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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



2296
Cicero, On Invention, 1.27


Narratio est rerum gestarum aut ut gestarum expo- sitio. narrationum genera tria sunt: unum genus est, in quo ipsa causa et omnis ratio controversiae con- tinetur; alterum, in quo digressio aliqua extra causam aut criminationis aut similitudinis aut delectationis non alienae ab eo negotio, quo de agitur, aut amplificationis causa interponitur. tertium genus est remotum a civi- libus causis, quod delectationis causa non inutili cum exercitatione dicitur et scribitur. eius partes sunt duae, quarum altera in negotiis, altera in personis maxime versatur. ea, quae in negotiorum expositione posita est, tres habet partes: fabulam, historiam, argumen- tum. fabula est, in qua nec verae nec veri similes res continentur, cuiusmodi est: Angues ingentes alites, iuncti iugo historia est gesta res, ab aetatis nostrae memoria remota; quod genus: Appius indixit Cartha- giniensibus bellum. argumentum est ficta res, quae tamen fieri potuit. huiusmodi apud Terentium: Nam is postquam excessit ex ephebis, Sosia illa autem narratio, quae versatur in personis, eiusmodi est, ut in ea simul cum rebus ipsis personarum sermones et animi perspici possint, hoc modo: Venit ad me saepe clam it ans: Quid agis, Micio? Cur perdis adulescentem nobis? cur amat? Cur potat? cur tu his rebus sumptum suggeris, Vestitu nimio indulges? nimium ineptus es. Nimium ipse est durus praeter aequumque et bonum. hoc in genere narrationis multa debet inesse festivitas, confecta ex rerum varietate, animorum dissimilitudine, gravitate, lenitate, spe, metu, suspicione, desiderio, dissimulatione, errore, misericordia, fortunae commu- tatione, insperato incommodo, subita laetitia, iucundo exitu rerum. verum haec ex iis, quae postea de elocu- tione praecipientur, ornamenta sumentur.Narration is an explanation of acts that have been done, or of acts as if they have been done. There are three kinds of narration. One kind is that in which the cause itself and the whole principle of the dispute is contained. Another is that in which some digression, unconnected with the immediate argument, is interposed, either for the sake of criminating another, or of instituting a comparison, or of provoking some mirth not altogether unsuitable to the business under discussion, or else for the sake of amplification. The third kind is altogether foreign to civil causes, and is uttered or written for the sake of entertainment, combined with its giving practice, which is not altogether useless. Of this last there are two divisions, the one of which is chiefly conversant about things, and the other about persons. That which is concerned in the discussion and explanation of things has three parts, fable, history, and argument. Fable is that in which statements are expressed which are neither true not probable, as is this— "Huge winged snakes, join'd by one common yoke." History is an account of exploits which have been performed, removed from the recollection of our own age; of which sort is the statement, "Appius declared war against the Carthaginians." Argument is an imaginary case, which still might have happened. Such is this in Terence— "For after Sosia became a man." But that sort of narration which is conversant about persons, is of such a sort that in it not only the facts themselves, but also the conversations of the persons concerned and their very minds can be thoroughly seen, in this way— "And oft he came to me with mournful voice, What is your aim, your conduct what? Oh why Do you this youth with these sad arts destroy? Why does he fall in love? Why seeks he wine, And why do you from time to time supply The means for such excess? You study dress And folly of all kinds; while he, if left To his own natural bent, is stern and strict, Almost beyond the claims of virtue." In this kind of narration there ought to be a great deal of cheerfulness wrought up out of the variety of circumstances; out of the dissimilarity of dispositions; out of gravity, lenity, hope, fear, suspicion, regret, dissimulation, error, pity, the changes of fortune, unexpected disaster, sudden joy, and happy results. But these embellishments may be derived from the precepts which will hereafter be laid down about elocution.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

17 results
1. Herodotus, Histories, 7.166, 8.73 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.166. They add this tale too—that Gelon and Theron won a victory over Amilcas the Carchedonian in Sicily on the same day that the Greeks defeated the Persian at Salamis. This Amilcas was, on his father's side, a Carchedonian, and a Syracusan on his mother's and had been made king of Carchedon for his virtue. When the armies met and he was defeated in the battle, it is said that he vanished from sight, for Gelon looked for him everywhere but was not able to find him anywhere on earth, dead or alive. 8.73. Seven nations inhabit the Peloponnese. Two of these are aboriginal and are now settled in the land where they lived in the old days, the Arcadians and Cynurians. One nation, the Achaean, has never left the Peloponnese, but it has left its own country and inhabits another nation's land. ,The four remaining nations of the seven are immigrants, the Dorians and Aetolians and Dryopians and Lemnians. The Dorians have many famous cities, the Aetolians only Elis, the Dryopians Hermione and Asine near Laconian Cardamyle, the Lemnians all the Paroreatae. ,The Cynurians are aboriginal and seem to be the only Ionians, but they have been Dorianized by time and by Argive rule. They are the Orneatae and the perioikoi. All the remaining cities of these seven nations, except those I enumerated, stayed neutral. If I may speak freely, by staying neutral they medized.
2. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 1.138.4 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.138.4. Disease was the real cause of his death; though there is a story of his having ended his life by poison, on finding himself unable to fulfil his promises to the king.
3. Xenophon, Hellenica, 6.5.25 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

6.5.25. But when people had come from Caryae telling of the dearth of men, promising that they would themselves act as guides, and bidding the Thebans slay them if they were found to be practising any deception, and when, further, some of the Perioeci appeared, asking the Thebans to come to their aid, engaging to revolt if only they would show themselves in the land, and saying also that even now the Perioeci when summoned by the Spartiatae were refusing to go and help them — as a result, then, of hearing all these reports, in which all agreed, the Thebans were won over, and pushed in with their own forces by way of Caryae, while the Arcadians went by way of Oeum, in Sciritis.
4. Ennius, Annales, 216 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5. Cicero, Brutus, 42, 41 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

41. sed studium eius generis maiorque vis agnoscitur in Pisistrato. Denique hunc denique hunc L : demum. Hunc Bake : demum. quem Simon proximo saeculo Themistocles insecutus est, ut apud nos, perantiquus, ut apud Atheniensis, non ita sane vetus. Fuit enim regte iam Graecia Graeca maluit Jahn , nostra autem civitate non ita pridem dominatu regio liberata. Nam bellum Volscorum illud gravissimum, cui Coriolanus exsul interfuit, eodem fere tempore quo Persarum bellum fuit, similisque fortuna clarorum virorum;
6. Cicero, Brutus, 42, 41 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

41. sed studium eius generis maiorque vis agnoscitur in Pisistrato. Denique hunc denique hunc L : demum. Hunc Bake : demum. quem Simon proximo saeculo Themistocles insecutus est, ut apud nos, perantiquus, ut apud Atheniensis, non ita sane vetus. Fuit enim regte iam Graecia Graeca maluit Jahn , nostra autem civitate non ita pridem dominatu regio liberata. Nam bellum Volscorum illud gravissimum, cui Coriolanus exsul interfuit, eodem fere tempore quo Persarum bellum fuit, similisque fortuna clarorum virorum;
7. Cicero, On Invention, 1.33-1.34, 1.109 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.33. ritia. hoc igitur vitandum est, ne, cuius genus po- sueris, eius * sicuti aliquam diversam ac dissimilem partem ponas in eadem partitione. quodsi quod in genus plures incident partes, id cum in prima causae partitione erit simpliciter expositum, distribuetur tem- pore eo commodissime, cum ad ipsum ventum erit explicandum in causae dictione post partitionem. atque illud quoque pertinet ad paucitatem, ne aut plura, quam satis est, demonstraturos nos dicamus, hoc modo: ostendam adversarios, quod arguamus, et potuisse facere et voluisse et fecisse; nam fecisse satis est ostendere: aut, cum in causa partitio nulla sit, et cum simplex quiddam agatur, tamen utamur distributione, id quod perraro potest accidere. Ac sunt alia quoque praecepta partitionum, quae ad hunc usum oratorium non tanto opere pertineant, quae versantur in philosophia, ex quibus haec ipsa trans- tulimus, quae convenire viderentur, quorum nihil in ceteris artibus inveniebamus. Atque his de partitione praeceptis in omni dictione meminisse oportebit, ut et prima quaeque pars, ut expo- sita est in partitione, sic ordine transigatur et omnibus explicatis peroratum sit hoc modo, ut ne quid po- sterius praeter conclusionem inferatur. partitur apud Terentium breviter et commode senex in Andria, quae cognoscere libertum velit: Eo pacto et gnati vitam et consilium meum Cognosces et quid facere in hac re te velim. itaque quemadmodum in partitione proposuit, ita narrat, primum nati vitam: Nam is postquam excessit ex ephebis ; deinde suum consilium: Et nunc id operam do deinde quid Sosiam velit facere, id quod postremum posuit in partitione, postremum di- cit: Nunc tuum est officium quemadmodum igitur hic et ad primam quamque partem primum accessit et omnibus absolutis finem dicendi fecit, sic nobis pla- cet et ad singulas partes accedere et omnibus abso- lutis perorare. Nunc de confirmatione deinceps, ita ut ordo ipse postulat, praecipiendum videtur. 1.34. Confirmatio est, per quam argumentando nostrae causae fidem et auctoritatem et firmamentum adiungit oratio. huius partis certa sunt praecepta, quae in singula causarum genera dividentur. verumtamen non incommodum videtur quandam silvam atque materiam universam ante permixtim et confuse exponere omnium argumentationum, post autem tradere, quemadmodum unum quodque causae genus hinc omnibus argumen- tandi rationibus tractis confirmari oporteat. Omnes res argumentando confirmantur aut ex eo, quod personis, aut ex eo, quod negotiis est adtributum. Ac personis has res adtributas putamus: nomen, na- turam, victum, fortunam, habitum, affectionem, studia, consilia, facta, casus, orationes. nomen est, quod uni cuique personae datur, quo suo quaeque proprio et certo vocabulo appellatur. naturam ipsam definire difficile est; 1.109. nonus, per quem oratio ad mutas et expertes animi res referetur, ut si ad equum, domum, vestem sermonem alicuius accommodes, quibus animus eorum, qui audiunt et aliquem dilexerunt, vehementer com- movetur. decimus, per quem inopia, infirmitas, soli- tudo demonstratur. undecimus, per quem liberorum aut parentum aut sui corporis sepeliundi aut alicuius eiusmodi rei commendatio fit. duodecimus, per quem disiunctio deploratur ab aliquo, cum diducaris ab eo, quicum libentissime vixeris, ut a parente filio, a fratre familiari. tertius decimus, per quem cum indignatione conquerimur, quod ab iis, a quibus minime conveniat, male tractemur, propinquis, amicis, quibus benigne fecerimus, quos adiutores fore putarimus, aut a qui- bis indignum est, ut servis, libertis, clientibus, sup- plicibus. quartus decimus, qui per obsecrationem sumitur; in quo orantur modo illi, qui audiunt, hu- mili et supplici oratione, ut misereantur. quintus de- cimus, per quem non nostras, sed eorum, qui cari nobis debent esse, fortunas conqueri nos demonstra- mus. sextus decimus, per quem animum nostrum in alios misericordem esse ostendimus et tamen amplum et excelsum et patientem incommodorum esse et fu- turum esse, si quid acciderit, demonstramus. nam saepe virtus et magnificentia, in quo gravitas et auctoritas est, plus proficit ad misericordiam commo- vendam quam humilitas et obsecratio. commotis au- tem animis diutius in conquestione morari non opor- tebit. quemadmodum enim dixit rhetor Apollonius, lacrima nihil citius arescit. Sed quoniam satis, ut videmur, de omnibus orationis partibus diximus et huius voluminis magnitudo lon- gius processit, quae sequuntur deinceps, in secundo libro dicemus.
8. Cicero, Letters To His Friends, 2.4.1, 9.16.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

9. Terence, Andria, 51 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10. Anon., Rhetorica Ad Herennium, 1.13-1.14 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11. Vergil, Aeneis, 7.791 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7.791. close to my journey's end, thou spoilest me
12. Vitruvius Pollio, On Architecture, 1.1.5-1.1.6 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13. New Testament, Apocalypse, 17.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

17.3. He carried me away in the Spirit into a wilderness. I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet-colored animal, full of blasphemous names, having seven heads and ten horns.
14. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 4.2.3, 4.2.17-4.2.18, 4.2.36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.2.3.  Further they style some statements of facts "complete," and others "incomplete," a distinction which is self-evident. To this they add that our explanation may refer to the past (which is of course the commonest form), the present (for which compare Cicero's remarks about the excitement caused among the friends of Chrysogonus when his name was mentioned), or of the future (a form permissible only to prophets): for hypotyposis or picturesque description cannot be regarded as a statement of facts. 4.2.17.  There are also statements which do not set forth the facts of the case itself, but facts which are none the less relevant to the case: the speaker's purpose may be to illustrate the case by some parallel, as in the passage in the Verrines about Lucius Domitius who crucified a shepherd because he admitted that he had used a hunting spear to kill the boar which he had brought him as a present; 4.2.18.  or he may desire to dispel some charge that is irrelevant to the case as in the passage of the speech for Rabirius Postumus, which runs as follows; "For when he came to Alexandria, gentlemen, the only means of saving his money which the king suggested to Postumus was that he should take charge of the royal household and act as a kind of steward." Or the orator may desire to heighten the effect of his charges, as Cicero does in his description of the journey of Verres. 4.2.36.  We shall achieve lucidity and clearness in our statement of facts, first by setting forth our story in words which are appropriate, significant and free from any taint of meanness, but not on the other hand farfetched or unusual, and secondly by giving a distinct account of facts, persons, times, places and causes, while our delivery must be adapted to our matter, so that the judge will take in what we say with the utmost readiness.
15. Hermogenes, Rhetorical Exercises, 4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

16. Augustine, The City of God, 4.1 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

4.1. Having begun to speak of the city of God, I have thought it necessary first of all to reply to its enemies, who, eagerly pursuing earthly joys and gaping after transitory things, throw the blame of all the sorrow they suffer in them - rather through the compassion of God in admonishing than His severity in punishing - on the Christian religion, which is the one salutary and true religion. And since there is among them also an unlearned rabble, they are stirred up as by the authority of the learned to hate us more bitterly, thinking in their inexperience that things which have happened unwontedly in their days were not wont to happen in other times gone by; and whereas this opinion of theirs is confirmed even by those who know that it is false, and yet dissemble their knowledge in order that they may seem to have just cause for murmuring against us, it was necessary, from books in which their authors recorded and published the history of bygone times that it might be known, to demonstrate that it is far otherwise than they think; and at the same time to teach that the false gods, whom they openly worshipped, or still worship in secret, are most unclean spirits, and most maligt and deceitful demons, even to such a pitch that they take delight in crimes which, whether real or only fictitious, are yet their own, which it has been their will to have celebrated in honor of them at their own festivals; so that human infirmity cannot be called back from the perpetration of damnable deeds, so long as authority is furnished for imitating them that seems even divine. These things we have proved, not from our own conjectures, but partly from recent memory, because we ourselves have seen such things celebrated, and to such deities, partly from the writings of those who have left these things on record to posterity, not as if in reproach but as in honor of their own gods. Thus Varro, a most learned man among them, and of the weightiest authority, when he made separate books concerning things human and things divine, distributing some among the human, others among the divine, according to the special dignity of each, placed the scenic plays not at all among things human, but among things divine; though, certainly, if only there were good and honest men in the state, the scenic plays ought not to be allowed even among things human. And this he did not on his own authority, but because, being born and educated at Rome, he found them among the divine things. Now as we briefly stated in the end of the first book what we intended afterwards to discuss, and as we have disposed of a part of this in the next two books, we see what our readers will expect us now to take up.
17. Orosius Paulus, Historiae Adversum Paganos, 2.6.14, 2.18.4 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
amplification, in narratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 141, 145
apud Culík-Baird, Cicero and the Early Latin Poets (2022) 98, 216
argumentum, intended for writing Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 80
argumentum, truth-content Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 80, 81
argumentum Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 80, 81, 83
artisans Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 80
artless, topics Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 157
assyria Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (2012) 49
atticus, liber annalis Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 83
augustine, st Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (2012) 74
babylon Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (2012) 49
barbarians Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 83
caesar, c. iulius Soldo and Jackson, ›Res vera, res ficta‹: Fictionality in Ancient Epistolography (2023) 195
carthage Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (2012) 49
carya, historicity of sack Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81
caryatids Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81
ciceromarcus tullius cicero, brutus Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 83
ciceros poetry, marius Culík-Baird, Cicero and the Early Latin Poets (2022) 216
citation, from books Culík-Baird, Cicero and the Early Latin Poets (2022) 98
clitarchus Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 83
comparison Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (2012) 74
coriolanus Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 83
cremera Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 83
de architectura, and greek knowledge Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81
deliberative Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 140, 143
digressio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 145
ennius Culík-Baird, Cicero and the Early Latin Poets (2022) 98, 216
ennius annales Culík-Baird, Cicero and the Early Latin Poets (2022) 216
epideictic Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 140, 141, 143
epistolary exchange, definitions of Soldo and Jackson, ›Res vera, res ficta‹: Fictionality in Ancient Epistolography (2023) 195
epistolary genre Soldo and Jackson, ›Res vera, res ficta‹: Fictionality in Ancient Epistolography (2023) 195
example Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 145
exempla Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (2012) 74
exposition Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 140, 141, 145
fabula Culík-Baird, Cicero and the Early Latin Poets (2022) 98, 216; Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 80, 81
failure Soldo and Jackson, ›Res vera, res ficta‹: Fictionality in Ancient Epistolography (2023) 195
fiction Culík-Baird, Cicero and the Early Latin Poets (2022) 98
four empire theory Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (2012) 49
genres of latin poetry, comedy Culík-Baird, Cicero and the Early Latin Poets (2022) 98, 216
genres of latin poetry, epic Culík-Baird, Cicero and the Early Latin Poets (2022) 98, 216
genres of latin poetry, tragedy Culík-Baird, Cicero and the Early Latin Poets (2022) 98
herodotus Culík-Baird, Cicero and the Early Latin Poets (2022) 216; Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 83
himera Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (2012) 49
historia Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 80, 81
historicity, of vitruvian exempla Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81
historicity Culík-Baird, Cicero and the Early Latin Poets (2022) 216
historiography, classical or pagan Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (2012) 74
historiography Culík-Baird, Cicero and the Early Latin Poets (2022) 216
history and historiography, synchronism in Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 83
incidental narratio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 140, 143, 145
intertextuality, as fictionalising strategy Soldo and Jackson, ›Res vera, res ficta‹: Fictionality in Ancient Epistolography (2023) 195
intertextuality Soldo and Jackson, ›Res vera, res ficta‹: Fictionality in Ancient Epistolography (2023) 195
iulius victor, c. Pausch and Pieper, The Scholia on Cicero’s Speeches: Contexts and Perspectives (2023) 97
judicial (forensic) Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 140, 143
leuctra Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81
martianus minneus felix capella Pausch and Pieper, The Scholia on Cicero’s Speeches: Contexts and Perspectives (2023) 97
medism Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81
milnor, kristina Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81
narratio, functional types Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 145
narratio, relation to epideictic Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 143
narratio, topoi Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 157
narratio Culík-Baird, Cicero and the Early Latin Poets (2022) 98, 216; Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 140, 141, 143, 145, 157; Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 80, 81
nicomachus flavianus Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (2012) 74
oratorical training Culík-Baird, Cicero and the Early Latin Poets (2022) 98, 216
ornamenta and ornatus Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 83
orosius, digressions Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (2012) 74
pacuvius, medus Culík-Baird, Cicero and the Early Latin Poets (2022) 98, 216
pais, ettore Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 83
persians Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81, 83; Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (2012) 49
probatio Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 140
refoundation, sack (410) Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (2012) 49
rhetoric Soldo and Jackson, ›Res vera, res ficta‹: Fictionality in Ancient Epistolography (2023) 195
rhetorica ad herennium Culík-Baird, Cicero and the Early Latin Poets (2022) 98
rhetorical handbooks Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 157
rhetorical topoi Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 157
rome Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (2012) 49
salamis Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 83; Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (2012) 49
scipio nasica Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (2012) 74
self-reflection Soldo and Jackson, ›Res vera, res ficta‹: Fictionality in Ancient Epistolography (2023) 195
sicily Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (2012) 49
sparta Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81, 83; Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (2012) 49
stratocles Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 83
synchronism Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (2012) 49
terence, andria Culík-Baird, Cicero and the Early Latin Poets (2022) 98, 216
thebes Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81
themistocles Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 83
theopompus Culík-Baird, Cicero and the Early Latin Poets (2022) 216
thermopylae Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (2012) 49
thucydides Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 83
timaeus, historian Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (2012) 49
tragedy' Soldo and Jackson, ›Res vera, res ficta‹: Fictionality in Ancient Epistolography (2023) 195
triumphs Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81
vitruvius, doubts about reliability Oksanish, Vitruvian Man: Rome Under Construction (2019) 81, 83
volsians Van Nuffelen, Orosius and the Rhetoric of History (2012) 74