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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



2298
Cicero, On Laws, 2.64-2.66


nanIn process of time, as Demetrius Phalereus assures us, the funerals became sumptuous, and the elegiac lamentations were extravagantly multiplied. These abuses were prohibited by Solonʼs law, which our Decemvirs have translated almost word for word in our Twelve Tables. Our rule respecting the three suits of mourning, and other customs were thus derived from Solonʼs regulation; and that edict respecting the dirges is expressed in his precise phrases. -- Let not the women tear their cheeks, nor indulge their wailing at funerals. (Mulieres genas ne radunto, neve lessum funeris ergo habento). There is nothing more to be remarked in Solonʼs law respecting funerals, except, that he forbids the injury of sepulchres, or the disturbance of the dead. He makes it penal for any one to violate, dilapidate, or impair any grave, which he calls a τύμβον, or monument or column. But after some time, the extravagance of the mausoleums we see in the Ceramicus, gave occasion to that law which prohibits private persons from erecting any sepulchre more elaborate than ten men can construct in three days.


nanNor was it permitted to adorn them with sculpture, nor to place the statues they call Herms around them; nor to pronounce the panegyrics of the dead, excepting when the obsequies were public, and the constituted officer was duly employed. The eulogies of men and women were likewise forbidden, that the lamentations might be diminished; for such convocations on melancholy occasions tend to augment unavailing sorrow.


nanTherefore Pittacus expressly forbade any from attending the funerals of those that were strangers to them. But as the same Demetrius informs us, the magnificence of funeral processions and ceremonials revived anew, so as nearly to equal our present Roman extravagances; these, Demetrius restrained by a wholesome law; for he was not only, as you are aware, a very learned man, but a most experienced citizen, devoted to the preservation of the state. He therefore diminished the sumptuosity of funerals, not only by penalties, but by a limitation of time; as he commanded that they should be performed before sun-rise. He also established a rule of moderation for all new sepulchres -- for he would not allow any edifice over the dead, save a little column, three cubits high, or a tomb-stone, or tablet; and he appointed a regular magistrate to superintend these observances.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

33 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 31.10-31.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

31.11. בָּטַח בָּהּ לֵב בַּעְלָהּ וְשָׁלָל לֹא יֶחְסָר׃ 31.12. גְּמָלַתְהוּ טוֹב וְלֹא־רָע כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיה׃ 31.13. דָּרְשָׁה צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים וַתַּעַשׂ בְּחֵפֶץ כַּפֶּיהָ׃ 31.14. הָיְתָה כָּאֳנִיּוֹת סוֹחֵר מִמֶּרְחָק תָּבִיא לַחְמָהּ׃ 31.15. וַתָּקָם בְּעוֹד לַיְלָה וַתִּתֵּן טֶרֶף לְבֵיתָהּ וְחֹק לְנַעֲרֹתֶיהָ׃ 31.16. זָמְמָה שָׂדֶה וַתִּקָּחֵהוּ מִפְּרִי כַפֶּיהָ נטע [נָטְעָה] כָּרֶם׃ 31.17. חָגְרָה בְעוֹז מָתְנֶיהָ וַתְּאַמֵּץ זְרֹעוֹתֶיהָ׃ 31.18. טָעֲמָה כִּי־טוֹב סַחְרָהּ לֹא־יִכְבֶּה בליל [בַלַּיְלָה] נֵרָהּ׃ 31.19. יָדֶיהָ שִׁלְּחָה בַכִּישׁוֹר וְכַפֶּיהָ תָּמְכוּ פָלֶךְ׃ 31.21. לֹא־תִירָא לְבֵיתָהּ מִשָּׁלֶג כִּי כָל־בֵּיתָהּ לָבֻשׁ שָׁנִים׃ 31.22. מַרְבַדִּים עָשְׂתָה־לָּהּ שֵׁשׁ וְאַרְגָּמָן לְבוּשָׁהּ׃ 31.23. נוֹדָע בַּשְּׁעָרִים בַּעְלָהּ בְּשִׁבְתּוֹ עִם־זִקְנֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 31.24. סָדִין עָשְׂתָה וַתִּמְכֹּר וַחֲגוֹר נָתְנָה לַכְּנַעֲנִי׃ 31.25. עֹז־וְהָדָר לְבוּשָׁהּ וַתִּשְׂחַק לְיוֹם אַחֲרוֹן׃ 31.26. פִּיהָ פָּתְחָה בְחָכְמָה וְתוֹרַת־חֶסֶד עַל־לְשׁוֹנָהּ׃ 31.27. צוֹפִיָּה הֲלִיכוֹת בֵּיתָהּ וְלֶחֶם עַצְלוּת לֹא תֹאכֵל׃ 31.28. קָמוּ בָנֶיהָ וַיְאַשְּׁרוּהָ בַּעְלָהּ וַיְהַלְלָהּ׃ 31.29. רַבּוֹת בָּנוֹת עָשׂוּ חָיִל וְאַתְּ עָלִית עַל־כֻּלָּנָה׃ 31.31. תְּנוּ־לָהּ מִפְּרִי יָדֶיהָ וִיהַלְלוּהָ בַשְּׁעָרִים מַעֲשֶׂיהָ׃ 31.10. A woman of valour who can find? For her price is far above rubies." 31.11. The heart of her husband doth safely trust in her, and he hath no lack of gain." 31.12. She doeth him good and not evil all the days of her life." 31.13. She seeketh wool and flax, and worketh willingly with her hands." 31.14. She is like the merchant-ships; she bringeth her food from afar." 31.15. She riseth also while it is yet night, and giveth food to her household, and a portion to her maidens." 31.16. She considereth a field, and buyeth it; with the fruit of her hands she planteth a vineyard." 31.17. She girdeth her loins with strength, And maketh strong her arms." 31.18. She perceiveth that her merchandise is good; Her lamp goeth not out by night." 31.19. She layeth her hands to the distaff, And her hands hold the spindle." 31.20. She stretcheth out her hand to the poor; Yea, she reacheth forth her hands to the needy." 31.21. She is not afraid of the snow for her household; For all her household are clothed with scarlet." 31.22. She maketh for herself coverlets; Her clothing is fine linen and purple." 31.23. Her husband is known in the gates, When he sitteth among the elders of the land." 31.24. She maketh linen garments and selleth them; And delivereth girdles unto the merchant." 31.25. Strength and dignity are her clothing; And she laugheth at the time to come." 31.26. She openeth her mouth with wisdom; And the law of kindness is on her tongue." 31.27. She looketh well to the ways of her household, And eateth not the bread of idleness." 31.28. Her children rise up, and call her blessed; Her husband also, and he praiseth her:" 31.29. ’Many daughters have done valiantly, But thou excellest them all.’" 31.30. Grace is deceitful, and beauty is vain; But a woman that feareth the LORD, she shall be praised." 31.31. Give her of the fruit of her hands; And let her works praise her in the gates."
2. Herodotus, Histories, 1.64, 3.39, 4.164, 5.92, 6.103 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.64. The Athenians did, and by this means Pisistratus gained Athens for the third time, rooting his sovereignty in a strong guard and revenue collected both from Athens and from the district of the river Strymon, and he took hostage the sons of the Athenians who remained and did not leave the city at once, and placed these in Naxos . ,(He had conquered Naxos too and put Lygdamis in charge.) And besides this, he purified the island of Delos as a result of oracles, and this is how he did it: he removed all the dead that were buried in ground within sight of the temple and conveyed them to another part of Delos . ,So Pisistratus was sovereign of Athens : and as for the Athenians, some had fallen in the battle, and some, with the Alcmeonids, were exiles from their native land. 3.39. While Cambyses was attacking Egypt, the Lacedaemonians too were making war upon Samos and upon Aeaces' son Polycrates, who had revolted and won Samos . ,And first, dividing the city into three parts, he gave a share in the government to his brothers Pantagnotus and Syloson; but presently he put one of them to death, banished the younger, Syloson, and so made himself lord of all Samos ; then he made a treaty with Amasis king of Egypt, sending to him and receiving from him gifts. ,Very soon after this, Polycrates grew to such power that he was famous in Ionia and all other Greek lands; for all his military affairs succeeded. He had a hundred fifty-oared ships, and a thousand archers. ,And he pillaged every place, indiscriminately; for he said that he would get more thanks if he gave a friend back what he had taken than if he never took it at all. He had taken many of the islands, and many of the mainland cities. Among others, he conquered the Lesbians; they had brought all their force to aid the Milesians, and Polycrates defeated them in a sea-fight; it was they who, being his captives, dug all the trench around the acropolis of Samos . 4.164. But he returned to Cyrene with the men from Samos, and having made himself master of it he forgot the oracle, and demanded justice upon his enemies for his banishment. ,Some of these left the country altogether; others, Arcesilaus seized and sent away to Cyprus to be killed there. These were carried off their course to Cnidus, where the Cnidians saved them and sent them to Thera. Others of the Cyrenaeans fled for refuge into a great tower that belonged to one Aglomachus, a private man, and Arcesilaus piled wood around it and burnt them there. ,Then, perceiving too late that this was the meaning of the Delphic oracle which forbade him to bake the amphora if he found them in the oven, he deliberately refrained from going into the city of the Cyrenaeans, fearing the death prophesied and supposing the tidal place to be Cyrene. ,Now he had a wife who was a relation of his, a daughter of Alazir king of the Barcaeans, and Arcesilaus went to Alazir; but men of Barce and some of the exiles from Cyrene were aware of him and killed him as he walked in the town, and Alazir his father-in-law too. So Arcesilaus whether with or without meaning to missed the meaning of the oracle and fulfilled his destiny. 5.92. These were the words of the Lacedaemonians, but their words were ill-received by the greater part of their allies. The rest then keeping silence, Socles, a Corinthian, said, ,“In truth heaven will be beneath the earth and the earth aloft above the heaven, and men will dwell in the sea and fishes where men dwelt before, now that you, Lacedaemonians, are destroying the rule of equals and making ready to bring back tyranny into the cities, tyranny, a thing more unrighteous and bloodthirsty than anything else on this earth. ,If indeed it seems to you to be a good thing that the cities be ruled by tyrants, set up a tyrant among yourselves first and then seek to set up such for the rest. As it is, however, you, who have never made trial of tyrants and take the greatest precautions that none will arise at Sparta, deal wrongfully with your allies. If you had such experience of that thing as we have, you would be more prudent advisers concerning it than you are now.” ,The Corinthian state was ordered in such manner as I will show.There was an oligarchy, and this group of men, called the Bacchiadae, held sway in the city, marrying and giving in marriage among themselves. Now Amphion, one of these men, had a crippled daughter, whose name was Labda. Since none of the Bacchiadae would marry her, she was wedded to Eetion son of Echecrates, of the township of Petra, a Lapith by lineage and of the posterity of Caeneus. ,When no sons were born to him by this wife or any other, he set out to Delphi to enquire concerning the matter of acquiring offspring. As soon as he entered, the Pythian priestess spoke these verses to him: quote type="oracle" l met="dact" Eetion,worthy of honor, no man honors you. /l l Labda is with child, and her child will be a millstone /l lWhich will fall upon the rulers and will bring justice to Corinth. /l /quote ,This oracle which was given to Eetion was in some way made known to the Bacchiadae. The earlier oracle sent to Corinth had not been understood by them, despite the fact that its meaning was the same as the meaning of the oracle of Eetion, and it read as follows: quote type="oracle" l met="dact"An eagle in the rocks has conceived, and will bring forth a lion, /l lStrong and fierce. The knees of many will it loose. /l lThis consider well, Corinthians, /l lYou who dwell by lovely Pirene and the overhanging heights of Corinth. /l /quote ,This earlier prophecy had been unintelligible to the Bacchiadae, but as soon as they heard the one which was given to Eetion, they understood it at once, recognizing its similarity with the oracle of Eetion. Now understanding both oracles, they kept quiet but resolved to do away with the offspring of Eetion. Then, as soon as his wife had given birth, they sent ten men of their clan to the township where Eetion dwelt to kill the child. ,These men came to Petra and passing into Eetion's courtyard, asked for the child. Labda, knowing nothing of the purpose of their coming and thinking that they wished to see the baby out of affection for its father, brought it and placed it into the hands of one of them. Now they had planned on their way that the first of them who received the child should dash it to the ground. ,When, however, Labda brought and handed over the child, by divine chance it smiled at the man who took it. This he saw, and compassion prevented him from killing it. Filled with pity, he handed it to a second, and this man again to a third.In fact it passed from hand to hand to each of the ten, for none would make an end of it. ,They then gave the child back to its mother, and after going out, they stood before the door reproaching and upbraiding one another, but chiefly him who had first received it since he had not acted in accordance with their agreement. Finally they resolved to go in again and all have a hand in the killing. ,Fate, however, had decreed that Eetion's offspring should be the source of ills for Corinth, for Labda, standing close to this door, heard all this. Fearing that they would change their minds and that they would take and actually kill the child, she took it away and hid it where she thought it would be hardest to find, in a chest, for she knew that if they returned and set about searching they would seek in every place—which in fact they did. ,They came and searched, but when they did not find it, they resolved to go off and say to those who had sent them that they had carried out their orders. They then went away and said this. ,Eetion's son, however, grew up, and because of his escape from that danger, he was called Cypselus, after the chest. When he had reached manhood and was seeking a divination, an oracle of double meaning was given him at Delphi. Putting faith in this, he made an attempt on Corinth and won it. ,The oracle was as follows: quote type="oracle" l met="dact"That man is fortunate who steps into my house, /l l Cypselus, son of Eetion, the king of noble Corinth, /l lHe himself and his children, but not the sons of his sons. /l /quote Such was the oracle. Cypselus, however, when he had gained the tyranny, conducted himself in this way: many of the Corinthians he drove into exile, many he deprived of their wealth, and by far the most he had killed. ,After a reign of thirty years, he died in the height of prosperity, and was succeeded by his son Periander. Now Periander was to begin with milder than his father, but after he had held converse by messenger with Thrasybulus the tyrant of Miletus, he became much more bloodthirsty than Cypselus. ,He had sent a herald to Thrasybulus and inquired in what way he would best and most safely govern his city. Thrasybulus led the man who had come from Periander outside the town, and entered into a sown field. As he walked through the corn, continually asking why the messenger had come to him from Corinth, he kept cutting off all the tallest ears of wheat which he could see, and throwing them away, until he had destroyed the best and richest part of the crop. ,Then, after passing through the place and speaking no word of counsel, he sent the herald away. When the herald returned to Corinth, Periander desired to hear what counsel he brought, but the man said that Thrasybulus had given him none. The herald added that it was a strange man to whom he had been sent, a madman and a destroyer of his own possessions, telling Periander what he had seen Thrasybulus do. ,Periander, however, understood what had been done, and perceived that Thrasybulus had counselled him to slay those of his townsmen who were outstanding in influence or ability; with that he began to deal with his citizens in an evil manner. Whatever act of slaughter or banishment Cypselus had left undone, that Periander brought to accomplishment. In a single day he stripped all the women of Corinth naked, because of his own wife Melissa. ,Periander had sent messengers to the Oracle of the Dead on the river Acheron in Thesprotia to enquire concerning a deposit that a friend had left, but Melissa, in an apparition, said that she would tell him nothing, nor reveal where the deposit lay, for she was cold and naked. The garments, she said, with which Periander had buried with her had never been burnt, and were of no use to her. Then, as evidence for her husband that she spoke the truth, she added that Periander had put his loaves into a cold oven. ,When this message was brought back to Periander (for he had had intercourse with the dead body of Melissa and knew her token for true), immediately after the message he made a proclamation that all the Corinthian women should come out into the temple of Hera. They then came out as to a festival, wearing their most beautiful garments, and Periander set his guards there and stripped them all alike, ladies and serving-women, and heaped all the clothes in a pit, where, as he prayed to Melissa, he burnt them. ,When he had done this and sent a second message, the ghost of Melissa told him where the deposit of the friend had been laid. “This, then, Lacedaimonians, is the nature of tyranny, and such are its deeds. ,We Corinthians marvelled greatly when we saw that you were sending for Hippias, and now we marvel yet more at your words to us. We entreat you earnestly in the name of the gods of Hellas not to establish tyranny in the cities, but if you do not cease from so doing and unrighteously attempt to bring Hippias back, be assured that you are proceeding without the Corinthians' consent.” 6.103. When the Athenians learned this, they too marched out to Marathon, with ten generals leading them. The tenth was Miltiades, and it had befallen his father Cimon son of Stesagoras to be banished from Athens by Pisistratus son of Hippocrates. ,While in exile he happened to take the Olympic prize in the four-horse chariot, and by taking this victory he won the same prize as his half-brother Miltiades. At the next Olympic games he won with the same horses but permitted Pisistratus to be proclaimed victor, and by resigning the victory to him he came back from exile to his own property under truce. ,After taking yet another Olympic prize with the same horses, he happened to be murdered by Pisistratus' sons, since Pisistratus was no longer living. They murdered him by placing men in ambush at night near the town-hall. Cimon was buried in front of the city, across the road called “Through the Hollow”, and buried opposite him are the mares who won the three Olympic prizes. ,The mares of Evagoras the Laconian did the same as these, but none others. Stesagoras, the elder of Cimon's sons, was then being brought up with his uncle Miltiades in the Chersonese. The younger was with Cimon at Athens, and he took the name Miltiades from Miltiades the founder of the Chersonese.
3. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 2.34.4 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.34.4. Any citizen or stranger who pleases, joins in the procession: and the female relatives are there to wail at the burial.
4. Aeschines, Letters, 1.6-1.7, 3.77 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

5. Philochorus, Fragments, 64 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6. Cicero, Academica, 2.104, 2.108 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 5.19.54 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8. Cicero, On Laws, 1.23, 2.5, 2.17, 2.19-2.23, 2.25-2.63, 2.65-2.69 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

9. Cicero, On Duties, 5.19.54 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

10. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 18.74.3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

18.74.3.  After several conferences peace was made on the following terms: the Athenians were to retain their city and territory, their revenues, their fleet, and everything else, and to be friends and allies of Cassander; Munychia was to remain temporarily under the control of Cassander until the war against the kings should be concluded; the government was to be in the hands of those possessing at least ten minae; and whatever single Athenian citizen Cassander should designate was to be overseer of the city. Demetrius of Phalerum was chosen, who, when he became overseer, ruled the city peacefully and with goodwill toward the citizens.
11. Livy, History, 3.31, 9.29.10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

12. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 2.251-2.293, 4.877-4.891 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13. Strabo, Geography, 8.6.20 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8.6.20. Corinth is called wealthy because of its commerce, since it is situated on the Isthmus and is master of two harbors, of which the one leads straight to Asia, and the other to Italy; and it makes easy the exchange of merchandise from both countries that are so far distant from each other. And just as in early times the Strait of Sicily was not easy to navigate, so also the high seas, and particularly the sea beyond Maleae, were not, on account of the contrary winds; and hence the proverb, But when you double Maleae, forget your home. At any rate, it was a welcome alternative, for the merchants both from Italy and from Asia, to avoid the voyage to Maleae and to land their cargoes here. And also the duties on what by land was exported from the Peloponnesus and what was imported to it fell to those who held the keys. And to later times this remained ever so. But to the Corinthians of later times still greater advantages were added, for also the Isthmian Games, which were celebrated there, were wont to draw crowds of people. And the Bacchiadae, a rich and numerous and illustrious family, became tyrants of Corinth, and held their empire for nearly two hundred years, and without disturbance reaped the fruits of the commerce; and when Cypselus overthrew these, he himself became tyrant, and his house endured for three generations; and an evidence of the wealth of this house is the offering which Cypselus dedicated at Olympia, a huge statue of beaten gold. Again, Demaratus, one of the men who had been in power at Corinth, fleeing from the seditions there, carried with him so much wealth from his home to Tyrrhenia that not only he himself became the ruler of the city that admitted him, but his son was made king of the Romans. And the sanctuary of Aphrodite was so rich that it owned more than a thousand temple slaves, courtesans, whom both men and women had dedicated to the goddess. And therefore it was also on account of these women that the city was crowded with people and grew rich; for instance, the ship captains freely squandered their money, and hence the proverb, Not for every man is the voyage to Corinth. Moreover, it is recorded that a certain courtesan said to the woman who reproached her with the charge that she did not like to work or touch wool: Yet, such as I am, in this short time I have taken down three webs.
14. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 8.82, 34.11, 34.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Plutarch, Cato The Elder, 18.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Plutarch, Demetrius, 10.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Plutarch, Demosthenes, 10.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. Plutarch, Phocion, 38.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Plutarch, Solon, 21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Plutarch, Lives of The Ten Orators, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Suetonius, Augustus, 43 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Gellius, Attic Nights, 2.24.3-2.24.6, 2.24.14 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.25.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.25.6. On the death of Antipater Olympias came over from Epeirus, killed Aridaeus, and for a time occupied the throne; but shortly afterwards she was besieged by Cassander, taken and delivered up to the people. of the acts of Cassander when he came to the throne my narrative will deal only with such as concern the Athenians. He seized the fort of Panactum in Attica and also Salamis, and established as tyrant in Athens Demetrius the son of Phanostratus, a man who had won a reputation for wisdom. This tyrant was put down by Demetrius the son of Antigonus, a young man of strong Greek sympathies.
24. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 8.24 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 8.24 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26. Polyaenus, Stratagems, 1.23 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.96 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.96. Aristippus in the first book of his work On the Luxury of the Ancients accuses him of incest with his own mother Crateia, and adds that, when the fact came to light, he vented his annoyance in indiscriminate severity. Ephorus records his now that, if he won the victory at Olympia in the chariot-race, he would set up a golden statue. When the victory was won, being in sore straits for gold, he despoiled the women of all the ornaments which he had seen them wearing at some local festival. He was thus enabled to send the votive offering.There is a story that he did not wish the place where he was buried to be known, and to that end contrived the following device. He ordered two young men to go out at night by a certain road which he pointed out to them; they were to kill the man they met and bury him. He afterwards ordered four more to go in pursuit of the two, kill them and bury them; again, he dispatched a larger number in pursuit of the four. Having taken these measures, he himself encountered the first pair and was slain. The Corinthians placed the following inscription upon a cenotaph:
28. Macrobius, Saturnalia, 3.17.3, 3.17.6 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

29. Macrobius, Saturnalia, 3.17.3, 3.17.6 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

30. Justinian, Digest, 47.22.4 (5th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31. Aeschines, Or., 1.6-1.7, 3.77, 3.183

32. Epigraphy, Ig Ii, 1201

33. Epigraphy, Ils, 4908



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
action Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 54
aeaces of samos Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 96
agonothesia/agonothetes Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 376
antipatros (macedonian general) Henderson, The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus (2020) 180
arcesilaus iii of cyrene Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 96
areopagos council Henderson, The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus (2020) 180
areopagus Gagarin and Cohen, The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law (2005) 371
athens, conventions of memorialization in Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 267
augustus, c. iulius caesar octavianus Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 105
banquets Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 105
belief Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 54
boule (council) Henderson, The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus (2020) 180
burial, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 962
burial, funeral Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 30
burial, of parents Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 218
burial, rites Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 218
burial plots, family Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 218
caesar, c. iulius Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 105
cato, m. porcius (the censor, the elder) Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 105
censers Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 962
cities Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 211
citizenship Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 375; Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 103
civic life Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 267
commemoration Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 373, 374, 375, 376
contracts, legal Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 120
crown, multiple Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 376
crown, relief Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 376
cultural appropriation, romans and Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 351
cypselus of corinth Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 96
demetrios of phaleron, legislation Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 376
demetrios of phaleron (tyrant) Henderson, The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus (2020) 180
demophantus, decree of Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 120
dowry Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 120
ekklesia (assembly) Henderson, The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus (2020) 180
ekphora Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 323
elite, and competition Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 96
elite, display by Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 96
epikleros (heiress) Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 120
eteoboutadai, eucrates, law of Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 120
exclusion Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 103
fatherlands, two Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 103
flesh Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 962
frugality Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 105
funerary monuments, athenian Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 267
general characteristics, introduction of new Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 96
geography Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 211
gold Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 962
governor, court of Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 211
grain supply, regulation of Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 120
grain supply, securing an obligation of the citizen Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 120
gynaikonomoi Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 375
hagnonides of pergasai Henderson, The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus (2020) 180
herm Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 373, 374
hermes, and death Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 374
herms Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 267
herodotus, historian Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 96
heroization, risk of Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 267
homer, homicide, prosecution for Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 120
inequality, and grave markers Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 218
inscriptions, epitaphs Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 218
jewels Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 105
julius caesar Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 211
jurisdiction Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 211
kassander Henderson, The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus (2020) 180
kerameikos Henderson, The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus (2020) 180; Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 374, 375
label Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 373
labyadai Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 373
law, as foundation of obligations Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 120
law, substantive Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 211
laws, funerary Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 323
laws, sumptuary Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 373, 374, 375, 376
laws against Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 96
lekythoi Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 218
lessus (gloss) Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 30
letters Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 211
lex oppia Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 105
lex solonis Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 30
linen Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 962
liturgy Henderson, The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus (2020) 180
loans, bottomry Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 120
loutrophoros, meaning Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 373
lycian, territorial Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 211
lycurgus (attic orator) Gagarin and Cohen, The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law (2005) 371
lygdamis of naxos Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 96
magnificence Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 105
marriage, obligation to marry an heiress Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 120
mercenaries Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 375
michael Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 962
mound Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 373, 374
mourning Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 962; Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 218
municipalia sacra Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 103
munificence Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 96
myrsilus of mytilene Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 96
myths, numa pompilius Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 54
naiskoi Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 218
natural law Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 103
norms, internalization Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 96
oaths Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 54
obligation, domestic Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 120, 218
obligation, military Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 120
obligation, negotiation of Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 120
obligation, political Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 120
oikos, obligations towards Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 218
oligarchy, and citizenship restriction Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 375
olive trees Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 120
osborne, r. Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 267
painting Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 376
pantagnotus of samos Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 96
parents, burial of Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 218
parents, treatment of Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 218
pater familias Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 96
periander of corinth Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 96
peribolos, restoration Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 375
philosopher/philosophy Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 373, 374
phokion (general) Henderson, The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus (2020) 180
piety, laws on Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 120
pinarii Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 96
pisistratus Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 96
poleis Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 211
pollution Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 323
polycrates of samos Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 96
pontiff Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 103
pontifices Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 54
prayer Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 54
private life, regulation of Gagarin and Cohen, The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law (2005) 371
private sphere, assimilation of public and private Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 218
prodigies Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 54
prothesis Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 323
public and private spheres Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 323
public sphere, assimilation of public and private Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 218
punic war, second Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 105
purpura, purpureus (purple) Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 30
quarry Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 376
quietism, and bereavement Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 218
religious norms, new Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 96
rome and romans, cultural adaptation and appropriation Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 351
rule/ruler Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 962
sacra privata Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 96
sacra publica Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 96
sacrifice Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 962
sacrifices Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 54, 277
solon, funerary legislation Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 218
solon, laws on public and private obligations Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 120
solon, mentioned by orators Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 120
solon Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 96
statue, dedication Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 96
statues, honorific Steiner, Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought (2001) 267
status Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 211
sulla, l. cornelius Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 105
sumptuary laws Romana Berno, Roman Luxuria: A Literary and Cultural History (2023) 105
syloson of samos Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 96
sêma Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 374
teeth Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 962
telys of sybaris Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 96
temple buildings' Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 54
thasos Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 375
their relationship with other members of the elite Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 96
thrasybulus of miletus Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 96
trapeza Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 376
twelve tables, law of Radicke, Roman Women’s Dress: Literary Sources, Terminology, and Historical Development (2022) 30
twelve tables Czajkowski et al., Law in the Roman Provinces (2020) 211; Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 351
tyrant Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 375
tyrants, and the demos Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 96
tyrants, benefactions by Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 96
tyrants, compared to other members of the elite Gygax, Benefaction and Rewards in the Ancient Greek City: The Origins of Euergetism (2016) 96
walls Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 375
war dead Humphreys, Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis (2018) 374, 375
women, and law. Gagarin and Cohen, The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law (2005) 371
women, funerary obligations Liddel, Civic Obligation and Individual Liberty in Ancient Athens (2007) 218