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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



2298
Cicero, On Laws, 2.28


nanIt is right also, that Mens, Pietas, Virtus, and Fides should possess the temples which are publicly dedicated to them at Rome, so that those who cultivate these admirable virtues, which are dear to all worthy men, should regard them as divine principles animating their souls. But what is scarcely to be tolerated, is, that at Athens, they should have raised a temple to Vice, Ignominy, and Imprudence, as they did at the instigation of Epimenides of Crete, after the expiation of the crime of Cylon. For if it is pious to consecrate the Virtues, it is impious to bestow the same honour on the Vices. Thus the ancient altar which stands in the temple of Fever and another on the Esquiline to Evil Fortune are detestable, and all things of this kind should be repudiated. But when we forge titles according to the fancy of the poets, and call Jove the defender, the invincible, from the idea we conceive of his strength and power, and extol as divine principles, Safety, Honour, Wealth and Victory, we perhaps do little harm, since our minds are supported by the expectation of these excellent things. It was not amiss therefore, that Calatinus consecrated Hope. Nor is it wrong to celebrate Daily Fortune, for she embraces all days, helping us through all. Nor even to extol Luck, which presides over irregular accidents; or her companion, Prosperity, which crowns us with unnumbered blessings.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

11 results
1. Plautus, Mercator, 867 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Cicero, Academica, 2.104, 2.108 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3. Cicero, On Divination, 2.146-2.147 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.146. At enim observatio diuturna (haec enim pars una restat) notandis rebus fecit artem. Ain tandem? somnia observari possunt? quonam modo? sunt enim innumerabiles varietates. Nihil tam praepostere, tam incondite, tam monstruose cogitari potest, quod non possimus somniare; quo modo igitur haec infinita et semper nova aut memoria conplecti aut observando notare possumus? Astrologi motus errantium stellarum notaverunt; inventus est enim ordo in iis stellis, qui non putabatur. Cedo tandem, qui sit ordo aut quae concursatio somniorum; quo modo autem distingui possunt vera somnia a falsis? cum eadem et aliis aliter evadant et isdem non semper eodem modo; ut mihi mirum videatur, cum mendaci homini ne verum quidem dicenti credere soleamus, quo modo isti, si somnium verum evasit aliquod, non ex multis potius uni fidem derogent quam ex uno innumerabilia confirment. 2.147. Si igitur neque deus est effector somniorum neque naturae societas ulla cum somniis neque observatione inveniri potuit scientia, effectum est, ut nihil prorsus somniis tribuendum sit, praesertim cum illi ipsi, qui ea vident, nihil divinent, ii, qui interpretantur, coniecturam adhibeant, non naturam, casus autem innumerabilibus paene saeculis in omnibus plura mirabilia quam in somniorum visis effecerit, neque coniectura, quae in varias partis duci possit, non numquam etiam in contrarias, quicquam sit incertius. 2.146. In our consideration of dreams we come now to the remaining point left for discussion, which is your contention that by long-continued observation of dreams and by recording the results an art has been evolved. Really? Then, it is possible, I suppose, to observe dreams? If so, how? For they are of infinite variety and there is no imaginable thing too absurd, too involved, or too abnormal for us to dream about it. How, then, is it possible for us either to remember this countless and ever-changing mass of visions or to observe and record the subsequent results? Astronomers have recorded the movements of the planets and thereby have discovered an orderly course of the stars, not thought of before. But tell me, if you can, what is the orderly course of dreams and what is the harmonious relation between them and subsequent events? And by what means can the true be distinguished from the false, in view of the fact that the same dreams have certain consequences for one person and different consequences for another and seeing also that even for the same individual the same dream is not always followed by the same result? As a rule we do not believe a liar even when he tells the truth, but, to my surprise, if one dream turns out to be true, your Stoics do not withdraw their belief in the prophetic value of that one though it is only one out of many; rather, from the character of the one true dream, they establish the character of countless others that are false. 2.147. Therefore, if God is not the creator of dreams; if there is no connexion between them and the laws of nature; and finally, if, by means of observation no art of divining can be found in them, it follows that absolutely no reliance can be placed in dreams. This becomes especially evident when we consider that those who have the dreams deduce no prophecies from them; that those who interpret them depend upon conjecture and not upon nature; that in the course of the almost countless ages, chance has worked more miracles through all other agencies than through the agency of dreams; and, finally, that nothing is more uncertain than conjecture, which may be led not only into varying, but sometimes even into contradictory, conclusions. [72]
4. Cicero, On Laws, 1.23, 2.5, 2.15, 2.17, 2.19-2.22, 2.25-2.27, 2.29-2.69 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5. Cicero, In Verrem, 2.4.123 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6. Polybius, Histories, 6.56 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.56. 1.  Again, the laws and customs relating to the acquisition of wealth are better in Rome than at Carthage.,2.  At Carthage nothing which results in profit is regarded as disgraceful; at Rome nothing is considered more so than to accept bribes and seek gain from improper channels.,3.  For no less strong than their approval of money-making is their condemnation of unscrupulous gain from forbidden sources.,4.  A proof of this is that at Carthage candidates for office practise open bribery, whereas at Rome death is the penalty for it.,5.  Therefore as the rewards offered to merit are the opposite in the two cases, it is natural that the steps taken to gain them should also be dissimilar.,6.  But the quality in which the Roman commonwealth is most distinctly superior is in my opinion the nature of their religious convictions.,7.  I believe that it is the very thing which among other peoples is an object of reproach, I mean superstition, which maintains the cohesion of the Roman State.,8.  These matters are clothed in such pomp and introduced to such an extent into their public and private life that nothing could exceed it, a fact which will surprise many.,9.  My own opinion at least is that they have adopted this course for the sake of the common people.,10.  It is a course which perhaps would not have been necessary had it been possible to form a state composed of wise men,,11.  but as every multitude is fickle, full of lawless desires, unreasoned passion, and violent anger, the multitude must be held in by invisible terrors and suchlike pageantry.,12.  For this reason I think, not that the ancients acted rashly and at haphazard in introducing among the people notions concerning the gods and beliefs in the terrors of hell, but that the moderns are most rash and foolish in banishing such beliefs.,13.  The consequence is that among the Greeks, apart from other things, members of the government, if they are entrusted with no more than a talent, though they have ten copyists and as many seals and twice as many witnesses, cannot keep their faith;,14.  whereas among the Romans those who as magistrates and legates are dealing with large sums of money maintain correct conduct just because they have pledged their faith by oath.,15.  Whereas elsewhere it is a rare thing to find a man who keeps his hands off public money, and whose record is clean in this respect, among the Romans one rarely comes across a man who has been detected in such conduct. . . . VIII. Conclusion of the Treatise on the Roman Republic
7. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 2.251-2.293, 3.61, 4.877-4.891 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8. Plutarch, Moralia, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Tacitus, Annals, 2.49 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.49.  Nearly at the same time, he consecrated the temples, ruined by age or fire, the restoration of which had been undertaken by Augustus. They included a temple to Liber, Libera, and Ceres, close to the Circus Maximus, and vowed by Aulus Postumius, the dictator; another, on the same site, to Flora, founded by Lucius and Marcus Publicius in their aedileship, and a shrine of Janus, built in the Herb Market by Gaius Duilius, who first carried the Roman cause to success on sea and earned a naval triumph over the Carthaginians. The temple of Hope, vowed by Aulus Atilius in the same war, was dedicated by Germanicus.
10. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 54.1.1-54.1.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

54.1.1.  The following year, in which Marcus Marcellus and Lucius Arruntius were consuls, the city was again submerged by the overflowing of the river, and many objects were struck by thunderbolts, especially the statues in (Opens in another window)')" onMouseOut="nd();" the Pantheon, so that the spear even fell from the hand of Augustus. 54.1.2.  The pestilence raged throughout all Italy so that no one tilled the land, and I suppose that the same was the case in foreign parts. The Romans, therefore, reduced to dire straits by the disease and by the consequent famine, believed that these woes had come upon them for no other reason than that they did not have Augustus for consul at this time also.
11. Manilius, Astronomica, 1.7-1.10, 1.247-1.254, 2.60-2.81, 3.48-3.55



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
achilles tatius, and the leucippe and clitophon Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
action Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 54
ammianus marcellinus Ando, Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire (2013) 387
ancestral rites Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 98
artemis, of ephesus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
augustus Ando, Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire (2013) 387
authentic versus copy, and pleasure Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
belief Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 54
calatinus, atilius Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 25
chaerephanes, his akolastous homilias Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
citizenship Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 103
death penalty Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 30
dionysos Rüpke, Religion in Republican Rome: Rationalization and Ritual Change (2012) 203
divination Rüpke, Religion in Republican Rome: Rationalization and Ritual Change (2012) 203
divinization Rüpke, Religion in Republican Rome: Rationalization and Ritual Change (2012) 203
dreams Rüpke, Religion in Republican Rome: Rationalization and Ritual Change (2012) 203
elites, romans govern through, emperor, divinity of Ando, Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire (2013) 387
exclusion Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 103
family cult Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 30
fatherlands, two Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 103
febris Rüpke, Religion in Republican Rome: Rationalization and Ritual Change (2012) 203
fides Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 25
hope, and religion Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 25
horizontal mobility Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 98
ida, mount Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
impietas against, and memory Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
impietas against, sacred nature of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
impietas against, viewer response to Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
isis Rüpke, Religion in Republican Rome: Rationalization and Ritual Change (2012) 203
lupercalia Rüpke, Religion in Republican Rome: Rationalization and Ritual Change (2012) 203
memory Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
municipalia sacra Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 103
myths, numa pompilius Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 54
natural law Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 103
oaths Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 54
ops Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 148
paris Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
parrhasius, his odysseus feigned madness Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
pax, deorum Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
perjury Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 30
phantasia Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 25
phidias Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
pietas Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
poetry Rüpke, Religion in Republican Rome: Rationalization and Ritual Change (2012) 203
polyclitus, his juno Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
polyclitus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
pontiff Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 103
pontifices Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 54
prayer Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 54
preference for realism, on timomachus medea Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
private cults Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 30
prodigies Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 54
q. tullius cicero Rüpke, Religion in Republican Rome: Rationalization and Ritual Change (2012) 203
religion, public and private Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 98
religious knowledge Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 30
sacrifices Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 54, 277
sacrilegium Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 30
scheid, john Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 98
sibylline books Rüpke, Religion in Republican Rome: Rationalization and Ritual Change (2012) 203
statuary, sacred nature of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
superstitio Rüpke, Religion in Republican Rome: Rationalization and Ritual Change (2012) 203
temple buildings' Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 54
theologia civilis Rüpke, Religion in Republican Rome: Rationalization and Ritual Change (2012) 203
theology Rüpke, Religion in Republican Rome: Rationalization and Ritual Change (2012) 203
theon, his orestes murdering clytemnestra Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
timomachus of byzantium, his medea Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
tullius cicero, m., on pleasure Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
vestal Rupke, Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality? (2016) 30
viewers, shared values of Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
virtue/ arete Kazantzidis and Spatharas, Hope in Ancient Literature, History, and Art (2018) 25
virtus Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110
writing Rüpke, Religion in Republican Rome: Rationalization and Ritual Change (2012) 203
zeno of citium Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 148
zeuxis Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting (2012) 110