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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Cicero, Republic, 3.14

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

17 results
1. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.43, 1.81-1.82, 3.47 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.43. With the errors of the poets may be classed the monstrous doctrines of the magi and the insane mythology of Egypt, and also the popular beliefs, which are a mere mass of inconsistencies sprung from ignorance. "Anyone pondering on the baseless and irrational character of these doctrines ought to regard Epicurus with reverence, and to rank him as one of the very gods about whom we are inquiring. For he alone perceived, first, that the gods exist, because nature herself has imprinted a conception of them on the minds of all mankind. For what nation or what tribe is there but possesses untaught some 'preconception' of the gods? Such notions Epicurus designates by the word prolepsis, that is, a sort of preconceived mental picture of a thing, without which nothing can be understood or investigated or discussed. The force and value of this argument we learn in that work of genius, Epicurus's Rule or Standard of Judgement. 1.81. Furthermore, Velleius, what if your assumption, that when we think of god the only form that presents itself to us is that of a man, be entirely untrue? will you nevertheless continue to maintain your absurdities? Very likely we Romans do imagine god as you say, because from our childhood Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, Neptune, Vulcan and Apollo have been known to us with the aspect with which painters and sculptors have chosen to represent them, and not with that aspect only, but having that equipment, age and dress. But they are not so known to the Egyptians or Syrians, or any almost of the uncivilized races. Among these you will find a belief in certain animals more firmly established than is reverence for the holiest sanctuaries and images of the gods with us. 1.82. For we have often seen temples robbed and images of gods carried off from the holiest shrines by our fellow-countrymen, but no one ever even heard of an Egyptian laying profane hands on a crocodile or ibis or cat. What therefore do you infer? that the Egyptians do not believe their sacred bull Apis to be a god? Precisely as much as you believe the Saviour Juno of your native place to be a goddess. You never see her even in your dreams unless equipped with goat-skin, spear, buckler and slippers turned up at the toe. Yet that is not the aspect of the Argive Juno, nor of the Roman. It follows that Juno has one form for the Argives, another for the people of Lanuvium, and another for us. And indeed our Jupiter of the Capitol is not the same as the Africans' Juppiter Ammon. 3.47. And if it is the nature of the gods to intervene in man's affairs, the Birth-Spirit also must be deemed divine, to whom it is our custom to offer sacrifice when we make the round of the shrines in the Territory of Ardea: she is named Natio from the word for being born (nasci), because she is believed to watch over married women in travail. If she is divine, so are all those abstractions that you mentioned, Honour, Faith, Intellect, Concord, and therefore also Hope, the Spirit of Money and all the possible creations of our own imagination. If this supposition is unlikely, so also is the former one, from which all these instances flow. Then, if the traditional gods whom we worship are really divine, what reason can you give why we should not include Isis and Osiris in the same category? And if we do so, why should we repudiate the gods of the barbarians? We shall therefore have to admit to the list of gods oxen and horses, ibises, hawks, asps, crocodiles, fishes, dogs, wolves, cats and many beasts besides. Or if we reject these, we shall also reject those others from whom their claim springs.
2. Cicero, De Oratore, 1.47, 1.102, 2.265 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.47. sed ego neque illis adsentiebar neque harum disputationum inventori et principi longe omnium in dicendo gravissimo et eloquentissimo, Platoni, cuius tum Athenis cum Charmada diligentius legi Gorgiam; quo in libro in hoc maxime admirabar Platonem, quod mihi in oratoribus inridendis ipse esse orator summus videbatur. Verbi enim controversia iam diu torquet Graeculos homines contentionis cupidiores quam veritatis. 1.102. 'Atqui' inquit Sulpicius 'hoc ex te, de quo modo Antonius exposuit, quid sentias, quaerimus, existimesne artem aliquam esse dicendi?' 'Quid? mihi vos nunc' inquit Crassus 'tamquam alicui Graeculo otioso et loquaci et fortasse docto atque erudito quaestiunculam, de qua meo arbitratu loquar, ponitis? Quando enim me ista curasse aut cogitasse arbitramini et non semper inrisisse potius eorum hominum impudentiam, qui cum in schola adsedissent, ex magna hominum frequentia dicere iuberent, si quis quid quaereret? 2.265. Trahitur etiam aliquid ex historia, ut, cum Sex. Titius se Cassandram esse diceret, "multos" inquit Antonius "possum tuos Aiaces Oileos nominare." Est etiam ex similitudine, quae aut conlationem habet aut tamquam imaginem: conlationem, ut ille Gallus olim testis in Pisonem, cum innumerabilem Magio praefecto pecuniam dixisset datam idque Scaurus tenuitate Magi redargueret, "erras," inquit "Scaure; ego enim Magium non conservasse dico, sed tamquam nudus nuces legeret, in ventre abstulisse"; ut illud M. Cicero senex, huius viri optimi, nostri familiaris, pater, "nostros homines similis esse Syrorum venalium: ut
3. Cicero, On His Consulship, 10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4. Cicero, Letters, 1.1.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5. Cicero, Letters, 1.1.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6. Cicero, Letters, 1.1.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7. Cicero, Letters, 1.1.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8. Cicero, Letters To Quintus, 1.1.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

9. Cicero, Pro Fonteio, 27, 30, 43-44, 49, 26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

10. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 5.78 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5.78. mulieres vero in India, cum est cuius cuiuis V 3 communis Geel ( sed tum plures...nuptae post mortuus legeretur; cf.etiam Se., Jb.d.ph.V.26 p.301 ) earum vir mortuus, in certamen iudiciumque veniunt, quam plurumum ille dilexerit— plures enim singulis solent esse nuptae—; quae est victrix, ea laeta prosequentibus suis una unam V 1 cum viro in rogum imponitur, ponitur G 1 illa ilia cf.Quint.inst.1,3,2 victa quae Se. non male,cf.Claud.de nupt.Hon.64 (superatae cum...maerore in vita remanent Val.M. ) maesta discedit. numquam naturam mos vinceret; vinceret vincit H est enim ea semper invicta; sed nos umbris deliciis delitiis X (deliciis V, sed ci in r scr.,alt. i ss. V 2 ) otio languore langore G desidia animum infecimus, opinionibus maloque more delenitum delinitum V 1 H mollivimus. mollium KR 1 ( corr. 1 aut c )H Aegyptiorum morem quis ignorat? ignoret K quorum inbutae mentes pravitatis erroribus quamvis carnificinam carnifici. nam X prius subierint quam ibim aut aspidem aut faelem felem GV cf.nat.deor.1, 82 aut canem aut corcodillum corcodillum GRV corcodrillum KH cf.Th.l.l. violent, volent V 1 quorum etiamsi inprudentes quippiam fecerint, poenam nullam recusent.
11. Livy, History, 23.5.12 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

12. Seneca The Younger, De Consolatione Ad Helviam, 19.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13. Tacitus, Histories, 1.11.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Pliny The Younger, Panegyric, 31.2-31.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Manilius, Astronomica, 1.901-1.903

16. Strabo, Geography, 7.1.4

7.1.4. These tribes have become known through their wars with the Romans, in which they would either yield and then later revolt again, or else quit their settlements; and they would have been better known if Augustus had allowed his generals to cross the Albis in pursuit of those who emigrated thither. But as a matter of fact he supposed that he could conduct the war in hand more successfully if he should hold off from those outside the Albis, who were living in peace, and should not incite them to make common cause with the others in their enmity against him. It was the Sugambri, who live near the Rhenus, that began the war, Melo being their leader; and from that time on different peoples at different times would cause a breach, first growing powerful and then being put down, and then revolting again, betraying both the hostages they had given and their pledges of good faith. In dealing with these peoples distrust has been a great advantage, whereas those who have been trusted have done the greatest harm, as, for instance, the Cherusci and their subjects, in whose country three Roman legions, with their general Quintilius Varus, were destroyed by ambush in violation of the treaty. But they all paid the penalty, and afforded the younger Germanicus a most brilliant triumph — that triumph in which their most famous men and women were led captive, I mean Segimuntus, son of Segestes and chieftain of the Cherusci, and his sister Thusnelda, the wife of Armenius, the man who at the time of the violation of the treaty against Quintilius Varus was commander-in-chief of the Cheruscan army and even to this day is keeping up the war, and Thusnelda's three-year-old son Thumelicus; and also Sesithacus, the son of Segimerus and chieftain of the Cherusci, and Rhamis, his wife, and a daughter of Ucromirus chieftain of the Chatti, and Deudorix, a Sugambrian, the son of Baetorix the brother of Melo. But Segestes, the father-in-law of Armenius, who even from the outset had opposed the purpose of Armenius, and, taking advantage of an opportune time, had deserted him, was present as a guest of honor at the triumph over his loved ones. And Libes too, a priest of the Chatti, marched in the procession, as also other captives from the plundered tribes — the Caulci, Campsani, Bructeri, Usipi, Cherusci, Chatti, Chattuarii, Landi, Tubattii. Now the Rhenus is about three thousand stadia distant from the Albis, if one had straight roads to travel on, but as it is one must go by a circuitous route, which winds through a marshy country and forests.
17. Velleius Paterculus, Roman History, 2.118

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
actium,battle of Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 109
animal worship,egyptians and Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 109
barbarians/barbarity,brutal and cruel behavior ascribed to Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 80
carthage/carthaginians Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 80
cato the elder Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 80
customs,egyptian' Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 109
disparagement,by romans of non-romans Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 80
egyptians Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 80
gauls/celts Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 80
germans/germany Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 80
greeks/hellenes,roman attitudes toward Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 80
jews/judeans/ioudaioi,roman attitudes toward Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 80
north africa/africans Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 80
phoenicians Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 80
rome/romans,attitudes toward non-romans Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 80
rome and romans,and egypt Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 109
slaves/slavery,syrians and jews labeled as Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 80
spain/spaniards/iberia/iberians Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 80
strabo Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 80
syria/syrians Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 80
tacitus Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 109
worship/ritual/cult as identity markers,for egyptians Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 80