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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



2300
Cicero, On The Nature Of The Gods, 2.30-2.32


nanNow we observe that the parts of the world (and nothing exists in all the world which is not a part of the whole world) possess sensation and reason. Therefore it follows that that part which contains the ruling principle of the world must necessarily possess sensation and reason, and these in a more intense and higher form. Hence it follows that the world possesses wisdom, and that the element which holds all things in its embrace is pre‑eminently and perfectly rational, and therefore that the world is god, and all the forces of the world are held together by the divine nature. "Moreover that glowing heat of the world is far purer and more brilliant and far more mobile, and therefore more stimulating to the senses, than this warmth of ours by which the things that we know are preserved and vitalized.


nanAs therefore man and the animals are possessed by this warmth and owe to this their motion and sensation, it is absurd to say that the world is devoid of sensation, considering that it is possessed by an intense heat that is stainless, free and purpose, and also penetrating and mobile in the extreme; especially as this intense world-heat does not derive its motion from the operation of some other force from outside, but is self-moved and spontaneous in its activity: for how can there be anything more powerful than the world, to impart motion and activity in the warmth by which the world is held together?


nanFor let us listen to Plato, who is regarded as a god among philosophers. He says that there are two sorts of motion, one innate and the other external; and that that which is moved spontaneously is more divine than that which is moved by another power. This self-motion he places in the mind alone, and concludes that the first principle of motion is derived from the mind. Therefore, since all motion arises from the heat of the world, and that heat is not moved by the effect of any external impulse, but of its own accord, it must necessarily be a mind; from whence it follows that the world is animated. On such reasoning is founded this opinion, that the world is possessed of understanding, because it certainly has more perfections in itself than any other nature; for as there is no part of our bodies so considerable as the whole of us, so it is clear that there is no particular portion of the universe equal in magnitude to the whole of it; from whence it follows that wisdom must be an attribute of the world; otherwise man, who is a part of it, and possessed of reason, would be superior to the entire world. And thus, if we proceed from the first rude, unfinished natures to the most superior and perfect ones, we shall inevitably come at last to the nature of the Gods. For, in the first place, we observe that those vegetables which are produced out of the earth are supported by nature, and she gives them no further supply than is sufficient to preserve them by nourishing them and making them grow. To beasts she has given sense and motion, and a faculty which directs them to what is wholesome, and prompts them to shun what is noxious to them. On man she has conferred a greater portion of her favor; inasmuch as she has added reason, by which he is enabled to command his passions, to moderate some, and to subdue others. In the fourth and highest degree are those beings which are naturally wise and good, who from the first moment of their existence are possessed of right and consistent reason, which we must consider superior to man and deserving to be attributed to a God; that is to say, to the world, in which it is inevitable that that perfect and complete reason should be inherent.


nanFor let us hear Plato, that divine philosopher, for so almost he is to be deemed. He holds that motion is of two sorts, one spontaneous, the other derived from without; and that that which moves of itself spontaneously is more divine than that which has motion imparted to it by some force not its own. The former kind of motion he deems to reside only in the soul, which he considers to be the only source and origin of motion. Hence, since all motion springs from the world-heat, and since that heat moves spontaneously and not by any impulse from something else, it follows that that heat is soul; which proves that the world is an animate being. "Another proof that the world possesses intelligence is supplied by the fact that the world is unquestionably better than any of its elements; for even as there is no part of our body that is not of less value than we are ourselves, so the whole universe must needs be of higher worth than any portion of the universe; and if this be so, it follows that the world must be endowed with wisdom, for, if it were not, man, although a part of the world, being possessed of reason would necessarily be of higher worth than the world as a whole.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

12 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.16-3.19, 48.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.16. אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אָמַר הַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה עִצְּבוֹנֵךְ וְהֵרֹנֵךְ בְּעֶצֶב תֵּלְדִי בָנִים וְאֶל־אִישֵׁךְ תְּשׁוּקָתֵךְ וְהוּא יִמְשָׁל־בָּךְ׃ 3.17. וּלְאָדָם אָמַר כִּי־שָׁמַעְתָּ לְקוֹל אִשְׁתֶּךָ וַתֹּאכַל מִן־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לֵאמֹר לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ אֲרוּרָה הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּרֶךָ בְּעִצָּבוֹן תֹּאכֲלֶנָּה כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 3.18. וְקוֹץ וְדַרְדַּר תַּצְמִיחַ לָךְ וְאָכַלְתָּ אֶת־עֵשֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 3.19. בְּזֵעַת אַפֶּיךָ תֹּאכַל לֶחֶם עַד שׁוּבְךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה כִּי מִמֶּנָּה לֻקָּחְתָּ כִּי־עָפָר אַתָּה וְאֶל־עָפָר תָּשׁוּב׃ 48.16. הַמַּלְאָךְ הַגֹּאֵל אֹתִי מִכָּל־רָע יְבָרֵךְ אֶת־הַנְּעָרִים וְיִקָּרֵא בָהֶם שְׁמִי וְשֵׁם אֲבֹתַי אַבְרָהָם וְיִצְחָק וְיִדְגּוּ לָרֹב בְּקֶרֶב הָאָרֶץ׃ 3.16. Unto the woman He said: ‘I will greatly multiply thy pain and thy travail; in pain thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.’" 3.17. And unto Adam He said: ‘Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying: Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed is the ground for thy sake; in toil shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life." 3.18. Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field." 3.19. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.’" 48.16. the angel who hath redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads; and let my name be named in them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth.’"
2. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

184c. SOC. The easy use of words and phrases and the avoidance of strict precision is in general a sign of good breeding; indeed, the opposite is hardly worthy of a gentleman, but sometimes it is necessary, as now it is necessary to object to your answer, in so far as it is incorrect. Just consider; which answer is more correct, that our eyes are that by which we see or that through which we see, and our ears that by which or that through which we hear? THEAET. I think, Socrates, we perceive through, rather than by them, in each case.
3. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.10, 1.36, 2.18-2.29, 2.31-2.47, 2.58, 2.73-2.75, 2.81-2.84, 2.127-2.134, 2.154-2.161 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.10. Those however who seek to learn my personal opinion on the various questions show an unreasonable degree of curiosity. In discussion it is not so much weight of authority as force of argument that should be demanded. Indeed the authority of those who profess to teach is often a positive hindrance to those who desire to learn; they cease to employ their own judgement, and take what they perceive to be the verdict of their chosen master as settling the question. In fact I am not disposed to approve the practice traditionally ascribed to the Pythagoreans, who, when questioned as to the grounds of any assertion that they advanced in debate, are said to have been accustomed to reply 'He himself said so,' 'he himself' being Pythagoras. So potent was an opinion already decided, making authority prevail unsupported by reason. 1.36. Lastly, Balbus, I come to your Stoic school. Zeno's view is that the law of nature is divine, and that its function is to command what is right and to forbid the opposite. How he makes out this law to be alive passes our comprehension; yet we undoubtedly expect god to be a living being. In another passage however Zeno declares that the aether is god — if there is any meaning in a god without sensation, a form of deity that never presents itself to us when we offer up our prayers and supplications and make our vows. And in other books again he holds the view that a 'reason' which pervades all nature is possessed of divine power. He likewise attributes the same powers to the stars, or at another time to the years, the months and the seasons. Again, in his interpretation of Hesiod's Theogony (or Origin of the Gods) he does away with the customary and received ideas of the gods altogether, for he does not reckon either Jupiter, Juno or Vesta as gods, or any being that bears a personal name, but teaches that these names have been assigned allegorically to dumb and lifeless things. 2.18. Yet even man's intelligence must lead us to infer the existence of a mind in the universe, and that a mind of surpassing ability, and in fact divine. Otherwise, whence did man 'pick up' (as Socrates says in Xenophon) the intelligence that he possesses? If anyone asks the question, whence do we get the moisture and the heat diffused throughout the body, and the actual earthy substance of the flesh, and lastly the breath of life within us, it is manifest that we have derived the one from earth, the other from water, and the other from the air which we inhale in breathing. But where did we find, whence did we abstract, that other part of us which surpasses all of these, I mean our reason, or, if you like to employ several terms to denote it, our intelligence, deliberation, thought, wisdom? Is the world to contain each of the other elements but not this one, the most precious of them all? Yet beyond question nothing exists among all things that is superior to the world, nothing that is more excellent or more beautiful; and not merely does nothing superior to it exist, but nothing superior can even be conceived. And if there be nothing superior to reason and wisdom, these faculties must necessarily be possessed by that being which we admit to be superior to all others. 2.19. Again, consider the sympathetic agreement, interconnexion and affinity of things: whom will this not compel to approve the truth of what I say? Would it be possible for the earth at one definite time to be gay with flowers and then in turn all bare and stark, or for the spontaneous transformation of so many things about us to signal the approach and the retirement of the sun at the summer and the winter solstices, or for the tides to flow and ebb in the seas and straits with the rising and setting of the moon, or for the different courses of the stars to be maintained by the one revolution of the entire sky? These processes and this musical harmony of all the parts of the world assuredly would not go on were they not maintained in unison by a single divine and all‑pervading spirit. 2.20. When one expounds these doctrines in a fuller and more flowing style, as I propose to do, it is easier for them to evade the captious objections of the Academy; but when they are reduced to brief syllogistic form, as was the practice of Zeno, they lie more open to criticism. A running river can almost or quite entirely escape pollution, whereas an enclosed pool is easily sullied; similarly a flowing stream of eloquence sweeps aside the censures of the critic, but a closely reasoned argument defends itself with difficult. The thoughts that we expound at length Zeno used to compress into this form: 2.21. 'That which has the faculty of reason is superior to that which has not the faculty of reason; but nothing is superior to the world; therefore the world has the faculty of reason.' A similar argument can be used to prove that the world is wise, and happy, and eternal; for things possessed of each of these attributes are superior to things devoid of them, and nothing is superior to the world. From this it will follow that the world is god. Zeno also argued thus: 2.22. 'Nothing devoid of sensation can have a part of itself that is sentient; but the world has parts that are sentient; therefore the world has parts that are sentient; therefore the world is not devoid of sensation.' He also proceeds to press the argument more closely: 'Nothing,' he says, 'that is iimate and irrational can give birth to an animate and rational being; but the world gives birth to animate and rational beings; therefore the world is animate and rational.' Furthermore he proved his argument by means of one of his favourite comparisons, as follows: 'If flutes playing musical tunes grew on an olive-tree, surely you would not question that the olive-tree possessed some knowledge of the art of flute-playing; or if plane-trees bore well-tuned lutes, doubtless you would likewise infer that the plane-trees possessed the art of music; why then should we not judge the world to be animate and endowed with wisdom, when it produces animate and wise offspring? 2.23. However, having begun to treat the subject in a different way from that which I proposed at the beginning (for I said that this part required no discussion, since the existence of god was manifest to everybody), in spite of this I should like to prove even this point by means of arguments drawn from Physics or Natural Philosophy. It is a law of Nature that all things capable of nurture and growth contain within them a supply of heat, without which their nurture and growth would not be possible; for everything of a hot, fiery nature supplies its own source of motion and activity; but that which is nourished and grows possesses a definite and uniform motion; and as long as this motion remains within us, so long sensation and life remain, whereas so soon as our heat is cooled and quenched we ourselves perish and are extinguished. 2.24. This doctrine Cleanthes enforces by these further arguments, to show how great is the supply of heat in every living body: he states that there is no food so heavy that it is not digested in twenty-four hours; and even the residue of our food which nature rejects contains heat. Again, the veins and arteries never cease throbbing with a flame-like pulse, and frequent cases have been observed when the heart of an animal on being torn out of its body has continued to beat with a rapid motion resembling the flickering of fire. Every living thing therefore, whether animal or vegetable, owes its vitality to the heat contained within it. From this it must be inferred that this element of heat possesses in itself a vital force that pervades the whole world. 2.25. We shall discern the truth of this more readily from a more detailed account of this all‑permeating fiery element as a whole. All the parts of the world (I will however only specify the most important) are supported and sustained by heat. This can be perceived first of all in the element of earth. We see fire produced by striking or rubbing stones together; and when newly dug, 'the earth doth steam with warmth'; and also warm water is drawn from running springs, and this occurs most of all in the winter-time, because a great store of heat is confined in the caverns of the earth, which in winter is denser and therefore confines more closely the heat stored in the soil. 2.26. It would require a long discourse and a great many arguments to enable me to show that all the seeds that earth receives in her womb, and all the plants which she spontaneously generates and holds fixed by their roots in the ground, owe both their origin and growth to this warm temperature of the soil. That water also contains an admixture of heat is shown first of all by its liquid nature; water would neither be frozen into ice by cold nor congealed into snow and hoar-frost unless it could also become fluid when liquefied and thawed by the admixture of heat; this is why moisture both hardens when exposed to a north wind or a frost from some other quarter, and also in turn softens when warmed, and evaporates with heat. Also the sea when violently stirred by the wind becomes warm, so that it can readily be realized that this great body of fluid contains heat; for we must not suppose the warmth in question to be derived from some external source, but stirred up from the lowest depths of the sea by violent motion, just as happens to our bodies when they are restored to warmth by movement and exercise. Indeed the air itself, though by nature the coldest of the elements, is by no means entirely devoid of heat; 2.27. indeed it contains even a considerable admixture of heat, for it is itself generated by exhalation from water, since air must be deemed to be a sort of vaporized water, and this vaporization is caused by the motion of the heat contained in the water. We may see an example of the same process when water is made to boil by placing fire beneath it. — There remains the fourth element: this is itself by nature glowing hot throughout and also imparts the warmth of health and life to all other substances. 2.28. Hence from the fact that all the parts of the world are sustained by heat the inference follows that the world itself also owes its continued preservation for so long a time to the same or a similar substance, and all the more so because it must be understood that this hot and fiery principle is interfused with the whole of nature in such a way as to constitute the male and female generative principles, and so to be the necessary cause of both the birth and the growth of all living creatures, whether animals or those whose roots are planted in the earth. 2.29. There is therefore an element that holds the whole world together and preserves it, and this an element possessed of sensation and reason; since every natural object that is not a homogeneous and simple substance but a complex and composite one must contain within it some ruling principle, for example in man the intelligence, in the lower animals something resembling intelligence that is the source of appetition. With trees and plants the ruling principle is believed to be located in the roots. I use the term 'ruling principle' as the equivalent of the Greek hēgemonikon, meaning that part of anything which must and ought to have supremacy in a thing of that sort. Thus it follows that the element which contains the ruling principle of the whole of nature must also be the most excellent of all things and the most deserving of authority and sovereignty over all things. 2.31. As therefore man and the animals are possessed by this warmth and owe to this their motion and sensation, it is absurd to say that the world is devoid of sensation, considering that it is possessed by an intense heat that is stainless, free and purpose, and also penetrating and mobile in the extreme; especially as this intense world-heat does not derive its motion from the operation of some other force from outside, but is self-moved and spontaneous in its activity: for how can there be anything more powerful than the world, to impart motion and activity in the warmth by which the world is held together? 2.32. For let us hear Plato, that divine philosopher, for so almost he is to be deemed. He holds that motion is of two sorts, one spontaneous, the other derived from without; and that that which moves of itself spontaneously is more divine than that which has motion imparted to it by some force not its own. The former kind of motion he deems to reside only in the soul, which he considers to be the only source and origin of motion. Hence, since all motion springs from the world-heat, and since that heat moves spontaneously and not by any impulse from something else, it follows that that heat is soul; which proves that the world is an animate being. "Another proof that the world possesses intelligence is supplied by the fact that the world is unquestionably better than any of its elements; for even as there is no part of our body that is not of less value than we are ourselves, so the whole universe must needs be of higher worth than any portion of the universe; and if this be so, it follows that the world must be endowed with wisdom, for, if it were not, man, although a part of the world, being possessed of reason would necessarily be of higher worth than the world as a whole. 2.33. Again, if we wish to proceed from the first rudimentary orders of being to the last and most perfect, we shall necessarily arrive in the end at deity. We notice the sustaining power of nature first in the members of the vegetable kingdom, towards which her bounty was limited to providing for their preservation by means of the faculties of nurture and growth. 2.34. Upon the animals she bestowed sensation and motion, and an appetite or impulse to approach things wholesome and retire from things harmful. For man she amplified her gift by the addition of reason, whereby the appetites might be controlled, and alternately indulged and held in check. But the fourth and highest grade is that of beings born by nature good and wise, and endowed from the outset with the innate attributes of right reason and consistency; this must be held to be above the level of man: it is the attribute of god, that is, of the world, which must needs possess that perfect and absolute reason of which I spoke. 2.35. Again, it is undeniable that every organic whole must have an ultimate ideal of perfection. As in vines or cattle we see that, unless obstructed by some force, nature progresses on a certain path of her own to her goal of full development, and as in painting, architecture and the other arts and crafts there is an ideal of perfect workmanship, even so and far more in the world of nature as a whole there must be a process towards completeness and perfection. The various limited modes of being may encounter many external obstacles to hinder their perfect realization, but there can be nothing that can frustrate nature as a whole, since she embraces and contains within herself all modes of being. Hence it follows that there must exist this fourth and highest grade, unassailable by any external force. 2.36. Now this is the grade on which universal nature stands; and since she is of such a character as to be superior to all things and incapable of frustration by any, it follows of necessity that the world is an intelligent being, and indeed also a wise being. "Again, what can be more illogical than to deny that the being which embraces all things must be the best of all things, or, admitting this, to deny that it must be, first, possessed of life, secondly, rational and intelligent, and lastly, endowed with wisdom? How else can it be the best of all things? If it resembles plants or even animals, so far from being highest, it must be reckoned lowest in the scale of being. If again it be capable of reason yet has not been wise from the beginning, the world must be in a worse condition than mankind; for a man can become wise, but if in all the eternity of past time the world has been foolish, obviously it will never attain wisdom; and so it will be inferior to man, which is absurd. Therefore the world must be deemed to have been wise from the beginning, and divine. 2.37. In fact there is nothing else beside the world that has nothing wanting, but is fully equipped and complete and perfect in all its details and parts. For as Chrysippus cleverly puts it, just as a shield-case is made for the sake of a shield and a sheath for the sake of a sword, so everything else except the world was created for the sake of some other thing; thus the cornº and fruits produced by the earth were created for the sake of animals, and animals for the sake of man: for example the horse for riding, the ox for ploughing, the dog for hunting and keeping guard; man himself however came into existence for the purpose of contemplating and imitating the world; he is by no means perfect, but he is 'a small fragment of that which is perfect.' 2.38. The world on the contrary, since it embraces all things and since nothing exists which is not within it, is entirely perfect; how then can it fail to possess that which is the best? but there is nothing better than intelligence and reason; the world therefore cannot fail to possess them. Chrysippus therefore also well shows by the aid of illustrations that in the perfect and mature specimen of its kind everything is better than in the imperfect, for instance in a horse than in a foal, in a dog than in a puppy, in a man than in a boy; and that similarly a perfect and complete being is bound to possess that which is the best thing in all the world; 2.39. but no being is more perfect than the world, and nothing is better than virtue; therefore virtue is an essential attribute of the world. Again, man's nature is not perfect, yet virtue may be realized in man; how much more readily then in the world! therefore the world possesses virtue. Therefore it is wise, and consequently divine. "Having thus perceived the divinity of the world, we must also assign the same divinity to the stars, which are formed from the most mobile and the purest part of the aether, and are not compounded of any other element besides; they are of a fiery heat and translucent throughout. Hence they too have the fullest right to be pronounced to be living beings endowed with sensation and intelligence. 2.40. That the stars consist entirely of fire Cleanthes holds to be established by the evidence of two of the senses, those of touch and sight. For the radiance of the sun is more brilliant than that of any fire, inasmuch as it casts its light so far and wide over the boundless universe; and the contact of its rays is so powerful that it not merely warms but often actually burns, neither of which things could it do if it were not made of fire. 'Therefore,' Cleanthes proceeds, 'since the sun is made of fire, and is nourished by the vapours exhaled from the ocean because no fire could continue to exist without sustece of some sort, it follows that it resembles either that fire which we employ in ordinary life or that which is contained in the bodies of living creatures. 2.41. Now our ordinary fire that serves the needs of daily life is a destructive agency, consuming everything, and also wherever it spreads it routs and scatters everything. On the other hand the fire of the body is the glow of life and health; it is the universal preservative, giving nourishment, fostering growth, sustaining, bestowing sensation.' He therefore maintains that there can be no doubt which of the two kinds of fire the sun resembles, for the sun also causes all things to flourish and to bring forth increase each after its kind. Hence since the sun resembles those fires which are contained in the bodies of living creatures, the sun also must be alive; and so too the other heavenly bodies, since they have their origin in the fiery heat of heaven that is entitled the aether or sky. 2.42. Since therefore some living creatures are born on the earth, others in the water and others in the air, it is absurd, so Aristotle holds, to suppose that no living animal is born in that element which is most adapted for the generation of living things. But the stars occupy the region of aether, and as this has a very rarefied substance and is always in lively motion, it follows that the animal born in this region has the keenest senses and the swiftest power of movement; hence since the stars come into existence in the aether, it is reasonable to suppose that they possess sensation and intelligence. And from this it follows that the stars are to be reckoned as gods. For it may be observed that the inhabitants of those countries in which the air is pure and rarefied have keener wits and greater powers of understanding than persons who live in a dense and heavy climate; 2.43. moreover the substance employed as food is also believed to have some influence on mental acuteness; it is therefore likely that the stars possess surpassing intelligence, since they inhabit the ethereal region of the world and also are nourished by the moist vapours of sea and earth, rarefied in their passage through the wide intervening space. Again, the consciousness and intelligence of the stars is most clearly evinced by their order and regularity; for regular and rhythmical motion is impossible without design, which contains no trace of casual or accidental variation; now the order and eternal regularity of the constellations indicates neither a process of nature, for it is highly rational, nor chance, for chance loves variation and abhors regularity; it follows therefore that the stars move of their own free-will and because of their intelligence and divinity. 2.44. Aristotle is also to be commended for his view that the motion of all living bodies is due to one of three causes, nature, force, or will; now the sun and moon and all the stars are in motion, and bodies moved by nature travel either downwards owing to their weight or upwards owing to their lightness; but neither (he argued) is the case with the heavenly bodies, because their motion is revolution in a circle; nor yet can it be said that some stronger force compels the heavenly bodies to travel in a manner contrary to their nature, for what stronger force can there be? it remains therefore that the motion of the heavenly bodies is voluntary. "Anyone who sees this truth would show not only ignorance but wickedness if he denied the existence of the gods. Nor indeed does it make much difference whether he denies their existence or deprives them entirely of providential care and of activity; since to my mind an entirely inactive being cannot be said to exist at all. Therefore the existence of the gods is so manifest that I can scarcely deem one who denies it to be of sound mind. 2.45. It remains for us to consider the qualities of the divine nature; and on this subject nothing is more difficult than to divert the eye of the mind from following the practice of bodily sight. This difficulty has caused both uneducated people generally and those philosophers who resemble the uneducated to be unable to conceive of the immortal gods without setting before themselves the form of men: a shallow mode of thought which Cotta has exposed and which therefore calls for no discussion from me. But assuming that we have a definite and preconceived idea of a deity as, first, a living being, and secondly, a being unsurpassed in excellence by anything else in the whole of nature, I can see nothing that satisfies this preconception or idea of ours more fully than, first, the judgement that this world, which must necessarily be the most excellent of all things, is itself a living being and a god. 2.46. Let Epicurus jest at this notion as he will — and he is a person who jokes with difficulty, and has but the slightest smack of his native Attic wit, — let him protest his inability to conceive of god as a round and rotating body. Nevertheless he will never dislodge me from one belief which even he himself accepts: he holds that gods exist, on the ground that there must necessarily be some mode of being of outstanding and supreme excellence; now clearly nothing can be more excellent than the world. Nor can it be doubted that a living being endowed with sensation, reason and intelligence must excel a being devoid of those attributes; 2.47. hence it follows that the world is a living being and possesses sensation, intelligence and reason; and this argument leads to the conclusion that the world is god. "But these points will appear more readily a little later merely from a consideration of the creatures that the world produces. In the meantime, pray, Velleius, do not parade your school's utter ignorance of science. You say that you think a cone, a cylinder and a pyramid more beautiful than a sphere. Why, even in matters of taste you Epicureans have a criterion of your own! However, assuming that the figures which you mention are more beautiful to the eye — though for my part I don't think them so, for what can be more beautiful than the figure that encircles and encloses in itself all other figures, and that can possess no roughness or point of collision on its defence, no indentation of the concavity, no protuberance or depression? There are two forms that excel all others, among solid bodies the globe (for so we may translate the Greek sphaera), and among plane figures the round or circle, the Greek kyklos; well then, these two forms alone possess the property of absolute uniformity in all their parts and of having every point on the circumference equidistant from the centre; and nothing can be more compact than that. 2.58. the nature of the world itself, which encloses and contains all things in its embrace, is styled by Zeno not merely 'craftsmanlike' but actually 'a craftsman,' whose foresight plans out the work to serve its use and purpose in every detail. And as the other natural substances are generated, reared and sustained each by its own seeds, so the world-nature experiences all those motions of the will, those impulses of conation and desire, that the Greeks call hormae, and follows these up with the appropriate actions in the same way as do we ourselves, who experience emotions and sensations. Such being the nature of the world-mind, it can therefore correctly be designated as prudence or providence (for in Greek it is termed pronoia); and this providence is chiefly directed and concentrated upon three objects, namely to secure for the world, first, the structure best fitted for survival; next, absolute completeness; but chiefly, consummate beauty and embellishment of every kind. 2.73. Next I have to show that the world is governed by divine providence. This is of course a vast topic; the doctrine is hotly contested by your school, Cotta, and it is they no doubt that are my chief adversaries here. As for you and your friends, Velleius, you scarcely understand the vocabulary of the subject; for you only read your own writings, and are so enamoured of them that you pass judgement against all the other schools without giving them a hearing. For instance, you yourself told us yesterday that the Stoics present Pronoia or providence in the guise of an old hag of a fortune-teller; this was due to your mistaken notion that they imagine providence as a kind of special deity who rules and governs the universe. But as a matter of fact 'providence' is an elliptical expression; 2.74. when one says 'the Athenian state is ruled by the council,' the words 'of the Areopagus' are omitted: so when we speak of the world as governed by providence, you must understand the words 'of the gods' zzz conceive that the full and complete statement would be 'the world is governed by the providence of the gods.' So do not you and your friends waste your wit on making fun of us, — your tribe is none too well off for that commodity. Indeed if your school would take my advice you would give up all attempts at humour; it sits ill upon you, for it is not your forte and you can't bring it off. This does not, it is true, apply to you in particular, — you have the polished manners of your family and the urbanity of a Roman; but it does apply to all the rest of you, and especially to the parent of the system, an uncultivated, illiterate person, who tilts at everybody and is entirely devoid of penetration, authority or charm. 2.75. I therefore declare that the world and all its parts were set in order at the beginning and have been governed for all time by converse providence: a thesis which our school usually divides into three sections. The first is based on the argument proving that the gods exist; if this be granted, it must be admitted that the world is governed by their wisdom. The second proves that all things are under the sway of sentient nature, and that by it the universe is carried on in the most beautiful manner; and this proved, it follows that the universe was generated from living first causes. The third topic is the argument from the wonder that we feel at the marvel of creation, celestial and terrestrial. 2.81. Next I have to show that all things are under the sway of nature and are carried on by her in the most excellent manner. But first I must briefly explain the meaning of the term 'nature' itself, to make our doctrine more easily intelligible. Some persons define nature as a non‑rational force that causes necessary motions in material bodies; others as a rational and ordered force, proceeding by method and plainly displaying the means that she takes to produce each result and the end at which she aims, and possessed of a skill that no handiwork of artist or craftsman can rival or reproduce. For a seed, they point out, has such potency that, tiny though it is in size, nevertheless if it falls into some substance that conceives and enfolds it, and obtains suitable material to foster its nurture and growth, it fashions and produces the various creatures after their kinds, some designed merely to absorb nourishment through their roots, and others capable of motion, sensation, appetition and reproduction of their species. 2.82. Some thinkers again denote by the term 'nature' the whole of existence — for example Epicurus, who divides the nature of all existing things into atoms, void, and the attributes of these. When we on the other hand speak of nature as the sustaining and governing principle of the world, we do not mean that the world is like a clod of earth or lump of stone or something else of that sort, which possesses only the natural principle of cohesion, but like a tree or an animal, displaying no haphazard structure, to be order and a certain semblance of design. 2.83. But if the plants fixed and rooted in the rather owe their life and vigour to nature's art, surely the earth herself must be sustained by the same power, inasmuch as when impregnated with seeds she brings forth from her womb all things in profusion, nourishes their roots in her bosom and causes them to grow, and herself in turn is nourished by the upper and outer elements. Her exhalations moreover give nourishment to the air, the ether and all the heavenly bodies. Thus if earth is upheld and invigorated by nature, the same principle must hold good of the rest of the world, for plants are rooted in the earth, animals are sustained by breathing air, and the air itself is our partner in seeing, hearing and uttering sounds, since none of these actions can be performed without its aid; nay, it even moves as we move, for wherever we go or move our limbs, it seems as it were to give place and retire before us. 2.84. And those things which travel towards the centre of the earth which is its lowest point, those which move from the centre upwards, and those which rotate in circles round the centre, constitute the one continuous nature of the world. Again the continuum of the world's nature is constituted by the cyclic transmutations of the four kinds of matter. For earth turns into water, water into air, air into aether, and then the process is reversed, and aether becomes air, air water, and water earth, the lowest of the four. Thus the parts of the world are held in union by the constant passage up and down, thenceforth, of these four elements of which all things are composed. 2.127. Does, shortly before giving birth to their young, thoroughly purge themselves with a herb called hartwort. Again we observe how various species defend themselves against violence and danger with their own weapons, bulls with their horns, boars with their tusks, lions with their bite; some species protect themselves by flight, some by hiding, the cuttle-fish by emitting an inky fluid, the sting‑ray by causing cramp, and also a number of creatures drive away their pursuers by their insufferably disgusting odour. "In order to secure the everlasting duration of the world-order, divine providence has made most careful provision to ensure the perpetuation of the families of animals and of trees and all the vegetable species. The latter all contain within them seed possessing the proprietor of multiplying the species; this seed is enclosed in the innermost part of the fruits that grow from each plant; and the same seeds supply mankind with an abundance of food, besides replenishing the earth with a fresh stock of plants of the same kind. 2.128. Why should I speak of the amount of rational design displayed in animals to secure the perpetual preservation of their kind? To begin with some are male and some female, a device of nature to perpetuate the species. Then parts of their busy are most skilfully contrived to serve the purposes of procreation and of conception, and both male and female possess marvellous desires for copulation. And when the seed has settled in its place, it draws almost all the nutriment to itself and hedged within it fashions a living creature; when this has been dropped from the womb and has emerged, in the mammalian species almost all the nourishment received by the mother turns to milk, and the young just born, untaught and by nature's guidance, seek for the teats and satisfy their cravings with their bounty. And to show to us that none of these things merely happens by chance and that all are the work of nature's providence and skill, species that produce large litters of offspring, such as swine and dogs, have bestowed upon them a large number of teats, while those animals which bear only a few young have only a few teats. 2.129. Why should I describe the affection shown by animals in rearing and protecting the offspring to which they have given birth, up to the point when they are able to defend themselves? although fishes, it is said, abandon their eggs when they have laid them, since these easily float and hatch out in the water. Turtles and crocodiles are said to lay their eggs on land and bury them and then go away, leaving their young to hatch and rear themselves. Hens and other birds find a quiet place in which to lay, and build themselves nests to sit on, covering these with the softest possible bedding in order to preserve the eggs most easily; and when they have hatched out their chicks they protect them by cherishing them with their wings so that they may not be injured by cold, and by shading them against the heat of the sun. When the young birds are able to use their sprouting wings, their mothers escort them in their flights, but are released from any further tendance upon them. 2.130. Moreover the skill and industry of man also contribute to the preservation and security of certain animals and plants. For there are many species of both which could not survive without man's care. "Also a plentiful variety of conveniences is found in different regions for the productive cultivation of the soil by man. Egypt is watered by the Nile, which corps the land completely flooded all the summer and afterwards retires leaving the soil soft and covered with mud, in readiness for sowing. Mesopotamia is fertilized by the Euphrates, which as it were imports into it new fields every year. The Indus, the largest river in the world, not only manures and softens the soil but actually sows it with seed, for it is said to bring down with it a great quantity of seeds resembling corn. 2.131. And I could produce a number of other remarkable examples in a variety of places, and instance a variety of lands each prolific in a different kind of produce. But how great is the benevolence of nature, in giving birth to such an abundance and variety of delicious articles of food, and that not at one season only of the year, so that we have continually the delights of both novelty and plenty! How seasonable moreover and how some not for the human race alone but also for the animal and the various vegetable species is her gift of the Etesian winds! their breath moderates the excessive heat of summer, entirely also guide our ships across the sea upon a swift and steady course. Many instances must be passed over [and yet many are given]. 2.132. For it is impossible to recount the conveniences afforded by rivers, the ebb and flow . . . of the tides of the sea, the mountains clothed with forests, the salt-beds lying far inland from the sea‑coast, the copious stores of health-giving medicines that the earth contains, and all the countless arts necessary for livelihood and for life. Again the alternation of day and night contributes to the preservation of living creatures by affording one time for activity and another for repose. Thus every line of reasoning goes to prove that all things in this world of ours are marvellously governed by divine intelligence and wisdom for the safety and preservation of all. 2.133. Here somebody will ask, for whose sake was all this vast system contrived? For the sake of the trees and plants, for these, though without sensation, have their sustece from nature? But this at any rate is absurd. Then for the sake of the animals? It is no more likely that the gods took all this trouble for the sake of dumb, irrational creatures/ For whose sake then shall one pronounce the world to have been created? Doubtless for the sake of those living beings which have the use of reason; these are the gods and mankind, who assuredly surpass all other things in excellence, since the most excellent of all things is reason. Thus we are led to believe that the world and all the things that it contains were made for the sake of gods and men. "And that man has been cared for by divine providence will be more readily understood if we survey the whole structure of man and all the conformation and perfection of human nature. 2.134. There are three things requisite for the maintece of animal life, food, drink and breath; and for the reception of all of these the mouth is most consummately adapted, receiving as it does an abundant supply of breath through the nostrils which communicate with it. The structure of the teeth within the mouth serves to chew the food, and it is divided up and softened by them. The front teeth are sharp, and bite our viands into pieces; the back teeth, called molars, masticate them, the process of mastication apparently being assisted also by the tongue. 2.154. It remains for me to show, in coming finally to a conclusion, that all the things in this world which men employ have been created and provided for the sake of men. "In the first place the world itself was created for the sake of gods and men, and the things that it contains were provided and contrived for the enjoyment of men. For the world is as it were the common dwelling-place of gods and men, or the city that belongs to both; for they alone have the use of reason and live by justice and by law. As therefore Athens and Sparta must be deemed to have been founded for the sake of the Athenians and the Spartans, and all the things contained in those cities are rightly said to belong to those peoples, so whatever things are contained in all the world must be deemed to belong to the gods and to men. 2.155. Again the revolutions of the sun and moon no other heavenly bodies, although also contributing to the maintece of the structure of the world, nevertheless also afford a spectacle for man to behold; for there is no sight of which it is more impossible to grow weary, none more beautiful nor displaying a more surpassing wisdom and skill; for by measuring the courses of the stars we know when the seasons will come round, and when their variations and changes will occur; and if these things are known to men alone, they must be judged to have been created for the sake of men. 2.156. Then the earth, teeming with grain and vegetables of various kinds, which she pours forth in lavish abundance — does she appear to give birth to this produce for the sake of the wild beasts or for the sake of men? What shall I say of the vines and olives, whose bounteous and delightful fruits do not concern the lower animals at all? In fact the beasts of the field are entirely ignorant of the arts of sowing and cultivating, and of reaping and gathering the fruits of the earth in due season and storing them in garners; all these products are both enjoyed and tended by men. 2.157. Just as therefore we are bound to say that lyres and flutes were made for the sake of those who can use them, so it must be agreed that the things of which I have spoken have been provided for those only who make use of them, and even if some portion of them is filched or plundered by some of the lower animals, we shall not admit that they were created for the sake of these animals also. Men do not store up corn for the sake of mice and ants but for their wives and children and households; so the animals share these fruits of the earth only by stealth as I have said, whereas the masters enjoy them openly and freely. 2.158. It must therefore be admitted that all this abundance was provided for the sake of men, unless perchance the bounteous plenty and variety of our orchard fruit and the delightfulness not only of its flavour but also of its scent and appearance lead us to doubt whether nature intended this gift for man alone! So far is it from being true that the furs of the earth were provided for the sake of animals as well as men, that the animals themselves, as we may see, were created for the benefit of men. What other use have sheep save that their fleeces are dressed and woven into clothing for men? and in fact they could not have been reared nor sustained nor have produced anything of value without man's care and tendance. Then think of the dog, with its trusty watchfulness, its fawning affection for its master and hatred of strangers, its incredible keenness of scent in following a trail and its eagerness in hunting — what do these qualities imply except that they were created to serve the conveniences of men? 2.159. Why should I speak of oxen? the very shape of their backs makes it clear that they were not destined to carry burdens, whereas their necks were born for the yoke and their broad powerful shoulders for drawing the plough. And as it was by their means that the earth was brought under tillage by breaking up its clods, no violence was ever used towards them, so the poets say, by the men of that Golden Age; But then the iron race sprang into being, And first did dare to forge the deadly sword, And taste the ox its hand had tamed to bondage. So valuable was deemed the service that man received from oxen that to eat their flesh was held a crime. "It would be a long story to tell of the services rendered by mules and asses, which were undoubtedly created for the use of men. 2.160. As for the pig, it can only furnish food; indeed Chrysippus actually says that its soul was given it to serve as salt and keep it from putrefaction; and because this animal was fitted for the food of man, nature made it the most prolific of all her offspring. Why should I speak of the teeming swarms of delicious fish? or of birds, which afford us so much pleasure that our Stoic Providence appears to have been at times a disciple of Epicurus? and they could not even be caught save by man's intelligence and cunning; — although some birds, birds of flight and birds of utterance as our augurs call them, we believe to have been created for the purpose of giving omens. 2.161. The great beasts of the forest again we take by hunting, both for food and in order to exercise ourselves in the mimic warfare of the chase, and also, as in the case of elephants, to train and discipline them for our employment, and to procure from their busy a variety of medicines for diseases and wounds, as also we do from certain roots and herbs whose values we have learnt by long-continued use and trial. Let the mind's eye survey the whole earth and all the seas, and you will behold now fruitful plains of measureless extent and mountains thickly clad with forests and pastures filled with flocks, now vessels sailing with marvellous swiftness across the sea.
4. Cicero, On Duties, 1.153 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.153. Placet igitur aptiora esse naturae ea officia, quae ex communitate, quam ea, quae ex cognitione ducantur, idque hoc argumento confirmari potest, quod, si contigerit ea vita sapienti, ut omnium rerum affluentibus copiis quamvis omnia, quae cognitione digna sint, summo otio secum ipse consideret et contempletur, tamen, si solitudo tanta sit, ut hominem videre non possit, excedat e vita. Princepsque omnium virtutum illa sapientia, quam sofi/an Graeci vocant—prudentiam enim, quam Graeci fro/nhsin dicunt, aliam quandam intellegimus, quae est rerum expetendarum fugiendarumque scientia; illa autem sapientia, quam principem dixi, rerum est divinarum et humanarum scientia, in qua continetur deorum et hominum communitas et societas inter ipsos; ea si maxima est, ut est certe, necesse est, quod a communitate ducatur officium, id esse maximum. Etenim cognitio contemplatioque naturae manca quodam modo atque inchoata sit, si nulla actio rerum consequatur. Ea autem actio in hominum commodis tuendis maxime cernitur; pertinet igitur ad societatem generis humani; ergo haec cognition anteponenda est. 1.153.  My view, therefore, is that those duties are closer to Nature which depend upon the social instinct than those which depend upon knowledge; and this view can be confirmed by the following argument: (1) suppose that a wise man should be vouchsafed such a life that, with an abundance of everything pouring in upon him, he might in perfect peace study and ponder over everything that is worth knowing, still, if the solitude were so complete that he could never see a human being, he would die. And then, the foremost of all virtues is wisdom — what the Greeks call σοφία; for by prudence, which they call φρόνησις, we understand something else, namely, the practical knowledge of things to be sought for and of things to be avoided. (2) Again, that wisdom which I have given the foremost place is the knowledge of things human and divine, which is concerned also with the bonds of union between gods and men and the relations of man to man. If wisdom is the most important of the virtues, as it certainly is, it necessarily follows that that duty which is connected with the social obligation is the most important duty. And (3) service is better than mere theoretical knowledge, for the study and knowledge of the universe would somehow be lame and defective, were no practical results to follow. Such results, moreover, are best seen in the safeguarding of human interests. It is essential, then, to human society; and it should, therefore, be ranked above speculative knowledge.
5. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 1.42 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.42. illam vero funditus eiciamus individuorum corporum levium et rutundorum rotundorum KV ( sed fuit rut.) H concursionem fortuitam, quam tamen tamen add. K 2 Democritus concalefactam et spirabilem, spirabilem eqs. cf. Aug. epist. 118, 4, 28 id est animalem, esse volt. is autem animus, qui, si si add. G 1 s. l. est horum quattuor quattuor horum Non. generum, ex quibus ex quibus unde V 2 Non ft. recte omnia constare dicuntur, animus...239, 1 dicuntur Non. 272, 29 ex inflammata anima constat, ut potissimum videri video videri om. X (videt' pro video V sed t' V c in r. ) add. K 2 s Panaetio, superiora capessat necesse est. nihil enim habent haec duo genera proni et supera semper petunt. ita, sive dissipantur, procul a terris id evenit, sive permanent et conservant habitum suum, hoc etiam magis necesse est ferantur ad caelum et ab is perrumpatur et dividatur crassus hic et concretus aër, qui est terrae proximus. calidior est enim vel potius ardentior ardentior ex -us V 1 animus quam est est exp. V c hic aër, aer in mg. V c quem modo dixi crassum atque concretum; quod ex eo sciri sciri scribi K 1 potest, quia corpora nostra terreno principiorum genere confecta ardore animi concalescunt.
6. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Galen, On The Doctrines of Hippocrates And Plato, 3.1.10-3.1.13 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8. Sextus, Against The Mathematicians, 9.76 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

118a. מאי ברכת השיר רב יהודה אמר יהללוך ה' אלהינו ורבי יוחנן אמר נשמת כל חי ת"ר רביעי גומר עליו את ההלל ואומר הלל הגדול דברי ר"ט וי"א (תהלים כג, א) ה' רועי לא אחסר,מהיכן הלל הגדול רבי יהודה אומר (תהלים קלו, א) מהודו עד (תהלים קלז, א) נהרות בבל ורבי יוחנן אומר משיר המעלות עד נהרות בבל רב אחא בר יעקב אמר (תהלים קלה, ד) מכי יעקב בחר לו יה עד נהרות בבל,ולמה נקרא שמו הלל הגדול א"ר יוחנן מפני שהקב"ה יושב ברומו של עולם ומחלק מזונות לכל בריה,א"ר יהושע בן לוי הני עשרים וששה הודו כנגד מי כנגד כ"ו דורות שברא הקב"ה בעולמו ולא נתן להם תורה וזן אותם בחסדו,אמר רב חסדא מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלו, א) הודו לה' כי טוב הודו לה' שגובה חובתו של אדם בטובתו עשיר בשורו ואת עני בשיו יתום בביצתו אלמנה בתרנגולתה,א"ר יוחנן קשין מזונותיו של אדם כפליים כיולדה דאילו ביולדה כתי' (בראשית ג, טז) בעצב ובמזונות כתי' (בראשית ג, יז) בעצבון,(א"ר) יוחנן קשין מזונותיו של אדם יותר מן הגאולה דאילו בגאולה כתיב (בראשית מח, טז) המלאך הגואל אותי מכל רע מלאך בעלמא ואילו במזונות כתיב (בראשית מח, טו) האלהים הרועה אותי,א"ר יהושע בן לוי בשעה שאמר הקב"ה לאדם (בראשית ג, יח) וקוץ ודרדר תצמיח לך זלגו עיניו דמעות אמר לפניו רבש"ע אני וחמורי נאכל באבוס אחד כיון שאמר לו (בראשית ג, יט) בזעת אפך תאכל לחם נתקררה דעתו,אמר ר"ש בן לקיש אשרינו אם עמדנו בראשונה ועדיין לא פלטינן מינה דקא אכלינן עיסבי דדברא,אמר רב שיזבי משמיה דרבי אלעזר בן עזריה קשין מזונותיו של אדם כקריעת ים סוף דכתיב (תהלים קלו, כה) נותן לחם לכל בשר וסמיך ליה לגוזר ים סוף לגזרים,אמר ר"א בן עזריה קשין נקביו של אדם כיום המיתה וכקריעת ים סוף שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, יד) מהר צועה להפתח וכתיב בתרי' רוגע הים ויהמו גליו,ואמר רב ששת משום ר"א בן עזריה כל המבזה את המועדות כאילו עובד ע"ז שנאמר (שמות לד, יז) אלהי מסכה לא תעשה לך וכתיב בתריה את חג המצות תשמור,ואמר רב ששת משום ר"א בן עזריה כל המספר לשון הרע וכל המקבל לשון הרע וכל המעיד עדות שקר בחבירו ראוי להשליכו לכלבים שנאמר (שמות כב, ל) לכלב תשליכון אותו וכתיב בתריה (שמות כג, א) לא תשא שמע שוא וקרי ביה לא תשיא,וכי מאחר דאיכא הלל הגדול אנן מ"ט אמרינן האי משום שיש בו ה' דברים הללו יציאת מצרים וקריעת ים סוף ומתן תורה ותחיית המתים וחבלו של משיח,יציאת מצרים דכתי' (תהלים קיד, א) בצאת ישראל ממצרים וקריעת ים סוף דכתיב (תהלים קיד, ג) הים ראה וינוס מתן תורה דכתי' (תהלים קיד, ד) ההרים רקדו כאילים תחיית המתים דכתיב (תהלים קטז, ט) אתהלך לפני ה',חבלו של משיח דכתיב (תהלים קטו, א) לא לנו ה' לא לנו וא"ר יוחנן לא לנו ה' לא לנו זו שעבוד מלכיות איכא דאמרי אמר רבי יוחנן לא לנו ה' לא לנו זו מלחמת גוג ומגוג,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר מפני שיש בו מילוט נפשות של צדיקים מגיהנם שנא' (תהלים קטז, ד) אנה ה' מלטה נפשי חזקיה אמר מפני שיש בו ירידתן של צדיקים לכבשן האש ועלייתן ממנו,ירידתן דכתיב לא לנו ה' לא לנו אמר חנניה כי לשמך תן כבוד אמר מישאל על חסדך ועל אמיתך אמר עזריה למה יאמרו הגוים אמרו כולן,עלייתן מכבשן האש דכתיב (תהלים קיז, א) הללו את ה' כל גוים אמר חנניה שבחוהו כל האומים אמר מישאל כי גבר עלינו חסדו אמר עזריה ואמת ה' לעולם הללויה אמרו כולן,ויש אומרים ואמת ה' לעולם גבריאל אמרו בשעה שהפיל נמרוד הרשע את אברהם אבינו לתוך כבשן האש אמר גבריאל לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבש"ע ארד ואצנן ואציל את הצדיק מכבשן האש אמר לו הקב"ה אני יחיד בעולמי והוא יחיד בעולמו נאה ליחיד להציל את היחיד ולפי שהקב"ה אינו מקפח שכר כל בריה אמר תזכה ותציל שלשה מבני בניו,דרש ר"ש השלוני בשעה שהפיל נבוכדנצר הרשע חנניה מישאל ועזריה לתוך כבשן האש עמד יורקמו שר הברד לפני הקב"ה אמר לפניו רבש"ע ארד ואצנן את הכבשן ואציל לצדיקים הללו מכבשן האש אמר לו גבריאל אין גבורתו של הקב"ה בכך שאתה שר ברד והכל יודעין שהמים מכבין את האש אלא אני שר של אש ארד ואקרר מבפנים 118a. The Gemara asks: bWhat is the blessing of the songmentioned in the mishna? bRav Yehuda said:It is the blessing that begins with: bThey shall praise You, Lord, our God. And Rabbi Yoḥa saidthat one also recites: bThe breath of all living,a prayer that follows the verses of praise [ ipesukei dezimra /i]. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to the bfourthcup, bone completes ihallelover it and recites the great ihallel /i;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Tarfon. And some saythat one recites: b“The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want”(Psalms 23:1), in appreciation of the food he ate at the meal.,The Gemara asks: bFrom wheredoes the bgreat ihallel /ibegin and where does it end? bRabbi Yehuda says: From “Give thanks”(Psalms 136:1) buntil “The rivers of Babylon”(Psalms 137:1). bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says: From “A song of ascents”(Psalms 134:1) buntil “The rivers of Babylon.” Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: From “For the Lord has chosen Jacob for Himself”(Psalms 135:4) buntil “The rivers of Babylon.” /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd why isthis section bcalled the great ihallel /i? Rabbi Yoḥa said: Becausethis passage states that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, sits in the heights of the universe and dispenses food to every creature.The whole world praises God for His kindness through the great ihallel /i, which includes the verse: “Who gives food to all flesh” (Psalms 136:25)., bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: These twenty-sixmentions of the word ihodu /i,give praise, in this ihallel(Psalms 136), bto whatdo they bcorrespond?He explains: They bcorrespond to the twenty-six generations that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created in His world, andto whom He bdid not give the Torah.There were ten generations from Adam to Noah, another ten from Noah to Abraham, and six generations from Abraham to Moses and the revelation at Sinai, i.e., Isaac, Jacob, Levi, Kehat, Amram, and Moses. bAndwhy did these generations survive, despite the fact that they did not learn Torah or perform mitzvot? They survived only because God bsustained them through His mercy,even though they were undeserving., bRav Ḥisda said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Give thanks to the Lord for He is good”(Psalms 136:1)? It means bgive thanks to the Lord who exacts one’s debt,the punishment for a person’s sins and wickedness, binaccordance with the bgoodness ofeach individual. God punishes each person based on his means. He punishes ba wealthyperson by taking bhis ox, andHe punishes ba poorperson by means of bhis sheep.He punishes the borphan bytaking away bhis egg,and He punishes the bwidow bymeans of bher chicken.God punishes each person based on his ability to endure deprivation, and He does not punish people with more than they can handle.,With regard to the praise due to God for sustaining the world, the Gemara cites a statement that bRabbi Yoḥa said:The task of providing ba person’s food is twice as difficult asthe suffering endured by ba woman in childbirth. While, with regard to a woman in childbirth, it is written: “In pain [ ibe’etzev /i]you shall bring forth children” (Genesis 3:16), bwith regard to food, it is written: “In toil [ ibe’itzavon /i]you shall eat of it, all the days of your life” (Genesis 3:17). iItzavonis a superlative form of ietzev /i, which indicates that it is more difficult to support oneself than to give birth., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said:The task of providing ba person’s food is more difficult than the redemption. While, with regard to the redemption, it is written: “The angel who has redeemed me from all evil”(Genesis 48:16), indicating that ba mere angelis sufficient to protect a person from all evil; bwhereas, with regard to sustece, it is written: “The God who has been my shepherdall my life long to this day” (Genesis 48:15). This verse implies that only God can help one who is struggling to earn a living.,The Gemara cites a similar statement. bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: When the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Adam: “Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to you,and you shall eat the herb of the field” (Genesis 3:18), bhis eyes streamed with tears.Adam bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe,will bmy donkey and I eat from one trough? AfterGod bsaid to him: “In the sweat of your face shall you eat bread”(Genesis 3:19), bhis mind was settled,assured that if he toils he will be able to eat bread, unlike the donkey., bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: Wewould have been bfortunate had we remained under the firstdecree and were still able to eat the herbs of the field. bAnd we still have notentirely bescaped fromthis decree, bas wesometimes beat the grass of the field,in the form of vegetables and leaves., bRav Sheizvi said, citing Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya:The task of providing ba person’s food is as difficult as the splitting of the Red Sea, as it is written: “He gives food to all flesh,for His mercy endures forever” (Psalms 136:25), band juxtaposed to it isthe verse: b“To Him who divided the Red Sea in sunder,for His mercy endures forever” (Psalms 136:13). The reiteration of the last part of the verse indicates that the two praises are to a certain extent equivalent.,Likewise, bRabbi Elazar ben Azarya said: A person’s orifices,when he cannot properly relieve himself, bare as difficultfor him bas the day of death and the splitting of the Red Sea, as it is stated: “He who is bent down shall speedily be loosed;and he shall not go down dying into the pit, neither shall his bread fail” (Isaiah 51:14). The phrase “dying into the pit” indicates that the opening of the orifices is similar to a rescue from death. bAnd afterward it is written: “Who stirs up the sea, that its waves roar”(Isaiah 51:15), which compares the previous matter to the splitting of the sea.,After citing a statement of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya that was transmitted by iamora’im /i, the Gemara quotes additional expositions attributed to him. bAnd Rav Sheshet said, citing Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya: Anyone who disparages the Festivals, it isconsidered bas though he engages in idol worship.This, too, is derived from the juxtaposition of verses, bas it is stated: “You shall make yourself no molten gods”(Exodus 34:17), band afterward it is written: “The Festival of imatzotyou shall keep”(Exodus 34:18), from which it can be inferred that anyone who does not observe the Festivals properly is likened to one who fashions idols., bAnd Rav Sheshetfurther bsaid, citing Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya: Anyone who speaks slander, and anyone who acceptsand believes the bslanderhe hears, band anyone who testifies falsely about another, it is fitting to throw him to the dogs, as it is stated:“And you shall not eat any flesh that is torn of beasts in the field, byou shall cast it to the dogs”(Exodus 22:30), band afterward it is written: “You shall not utter [ itisa /i] a false report;put not your hand with the wicked to be an unrighteous witness” (Exodus 23:1). Uttering rumors is here equated to delivering false testimony. Furthermore, bread intothe verse as though it stated: bDo not causea false report bto be accepted [ itasi /i],i.e., do not lead others to accept your false reports.,The Gemara asks: bAnd since there isthe bgreat ihallel /i,which contains the special praise of “Who gives food to all flesh” (Psalms 136:25), as explained above, bwhat is the reasonthat bonealso brecites this ihallelof Psalms 113–118, the section recited on every joyous occasion? The Gemara answers: The reason is bbecausethe regular ihallel bcontains these five matters:The remembrance of the bexodus from Egypt, the splitting of the Red Sea, the giving of the Torah, the resurrection of the dead, and the pangs of the Messiah.Since it mentions these key concepts, this hallel is also considered important.,The Gemara elaborates: bThe exodus from Egypt, as it is written: “When Israel came forth out of Egypt,the house of Jacob from a people of strange language” (Psalms 114:1). bAnd the splitting of the Red Sea, as it is written: “The sea saw it and fled;the Jordan turned backward” (Psalms 114:3). bThe giving of the Torah, as it is written: “The mountains skipped like rams”(Psalms 114:4), which is similar to the description of the giving of the Torah found elsewhere in the books of the Prophets. bThe resurrection of the dead, as it is written: “I will walk before the Lordin the lands of the living” (Psalms 116:9), which follows the verse: “For you have delivered my soul from death.” After mentioning death, the psalm describes the resurrection in the lands of the living., bThe pangs of the Messiah, as it is written: “Not to us, God, not to us,but to Your name give glory” (Psalms 115:1). bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said:The verse b“Not to us, God, not to us”and the entire psalm, including the verse “Why should the nations say, where now is their God?” (Psalms 115:2), is referring to the era of bthe enslavement of the kingdomsand the redemption of the Jewish people from their dominion. bSome saythat bRabbi Yoḥa said:The verse b“Not to us, God, not to us”is referring to bthe war of Gog and Magog,the catastrophes and wars that will befall the Jewish people in the end of days from which they will be delivered., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:Another reason why one recites ihallelof Psalms 113–118 is bbecause it containsa reference to bthe deliverance of the souls of the righteous from Gehenna, as it is stated: “I beseech you, Lord, deliver my soul”(Psalms 116:4). bḤizkiya said:Another reason is bbecause it containsthe story of bthe descent of the righteousHaiah, Mishael, and Azariah binto the fiery furnace and theirmiraculous bascent from it. /b,Ḥizkiya clarifies his previous statement: bTheir descentis mentioned in this hallel, bas it is written: “Not to us, God, not to us,”a verse that Haiah brecited. Mishael recited: “But to Your name give glory.” Azariah recited: “For Your mercy and for Your truth’s sake.” They all recitedtogether: b“Why should the nations say:Where now is their God?”,This ihallelalso alludes to bthe ascentof Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah bfrom the fiery furnace, as it is written:“Praise the Lord, all you nations, laud Him all you peoples. For His mercy is great toward us, and the truth of the Lord endures forever, ihalleluya /i” (Psalms 117). bHaiah recited: “Praise the Lord, all you nations,”for the overt miracle performed for them before the nations. bMishael recited: “Laud Him all you peoples.” Azariah recited: “For His mercy is great toward us.” They all recitedtogether: b“And the truth of the Lord endures forever, ihalleluya /i.” /b, bAnd some saythat the angel bGabriel recited: “And the truth of the Lord endures forever.”This Gemara elaborates: bWhen the evil Nimrod threw our father, Abraham, into the fiery furnace, Gabriel said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, I will descend and coolthe furnace, band I willthereby bsave the righteousAbraham bfrom the fiery furnace. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: I am unique in my world andAbraham bisstill bunique in his world. It is fitting for the unique to save the unique.Therefore, God Himself went down and saved him. bAnd as the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not withhold reward from any creaturewho sought to perform a good deed, He bsaidto Gabriel: bYou will merit the rescue of three of his descendantsunder similar circumstances., bRabbi Shimon HaShiloni taught: When the evilNebuchadnezzar bthrew Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah into the fiery furnace, Yurkamo, the ministering angel of hail, stood before the Holy One, Blessed be He,and bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, I will go down and coolthe fiery bfurnace, and I will save these righteous ones from the fiery furnace. Gabriel said to him: The strength of the Holy One, Blessed be He, will not beevident bin thismanner, as byou are the minister of hail, and everyone knows that water extinguishes fire.Your action would not be regarded as a great miracle. bRather, I, the ministering angel of fire, will descend, and I will coolthe furnace bfrom within, /b
10. Calcidius (Chalcidius), Platonis Timaeus Commentaria, 220 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

11. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.110, 7.138-7.139, 7.142-7.143, 7.147 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.110. And in things intermediate also there are duties; as that boys should obey the attendants who have charge of them.According to the Stoics there is an eight-fold division of the soul: the five senses, the faculty of speech, the intellectual faculty, which is the mind itself, and the generative faculty, being all parts of the soul. Now from falsehood there results perversion, which extends to the mind; and from this perversion arise many passions or emotions, which are causes of instability. Passion, or emotion, is defined by Zeno as an irrational and unnatural movement in the soul, or again as impulse in excess.The main, or most universal, emotions, according to Hecato in his treatise On the Passions, book ii., and Zeno in his treatise with the same title, constitute four great classes, grief, fear, desire or craving, pleasure. 7.138. Again, they give the name of cosmos to the orderly arrangement of the heavenly bodies in itself as such; and (3) in the third place to that whole of which these two are parts. Again, the cosmos is defined as the individual being qualifying the whole of substance, or, in the words of Posidonius in his elementary treatise on Celestial Phenomena, a system made up of heaven and earth and the natures in them, or, again, as a system constituted by gods and men and all things created for their sake. By heaven is meant the extreme circumference or ring in which the deity has his seat.The world, in their view, is ordered by reason and providence: so says Chrysippus in the fifth book of his treatise On Providence and Posidonius in his work On the Gods, book iii. – inasmuch as reason pervades every part of it, just as does the soul in us. Only there is a difference of degree; in some parts there is more of it, in others less. 7.139. For through some parts it passes as a hold or containing force, as is the case with our bones and sinews; while through others it passes as intelligence, as in the ruling part of the soul. Thus, then, the whole world is a living being, endowed with soul and reason, and having aether for its ruling principle: so says Antipater of Tyre in the eighth book of his treatise On the Cosmos. Chrysippus in the first book of his work On Providence and Posidonius in his book On the Gods say that the heaven, but Cleanthes that the sun, is the ruling power of the world. Chrysippus, however, in the course of the same work gives a somewhat different account, namely, that it is the purer part of the aether; the same which they declare to be preeminently God and always to have, as it were in sensible fashion, pervaded all that is in the air, all animals and plants, and also the earth itself, as a principle of cohesion. 7.142. The world, they hold, comes into being when its substance has first been converted from fire through air into moisture and then the coarser part of the moisture has condensed as earth, while that whose particles are fine has been turned into air, and this process of rarefaction goes on increasing till it generates fire. Thereupon out of these elements animals and plants and all other natural kinds are formed by their mixture. The generation and the destruction of the world are discussed by Zeno in his treatise On the Whole, by Chrysippus in the first book of his Physics, by Posidonius in the first book of his work On the Cosmos, by Cleanthes, and by Antipater in his tenth book On the Cosmos. Panaetius, however, maintained that the world is indestructible.The doctrine that the world is a living being, rational, animate and intelligent, is laid down by Chrysippus in the first book of his treatise On Providence, by Apollodorus in his Physics, and by Posidonius. 7.143. It is a living thing in the sense of an animate substance endowed with sensation; for animal is better than non-animal, and nothing is better than the world, ergo the world is a living being. And it is endowed with soul, as is clear from our several souls being each a fragment of it. Boethus, however, denies that the world is a living thing. The unity of the world is maintained by Zeno in his treatise On the Whole, by Chrysippus, by Apollodorus in his Physics, and by Posidonius in the first book of his Physical Discourse. By the totality of things, the All, is meant, according to Apollodorus, (1) the world, and in another sense (2) the system composed of the world and the void outside it. The world then is finite, the void infinite. 7.147. The deity, say they, is a living being, immortal, rational, perfect or intelligent in happiness, admitting nothing evil, taking providential care of the world and all that therein is, but he is not of human shape. He is, however, the artificer of the universe and, as it were, the father of all, both in general and in that particular part of him which is all-pervading, and which is called many names according to its various powers. They give the name Dia (Δία) because all things are due to (διά) him; Zeus (Ζῆνα) in so far as he is the cause of life (ζῆν) or pervades all life; the name Athena is given, because the ruling part of the divinity extends to the aether; the name Hera marks its extension to the air; he is called Hephaestus since it spreads to the creative fire; Poseidon, since it stretches to the sea; Demeter, since it reaches to the earth. Similarly men have given the deity his other titles, fastening, as best they can, on some one or other of his peculiar attributes.
12. Stoic School, Stoicor. Veter. Fragm., 1.120, 1.135, 2.366, 2.786-2.787, 2.836, 2.912



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(hēgemonikon) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 284
adam Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 302
agency / agent, psychological (rational and irrational) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 284
agriculture / plants Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 404
analogy Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115
angel Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 302
animal, ass Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 302
animal Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115
animals (general) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 404
anthropology Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 404
antisthenes Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 33
apology (plato) Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 33
apology (xenophon) Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 33
appearance (phantasia, impression) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 284
aristotelian Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 138
arria Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 33
assent (sunkatathesis) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 284
body, and gender Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 33
body, eye Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 302
body / bodies (corporeal, material, matter, physical) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 284, 404
body in paul, heavenly bodies in stoicism Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 20
brain (head, skull) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 284, 404
bread Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 302
child Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 302
chrysippus Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115; Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 284, 404
cicero Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 20; Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 284, 404
cleanthes Williams, The Cosmic Viewpoint: A Study of Seneca's 'Natural Questions' (2012) 180
clouds (aristophanes) Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 33
cosmos (visible world, universe) / cosmology Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 404
crito (plato) Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 33
damon of alexander Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 33
demetrius of byzantium Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 33
denouncement Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 33
diogenes laertius Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 33
emotion, ancient philosophical theory of Hockey, The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter (2019) 57
emotions / passions (pathē, pathēmata) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 284
evil Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 302
exile Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 33
favorinus Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 33
fire, and pneuma Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 20
fire, in stoic cosmology Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 20
galen of pergamum Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 284, 404
gendering, of death Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 33
god, material conception in stoicism Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 20
god, stoic Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115
heart Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115
heart (chest) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 284
hēgemonikon/central organ of soul, etc. Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115
impulse (hormē) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 284
intellect, intelligence Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115
lucilius balbus q. Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 138
lucretia Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 33
matter, stoic Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115
monism Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 284
myths, neptune Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 158
nature, living in accordance with Hockey, The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter (2019) 57
nature (phusis) / natural, human Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 404
pain, and virtue Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 33
parts of soul, stoic Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115
phaedo (plato) Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 33
plato, and socrates Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 33
platonism Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 138
platonism (middle / imperial) vi–viii Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 284
plutarch Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 404
pneuma (spirit) in paul, and fire in stoic cosmology Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 20
pneuma (spirit) in paul, anthropology Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 20
pneuma (spirit) in paul, cosmology Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 20
pneuma (spirit, breath) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 284, 404
pneuma (spiritus) Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115
porcia Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 33
posidonius Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115
principatum / ἡγεμονικόν Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 138
principle / principium / archē / ἀρχή Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 138
prosecution of socrates (polycrates) Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 33
providence / πρόνοια Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 138
prudentia / φρόνησις Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 138
pseudo–plutarch Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 138
reason, in stoic theology Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 121
reason (human) / rational faculty (logos, logistikon) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 284
responsibility Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 138
scala naturae, in stoic cosmology Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 20
sensation motion Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115
senses / sense-perception (aisthēsis) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 284
sorabji, r., in stoicism Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 20
soul Hockey, The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter (2019) 57
soul / mind (psuchē, animus) vii Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 284, 404
spirited part / power / faculty (thumos, thumoeidēs) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 284
stobaeus Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 404
stoic, anthropology of emotion Hockey, The Role of Emotion in 1 Peter (2019) 57
stoicism, corporealism Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 121
stoicism / stoic / stoa Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 284, 404
style of writing. see stoicism, wisdom., wisdom' Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 121
suffering Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 302
taylor, c., tension (tonos), stoic Engberg-Pedersen, Cosmology and Self in the Apostle Paul: The Material Spirit (2010) 20
theology Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 138
tradition Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 138
virtue / moral virtue (aretē) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 404
wisdom / sapientia Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 138
women Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 302
yoḥanan, rabbi Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 302
zeno of citium Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 138