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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



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Cicero, On Fate, 40
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

22 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 30.15, 30.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.15. רְאֵה נָתַתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ הַיּוֹם אֶת־הַחַיִּים וְאֶת־הַטּוֹב וְאֶת־הַמָּוֶת וְאֶת־הָרָע׃ 30.19. הַעִידֹתִי בָכֶם הַיּוֹם אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַחַיִּים וְהַמָּוֶת נָתַתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ הַבְּרָכָה וְהַקְּלָלָה וּבָחַרְתָּ בַּחַיִּים לְמַעַן תִּחְיֶה אַתָּה וְזַרְעֶךָ׃ 30.15. See, I have set before thee this day life and good, and death and evil," 30.19. I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that I have set before thee life and death, the blessing and the curse; therefore choose life, that thou mayest live, thou and thy seed;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.16-1.20 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.16. רַחֲצוּ הִזַּכּוּ הָסִירוּ רֹעַ מַעַלְלֵיכֶם מִנֶּגֶד עֵינָי חִדְלוּ הָרֵעַ׃ 1.17. לִמְדוּ הֵיטֵב דִּרְשׁוּ מִשְׁפָּט אַשְּׁרוּ חָמוֹץ שִׁפְטוּ יָתוֹם רִיבוּ אַלְמָנָה׃ 1.18. לְכוּ־נָא וְנִוָּכְחָה יֹאמַר יְהוָה אִם־יִהְיוּ חֲטָאֵיכֶם כַּשָּׁנִים כַּשֶּׁלֶג יַלְבִּינוּ אִם־יַאְדִּימוּ כַתּוֹלָע כַּצֶּמֶר יִהְיוּ׃ 1.19. אִם־תֹּאבוּ וּשְׁמַעְתֶּם טוּב הָאָרֶץ תֹּאכֵלוּ׃ 1.16. Wash you, make you clean, Put away the evil of your doings From before Mine eyes, Cease to do evil;" 1.17. Learn to do well; Seek justice, relieve the oppressed, Judge the fatherless, plead for the widow." 1.18. Come now, and let us reason together, Saith the LORD; Though your sins be as scarlet, They shall be as white as snow; Though they be red like crimson, They shall be as wool." 1.19. If ye be willing and obedient, Ye shall eat the good of the land;" 1.20. But if ye refuse and rebel, Ye shall be devoured with the sword; For the mouth of the LORD hath spoken."
3. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4. Aristotle, Eudemian Ethics, 2.7 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

5. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, 2.4, 3.3, 3.5 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

6. Cicero, On Divination, 2.61 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.61. Quorum omnium causas si a Chrysippo quaeram, ipse ille divinationis auctor numquam illa dicet facta fortuito naturalemque rationem omnium reddet; nihil enim fieri sine causa potest; nec quicquam fit, quod fieri non potest; nec, si id factum est, quod potuit fieri, portentum debet videri; nulla igitur portenta sunt. Nam si, quod raro fit, id portentum putandum est, sapientem esse portentum est; saepius enim mulam peperisse arbitror quam sapientem fuisse. Illa igitur ratio concluditur: nec id, quod non potuerit fieri, factum umquam esse, nec, quod potuerit, id portentum esse; 2.61. If I were to ask Chrysippus the causes of all the phenomena just mentioned, that distinguished writer on divination would never say that they happened by chance, but he would find an explanation for each of them in the laws of nature. For he would say: Nothing can happen without a cause; nothing actually happens that cannot happen; if that has happened which could have happened, then it should not be considered a portent; therefore there are no such things as portents. Now if a thing is to be considered a portent because it is seldom seen, then a wise man is a portent; for, as I think, it oftener happens that a mule brings forth a colt than that nature produces a sage. Chrysippus, in this connexion, gives the following syllogism: That which could not have happened never did happen; and that which could have happened is no portent; therefore, in any view, there is no such thing as a portent.
7. Cicero, On Fate, 11-16, 20-23, 25-29, 3, 30-34, 36, 39, 41-45, 47-48, 5-10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 3.48, 4.28 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.48. itaque consentaneum est his, quae dicta sunt, ratione illorum, qui illum bonorum finem, quod appellamus extremum, quod ultimum, crescere putent posse—isdem placere esse alium alio et et ABERV ( sequitur itemque; cf. p.188, 15 sq. et eos ... nosque), et (= etiam, ab alt. m., ut vid. ) N sapientiorem itemque alium magis alio vel peccare vel recte facere, quod nobis non licet dicere, qui crescere bonorum finem non putamus. ut enim qui demersi sunt in aqua nihilo magis respirare possunt, si non longe absunt a summo, ut iam iamque possint emergere, quam si etiam tum essent in profundo, nec catulus ille, qui iam adpropinquat adpropinquat (appr.) edd. ut propinquat ABER apropin- quat N 2 propinquat N 1 V ut videat, plus cernit quam is, qui modo est natus, item qui processit aliquantum ad virtutis habitum habitum dett. aditum (additum R) nihilo minus in miseria est quam ille, qui nihil processit. Haec mirabilia videri intellego, sed cum certe superiora firma ac vera sint, his autem ea consentanea et consequentia, ne de horum de eorum R quidem est veritate dubitandum. sed quamquam negant nec virtutes nec vitia crescere, tamen tamen N 2 et tamen utrumque eorum fundi quodam modo et quasi dilatari putant. Divitias autem Diogenes censet eam eam non eam dett. modo vim habere, ut quasi duces sint ad voluptatem et ad valitudinem bonam; 4.28. cuiuscumque enim modi animal constitueris, necesse est, etiamsi id sine corpore sit, ut fingimus, tamen esse in animo quaedam similia eorum, quae sunt in corpore, ut nullo ut nullo et nullo BE modo, nisi ut exposui, constitui possit finis bonorum. Chrysippus autem exponens differentias animantium ait alias earum corpore excellere, alias autem animo, non nullas valere utraque re; deinde disputat, quod cuiusque generis animantium animantium BE animā t R ani- mantis NV statui deceat extremum. cum autem hominem in eo genere posuisset, ut ei tribueret animi excellentiam, summum bonum id constituit, non ut excellere excellere BER excelleret NV animus, sed ut nihil esse praeter animum videretur. uno autem modo in virtute sola summum bonum recte poneretur, si quod esset animal, quod totum ex mente constaret, id ipsum tamen sic, ut ea mens nihil haberet in se, quod esset secundum naturam, ut valitudo est. 3.48.  So it would be consistent with the principles already stated that on the theory of those who deem the End of Goods, that which we term the extreme or ultimate Good, to be capable of degree, they should also hold that one man can be wiser than another, and similarly that one can commit a more sinful or more righteous action than another; which it is not open for us to say, who do not think that the end of Goods can vary in degree. For just as a drowning man is no more able to breathe if he be not far from the surface of the water, so that he might at any moment emerge, than if he were actually at the bottom already, and just as a puppy on the point of opening its eyes is no less blind than one just born, similarly a man that has made some progress towards the state of virtue is none the less in misery than he that has made no progress at all."I am aware that all this seems paradoxical; but as our previous conclusions are undoubtedly true and well established, and as these are the logical inferences from them, the truth of these inferences also cannot be called in question. Yet although the Stoics deny that either virtues or vices can be increased in degree, they nevertheless believe that each of them can be in a sense expanded and widened in scope. 4.28.  In fact you may construct a living creature of any sort you like, but even if it be devoid of a body like our imaginary being, nevertheless its mind will be bound to possess certain attributes analogous to those of the body, and consequently it will be impossible to set up for it an end of Goods on any other lines than those which I have laid down. Chrysippus, on the other hand, in his survey of the different species of living things states that in some the body is the principal part, in others the mind, while there are some that are equally endowed in respect of either; and then he proceeds to discuss what constitutes the ultimate good proper to each species. Man he so classified as to make the mind the principal part in him; and yet he so defined man's End as to make it appear, not that he is principally mind, but that he consists of nothing else.  But the only case in which it would be correct to place the Chief Good in virtue alone is if there existed a creature consisting solely of pure intellect, with the further proviso that this intellect possessed nothing of its own that was in accordance with nature, as bodily health is.
9. Cicero, On Laws, 2.19-2.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

10. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.10, 2.57-2.58 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.10. Those however who seek to learn my personal opinion on the various questions show an unreasonable degree of curiosity. In discussion it is not so much weight of authority as force of argument that should be demanded. Indeed the authority of those who profess to teach is often a positive hindrance to those who desire to learn; they cease to employ their own judgement, and take what they perceive to be the verdict of their chosen master as settling the question. In fact I am not disposed to approve the practice traditionally ascribed to the Pythagoreans, who, when questioned as to the grounds of any assertion that they advanced in debate, are said to have been accustomed to reply 'He himself said so,' 'he himself' being Pythagoras. So potent was an opinion already decided, making authority prevail unsupported by reason. 2.57. I therefore believe that I shall not be wrong if in discussing this subject I take my first principle from the prince of seekers after truth, Zeno himself. Now Zeno gives this definition of nature: 'nature (he says) is a craftsmanlike fire, proceeding methodically to the work of generation.' For he holds that the special function of an art or craft is to create and generate, and that what in the processes of our arts is done by the hand is done with far more skilful craftsmanship by nature, that is, as I said, by that 'craftsmanlike' fire which is the teacher of the other arts. And on this theory, while each department of nature is 'craftsmanlike,' in the sense of having a method or path marked out for it to follow 2.58. the nature of the world itself, which encloses and contains all things in its embrace, is styled by Zeno not merely 'craftsmanlike' but actually 'a craftsman,' whose foresight plans out the work to serve its use and purpose in every detail. And as the other natural substances are generated, reared and sustained each by its own seeds, so the world-nature experiences all those motions of the will, those impulses of conation and desire, that the Greeks call hormae, and follows these up with the appropriate actions in the same way as do we ourselves, who experience emotions and sensations. Such being the nature of the world-mind, it can therefore correctly be designated as prudence or providence (for in Greek it is termed pronoia); and this providence is chiefly directed and concentrated upon three objects, namely to secure for the world, first, the structure best fitted for survival; next, absolute completeness; but chiefly, consummate beauty and embellishment of every kind.
11. Cicero, On Duties, 1.153, 4.28 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.153. Placet igitur aptiora esse naturae ea officia, quae ex communitate, quam ea, quae ex cognitione ducantur, idque hoc argumento confirmari potest, quod, si contigerit ea vita sapienti, ut omnium rerum affluentibus copiis quamvis omnia, quae cognitione digna sint, summo otio secum ipse consideret et contempletur, tamen, si solitudo tanta sit, ut hominem videre non possit, excedat e vita. Princepsque omnium virtutum illa sapientia, quam sofi/an Graeci vocant—prudentiam enim, quam Graeci fro/nhsin dicunt, aliam quandam intellegimus, quae est rerum expetendarum fugiendarumque scientia; illa autem sapientia, quam principem dixi, rerum est divinarum et humanarum scientia, in qua continetur deorum et hominum communitas et societas inter ipsos; ea si maxima est, ut est certe, necesse est, quod a communitate ducatur officium, id esse maximum. Etenim cognitio contemplatioque naturae manca quodam modo atque inchoata sit, si nulla actio rerum consequatur. Ea autem actio in hominum commodis tuendis maxime cernitur; pertinet igitur ad societatem generis humani; ergo haec cognition anteponenda est. 1.153.  My view, therefore, is that those duties are closer to Nature which depend upon the social instinct than those which depend upon knowledge; and this view can be confirmed by the following argument: (1) suppose that a wise man should be vouchsafed such a life that, with an abundance of everything pouring in upon him, he might in perfect peace study and ponder over everything that is worth knowing, still, if the solitude were so complete that he could never see a human being, he would die. And then, the foremost of all virtues is wisdom — what the Greeks call σοφία; for by prudence, which they call φρόνησις, we understand something else, namely, the practical knowledge of things to be sought for and of things to be avoided. (2) Again, that wisdom which I have given the foremost place is the knowledge of things human and divine, which is concerned also with the bonds of union between gods and men and the relations of man to man. If wisdom is the most important of the virtues, as it certainly is, it necessarily follows that that duty which is connected with the social obligation is the most important duty. And (3) service is better than mere theoretical knowledge, for the study and knowledge of the universe would somehow be lame and defective, were no practical results to follow. Such results, moreover, are best seen in the safeguarding of human interests. It is essential, then, to human society; and it should, therefore, be ranked above speculative knowledge.
12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 90, 89 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

89. therefore, being intoxicated all night till the morning with this beautiful intoxication, without feeling their heads heavy or closing their eyes for sleep, but being even more awake than when they came to the feast, as to their eyes and their whole bodies, and standing there till morning, when they saw the sun rising they raised their hands to heaven, imploring tranquillity and truth, and acuteness of understanding. And after their prayers they each retired to their own separate abodes, with the intention of again practising the usual philosophy to which they had been wont to devote themselves.
13. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.4.18-1.4.22, 1.14, 2.8.9-2.8.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

14. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 10.277-10.280, 13.172-13.173, 14.172-14.176, 15.3-15.4, 16.397, 17.41-17.45, 18.13, 18.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.277. All these things did this man leave in writing, as God had showed them to him, insomuch that such as read his prophecies, and see how they have been fulfilled, would wonder at the honor wherewith God honored Daniel; and may thence discover how the Epicureans are in an error 10.278. who cast Providence out of human life, and do not believe that God takes care of the affairs of the world, nor that the universe is governed and continued in being by that blessed and immortal nature, but say that the world is carried along of its own accord, without a ruler and a curator; 10.279. which, were it destitute of a guide to conduct it, as they imagine, it would be like ships without pilots, which we see drowned by the winds, or like chariots without drivers, which are overturned; so would the world be dashed to pieces by its being carried without a Providence, and so perish, and come to nought. 13.172. Now for the Pharisees, they say that some actions, but not all, are the work of fate, and some of them are in our own power, and that they are liable to fate, but are not caused by fate. But the sect of the Essenes affirm, that fate governs all things, and that nothing befalls men but what is according to its determination. 13.173. And for the Sadducees, they take away fate, and say there is no such thing, and that the events of human affairs are not at its disposal; but they suppose that all our actions are in our own power, so that we are ourselves the causes of what is good, and receive what is evil from our own folly. However, I have given a more exact account of these opinions in the second book of the Jewish War. 14.172. When affairs stood thus, one whose name was Sameas, a righteous man he was, and for that reason above all fear, rose up, and said, “O you that are assessors with me, and O thou that art our king, I neither have ever myself known such a case, nor do I suppose that any one of you can name its parallel, that one who is called to take his trial by us ever stood in such a manner before us; but every one, whosoever he be, that comes to be tried by this Sanhedrim, presents himself in a submissive manner, and like one that is in fear of himself, and that endeavors to move us to compassion, with his hair dishevelled, and in a black and mourning garment: 14.173. but this admirable man Herod, who is accused of murder, and called to answer so heavy an accusation, stands here clothed in purple, and with the hair of his head finely trimmed, and with his armed men about him, that if we shall condemn him by our law, he may slay us, and by overbearing justice may himself escape death. 14.174. Yet do not I make this complaint against Herod himself; he is to be sure more concerned for himself than for the laws; but my complaint is against yourselves, and your king, who gave him a license so to do. However, take you notice, that God is great, and that this very man, whom you are going to absolve and dismiss, for the sake of Hyrcanus, will one day punish both you and your king himself also.” 14.175. Nor did Sameas mistake in any part of this prediction; for when Herod had received the kingdom, he slew all the members of this Sanhedrim, and Hyrcanus himself also, excepting Sameas 14.176. for he had a great honor for him on account of his righteousness, and because, when the city was afterward besieged by Herod and Sosius, he persuaded the people to admit Herod into it; and told them that for their sins they would not be able to escape his hands:—which things will be related by us in their proper places. 15.3. But Pollio the Pharisee, and Sameas, a disciple of his, were honored by him above all the rest; for when Jerusalem was besieged, they advised the citizens to receive Herod, for which advice they were well requited. 15.3. He therefore wrote back to him, that if this boy should only go out of the country, all would be in a state of war and uproar, because the Jews were in hopes of a change in the government, and to have another king over them. 15.3. for, in the first place, there were perpetual droughts, and for that reason the ground was barren, and did not bring forth the same quantity of fruits that it used to produce; and after this barrenness of the soil, that change of food which the want of corn occasioned produced distempers in the bodies of men, and a pestilential disease prevailed, one misery following upon the back of another; 15.4. But this Pollio, at the time when Herod was once upon his trial of life and death, foretold, in way of reproach, to Hyrcanus and the other judges, how this Herod, whom they suffered now to escape, would afterward inflict punishment on them all; which had its completion in time, while God fulfilled the words he had spoken. 15.4. When this work [for the foundation] was done in this manner, and joined together as part of the hill itself to the very top of it, he wrought it all into one outward surface, and filled up the hollow places which were about the wall, and made it a level on the external upper surface, and a smooth level also. This hill was walled all round, and in compass four furlongs, [the distance of] each angle containing in length a furlong: 15.4. whence Aelus came. He was one of the stock of the high priests and had been of old a particular friend of Herod; and when he was first made king, he conferred that dignity upon him, and now put him out of it again, in order to quiet the troubles in his family, though what he did was plainly unlawful, for at no other time [of old] was any one that had once been in that dignity deprived of it. 16.397. or, indeed, whether fortune have not greater power than all prudent reasonings; whence we are persuaded that human actions are thereby determined beforehand by an inevitable necessity, and we call her Fate, because there is nothing which is not done by her; 17.41. For there was a certain sect of men that were Jews, who valued themselves highly upon the exact skill they had in the law of their fathers, and made men believe they were highly favored by God, by whom this set of women were inveigled. These are those that are called the sect of the Pharisees, who were in a capacity of greatly opposing kings. A cunning sect they were, and soon elevated to a pitch of open fighting and doing mischief. 17.42. Accordingly, when all the people of the Jews gave assurance of their good-will to Caesar, and to the king’s government, these very men did not swear, being above six thousand; and when the king imposed a fine upon them, Pheroras’s wife paid their fine for them. 17.43. In order to requite which kindness of hers, since they were believed to have the foreknowledge of things to come by divine inspiration, they foretold how God had decreed that Herod’s government should cease, and his posterity should be deprived of it; but that the kingdom should come to her and Pheroras, and to their children. 17.44. These predictions were not concealed from Salome, but were told the king; as also how they had perverted some persons about the palace itself; so the king slew such of the Pharisees as were principally accused, and Bagoas the eunuch, and one Carus, who exceeded all men of that time in comeliness, and one that was his catamite. He slew also all those of his own family who had consented to what the Pharisees foretold; 17.45. and for Bagoas, he had been puffed up by them, as though he should be named the father and the benefactor of him who, by the prediction, was foretold to be their appointed king; for that this king would have all things in his power, and would enable Bagoas to marry, and to have children of his own body begotten. 18.13. and when they determine that all things are done by fate, they do not take away the freedom from men of acting as they think fit; since their notion is, that it hath pleased God to make a temperament, whereby what he wills is done, but so that the will of man can act virtuously or viciously. 18.13. 4. Herod the Great had two daughters by Mariamne, the [grand] daughter of Hyrcanus; the one was Salampsio, who was married to Phasaelus, her first cousin, who was himself the son of Phasaelus, Herod’s brother, her father making the match; the other was Cypros, who was herself married also to her first cousin Antipater, the son of Salome, Herod’s sister. 18.18. 5. The doctrine of the Essenes is this: That all things are best ascribed to God. They teach the immortality of souls, and esteem that the rewards of righteousness are to be earnestly striven for; 18.18. Now Antonia was greatly esteemed by Tiberius on all accounts, from the dignity of her relation to him, who had been his brother Drusus’s wife, and from her eminent chastity; for though she was still a young woman, she continued in her widowhood, and refused all other matches, although Augustus had enjoined her to be married to somebody else; yet did she all along preserve her reputation free from reproach.
15. Plutarch, On Stoic Self-Contradictions, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Seneca The Younger, On Anger, 2.4.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 113.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Gellius, Attic Nights, 7.2.6-7.2.13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Justin, Second Apology, 7.4-7.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Marcus Aurelius Emperor of Rome, Meditations, 12.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Manilius, Astronomica, 4.12-4.22

22. Stoic School, Stoicor. Veter. Fragm., 2.974



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(lekta) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 194
action, and desire Hankinson, Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought (1998) 255
action, voluntary Hankinson, Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought (1998) 255
actions / acts (stoic), appropriate (kathēkonta) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 194
agency Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 143, 144
agency / agent, human Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 194
alexander of aphrodisias, on deliberation (βούλευσις) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 145
alexander of aphrodisias, on what is up to us (ἐφ ἡμῖν) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 145
alexander of aphrodisias Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 145
analogy Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 125
appearance (phantasia, impression) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 194
appearances (kataleptic) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 194
argument Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 41, 127
aristotelians/aristotelianism, as indeterminists Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 145
aristotle Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 136; Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 295
assent Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 144; Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 125; Jedan, Stoic Virtues: Chrysippus and the Religious Character of Stoic Ethics (2009) 42, 44
assent (sunkatathesis) Hankinson, Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought (1998) 255; Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 194
assent / adsensio / adsensus / συγκατάθεσις Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 41, 97
assent homologia Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 136
atom / atomism Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 41
atomism Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 144
body Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 144; Jedan, Stoic Virtues: Chrysippus and the Religious Character of Stoic Ethics (2009) 44
carneades Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 148
carneades of cyrene Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 41
cato m. porcius uticensis (the younger) Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 97
causality / causa / αἰτία Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 127
causation, on fate Hankinson, Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought (1998) 255
causation Jedan, Stoic Virtues: Chrysippus and the Religious Character of Stoic Ethics (2009) 42, 44
causes Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 143
choice Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 143
choice will Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 136
christians, christianity Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 216
chrysippus, on action Hankinson, Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought (1998) 255
chrysippus, on assent Hankinson, Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought (1998) 255
chrysippus Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 143, 144; Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 125; Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 136; Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 41, 97, 127
chryssipus Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 295
cicero Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 194
cognitive theory Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 136
compatibilism Hankinson, Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought (1998) 255; Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 136
consensus Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 143
deliberation (βούλευσις) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 145
demetrius ii Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 88
democritus Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 41
desire / tendency / adpetitio Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 97
destiny, concept of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 88, 89
determinism Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 143, 144; Hankinson, Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought (1998) 255; Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 169; Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 136; Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 127
diodorus cronus Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 41
divination Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 143, 148
doctrines (dogma, decreta) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 194
doxography / doxographer Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 194
elites (roman) Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 148
empedocles Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 41
epictetus Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 125; Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 136
epicureanism Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 17
epicureans Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 89
epicurus Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 144
fairmindedness, all-embracing Jedan, Stoic Virtues: Chrysippus and the Religious Character of Stoic Ethics (2009) 42
fairmindedness, personal Jedan, Stoic Virtues: Chrysippus and the Religious Character of Stoic Ethics (2009) 42, 44
false belief / false judgment / false opinion Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 194
fatal, fatalism Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 169
fate Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 143; Hankinson, Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought (1998) 255; Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 169; Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 136
fate / fatum / εἱμαρμένη Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 41, 97, 127
fragment, soul as a fragment of cosmos Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 125
free will Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 136
freedom, and determinism Hankinson, Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought (1998) 255
freedom / libertas Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 41, 127
future Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 41, 127
god, stoic Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 125
gods, justin on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 216
good (moral) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 194
hasmonean dynasty Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 88
heraclitus Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 41
hirtius a. Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 41
honor Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 148; Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 136
hēgemonikon/central organ of soul, etc. Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 125
impressions Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 144
impulse (hormē) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 194
impulses Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 144
indeterminism/antideterminism Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 145
indeterminism Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 41
jewish law/legal schools, josephus three schools Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 88, 89
josephus, and judaisms three schools of law Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 88, 89
josephus Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 88, 89
josephus essenes, and destiny Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 88
josephus essenes, as prophets/dream interpreters Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 89
josephus essenes, judaism of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 88, 89
josephus essenes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 88, 89
judaea, region of, and determinism Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 88, 89
judaism, second temple Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 88
judgment (krisis) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 194
justin, on god Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 216
justin, on virtue (ἀρετή) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 216
justin Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 216
klawans, j. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 88, 89
law Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 127
maccabeus, jonathan, attack by the seleucids Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 88
maccabeus, jonathan Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 88
marcus, r. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 89
marcus (character of div.) Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 17
mind (animus) Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 143
modalities Jedan, Stoic Virtues: Chrysippus and the Religious Character of Stoic Ethics (2009) 44
necessity / necessitas / necessarium / ἀνάγκη Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 41, 97
opinion Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 136
panaetius Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 127
part of a whole (soul as, etc.) Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 125
passions emotions Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 136
pharisees, and destiny Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 88, 89
pharisees Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 88
posidonius Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 41
prediction Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 143
preface Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 148
principle of bivalence Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 144
proairesis\u2003 Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 136
probable / probability / probabilitas / πιθανόν Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 97
prophecy, essenes and Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 89
punishment and reward Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 148
quintus (character of div.) Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 17
random / randomness Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 41
reason (human) / rational faculty (logos, logistikon) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 194
res publica Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 148
responsibility, human Jedan, Stoic Virtues: Chrysippus and the Religious Character of Stoic Ethics (2009) 44
rome Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 148
sadducees (tsedukim/tseduqim), josephus portrayal of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 88, 89
sadducees (tsedukim/tseduqim) Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 88
self-determination free will Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 136
seneca Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 194
sensation Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 123
soul Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 144; Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 169; Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 123
soul / mind (psuchē, animus) vii Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 194
stilpo Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 41
stobaeus Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 194
stoicism, ethics Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 122
stoicism, xi Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 144
stoicism Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 136; Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 17
stoicism / stoic / stoa Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 194
stoics, and determinism Hankinson, Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought (1998) 255
stoics, and fate Hankinson, Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought (1998) 255
stoics, and freedom Hankinson, Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought (1998) 255
stoics Hankinson, Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought (1998) 255; Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 88, 89
superstition Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 148
swerve (atomic) Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 144
system Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 143
theory Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 97, 127
tullius cicero, m., de diuinatione Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 17
tullius cicero, q. Santangelo, Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond (2013) 17
up to us/depending on us/in our power (ἐφ ἡμῖν), alexander of aphrodisias on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 145
up to us/depending on us/in our power (ἐφ ἡμῖν) Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 145
value (axia) / valuation Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 194
virtue' Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 122
virtue, (personified) virtue Konstan and Garani, The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry (2014) 169
virtue Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 136
virtue (ἀρετή, virtus), justin on Brouwer and Vimercati, Fate, Providence and Free Will: Philosophy and Religion in Dialogue in the Early Imperial Age (2020) 216
will (voluntas) Atkins, The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy (2021) 143, 144
wisdom / sapientia Maso, CIcero's Philosophy (2022) 97
zeno of citium Wynne, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage (2019) 123