partes totumve corpus statu cum est motum, deest officio suo et muneri, sic conturbatus siconturbatus G 1 K 1 adxequendum V 1 animus non est aptus ad exequendum ad ex seq. G munus suum. munus autem animi est ratione bene uti; et sapientis animus ita semper adfectus est, ut ratione optime utatur; numquam igitur est perturbatus. at ad G 1 (14 G 1 K 1 ) aegritudo perturbatio est animi: semper igitur ea sapiens vacabit. primo iam si 325, 6 vacabit H 3.16. Veri etiam simile illud illi G 1 est, qui sit temperans— quem Graeci sw/frona appellant eamque virtutem swfrosu/nhn vocant, quam soleo equidem tum temperantiam, tum moderationem appellare, non numquam etiam modestiam; sed haud -d haut in r. K 1 scio an recte ea virtus frugalitas appellari possit, quod angustius apud Graecos valet, qui frugi homines xrhsi/mous appellant, id est tantum modo utilis; at illud est latius; omnis enim abstinentia, omnis innocentia (quae apud Graecos usitatum nomen nullum habet, sed habere potest potest om. H a)bla/beian ; a B La BEl in r. V 1 AB D AB e lAN fere K 1 RG 2 ( in litt. evan. aut eras. ) abdabeian H a B La BEl a N V 1 nam est innocentia adfectio affectio KRH talis animi sed praeter a N in r. quae noceat nemini)—reliquas etiam etiam om. H virtutes frugalitas continet. omnis abst.... 19 continet quae nisi tanta esset, et si is angustiis, quibus plerique putant, teneretur, numquam esset L. Pisonis cognomen tanto opere laudatum. 3.17. sed quia, nec qui propter metum praesidium reliquit, relinquit (-id G 1 ) X corr. V 1 aut 2 quod est ignaviae, nec qui propter avaritiam clam depositum depositi G non reddidit, quod est iniustitiae, nec qui propter temeritatem male rem gessit, quod est stultitiae, frugi appellari solet, eo tris virtutes, fortitudinem iustitiam prudentiam, frugalitas complexa est (etsi hoc quidem commune est virtutum; omnes omnis X enim inter se nexae et iugatae sunt hoc quidem est commu- ne ... 326, 1 sunt ( sine nexae et) Non. 47, 7 ): reliqua igitur et quarta virtus sit sit ut sit X sed ut exp. V 2 reliqua igitur est, quarta v. ut sit, ipsa fr. Mdv. ipsa frugalitas. eius enim videtur esse proprium motus animi adpetentis regere et sedare semperque semper quae X corr. R c adversantem aversantem X corr. VCR 2 libidini moderatam in omni re servare constantiam. cui contrarium vitium nequitia dicitur. 3.18. frugalitas, ut opinor, a fruge, qua nihil melius e est e We. terra, nequitia ab eo (etsi erit hoc fortasse durius, sed temptemus: lusisse lu sisse V (l m. 2? ) iusisse R 1 iussisse GKR 2 H putemur, putatos V (ato in r. 2 ut v.; voluitne putato ?) nil GR c ( totum verbum del. R 2 ) si nihil sit) ab eo, quod nequicquam est in tali homine, ex quo idem nihili St. fr. 3, 570 nihili V 2 nihil dic. G ( 2 litt. erasae ) nihil KRV 1 dicitur.—qui sit frugi igitur vel, si mavis, moderatus et temperans, eum necesse est esse esse add. G 2 constantem; qui autem constans, quietum; qui quietus, perturbatione omni vacuum, ergo etiam aegritudine. et sunt illa sapientis: sed ... 326, 13 sapientis H aberit igitur a sapiente aegritudo. Itaque non inscite Heracleotes Dionysius St. fr. 1, 434 dyonisius KR dioni ius V ad ea disputat, quae apud Homerum Achilles queritur hoc, ut opinor, modo: Corque meum penitus turgescit tristibus iris, I 646 Cum decore atque omni me orbatum laude recordor. num manus adfecta recte est, cum in tumore est, aut num aliud quodpiam aliud quodpiam Turn. ex s aliquod ( ex aliquid K 1 ) quippiam X alia quippiam H membrum tumidum ac turgidum non vitiose se habet? 3.19. sic igitur inflatus et tumens animus in vitio est. sapientis autem animus semper vacat vitio, numquam turgescit, numquam tumet; at irati irati V e corr. iratus X cf. 23 sapientis animus eius modi est: numquam igitur sapiens irascitur. nam si irascitur, etiam concupiscit; proprium est enim irati cupere, a quo laesus videatur, ei quam maxumum dolorem inurere. qui autem id concupierit, eum necesse est, si id si id sit G 1 consecutus sit, magno opere magnopere K H (magno opere R) laetari. ex quo fit, ut alieno malo gaudeat; quod quoniam non cadit in sapientem, ne ut irascatur quidem cadit. sapientis... 24 timet ( pro tumet) 21 num ... 23 est 24 at... 327, 6 cadit ( hoc ordine ) H sin sin, non si ( ut dicit Ha. ) R autem caderet in sapientem aegritudo, caderet etiam iracundia; qua quoniam vacat, aegritudine etiam vacabit. 3.20. Etenim si sapiens in aegritudinem aegritudinem -ne G incidere posset, posset semel R 1 posset etiam in misericordiam, posset in invidentiam (non dixi invidiam, quae tum tum (cum G) etiam Bouh., alii aliter, Ciceronem corrigentes est, cum invidetur; ab invidendo autem invidentia recte dici potest, ut effugiamus ut et fug. Non. ambiguum nomen invidiae. posset (posse codd. ) etiam... 12 invidiae Non. 443,15 (10 in invidiam. non dixi in invidentia 11 invidia) quod verbum ductum dictum G 1 K 1 ( cf. Isidor. 10,134 ) est a nimis intuendo fortunam alterius, ut est in Melanippo: quisnam florem Acc. fr. 424 (unde aut quis mortalis fl. Non. 500, 13 num quis non mortalis fl. Ri. num quisnam poetae sit, dubium ) quasnam G 1 liberum invidit meum? male Latine videtur, sed praeclare Accius; ut enim videre, sic invidere florem flore X florē K 2 R c? rectius quam flori . nos consuetudine prohibemur; 3.21. poëta ius suum tenuit et dixit audacius)—cadit igitur in eundem et misereri et invidere. non cadit ... 19 invidere nam qui dolet rebus alicuius adversis, idem alicuius etiam secundis dolet, olet V add. 1 aut 2 solet GK 1 ( corr. 2 ) R 1 ( dolet m. ant. ) ut Theophrastus interitum deplorans Callisthenis sodalis sui, rebus Alexandri prosperis angitur, itaque dicit Callisthenem incidisse in hominem summa potentia summaque fortuna, sed ignarum quem ad modum rebus secundis uti conveniret. atqui, quem ad modum misericordia aegritudo est ex alterius rebus adversis, sic invidentia aegritudo est ex alterius rebus secundis. in quem igitur cadit misereri, in eundem etiam invidere; atqui . . 328, 3 invidere non non nunc K 1 cadit autem invidere in sapientem: ergo ne misereri quidem. quodsi aegre ferre aegre ferre s V rec haec referre X sapiens soleret, misereri etiam soleret. abest ergo a a add. V c sapiente aegritudo. 3.58. similiter commemorandis exemplis orbitates quoque liberum liberorum V c praedicantur, eorumque, eorum quoque K 1 qui gravius ferunt, luctus aliorum exemplis leniuntur. sic perpessio ceterorum facit, ut ea quae acciderint multo minora maiora ex minora V c quam quanta sint existimata, videantur. ita fit, sensim cogitantibus ut, quantum sit ementita opinio, appareat. atque hoc idem et Telamo ille declarat: ego cum genui et Theseus: futuras mecum commentabar miserias tum morituros scivi et ei rei sustuli add. R 2, moriturum scivi V 3 et Anaxagoras: sciebam me genuisse mortalem. cf. p. 332, 9 sqq. hi enim omnes diu cogitantes de rebus humanis intellegebant eas nequaquam pro opinione volgi esse extimescendas. extimescendas KR 1 existimescendas R c G existimiscendas G 1 e corr. V et mihi quidem videtur idem fere accidere is qui ante meditantur, quod is quibus medetur dies, nisi quod ratio ratio V ratione GKR ( unde in hoc quae- dam 2? ) quaedam sanat illos, hos ipsa natura intellecto eo quod rem continet, illud illud continet X trp. B malum, quod opinatum sit esse maxumum, nequaquam esse tantum, ut vitam beatam possit evertere. 3.76. sunt qui unum officium consolantis cons olantis R 1 consulantis GK 1 V 1 putent putent docere Lb. Cleanthes fr. 576 malum illud omnino non esse, ut Cleanthi placet; sunt qui non magnum malum, ut Peripatetici; sunt qui abducant a malis ad bona, ut Epicurus; sunt qui satis satis om. G 1 putent ostendere nihil inopinati inopiti GRV 1 (n exp. c ) opiti K accidisse, ut Cyrenaici lac. stat. Po. ut Cyrenaici pro nihil mali (nihil a mali V 1 ) Dav. cogitari potest: ut Cyr. atque hi quoque, si verum quaeris, efficere student ut non multum adesse videatur aut nihil mall. Chr. cf. § 52–59. 61 extr. Chrys. fr. eth. 486 nihil mali. Chrysippus autem caput esse censet in consolando detrahere detra in r. V c illam opinionem maerentis, qua se maerentis se X (mer. KR) qd add. V 2 maerentis si vel maerentl si s ( sed sec. Chr. omnes qui maerent in illa opinione sunt; non recte p. 275, 19 confert Va. Op. 1, 70 ) qua Po. officio fungi putet iusto atque debito. sunt etiam qui haec omnia genera consolandi colligant abducunt... 21 putant... 356, 2 colligunt X 356, 2 colligant V 2 abducant et putent Ern. ( obloq. Küh. Sey. cf. tamen nat. deor. 2, 82 al. ). inconcinnitatem modorum def. Gaffiot cf. ad p. 226, 23 —alius enim alio modo movetur—, ut fere nos in Consolatione omnia omnia bis scripsit, prius erasit G omnia exp. et in mg. scr. fecimus. omne genus consolandi V c in consolationem unam coniecimus; erat enim in tumore animus, et omnis in eo temptabatur curatio. sed sumendum tempus est non minus in animorum morbis quam in corporum; ut Prometheus ille Aeschyli, cui cum dictum esset: Atqui/, Prometheu, te ho/c tenere exi/stimo, Mede/ri posse ra/tionem ratione ratione G 1 RV 1 ( alterum exp. G 2 V 1 ratione rationem K 1 (ratione del. K 2 ) orationem Stephanus ( ft. recte cf. lo/goi ) iracu/ndiae, v. 377 respondit: Siquide/m qui qui et ss. V c tempesti/vam medicinam a/dmovens Non a/dgravescens adgr. ss. V c vo/lnus inlida/t manu. manus X s exp. V 3.82. et tamen, ut medici uti medici K ( er. n) toto corpore curando minimae etiam parti, si condoluit, medentur, sic philosophia cum universam aegritudinem sustulit, sustulit aegritudinem sustulit tamen si X (sustullit G 1 V 1 condoluit tamen si K 1 medenturaegr. sustulit add. c ) corr. Keil, Quaest. Tull. p. XVIII etiam, si quis error alicunde alicunde Ern. aliunde extitit, si paupertas momordit, si ignominia pupugit, pupigit G 1 R 1 V 1 si quid tenebrarum obfudit exilium, exsilium GV 1 aut eorum quae quaeque (quaeque G) modo X corr. s modo dixi si quid si quid sicut K extitit. etsi singularum rerum sunt propriae consolationes, de quibus audies tu quidem, cum voles. sed ad eundem fontem revertendum est, aegritudinem omnem procul abesse a sapiente, quod iis sit, quod frustra suscipiatur, quod non natura exoriatur, sed iudicio, sed opinione, sed quadam invitatione ad dolendum, cum id decreverimus ita fieri oportere. 3.83. Hoc detracto, quod totum est voluntarium, aegritudo erit sublata illa ilia ita G 1 maerens, morsus tamen tamen tantum Bentl. sed cf. p. 323, 11 quo Cic. hic respicit et contractiuncula quaedam contractiuncuculae quaedam (quadam G quandam V 1 ) relinquentur W Non. (relincuntur) corr. Bentl. cf. 9 hanc et Sen. ad Marc. 7, 1 animi relinquetur. hoc... 9 relinquentur Non. 92, 24 hanc dicant sane naturalem, dum aegritudinis nomen absit grave taetrum funestum, quod cum sapientia esse atque, ut ita dicam, habitare nullo modo possit. At quae at quae Bentl. atque stirpes sunt aegritudinis, quam multae, quam amarae! quae ipso ipso om. V trunco everso omnes eligendae elidendae R 2 sunt et, si necesse erit, singulis disputationibus. superest enim nobis hoc, cuicuimodi cuicuimodi cuiusmodi V 3 est, otium. sed ratio una omnium est aegritudinum, plura sed plura H nomina. nam et invidere aegritudinis est et aemulari et obtrectare et misereri et angi, lugere, maerere, aerumna adfici, lamentari, sollicitari, sollicitari add. G 2 dolere, dolore V in molestia esse, adflictari, desperare. 3.84. Haec omnia definiunt Stoici, eaque verba quae dixi singularum rerum St. fr. 3, 419 sunt, non, ut videntur, easdem res significant, sed aliquid differunt; quod alio loco alio loco cf. IV, 16 fortasse tractabimus. haec hae V 2 sunt illae fibrae stirpium, quas initio dixi, persequendae et omnes eligendae, et 25 eligendae X ( cf. Colum. 4, 5 Varro rust. 1, 47 ) eliciendae V c ne umquam ulla possit existere. magnum opus et difficile, quis negat? quid autem praeclarum non idem arduum? sed tamen id se effecturam philosophia profitetur, nos modo curationem eius recipiamus. denique ratio una ... 360, 3 recipiamus H Verum haec quidem verum quidem haec W corr. We. actenus K 1 R 1 hactenus, cetera, quotienscumque voletis, et hoc loco et aliis parata vobis erunt. 4.38. atque idem eidem GRV 1 ita acrem in omnis partis aciem intendit, ut semper videat sedem sibi ac locum sine molestia atque angore vivendi, ut, quemcumque casum fortuna invexerit, hunc apte et quiete ferat. quod qui faciet, non aegritudine solum vacabit, sed etiam perturbationibus reliquis omnibus. his autem vacuus animus perfecte atque absolute obsolute K 1 R beatos adhibeant V (-ant in r. c ) efficit, idemque concitatus et abstractus ab integra certaque ratione non constantiam solum amittit, verum etiam sanitatem. Quocirca mollis et enervata putanda est Peripateticorum ratio et oratio, qui perturbari animos necesse dicunt esse, sed adhibent modum quendam, quem ultra progredi non oporteat. 4.39. modum tu adhibes vitio? an vitium nullum est non parere rationi? an ratio parum praecipit nec bonum illud esse, quod aut cupias ardenter aut aut B s V 3 ut X adeptus ecferas te insolenter, nec porro malum, quo aut oppressus iaceas aut, iaceas aut aut in r. V 1 ne opprimare, mente vix constes? eaque omnia aut nimis tristia tristitia V 1 aut nimis laeta errore fieri, qui si si del. Mue. ad Seyfferti Lael. p. 253. an si = sc. error secl.? error stultis extenuetur die, ut, cum res eadem maneat, aliter ferant maneat ... ferant s maneant... ferat X (eaedem maneant M s ) cf. p. 345, 2 inveterata aliter recentia, sapientis ne attingat quidem omnino? 4.40. Etenim quis erit tandem modus iste? quaeramus enim modum aegritudinis, in qua quo VB opere X operae plurimum ponitur. aegre tulisse P. Rupilium P. Rupilium Man. ex Fastis Cap. cf. Lael. 73 fratris repulsam prutilium X (p exp. in RV, primum u in r. in V) consulatus scriptum apud Fannium est. sed fr. 6 ( p. 88 P. ) tamen transisse videtur modum, quippe qui ob eam causam a vita recesserit; moderatius moderatus G 1 V 1 igitur ferre debuit. quid, si, cum id ferret modice, mors liberorum accessisset? nata esset aegritudo nova, sed ea modica. dist. Se. magna tamen facta esset accessio. quid, si deinde dolores graves corporis, si bonorum amissio, si caecitas, si exilium? si pro singulis malis aegritudines accederent, summa ea fieret, quae non sustineretur. sustineretur eretur in r. V c 4.41. Qui modum igitur vitio quaerit, similiter facit, ut si posse putet eum qui se e Leucata praecipitaverit sustinere se, cum velit. ut enim id non potest, sic animus perturbatus et incitatus nec cohibere neccoloco K se potest nec, quo loco n eqoloco G 1 necquiloco R 1 ( corr. 2 ) vult, insistere. omninoque, quae crescentia omnino quaeque cr. X (quaequae K) pernitiosa GRV perniciosa sunt, eadem sunt vitiosa nascentia; 4.42. aegritudo autem ceteraeque perturbationes amplificatae certe pestiferae sunt: igitur pestiferunt ig. K 1 etiam susceptae continuo in magna pestis parte versantur. etenim ipsae ipse GV se impellunt, ubi semel a ratione discessum est, ipsaque sibi imbecillitas inb. G indulget in altumque provehitur imprudens nec reperit repperit X locum consistendi. quam ob rem nihil interest, utrum moderatas perturbationes adprobent an moderatam iniustitiam, moderatam ignaviam, moderatam intemperantiam; qui enim vitiis modum apponit, is partem suscipit vitiorum; quod cum ipsum per se odiosum est, tum eo molestius, quia sunt in lubrico incitataque semel proclivi labuntur sustinerique sustineri quae X (qu e V) nullo modo possunt. Quid, quod idem Peripatetici perturbationes istas, quas nos nos V c s non X extirpandas putamus, non modo naturalis esse dicunt, sed etiam utiliter a natura datas? 4.43. quorum est talis oratio: primum multis verbis iracundiam laudant, cotem fortitudinis esse dicunt, multoque et imit. Lact. inst. 6, 14 in hostem et in inprobum et in probum V (im ss. 2 ) et inprobum GK (imp.) R (imp.) civem vehementioris vehementiores V (e ex i 2 ) iratorum impetus esse, levis autem ratiunculas eorum, qui ita cogitarent: proelium rectum est hoc fieri, convenit dimicare demicare K 1 pro legibus, pro libertate, pro patria; haec nullam habent habent Peripateticorum argumentatio- nem recta oratione C. referre pergit ut mox v. 13 vim, nisi ira excanduit fortitudo. noctu eqs. ( cf. p. 447, 26 fin. 3, 62. 64 al. ) nec vero de bellatoribus solum disputant: imperia severiora nulla esse putant sine aliqua acerbitate iracundiae; oratorem denique non modo accusantem, sed ne defendentem quidem probant sine aculeis iracundiae, quae etiamsi non adsit, tamen verbis atque motu simulandam arbitrantur, ut auditoris iram oratoris incendat actio. virum denique videri negant qui irasci nesciet, nesciet W (nesciat edd. plur. ) o(/stis ou)de/pote o0rgisqh/setai, tou=ton ou)d ' a)/ndra dokei=n ei/(nai/ fasin Cf. o( sofo\s o)rgisqh/setai, amaturum esse p. 398, 5 vincetur 427, 28 al. Hor. ars 35 eamque, quam lenitatem nos dicimus, vitioso lentitudinis vitiosolitudinis K nomine nomine in mg. G 1 appellant. eamque ... 13 appellant Non. 134, 4 4.44. Nec vero nevero G 1 solum hanc libidinem laudant—est enim ira, ut modo modo cf. p. 371, 7 321, 18 Lact. ira 17, 20 definivi, ulciscendi libido—, sed ipsum illud genus vel alt. vel om. KR libidinis vel cupiditatis ad summam utilitatem esse dicunt a natura datum; nihil enim quemquam nisi quod lubeat praeclare facere posse. noctu sqq. Val. Max. 8, 14 ext. 1 ambulabat in publico Themistocles, quod somnum capere non posset, posset: indicatur non externa ambulandi causa, sed ratio qua adductus adulescens inquietus consilium ambulandi ceperit (cum pro quod Sey. ) quaerentibusque respondebat Miltiadis militiadis ( alt. i del. V 3 ) trophaeis GR( corr. R 1 )V militia adstropheis K (tropea miliciadis Val. Max. ) tropaeis se e somno suscitari. suscitare X corr. V rec s cui non sunt auditae Demosthenis demostenis X dolore GR 1 V 1 vigiliae? qui dolere se aiebat, agebat K si quando opificum antelucana victus esset industria. philosophiae denique ipsius principes numquam in suis studiis tantos progressus sine flagranti cupiditate facere potuissent. ultimas terras lustrasse Pythagoran Democritum Platonem accepimus. ubi enim quicquid quiquid G 1 esset esse G 1 K quod disci dici GR 1 V 1 ( corr. R 1 V 1 ) posset, eo veniendum iudicaverunt. num num nam R 1 putamus haec fieri sine summo cupiditatis ardore potuisse? 4.45. Ipsam aegritudinem, quam nos ut taetram et inmanem beluam fugiendam fugienda X (-ā V c ) diximus, diximus p. 330, 10 non sine magna utilitate a natura dicunt constitutam, ut homines homines s omnes X castigationes V 1 castigationibus reprehensionibus ignominiis adfici se adfici se adficisse X ( corr. V 3 ) in delicto dolerent. impunitas enim peccatorum data videtur eis qui ignominiam et infamiam ferunt sine dolore; morderi est melius conscientia. ex quo est illud e vita ductum evicta d. V Afr. fr.409 ab Afranio: nam cum dissolutus filius: heu me miserum! eume K tum severus pater: dum modo doleat aliquid, doleat quidlubet. 4.46. Reliquas quoque partis aegritudinis utilis esse dicunt, misericordiam ad opem ferendam et calamitates calamitates post indignorum rep. X del. V 3 hominum indignorum sublevandas; ipsum illud aemulari obtrectare non esse inutile, cum aut se non idem videat consecutum, quod alium, aut alium idem, quod se; metum vero si qui quis GV rec sustulisset, omnem vitae diligentiam sublatam fore, quae summa esset in eis esse K qui leges, qui magistratus, qui leges qui magistratus in r. V c qui paupertatem, qui ignominiam, qui mortem, qui dolorem timerent. tenerent K Haec tamen ita disputant, ut resecanda esse fateantur, evelli penitus dicant nec posse nec opus esse et in omnibus fere rebus mediocritatem esse optumam existiment. existimant s quae cum exponunt, nihilne tibi videntur an aliquid dicere? Mihi vero dicere aliquid, itaque expecto, quid ad ista. ista ( eras. m) K Reperiam fortasse, sed illud ante: 4.47. videsne, quanta fuerit apud Academicos verecundia? plane enim dicunt, quod ad rem pertineat: Peripateticis Peripateticis haec igitur continent quae Academici ( qui verecunde nihil ipsi adfirmant ) dicunt Ciceroque ipse ut Aca- demicus amplectitur ( cf. p. 364, 4 ) respondetur a Stoicis; digladientur illi per me licet, cui nihil est necesse nisi, ubi sit illud, quod veri simillimum videatur, anquirere. quid est igitur quod occurrat in hac quaestione, e quo e quo B 2 s aequa X (e qua V rec ) possit attingi aliquid veri simile, quo longius mens humana progredi non potest? definitio perturbationis, qua quae KV 1 Zeno fr. 205 recte Zenonem usum puto. ita enim definit, ut perturbatio sit aversa a a GrB s om. X ratione contra naturam animi commotio, vel brevius, ut perturbatio sit adpetitus vehementior, vehementior vehementior semel in X autem intellegatur is qui procul absit a naturae constantia. 4.63. itaque non sine causa, cum Orestem fabulam doceret doceret s Prisc. diceret X Euripides, non ... 16 Euripides Prisc. GL. 2, 246, 2 primos tris versus revocasse dicitur Socrates: Neque ta/m terribilis u/lla fando ora/tio oratio s ( e0/pos ) ratio X Prisc. est, Nec fo/rs fors X (sor G 1 fors G 2 ) Prisc. ( audacter dictum pro eo quod fors fert, ut saepe fortuna; sed vix spernendum cf. Forsdeus Att. 4, 10 forte-divinitus Liv. 1, 4, Ov. trist. 5, 3, 13, Vell. 2, 66 al. ) sors vulgo ( pa/qos Eur. ) nec ira cae/litum invectu/m invectum edd. inventum X invictum Prisc. malum, Quod no/n non add. G 2 natura huma/na patiendo e/cferat. neque ... 20 ferat Prisc. GL.3, 426, 7 est autem utilis ad persuadendum ea quae acciderint ferri et posse et oportere oportere V eorum bis V 1 enumeratio eorum qui tulerunt. tullerunt GR ( corr. c ) V ( corr. 3 ) etsi aegritudinis sedatio et hesterna disputatione explicata est et in Consolationis libro, quem in medio—non enim sapientes eramus—maerore et dolore conscripsimus; quodque vetat vertat V 1 St. fr. 3, 484 Chrysippus, ad recentis quasi tumores animi remedium adhibere, id nos fecimus naturaeque vim cum in vim corr. V 3 attulimus, attullimus X (adt. V) ut magnitudini medicinae doloris magnitudo concederet. ut cum magnitudine ... 3 concederet Non. 270, 11
12. Polybius, Histories, 10.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.5. 1.  and Scipio waiting until he received the white toga appeared in the forum while his mother was still asleep.,2.  The people, owing to the unexpectedness of the sight and owing to his previous popularity, received him with enthusiastic surprise, and afterwards when he went on to the station appointed for candidates and stood by his brother they not only conferred the office on Publius but on his brother too for his sake, and both appeared at their house elected aediles.,4.  When the news suddenly reached his mother's ears, she met them overjoyed at the door and embraced the young men with deep emotion, so that from this circumstance all who had heard of the dreams believed that Publius communed with the gods not only in his sleep, but still more in reality and by day.,6.  Now it was not a matter of a dream at all, but as he was kind and munificent and agreeable in his address he reckoned on his popularity with the people,,7.  and so by cleverly adapting his action to the actual sentiment of the people and of his mother he not only attained his object but was believed to have acted under a sort of divine inspiration.,8.  For those who are incapable of taking an accurate view of operations, causes, and dispositions, either from lack of natural ability or from inexperience and indolence, attribute to the gods and to fortune the causes of what is accomplished by shrewdness and with calculation and foresight.,9.  I have made these observations for the sake of my readers, that they may not by falsely accepting the generally received opinion of Scipio neglect to notice his finest qualities and those most worthy of respect, I mean his cleverness and laboriousness.,10.  This will be still more evident from my account of his actual exploits.
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Joseph, 30-31, 29 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

29. for this world is a sort of large state, and has one constitution, and one law, and the word of nature enjoins what one ought to do, and forbids what one ought not to do: but the cities themselves in their several situations are unlimited in number, and enjoy different constitutions, and laws which are not all the same; for there are different customs and established regulations found out and established in different nations;
14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 33, 3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3. And his exordium, as I have already said, is most admirable; embracing the creation of the world, under the idea that the law corresponds to the world and the world to the law, and that a man who is obedient to the law, being, by so doing, a citizen of the world, arranges his actions with reference to the intention of nature, in harmony with which the whole universal world is regulated.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.48 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.48. for he was not like any ordinary compiler of history, studying to leave behind him records of ancient transactions as memorials to future ages for the mere sake of affording pleasure without any advantage; but he traced back the most ancient events from the beginning of the world, commencing with the creation of the universe, in order to make known two most necessary principles. First, that the same being was the father and creator of the world, and likewise the lawgiver of truth; secondly, that the man who adhered to these laws, and clung closely to a connection with and obedience to nature, would live in a manner corresponding to the arrangement of the universe with a perfect harmony and union, between his words and his actions and between his actions and his words.
16. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 4.73 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 32 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

32. Now I think that it has already been sufficiently shown, that the field to which Cain invites Abel to come, is a symbol of strife and contention. And we must now proceed to raise the question what the matters are concerning which, when they have arrived in the plain, they are about to institute an investigation. It is surely plain that they are opposite and rival opinions: for Abel, who refers everything to God, is the God-loving opinion; and Cain, who refers everything to himself (for his name, being interpreted, means acquisition), is the self-loving opinion. And men are selfloving when, having stripped and gone into the arena with those who honour virtue, they never cease struggling against them with every kind of weapon, till they compel them to succumb, or else utterly destroy them;
18. Vergil, Aeneis, 6.719-6.721 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6.719. Hence groans are heard, fierce cracks of lash and scourge 6.720. Loud-clanking iron links and trailing chains. 6.721. Aeneas motionless with horror stood
19. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.29.36-1.29.37, 1.29.41-1.29.49, 2.1.38-2.1.39 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 2.14, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. Now thenatural man doesn't receive the things of God's Spirit, for they arefoolishness to him, and he can't know them, because they arespiritually discerned. 3.1. Brothers, I couldn't speak to you as to spiritual, but as tofleshly, as to babies in Christ.
21. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 7.8-7.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22. New Testament, Romans, 1.31, 9.1-9.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.31. without understanding, covet-breakers, without natural affection, unforgiving, unmerciful; 9.1. I tell the truth in Christ. I am not lying, my conscience testifying with me in the Holy Spirit 9.2. that I have great sorrow and unceasing pain in my heart.
23. Plutarch, Letter of Condolence To Apollonius, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

102d. But to be carried beyond all bounds and to help in exaggerating our griefs Isay is contrary to nature, and results from our depraved ideas. Therefore this also must be dismissed as injurious and depraved and most unbecoming to right-minded men, but a moderate indulgence is not to be disapproved. "Pray that we be not ill," says Crantor of the Academy, "but if we be ill, pray that sensation be left us, whether one of our members be cut off or torn out." For this insensibility to pain is attained by man only at a great price; for in the former case, we may suppose, it is the body which has been brutalized into such insensibility
24. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 85.3, 120.10-120.11, 120.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Apuleius, On Plato, 2.20.247 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Galen, On The Doctrines of Hippocrates And Plato, 4.2.15-4.2.17 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

27. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

27b. בכליכה והיו עניים מתביישין התקינו שיהו הכל מוציאין בכליכה מפני כבודן של עניים,בראשונה היו מניחין את המוגמר תחת חולי מעים מתים והיו חולי מעים חיים מתביישין התקינו שיהו מניחין תחת הכל מפני כבודן של חולי מעים חיים,בראשונה היו מטבילין את הכלים על גבי נדות מתות והיו נדות חיות מתביישות התקינו שיהו מטבילין על גבי כל הנשים מפני כבודן של נדות חיות בראשונה מטבילין על גבי זבין מתים והיו זבין חיים מתביישין התקינו שיהו מטבילין על גב הכל מפני כבודן של זבין חיים,בראשונה היתה הוצאת המת קשה לקרוביו יותר ממיתתו עד שהיו קרוביו מניחין אותו ובורחין עד שבא רבן גמליאל ונהג קלות ראש בעצמו ויצא בכלי פשתן ונהגו העם אחריו לצאת בכלי פשתן אמר רב פפא והאידנא נהוג עלמא אפילו בצרדא בר זוזא:,אין מניחין את המטה ברחוב: אמר רב פפא אין מועד בפני תלמיד חכם וכל שכן חנוכה ופורים,והני מילי בפניו אבל שלא בפניו לא איני והא רב כהנא ספדיה לרב זביד מנהרדעא בפום נהרא אמר רב פפי יום שמועה הוה וכבפניו דמי,אמר עולא הספד על לב דכתיב (ישעיהו לב, יב) על שדים סופדים טיפוח ביד קילוס ברגל,תנו רבנן המקלס לא יקלס בסנדל אלא במנעל מפני הסכנה,אמר רבי יוחנן אבל כיון שניענע ראשו שוב אין מנחמין רשאין לישב אצלו,ואמר רבי יוחנן הכל חייבין לעמוד מפני נשיא חוץ מאבל וחולה ואמר ר' יוחנן לכל אומרים להם שבו חוץ מאבל וחולה,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אבל יום ראשון אסור לאכול לחם משלו מדאמר ליה רחמנא ליחזקאל (יחזקאל כד, יז) ולחם אנשים לא תאכל רבה ורב יוסף מחלפי סעודתייהו להדדי,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב מת בעיר כל בני העיר אסורין בעשיית מלאכה,רב המנונא איקלע לדרומתא שמע קול שיפורא דשכבא חזא הנך אינשי דקא עבדי עבידתא אמר להו ליהוו הנך אינשי בשמתא לא שכבא איכא במתא אמרו ליה חבורתא איכא במתא אמר להו אי הכי שריא לכו,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל המתקשה על מתו יותר מדאי על מת אחר הוא בוכה ההיא איתתא דהות בשיבבותיה דרב הונא הוו לה שבעה בני מת חד מינייהו הוות קא בכיא ביתירתא עליה שלח לה רב הונא לא תעבדי הכי לא אשגחה ביה שלח לה אי צייתת מוטב ואי לא צבית זוודתא לאידך מית ומיתו כולהו לסוף אמר לה תימוש זוודתא לנפשיך ומיתא,(ירמיהו כב, י) אל תבכו למת ואל תנודו לו אל תבכו למת יותר מדאי ואל תנודו לו יותר מכשיעור הא כיצד שלשה ימים לבכי ושבעה להספד ושלשים לגיהוץ ולתספורת מכאן ואילך אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא אי אתם רחמנים בו יותר ממני,(ירמיהו כב, י) בכו בכו להולך אמר רב יהודה להולך בלא בנים רבי יהושע בן לוי לא אזל לבי אבלא אלא למאן דאזיל בלא בני דכתיב בכו בכו להולך כי לא ישוב עוד וראה את ארץ מולדתו רב הונא אמר זה שעבר עבירה ושנה בה,רב הונא לטעמיה דאמר רב הונא כיון שעבר אדם עבירה ושנה בה הותרה לו הותרה לו סלקא דעתך אלא אימא נעשית לו כהיתר,אמר רבי לוי אבל שלשה ימים הראשונים יראה את עצמו כאילו חרב מונחת לו בין שתי (יריכותיו) משלשה עד שבעה כאילו מונחת לו כנגדו בקרן זוית מכאן ואילך כאילו עוברת כנגדו בשוק:,ולא של נשים לעולם מפני הכבוד: אמרי נהרדעי לא שנו 27b. bon a plain biermade from poles that were strapped together, band the poor were embarrassed.The Sages binstituted that everyone should be taken outfor burial bon a plain bier, due to the honor of the poor. /b,Similarly, bat first they would place incense underthe beds of bthose who died with an intestinal disease,because the body emitted an especially unpleasant odor. bAnd those who were alive with an intestinal disease were embarrassedwhen they understood that they, too, would be treated in this manner after their death, and that everyone would know the cause of their death. The Sages binstituted that incense should be placed under everyone, due to the honor of those with an intestinal disease who werestill bliving. /b,Moreover, bat first they wouldritually bimmerseall bthe utensilsthat had been used bbywomen who bdiedwhile bmenstruating,which had thereby contracted ritual impurity. bAnddue to this, bthe living menstruating women were embarrassed.The Sages binstituted thatthe utensils that had been used bby alldying bwomen must be immersed, due to the honor of living menstruating women.And, bat first they wouldritually bimmerseall bthe utensilsthat had been used by izavin /i,men suffering from gonorrhea, bwho died,as the utensils had thereby contracted ritual impurity. bAnddue to this bthe living izavinfelt embarrassed.The Sages binstituted thatthe utensils that had been used bby allmen bmust be immersed, due to the honor of the living izavin /i. /b,Likewise, bat first taking the dead outfor burial bwas more difficult for the relatives than theactual bdeath,because it was customary to bury the dead in expensive shrouds, which the poor could not afford. The problem grew bto the point that relatives wouldsometimes babandonthe corpse band run away.This lasted buntil Rabban Gamliel came and actedwith bfrivolity,meaning that he waived his dignity, by leaving instructions that he be btaken outfor burial bin linen garments. And the peopleadopted this bpractice after himand had themselves btaken outfor burial bin linen garments. Rav Pappa said: And nowadays, everyone follows the practiceof taking out the dead for burial beven inplain bhemp garments [ itzerada /i]that cost only ba dinar. /b,It is taught in the mishna: bThe bierof the deceased bis not set down in the streetduring the intermediate days of a Festival, bso as not to encourage eulogies. Rav Pappa said:There are bnorestrictions on eulogizing on the intermediate days of ba Festival in the presenceof a deceased bTorah scholar,and therefore he may be eulogized in the ordinary manner during the Festival week. bAnd all the more soa Torah scholar may be eulogized on the days of bHanukkah and Purim,which have less sanctity than the intermediate days of a Festival.,The Gemara comments: bBut thisallowance to eulogize a Torah scholar during the intermediate days of a Festival bapplies onlywhen the eulogy is binthe bpresenceof the deceased, before the bier. bHowever,giving a eulogy that is bnot in his presenceis bnotpermitted. The Gemara asks: bIs that so? But didn’t Rav Kahana eulogize Rav Zevid from Neharde’a inhis city bPum Naharaduring the intermediate days of a Festival? bRav Pappa said: It was the dayon which Rav Kahana received the bnewsof Rav Zevid’s death, banda eulogy in such a situation bis considered asif it is bin his presence. /b,The Gemara continues its discussion of the ihalakhotof mourning: bUlla said:Although ihespedusually refers to a eulogy, strictly speaking, ihesped /iis referring to striking oneself bon the heart, as it is written: “Striking [ isofedim /i] the breasts”(Isaiah 32:12). The term itipuaḥ /iis referring to striking bwithone bhandagainst the other hand, i.e., clapping. The term ikillus /iis referring to stomping bwithone’s bfooton the ground., bThe Sages taughta ibaraita /i: bOne who stomps his foot on the groundas a sign of mourning bshould not stomp with a sandal, but ratherhe should do so wearing ba shoe, due to the dangerof being hurt. Because a sandal is easily torn, it is possible that something sharp on the ground will puncture his foot, or that he will suffer some other injury., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Once a mourner nods his headto show that his grief has slightly diminished, bthe consolers may no longer sit next to him,as with his action the mourner shows that he no longer desires their presence., bRabbi Yoḥa further said: All are obligated to standin the bpresence of the iNasi /i, except for a mourner and one who is sick. Rabbi Yoḥa said: To allwho stand before a great person bone says: Be seated,and only then may they sit down, bexcept for a mourner and one who is sick.If they stood up they do not need permission to sit down, but rather they may do so if they wish., bRav Yehuda said in the name of Rav: A mourneron the bfirst dayof his mourning bis prohibited from eating of his own bread.From where is this derived? bFromwhat bthe Merciful One says to Ezekielwhen the latter is in mourning: b“Nor eat the bread of men”(Ezekiel 24:17), which indicates that other mourners must eat bread made by others. It was related that when bRabba and Rav Yosefwere in mourning they bwould exchange their meals with each other. /b, bAnd Rav Yehuda said in the name of Rav:When a person bdies in a city, all of the residents of that city are prohibited from performing workuntil he has been buried.,The Gemara relates that when bRav Hamnunaonce bhappenedto come to a place called bDarumata he heard the sound of a ishofar /iannouncing that a person bhad diedin the town. When bhe saw some people doing work he said to them: Let these people be under an excommunication. Is there not a deadperson bin town? They said to him: There areseparate bgroups in the town,each one responsible for its own dead. Knowing that the deceased was not from our group, we continued our work. bHe said to them: If so, it is permittedto you, and he revoked his excommunication., bAnd Rav Yehuda said further in the name of Rav: Anyone who grieves excessively over his deadand does not allow himself to be consoled bwillin the end bweep for anotherperson. The Gemara relates that ba certain womanwho lived bin the neighborhood of Rav Huna had seven sons. One of them died and she wept for him excessively. Rav Huna senta message bto her: Do not do this.But bshe took no heed of him. Hethen bsentanother message bto her: If you listen to me, it is well, but if not, prepare shrouds for another death.But she would not listen band they all died. In the end,when she continued with her excessive mourning, bhe said to her:Since you are acting in this way, bprepare shrouds for yourself, andsoon thereafter bshe died. /b,The Sages taught in a ibaraitawith regard to the verse that states: b“Weep not for the dead, neither bemoan him”(Jeremiah 22:10): b“Weep not for the dead”is referring to bexcessivemourning; b“neither bemoan him” more than theappropriate bmeasureof time. bHow so?What is the appropriate measure? bThree days for weeping, and seven for eulogizing, and thirty forthe prohibition against bironingclothing band forthe prohibition against bcutting hair. From thispoint bforward the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: Do not be more merciful withthe deceased bthan I am.If the Torah commands one to mourn for a certain period of time, then that suffices.,It is stated in the continuation of the verse: b“Weep sore for him that goes away.” Rav Yehuda said:This is referring bto one who leavesthe world bwithout childrento survive him, since mourning for him is much more intense. It was related that bRabbi Yehoshua ben Leviwould bgo to a house of mourning only for one who passed away without children, as it is written: “Weep sore for him that goes away; for he shall return [ iyashuv /i] no more, nor see his native land”(Jeremiah 22:10). bRav Hunadisagreed with the interpretation of the verse and bsaid:“Him that goes” bisone bwho committed a transgression andthen brepeated it,i.e., one who sins constantly and does not repent [ iyashav /i], and therefore loses his portion in the World-to-Come, his “native land.”,The Gemara notes that bRav Hunaconforms bto hisstandard line of breasoning,as bRav Huna said: Once a person commits a transgression and repeats it, it becomes permitted to him.The Gemara questions the wording used here: bDoes it enter your mindthat it is actually bpermitted?How could it possibly be permitted for him to sin? bRather, sayinstead: bIt becomes as though it were permitted,for after doing it twice he no longer relates to his action as the violation of a serious prohibition., bRabbi Levi said: A mournerduring bthe first three daysof his mourning bshould see himself as though a sword were lying between his two thighs,meaning that he too may be facing imminent death. During this period he should live in dread. bFrom the third to the seventhdays he should conduct himself bas ifthe sword bwere lying opposite him in the corner,but still threatening him. bFrom thispoint bforward it is as ifthe sword bwas moving before him in the marketplace,and the fear is not as great.,§ The mishna teaches: bAndthe biers bof womenare bneverset down, bdue totheir bhonor.The Sages of bNeharde’a say: They only taughtthi
28. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.3, 7.127, 10.117-10.119 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.3. As he went on reading the second book of Xenophon's Memorabilia, he was so pleased that he inquired where men like Socrates were to be found. Crates passed by in the nick of time, so the bookseller pointed to him and said, Follow yonder man. From that day he became Crates's pupil, showing in other respects a strong bent for philosophy, though with too much native modesty to assimilate Cynic shamelessness. Hence Crates, desirous of curing this defect in him, gave him a potful of lentil-soup to carry through the Ceramicus; and when he saw that he was ashamed and tried to keep it out of sight, with a blow of his staff he broke the pot. As Zeno took to flight with the lentil-soup flowing down his legs, Why run away, my little Phoenician? quoth Crates, nothing terrible has befallen you. 7.127. It is a tenet of theirs that between virtue and vice there is nothing intermediate, whereas according to the Peripatetics there is, namely, the state of moral improvement. For, say the Stoics, just as a stick must be either straight or crooked, so a man must be either just or unjust. Nor again are there degrees of justice and injustice; and the same rule applies to the other virtues. Further, while Chrysippus holds that virtue can be lost, Cleanthes maintains that it cannot. According to the former it may be lost in consequence of drunkenness or melancholy; the latter takes it to be inalienable owing to the certainty of our mental apprehension. And virtue in itself they hold to be worthy of choice for its own sake. At all events we are ashamed of bad conduct as if we knew that nothing is really good but the morally beautiful. Moreover, they hold that it is in itself sufficient to ensure well-being: thus Zeno, and Chrysippus in the first book of his treatise On Virtues, and Hecato in the second book of his treatise On Goods: 10.117. Such are his views on celestial phenomena.But as to the conduct of life, what we ought to avoid and what to choose, he writes as follows. Before quoting his words, however, let me go into the views of Epicurus himself and his school concerning the wise man.There are three motives to injurious acts among men – hatred, envy, and contempt; and these the wise man overcomes by reason. Moreover, he who has once become wise never more assumes the opposite habit, not even in semblance, if he can help it. He will be more susceptible of emotion than other men: that will be no hindrance to his wisdom. However, not every bodily constitution nor every nationality would permit a man to become wise.Even on the rack the wise man is happy. He alone will feel gratitude towards friends, present and absent alike, and show it by word and deed. 10.118. When on the rack, however, he will give vent to cries and groans. As regards women he will submit to the restrictions imposed by the law, as Diogenes says in his epitome of Epicurus' ethical doctrines. Nor will he punish his servants; rather he will pity them and make allowance on occasion for those who are of good character. The Epicureans do not suffer the wise man to fall in love; nor will he trouble himself about funeral rites; according to them love does not come by divine inspiration: so Diogenes in his twelfth book. The wise man will not make fine speeches. No one was ever the better for sexual indulgence, and it is well if he be not the worse. 10.119. Nor, again, will the wise man marry and rear a family: so Epicurus says in the Problems and in the De Natura. Occasionally he may marry owing to special circumstances in his life. Some too will turn aside from their purpose. Nor will he drivel, when drunken: so Epicurus says in the Symposium. Nor will he take part in politics, as is stated in the first book On Life; nor will he make himself a tyrant; nor will he turn Cynic (so the second book On Life tells us); nor will he be a mendicant. But even when he has lost his sight, he will not withdraw himself from life: this is stated in the same book. The wise man will also feel grief, according to Diogenes in the fifth book of his Epilecta.
29. Augustine, The City of God, 14.1, 14.6-14.9 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

14.1. We have already stated in the preceding books that God, desiring not only that the human race might be able by their similarity of nature to associate with one another, but also that they might be bound together in harmony and peace by the ties of relationship, was pleased to derive all men from one individual, and created man with such a nature that the members of the race should not have died, had not the two first (of whom the one was created out of nothing, and the other out of him) merited this by their disobedience; for by them so great a sin was committed, that by it the human nature was altered for the worse, and was transmitted also to their posterity, liable to sin and subject to death. And the kingdom of death so reigned over men, that the deserved penalty of sin would have hurled all headlong even into the second death, of which there is no end, had not the undeserved grace of God saved some therefrom. And thus it has come to pass, that though there are very many and great nations all over the earth, whose rites and customs, speech, arms, and dress, are distinguished by marked differences, yet there are no more than two kinds of human society, which we may justly call two cities, according to the language of our Scriptures. The one consists of those who wish to live after the flesh, the other of those who wish to live after the spirit; and when they severally achieve what they wish, they live in peace, each after their kind. 14.6. But the character of the human will is of moment; because, if it is wrong, these motions of the soul will be wrong, but if it is right, they will be not merely blameless, but even praiseworthy. For the will is in them all; yea, none of them is anything else than will. For what are desire and joy but a volition of consent to the things we wish? And what are fear and sadness but a volition of aversion from the things which we do not wish? But when consent takes the form of seeking to possess the things we wish, this is called desire; and when consent takes the form of enjoying the things we wish, this is called joy. In like manner, when we turn with aversion from that which we do not wish to happen, this volition is termed fear; and when we turn away from that which has happened against our will, this act of will is called sorrow. And generally in respect of all that we seek or shun, as a man's will is attracted or repelled, so it is changed and turned into these different affections. Wherefore the man who lives according to God, and not according to man, ought to be a lover of good, and therefore a hater of evil. And since no one is evil by nature, but whoever is evil is evil by vice, he who lives according to God ought to cherish towards evil men a perfect hatred, so that he shall neither hate the man because of his vice, nor love the vice because of the man, but hate the vice and love the man. For the vice being cursed, all that ought to be loved, and nothing that ought to be hated, will remain. 14.8. Those emotions which the Greeks call εὐπαθείαι, and which Cicero calls constantiœ, the Stoics would restrict to three; and, instead of three perturbations in the soul of the wise man, they substituted severally, in place of desire, will; in place of joy, contentment; and for fear, caution; and as to sickness or pain, which we, to avoid ambiguity, preferred to call sorrow, they denied that it could exist in the mind of a wise man. Will, they say, seeks the good, for this the wise man does. Contentment has its object in good that is possessed, and this the wise man continually possesses. Caution avoids evil, and this the wise man ought to avoid. But sorrow arises from evil that has already happened; and as they suppose that no evil can happen to the wise man, there can be no representative of sorrow in his mind. According to them, therefore, none but the wise man wills, is contented, uses caution; and that the fool can do no more than desire, rejoice, fear, be sad. The former three affections Cicero calls constantiœ, the last four perturbationes. Many, however, calls these last passions; and, as I have said, the Greeks call the former εὐπαθείαι, and the latter πάθη . And when I made a careful examination of Scripture to find whether this terminology was sanctioned by it, I came upon this saying of the prophet: There is no contentment to the wicked, says the Lord; Isaiah 57:21 as if the wicked might more properly rejoice than be contented regarding evils, for contentment is the property of the good and godly. I found also that verse in the Gospel: Whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even so unto them? Matthew 7:12 which seems to imply that evil or shameful things may be the object of desire, but not of will. Indeed, some interpreters have added good things, to make the expression more in conformity with customary usage, and have given this meaning, Whatsoever good deeds that you would that men should do unto you. For they thought that this would prevent any one from wishing other men to provide him with unseemly, not to say shameful gratifications - luxurious banquets, for example - on the supposition that if he returned the like to them he would be fulfilling this precept. In the Greek Gospel, however, from which the Latin is translated, good does not occur, but only, All things whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even so unto them, and, as I believe, because good is already included in the word would; for He does not say desire. Yet though we may sometimes avail ourselves of these precise proprieties of language, we are not to be always bridled by them; and when we read those writers against whose authority it is unlawful to reclaim, we must accept the meanings above mentioned in passages where a right sense can be educed by no other interpretation, as in those instances we adduced partly from the prophet, partly from the Gospel. For who does not know that the wicked exult with joy? Yet there is no contentment for the wicked, says the Lord. And how so, unless because contentment, when the word is used in its proper and distinctive significance, means something different from joy? In like manner, who would deny that it were wrong to enjoin upon men that whatever they desire others to do to them they should themselves do to others, lest they should mutually please one another by shameful and illicit pleasure? And yet the precept, Whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even so to them, is very wholesome and just. And how is this, unless because the will is in this place used strictly, and signifies that will which cannot have evil for its object? But ordinary phraseology would not have allowed the saying, Be unwilling to make any manner of lie, Sirach 7:13 had there not been also an evil will, whose wickedness separates if from that which the angels celebrated, Peace on earth, of good will to men. Luke 2:14 For good is superfluous if there is no other kind of will but good will. And why should the apostle have mentioned it among the praises of charity as a great thing, that it rejoices not in iniquity, unless because wickedness does so rejoice? For even with secular writers these words are used indifferently. For Cicero, that most fertile of orators, says, I desire, conscript fathers, to be merciful. And who would be so pedantic as to say that he should have said I will rather than I desire, because the word is used in a good connection? Again, in Terence, the profligate youth, burning with wild lust, says, I will nothing else than Philumena. That this will was lust is sufficiently indicated by the answer of his old servant which is there introduced: How much better were it to try and banish that love from your heart, than to speak so as uselessly to inflame your passion still more! And that contentment was used by secular writers in a bad sense that verse of Virgil testifies, in which he most succinctly comprehends these four perturbations - Hence they fear and desire, grieve and are content The same author had also used the expression, the evil contentments of the mind. So that good and bad men alike will, are cautious, and contented; or, to say the same thing in other words, good and bad men alike desire, fear, rejoice, but the former in a good, the latter in a bad fashion, according as the will is right or wrong. Sorrow itself, too, which the Stoics would not allow to be represented in the mind of the wise man, is used in a good sense, and especially in our writings. For the apostle praises the Corinthians because they had a godly sorrow. But possibly some one may say that the apostle congratulated them because they were penitently sorry, and that such sorrow can exist only in those who have sinned. For these are his words: For I perceive that the same epistle has made you sorry, though it were but for a season. Now I rejoice, not that you were made sorry, but that you sorrowed to repentance; for you were made sorry after a godly manner, that you might receive damage by us in nothing. For godly sorrow works repentance to salvation not to be repented of, but the sorrow of the world works death. For, behold, this selfsame thing that you sorrowed after a godly sort, what carefulness it wrought in you! 2 Corinthians 7:8-11 Consequently the Stoics may defend themselves by replying, that sorrow is indeed useful for repentance of sin, but that this can have no place in the mind of the wise man, inasmuch as no sin attaches to him of which he could sorrowfully repent, nor any other evil the endurance or experience of which could make him sorrowful. For they say that Alcibiades (if my memory does not deceive me), who believed himself happy, shed tears when Socrates argued with him, and demonstrated that he was miserable because he was foolish. In his case, therefore, folly was the cause of this useful and desirable sorrow, wherewith a man mourns that he is what he ought not to be. But the Stoics maintain not that the fool, but that the wise man, cannot be sorrowful. 14.9. But so far as regards this question of mental perturbations, we have answered these philosophers in the ninth book of this work, showing that it is rather a verbal than a real dispute, and that they seek contention rather than truth. Among ourselves, according to the sacred Scriptures and sound doctrine, the citizens of the holy city of God, who live according to God in the pilgrimage of this life, both fear and desire, and grieve and rejoice. And because their love is rightly placed, all these affections of theirs are right. They fear eternal punishment, they desire eternal life; they grieve because they themselves groan within themselves, waiting for the adoption, the redemption of their body; Romans 8:23 they rejoice in hope, because there shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory. 1 Corinthians 15:54 In like manner they fear to sin, they desire to persevere; they grieve in sin, they rejoice in good works. They fear to sin, because they hear that because iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold. Matthew 24:12 They desire to persevere, because they hear that it is written, He that endures to the end shall be saved. Matthew 10:22 They grieve for sin, hearing that If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. 1 John 1:8 They rejoice in good works, because they hear that the Lord loves a cheerful giver. 2 Corinthians 9:7 In like manner, according as they are strong or weak, they fear or desire to be tempted, grieve or rejoice in temptation. They fear to be tempted, because they hear the injunction, If a man be overtaken in a fault, you which are spiritual restore such an one in the spirit of meekness; considering yourself, lest you also be tempted. Galatians 6:l They desire to be tempted, because they hear one of the heroes of the city of God saying, Examine me, O Lord, and tempt me: try my reins and my heart. They grieve in temptations, because they see Peter weeping; Matthew 26:75 they rejoice in temptations, because they hear James saying, My brethren, count it all joy when you fall into various temptations. James 1:2 And not only on their own account do they experience these emotions, but also on account of those whose deliverance they desire and whose perdition they fear, and whose loss or salvation affects them with grief or with joy. For if we who have come into the Church from among the Gentiles may suitably instance that noble and mighty hero who glories in his infirmities, the teacher (doctor) of the nations in faith and truth, who also labored more than all his fellow apostles, and instructed the tribes of God's people by his epistles, which edified not only those of his own time, but all those who were to be gathered in - that hero, I say, and athlete of Christ, instructed by Him, anointed of His Spirit, crucified with Him, glorious in Him, lawfully maintaining a great conflict on the theatre of this world, and being made a spectacle to angels and men, 1 Corinthians 4:9 and pressing onwards for the prize of his high calling, Philippians 3:14 - very joyfully do we with the eyes of faith behold him rejoicing with them that rejoice, and weeping with them that weep; Romans 12:15 though hampered by fightings without and fears within; 2 Corinthians 7:5 desiring to depart and to be with Christ; Philippians 1:23 longing to see the Romans, that he might have some fruit among them as among other Gentiles; Romans 1:11-13 being jealous over the Corinthians, and fearing in that jealousy lest their minds should be corrupted from the chastity that is in Christ; 2 Corinthians 11:1-3 having great heaviness and continual sorrow of heart for the Israelites, Romans 9:2 because they, being ignorant of God's righteousness, and going about to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God; Romans 10:3 and expressing not only his sorrow, but bitter lamentation over some who had formally sinned and had not repented of their uncleanness and fornications. 2 Corinthians 12:21 If these emotions and affections, arising as they do from the love of what is good and from a holy charity, are to be called vices, then let us allow these emotions which are truly vices to pass under the name of virtues. But since these affections, when they are exercised in a becoming way, follow the guidance of right reason, who will dare to say that they are diseases or vicious passions? Wherefore even the Lord Himself, when He condescended to lead a human life in the form of a slave, had no sin whatever, and yet exercised these emotions where He judged they should be exercised. For as there was in Him a true human body and a true human soul, so was there also a true human emotion. When, therefore, we read in the Gospel that the hard-heartedness of the Jews moved Him to sorrowful indignation, Mark 3:5 that He said, I am glad for your sakes, to the intent you may believe, John 11:15 that when about to raise Lazarus He even shed tears, John 11:35 that He earnestly desired to eat the passover with His disciples, Luke 22:15 that as His passion drew near His soul was sorrowful, Matthew 26:38 these emotions are certainly not falsely ascribed to Him. But as He became man when it pleased Him, so, in the grace of His definite purpose, when it pleased Him He experienced those emotions in His human soul. But we must further make the admission, that even when these affections are well regulated, and according to God's will, they are peculiar to this life, not to that future life we look for, and that often we yield to them against our will. And thus sometimes we weep in spite of ourselves, being carried beyond ourselves, not indeed by culpable desire; but by praiseworthy charity. In us, therefore, these affections arise from human infirmity; but it was not so with the Lord Jesus, for even His infirmity was the consequence of His power. But so long as we wear the infirmity of this life, we are rather worse men than better if we have none of these emotions at all. For the apostle vituperated and abominated some who, as he said, were without natural affection. Romans 1:31 The sacred Psalmist also found fault with those of whom he said, I looked for some to lament with me, and there was none. For to be quite free from pain while we are in this place of misery is only purchased, as one of this world's literati perceived and remarked, at the price of blunted sensibilities both of mind and body. And therefore that which the Greeks call ἀπαθεια, and what the Latins would call, if their language would allow them, impassibilitas, if it be taken to mean an impassibility of spirit and not of body, or, in other words, a freedom from those emotions which are contrary to reason and disturb the mind, then it is obviously a good and most desirable quality, but it is not one which is attainable in this life. For the words of the apostle are the confession, not of the common herd, but of the eminently pious, just, and holy men: If we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. 1 John 1:8 When there shall be no sin in a man, then there shall be this απάθεια . At present it is enough if we live without crime; and he who thinks he lives without sin puts aside not sin, but pardon. And if that is to be called apathy, where the mind is the subject of no emotion, then who would not consider this insensibility to be worse than all vices? It may, indeed, reasonably be maintained that the perfect blessedness we hope for shall be free from all sting of fear or sadness; but who that is not quite lost to truth would say that neither love nor joy shall be experienced there? But if by apathy a condition be meant in which no fear terrifies nor any pain annoys, we must in this life renounce such a state if we would live according to God's will, but may hope to enjoy it in that blessedness which is promised as our eternal condition. For that fear of which the Apostle John says, There is no fear in love; but perfect love casts out fear, because fear has torment. He that fears is not made perfect in love, 1 John 4:18 - that fear is not of the same kind as the Apostle Paul felt lest the Corinthians should be seduced by the subtlety of the serpent; for love is susceptible of this fear, yea, love alone is capable of it. But the fear which is not in love is of that kind of which Paul himself says, For you have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear. Romans 8:15 But as for that clean fear which endures for ever, if it is to exist in the world to come (and how else can it be said to endure for ever?), it is not a fear deterring us from evil which may happen, but preserving us in the good which cannot be lost. For where the love of acquired good is unchangeable, there certainly the fear that avoids evil is, if I may say so, free from anxiety. For under the name of clean fear David signifies that will by which we shall necessarily shrink from sin, and guard against it, not with the anxiety of weakness, which fears that we may strongly sin, but with the tranquillity of perfect love. Or if no kind of fear at all shall exist in that most imperturbable security of perpetual and blissful delights, then the expression, The fear of the Lord is clean, enduring for ever, must be taken in the same sense as that other, The patience of the poor shall not perish forever. For patience, which is necessary only where ills are to be borne, shall not be eternal, but that which patience leads us to will be eternal. So perhaps this clean fear is said to endure for ever, because that to which fear leads shall endure. And since this is so - since we must live a good life in order to attain to a blessed life, a good life has all these affections right, a bad life has them wrong. But in the blessed life eternal there will be love and joy, not only right, but also assured; but fear and grief there will be none. Whence it already appears in some sort what manner of persons the citizens of the city of God must be in this their pilgrimage, who live after the spirit, not after the flesh - that is to say, according to God, not according to man - and what manner of persons they shall be also in that immortality whither they are journeying. And the city or society of the wicked, who live not according to God, but according to man, and who accept the doctrines of men or devils in the worship of a false and contempt of the true divinity, is shaken with those wicked emotions as by diseases and disturbances. And if there be some of its citizens who seem to restrain and, as it were, temper those passions, they are so elated with ungodly pride, that their disease is as much greater as their pain is less. And if some, with a vanity monstrous in proportion to its rarity, have become enamored of themselves because they can be stimulated and excited by no emotion, moved or bent by no affection, such persons rather lose all humanity than obtain true tranquillity. For a thing is not necessarily right because it is inflexible, nor healthy because it is insensible.
30. Stobaeus, Anthology, 3.20.53 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

31. Stoic School, Stoicor. Veter. Fragm., 3.238, 3.462



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(prokoptōn) vii Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 242
abraham, humanity of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 389
abraham, moderation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 389
adam O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 183, 184, 185
affectio Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 81, 87
affectus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 87
alcinous, middle platonist author of didasklikos, metriopatheia Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 196
amor Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 83, 87
anger Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 15; Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 198
animus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 81, 87
antiochus, platonist, apatheia Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 196
apatheia, freedom from, eradication of, emotion (; antiochus Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 196
apatheia, freedom from, eradication of, emotion (; but only in special senses in zeno, panaetius, posidonius Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 196
apatheia, freedom from, eradication of, emotion (; stoics Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 196
apatheia Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 81, 83
aristotle, eth. nic. Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 15
aristotle Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 15
arius Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 15
athletics imagery Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 389
beatus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 83
belief/s, as misconceptions on stoic lines of thought Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 15
belief/s, role in emotion Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 15
body Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 81
body / bodies (corporeal, material, matter, physical) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 242
bonum Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 87
brain (head, skull) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 242
caritas Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 81, 87
character (diathesis, hexis, disposition, stable state) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 242
chrysippus Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 15; Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 242
cicero Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 94; Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 242; O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 183, 184, 185; Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 81, 87
ciuitas Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 87
cleanthes Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 242
consolatory literature Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 389
corpus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 81, 83, 87
crantor, platonist, metriopatheia Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 196
crantor Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 81, 83, 87
crantor the academician Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 389
cupiditas, concupiscentia Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 81
dead, death Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 94
death Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 389
death of philosophers, in maras letter and other literature Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 198
dominus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 87
emotions, aristotelian/peripatetic view of Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 15
emotions, nature of Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 15
emotions, source of intellectual error Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 15
emotions, stoic views Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 15
emotions, tyranny of Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 15
emotions, uncontrollability of Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 15
emotions Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 81, 83, 87
enslaved people, enslavement Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 94
epictetus Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 242
epicureans, selective emotion Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 196
eschaton, eschatological Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 83
eve O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 183, 184, 185
exempla Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 198
exemplum Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 87
fall, adams O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 185
fate Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 198
fear Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 198; Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 83
flesh and spirit O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 183
frank criticism Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 196
free will Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 87
freedom (eleutheria) / free (eleutheros) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 242
gaudeo, gaudium Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 83
gentiles (ethnē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 94
gregg, robert c. Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 196
grief Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 198
grief (lupē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 94
grief and mourning Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 389
happiness/the happy life Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 83
health (hugieia) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 242
hope Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 81, 83
humanity of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 389
instantaneous change (metabolē) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 242
jesus christ Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 81, 87
joy Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 83
law of nature, death as Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 389
life, eternal life Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 81, 83, 87
love, charity Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 83, 87
love O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 183
manichees O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 183
maximus, the mean Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 389
maximus of tyre, orator, middle platonist, metriopatheia Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 196
metriopatheia, moderate, moderation of, emotion; crantor Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 196
metriopatheia, moderate, moderation of, emotion; maximus of tyre Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 196
metriopatheia, moderate, moderation of, emotion; sotion Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 196
metriopatheia, moderate, moderation of, emotion; taurus Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 196
metus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 83
mind Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 81, 83
moderation Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 389
motus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 87
nature, god as Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 389
pain Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 83
panaetius Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 15
passio Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 87
passions, reason vs. Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 389
passions O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 183, 184, 185
passions (pathē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 94
paul, and passions (pathē) Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 94
paul Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 94; O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 183, 184, 185
pelagian/pelagianism Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 81
perfect (teleios) / perfection (teleiōsis) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 242
philodemus, epicurean, on frank criticism Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 196
platonists O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 183
plutarch Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 242
pohlenz, max Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 196
pride O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 185
prosimetrum Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 198
ratio Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 87
reason (human) / rational faculty (logos, logistikon) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 242
religion / myth Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 242
roman assembly, correspondence Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 94
sadness Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 83
sage Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 94
sage (wise person) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 242
sarah, abraham mourning Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 389
sarah, death of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 389
secular literature Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 81
seneca Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 242
sin O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 185
sotion, pythagorean, metriopatheia Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 196
soul / mind (psuchē, animus) vii Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 242
spanneut, michel Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 196
st. paul Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 87
status (standing) Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 198
stoicism, greek Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 15
stoicism / stoic / stoa, neostoicism (greco-roman) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 242
stoicism / stoic / stoa Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 242
stoics, stoicism Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 94; Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 81, 83
stoics O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 183, 184, 185
syriac literature Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 198
tabula of cebes Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 94
taurus, middle platonist, metriopatheia Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 196
tranquillity Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 87
trapp, michael Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 196
tristitia Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 83
ueritas Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 83
uitium, uitiosus Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 83, 87
vice, viciousness Trettel, Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14 (2019) 83
virgil, platonist interpretation of O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 183
virtue Gunderson, The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White (2022) 94
virtue / moral virtue (aretē) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 242
wealth Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 198
will Merz and Tieleman, Ambrosiaster's Political Theology (2012) 198; O'Daly, Augustine's City of God: A Reader's Guide (2nd edn) (2020) 183, 184, 185
zeno, of citium Agri, Reading Fear in Flavian Epic: Emotion, Power, and Stoicism (2022) 15
zeno of citium, stoic, hence different conception of freedom from emotion(apatheia)' Sorabji, Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (2000) 196
μετριοπάθεια Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 389
ἀπάθεια Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 389