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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



2296
Cicero, On Invention, 15
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3 results
1. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 5.7, 5.13-5.14, 5.74, 5.87-5.88 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5.7. Tum Piso: Etsi hoc, inquit, fortasse non poterit poterit 'emendavisse videtur Aldus' Mdv. poteris sic abire, cum hic assit—me autem dicebat—, tamen audebo te ab hac Academia nova ad veterem illam illam veterem BE vocare, in qua, ut dicere Antiochum audiebas, non ii ii edd. hi R hij BENV soli solum R numerantur, qui Academici vocantur, Speusippus, Xenocrates, Polemo, Crantor ceterique, sed etiam Peripatetici veteres, quorum princeps principes R Aristoteles, quem excepto Platone haud scio an recte dixerim principem philosophorum. ad eos igitur converte te, converte te NV convertere R convertere te BE quaeso. ex eorum enim scriptis et institutis cum omnis doctrina liberalis, omnis historia, omnis sermo elegans sumi potest, tum varietas est tanta artium, ut nemo sine eo instrumento ad ullam rem illustriorem satis ornatus possit accedere. ab his oratores, ab his imperatores ac rerum publicarum principes extiterunt. ut ad minora veniam, mathematici, poe+tae, musici, medici denique ex hac tamquam omnium artificum artificiū R officina profecti sunt. Atque ego: At ego R Et ego V 5.13. namque horum posteri meliores illi quidem mea sententia quam reliquarum philosophi disciplinarum, sed ita degenerant, ut ipsi ex se nati esse videantur. primum Theophrasti, Strato, physicum se voluit; in quo etsi est magnus, tamen nova pleraque et perpauca de moribus. huius, Lyco, lyco V lico R lisias et N 2 ( versu ultra marg. continuato; ex priore script. lic cognosci posse videtur ); om. BE spatio vacuo rel. oratione locuples, rebus ipsis ipsi rebus R ieiunior. concinnus deinde et elegans huius, Aristo, sed ea, quae desideratur a magno philosopho, gravitas, in eo non fuit; scripta sane et multa et polita, sed nescio quo pacto auctoritatem oratio non habet. 5.14. praetereo multos, in his doctum hominem et suavem, Hieronymum, quem iam cur Peripateticum appellem nescio. summum enim bonum exposuit vacuitatem doloris; qui autem de summo bono dissentit de tota philosophiae ratione dissentit. Critolaus imitari voluit antiquos, et quidem est gravitate proximus, et redundat oratio, ac tamen ne is is his R quidem in patriis institutis add. Brem. manet. Diodorus, eius auditor, adiungit ad honestatem vacuitatem doloris. hic hic his R quoque suus est de summoque bono dissentiens dici vere Peripateticus non potest. antiquorum autem sententiam Antiochus noster mihi videtur persequi diligentissime, quam eandem Aristoteli aristotilis R, N ( fort. corr. ex aristotili), V fuisse et Polemonis docet. 5.74. quin etiam ipsi voluptarii deverticula diverticula BENV quaerunt et virtutes habent in ore totos dies voluptatemque primo dumtaxat primo dumtaxat NV prima dum taxat R dumtaxat primo BE expeti dicunt, quaerunt ... habent ... dicunt Lamb. quaerant ... habeant (habent V) ... dicant (' sententiae satisfaceret : quidni, quum etiam ... quaerant ... habeant ... dicant? ut minus hoc in Calliphonte et Diodoro mirum esse significaretur ' Mdv. ) deinde consuetudine quasi alteram quandam naturam effici, qua inpulsi multa faciant faciant Bentl., Ernest. ; faciunt nullam quaerentes voluptatem. Stoici restant. ei quidem non unam aliquam aut alteram rem a nobis, sed totam ad se nostram philosophiam add. Bentl., Davis. transtulerunt; atque ut reliqui fures earum rerum, quas ceperunt, signa commutant, sic illi, ut sententiis nostris pro suis uterentur, nomina tamquam rerum notas mutaverunt. ita relinquitur sola haec disciplina digna studiosis ingenuarum artium, digna eruditis, digna claris viris, digna principibus, digna regibus. Quae cum dixisset paulumque parumque BE institisset, Quid est? 5.87. quare hoc hoc atque hoc Non. videndum est, possitne nobis hoc ratio philosophorum dare. pollicetur certe. nisi enim id faceret, cur Plato Aegyptum peragravit, ut a sacerdotibus barbaris numeros et caelestia acciperet? cur post Tarentum ad Archytam? cur ad reliquos Pythagoreos, Echecratem, Timaeum, Arionem, Locros, ut, cum Socratem expressisset, adiungeret Pythagoreorum disciplinam eaque, quae Socrates repudiabat, addisceret? cur ipse Pythagoras et Aegyptum lustravit et Persarum magos adiit? cur tantas regiones barbarorum pedibus obiit, tot maria transmisit? cur haec eadem Democritus? qui —vere falsone, quaerere mittimus quaerere mittimus Se. quereremus BER queremus V quae- rere nolumus C.F.W. Mue. —dicitur oculis se se oculis BE privasse; privavisse R certe, ut quam minime animus a cogitationibus abduceretur, patrimonium neglexit, agros deseruit incultos, quid quaerens aliud nisi vitam beatam? beatam vitam R quam si etiam in rerum cognitione ponebat, tamen ex illa investigatione naturae consequi volebat, bono ut esset animo. id enim ille id enim ille R ideo enim ille BE id ille V id est enim illi summum bonum; eu)qumi/an cet. coni. Mdv. summum bonum eu)qumi/an et saepe a)qambi/an appellat, id est animum terrore liberum. 5.88. sed haec etsi praeclare, nondum tamen perpolita. pauca enim, neque ea ipsa enucleate, ab hoc ab hoc enucleate BE de virtute quidem dicta. post enim haec in hac urbe primum a Socrate quaeri coepta, deinde in hunc locum delata sunt, nec dubitatum, dubium R quin in virtute omnis ut bene, sic etiam beate vivendi spes poneretur. quae cum Zeno didicisset a nostris, ut in actionibus praescribi solet, ' de eadem re fecit alio modo '. hoc tu del. P. Man. nunc in illo probas. scilicet vocabulis rerum mutatis inconstantiae crimen ille effugit, nos effugere non possumus! ille Metelli vitam negat beatiorem quam Reguli, praeponendam tamen, nec magis expetendam, sed magis sumendam et, si optio esset, eligendam Metelli, Reguli reiciendam; ego, quam ille praeponendam et magis eligendam, beatiorem hanc appello nec ullo minimo minimo RV omnino BE momento plus ei vitae tribuo quam Stoici. 5.7.  "Perhaps," said Piso, "it will not be altogether easy, while our friend here" (meaning me) "is by, still I will venture to urge you to leave the present New Academy for the Old, which includes, as you heard Antiochus declare, not only those who bear the name of Academics, Speusippus, Xenocrates, Polemo, Crantor and the rest, but also the early Peripatetics, headed by their chief, Aristotle, who, if Plato be excepted, I almost think deserves to be called the prince of philosophers. Do you then join them, I beg of you. From their writings and teachings can be learnt the whole of liberal culture, of history and of style; moreover they include such a variety of sciences, that without the equipment that they give no one can be adequately prepared to embark on any of the higher careers. They have produced orators, generals and statesmen. To come to the less distinguished professions, this factory of experts in all the sciences has turned out mathematicians, poets, musicians and physicians. 5.13.  Let us then limit ourselves to these authorities. Their successors are indeed in my opinion superior to the philosophers of any other school, but are so unworthy of their ancestry that one might imagine them to have been their own teachers. To begin with, Theophrastus's pupil Strato set up to be a natural philosopher; but great as he is in this department, he is nevertheless for the most part an innovator; and on ethics he has hardly anything. His successor Lyco has a copious style, but his matter is somewhat barren. Lyco's pupil Aristo is polished and graceful, but has not the authority that we expect to find in a great thinker; he wrote much, it is true, and he wrote well, but his style is somehow lacking in weight. 5.14.  "I pass over a number of writers, including the learned and entertaining Hieronymus. Indeed I know no reason for calling the latter a Peripatetic at all; for he defined the Chief Good as freedom from pain: and to hold a different view of the Chief Good is to hold a different system of philosophy altogether. Critolaus professed to imitate the ancients; and he does in fact come nearest to them in weight, and has a flowing style; all the same, even he is not true to the principles of his ancestors. Diodorus, his pupil, couples with Moral Worth freedom from pain. He too stands by himself; differing about the Chief Good he cannot correctly be called a Peripatetic. Our master Antiochus seems to me to adhere most scrupulously to the doctrine of the ancients, which according to his teaching was common to Aristotle and to Polemo. 5.74.  Even the votaries of pleasure take refuge in evasions: the name of virtue is on their lips all the time, and they declare that pleasure is only at first the object of desire, and that later habit produces a sort of second nature, which supplies a motive for many actions not aiming at pleasure at all. There remain the Stoics. The Stoics have conveyed from us not some one or other item, but our entire system of philosophy. It is a regular practice of thieves to alter the marks upon stolen goods; and the Stoics, in order to pass off our opinions as their own, have changed the names, which are the marks of things. Our system therefore is left as the sole philosophy worthy of the student of the liberal arts, of the learned and the eminent, of statesmen and princes. 5.87.  On this your cousin and I are agreed. Hence what we have to consider is this, can the systems of the philosophers give us happiness? They certainly profess to do so. Whether it not so, why did Plato travel through Egypt to learn arithmetic and astronomy from barbarian priests? Why did he later visit Archytas at Tarentum, or the other Pythagoreans, Echecrates, Timaeus and Arion, at Locri, intending to append to his picture of Socrates an account of the Pythagorean system and to extend his studies into those branches which Socrates repudiated? Why did Pythagoras himself scour Egypt and visit the Persian magi? why did he travel on foot through those vast barbarian lands and sail across those many seas? Why did Democritus do the same? It is related of Democritus (whether truly or falsely we are not concerned to inquire) that he deprived himself of eyesight; and it is certain that in order that his mind should be distracted as little as possible from reflection, he neglected his paternal estate and left his land uncultivated, engrossed in the search for what else but happiness? Even if he supposed happiness to consist in knowledge, still he designed that his study of natural philosophy should bring him cheerfulness of mind; since that is his conception of the Chief Good, which he entitles euthumia, or often athambia, that is freedom from alarm. 5.88.  But what he said on this subject, however excellent, nevertheless lacks the finishing touches; for indeed about virtue he said very little, and that not clearly expressed. For it was later that these inquiries began to be pursued at Athens by Socrates, first in the city, and afterwards the study was transferred to the place where we now are; and no one doubted that all hope alike of right conduct and of happiness lay in virtue. Zeno having learnt this doctrine from our school proceeded to deal with 'the same matter in another manner,' as the common preamble to an indictment has it. You now approve of this procedure on his part. He, no doubt, can change the names of things and be acquitted of inconsistency, but we cannot! He denies that the life of Metellus was happier than that of Regulus, yet calls it 'preferable'; not more desirable, but 'more worthy of adoption'; and given the choice, that of Metellus is 'to be selected' and that of Regulus 'rejected.' Whereas the life he called 'preferable' and 'more worthy to be selected' I term happier, though I do not assign any the minutest fraction more value to that life than do the Stoics.
2. Plutarch, Against Colotes, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 4.22, 4.32 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.22. Hence Arcesilaus, who had quitted Theophrastus and gone over to their school, said of them that they were gods or a remt of the Golden Age. They did not side with the popular party, but were such as Dionysodorus the flute-player is said to have claimed to be, when he boasted that no one ever heard his melodies, as those of Ismenias were heard, either on shipboard or at the fountain. According to Antigonus, their common table was in the house of Crantor; and these two and Arcesilaus lived in harmony together. Arcesilaus and Crantor shared the same house, while Polemo and Crates lived with Lysicles, one of the citizens. Crates, as already stated, was the favourite of Polemo and Arcesilaus of Crantor. 4.32. He also attended the lectures of the geometer Hipponicus, at whom he pointed a jest as one who was in all besides a listless, yawning sluggard but yet proficient in his subject. Geometry, he said, must have flown into his mouth while it was agape. When this man's mind gave way, Arcesilaus took him to his house and nursed him until he was completely restored. He took over the school on the death of Crates, a certain Socratides having retired in his favour. According to some, one result of his suspending judgement on all matters was that he never so much as wrote a book. Others relate that he was caught revising some works of Crantor, which according to some he published, according to others he burnt. He would seem to have held Plato in admiration, and he possessed a copy of his works.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
academic sceptics Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 67, 70, 105
academics Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 100, 105
academy, old Motta and Petrucci, Isagogical Crossroads from the Early Imperial Age to the End of Antiquity (2022) 94
academy, old (i.e., antiochus) Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 100
academy, sceptical Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 69, 100, 105
academy Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 100, 104, 105
alexinus Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 70
anaxagoras Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 67, 70
antiochus of ascalon Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 100, 104, 105; Motta and Petrucci, Isagogical Crossroads from the Early Imperial Age to the End of Antiquity (2022) 94
arcesilaus Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 67, 69, 70, 105
aristotle Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 104; Motta and Petrucci, Isagogical Crossroads from the Early Imperial Age to the End of Antiquity (2022) 94
ars Motta and Petrucci, Isagogical Crossroads from the Early Imperial Age to the End of Antiquity (2022) 94
chrysippus Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 70
cicero Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 67, 69, 70, 100
colotes Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 69
consistency Motta and Petrucci, Isagogical Crossroads from the Early Imperial Age to the End of Antiquity (2022) 94
democritus Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 67, 70
descriptio disciplinae Motta and Petrucci, Isagogical Crossroads from the Early Imperial Age to the End of Antiquity (2022) 94
dialectic Motta and Petrucci, Isagogical Crossroads from the Early Imperial Age to the End of Antiquity (2022) 94
diodorus cronus Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 70
dogmatics, socrates as a dogmatic philosopher Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 67
empedocles Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 67, 70
epicurean garden Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 100
epicureans Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 100
epicurus Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 100
epistemology Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 104
ethics Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 104; Motta and Petrucci, Isagogical Crossroads from the Early Imperial Age to the End of Antiquity (2022) 94
forms Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 104
founder Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 100, 104
heraclitus Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 67, 69, 70
kathēgemōn Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 100
lucullus (ciceros character) Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 67, 69
master Motta and Petrucci, Isagogical Crossroads from the Early Imperial Age to the End of Antiquity (2022) 94
order (τάξις), natural (ordo rerum) Motta and Petrucci, Isagogical Crossroads from the Early Imperial Age to the End of Antiquity (2022) 94
orthodoxy Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 100
parmenides Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 69, 70
peripatetic Motta and Petrucci, Isagogical Crossroads from the Early Imperial Age to the End of Antiquity (2022) 94
peripatetics Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 100
peripatos Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 104
philo of larissa Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 100, 105
physics Motta and Petrucci, Isagogical Crossroads from the Early Imperial Age to the End of Antiquity (2022) 94
piso (ciceros character) Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 100
plato Motta and Petrucci, Isagogical Crossroads from the Early Imperial Age to the End of Antiquity (2022) 94
plutarch Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 69, 70
polemo Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 104, 105
presocratics Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 69, 70
ratio, triplex Motta and Petrucci, Isagogical Crossroads from the Early Imperial Age to the End of Antiquity (2022) 94
scepticism Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 69, 105
scheme Motta and Petrucci, Isagogical Crossroads from the Early Imperial Age to the End of Antiquity (2022) 94
socrates Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 67, 69, 100
speusippus Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 100
stilpo Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 70
stoics Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 104; Motta and Petrucci, Isagogical Crossroads from the Early Imperial Age to the End of Antiquity (2022) 94
system Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 100, 104, 105
system (σύστηµα/συστήµατα), of philosophy, of doctrine / metaphysical Motta and Petrucci, Isagogical Crossroads from the Early Imperial Age to the End of Antiquity (2022) 94
systematisation Motta and Petrucci, Isagogical Crossroads from the Early Imperial Age to the End of Antiquity (2022) 94
theophrastus Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 100, 104
tiberius gracchus Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 67
varro (ciceros character) Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 70, 100, 105
varro (historical figure) Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 100
xenocrates Motta and Petrucci, Isagogical Crossroads from the Early Imperial Age to the End of Antiquity (2022) 94
xenophanes Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 67
zeno of citium Erler et al., Authority and Authoritative Texts in the Platonist Tradition (2021) 67, 70, 104
zeno of citius' Motta and Petrucci, Isagogical Crossroads from the Early Imperial Age to the End of Antiquity (2022) 94